CN1336104A - Organic soil-less culture substrate, orgainc solid fertilizer and soil-less cultivation method - Google Patents

Organic soil-less culture substrate, orgainc solid fertilizer and soil-less cultivation method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1336104A
CN1336104A CN01141775A CN01141775A CN1336104A CN 1336104 A CN1336104 A CN 1336104A CN 01141775 A CN01141775 A CN 01141775A CN 01141775 A CN01141775 A CN 01141775A CN 1336104 A CN1336104 A CN 1336104A
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fertilizer
organic
matrix
state
kinds
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蒋卫杰
刘伟
余宏军
郑光华
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Institute of Vegetables and Flowers Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Institute of Vegetables and Flowers Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • Y02P60/21Dinitrogen oxide [N2O], e.g. using aquaponics, hydroponics or efficiency measures

Abstract

The present invention discloses a solid soiless cultivation organic substrate and organic solid fertilizer for use by this substrate. Said substrate mainly is composed of organic substrate material and inert substrate material, the solid fertilizer mainly is composed of dung fertilizer and cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. The present invention also discloses soilless cultivation method using said solid substrate. The present invention can be used in commercial production of vegetables. It is simple in raw material compoistion which is broad in source. It is also simple in technology, low in cost, no pollution to environment etc.

Description

A kind of organic soilless cultivation matrix and organic solid-state fertilizer and soilless culture method
Technical field
The invention belongs to the soilless culture field, relate in particular to a kind of organic soilless cultivation matrix and organic solid-state fertilizer and soilless culture method
Background technology
Plant is kept normal growth needs 16 kinds of elements, and macroelement has carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur and trace element that iron, boron, manganese, zinc, copper, molybdenum and chlorine are arranged.Wherein carbon, hydrogen, oxygen mainly obtain from empty G﹠W, under the adapt circumstance condition, if we can capacity effectively provide other 13 kinds of elements, just can guarantee the vigorous vital movement of plant, bring into play the yield potential of crop to greatest extent.Soilless culture is a kind of cultivation method that carries out batch production productions such as vegetables without soil in other medium, normally be that medium adds required chemotrophy liquid composition soilless culture substrate then with water, nutrient solution is formulated by chemical fertilizer and chemical reagent, but there are the following problems for this soilless culture method: (1), the cost height: the nutrient solution soilless culture method needs the industrial equipment and the instrument and meter of the relative complex of some uses that match with nutrient solution, as the nutrient solution dosing apparatus, nutrient solution control system, the nutrient solution detection system, electric power system, the cultivating container of materials strictness etc.Therefore, the one-time investment cost is than higher, and every mu of investment needs several ten thousand yuan at least, needs hundreds of thousands unit at most.Running expense is also higher, and not only system equipment etc. needs regular maintenance, maintenance and repairs, singly is that the required chemical raw material of preparation nutrient solution is just relatively more expensive, and with purity high slightly fertilizer and reagent, every mu is expended fund year and needs more than ten thousand yuan; Every mu of every year costing with low-purity fertilizer preparation nutrient solution will be above 3000 yuan; (2), technical difficulty is big: the nutrient solution soilless culture system relates to many-sides such as biotechnology, detection technique, culture technique, control technology, electric power, chemistry, plant protection, technology contents is extensive, the operational administrative complexity is not that anyone can both grasp easily, and it is bigger therefore to promote difficulty; (3), easily environment is polluted: chemosynthesis fertilizer is leaned in the preparation of nutrient solution fully, and needs a large amount of nitrate that use.In the use, can finally be discharged in the external environment because of unnecessary nutrient solution, and environment is polluted, according to detection, the content that nitrate in the liquid is discharged in the rock wool cultivation is up to 212mg/kg (1996), and this can cause serious pollution to soil and underground water; The product of producing simultaneously also can be subjected to the severe contamination of nitrate, and according to detection, the nitrate content of water planting a variety of Chinese cabbage reaches 4245mg/kg (1996), the nuisanceless safety standard that surpasses protection ground leaf vegetables far away.Therefore, need to seek the soilless culture method that cost is low, technical difficulty is little, environmental pollution is little.
One of the object of the invention provides a kind of organic solid-state soilless culture substrate of being made up of the organic substance of nature.
Another object of the present invention provides a kind of organic solid-state fertilizer that the solid state substrate soilless culture is used that is suitable for.
A further object of the present invention provides and a kind ofly utilizes solid state substrate and solid-state fertilizer, investment is little, cost is low, easy operation, environment do not had the organic soilless cultivation method polluted.
Summary of the invention
A kind of organic solid-state soilless culture substrate is made up of organic substrate raw material and inert base raw material.
Above-mentioned matrix is made up of organic substrate raw material 30-80% (percent by volume, down together) and inert base raw material 20-70%.
Organic substrate raw material described in the above-mentioned matrix can be a kind of combination to three kinds in agriculture waste organic matter, forestry organic waste, industrial waste organic matter and the natural organic matter peat composed of rotten mosses of pulverizing.
Agriculture waste organic matter described in the above-mentioned matrix is meant that a kind of combination to three kinds is or/and a kind of combination to three kinds in the accessory substance cocoa husk of various agricultural product, corncob, peanut shell, wheat husk, rice husk in the stalk corn stalk, sorghum stalks, rape straw, sunflower straw, wheat straw of various crops.
Forestry organic waste described in the above-mentioned matrix is meant a kind of combination to three kinds in the sawdust, wood shavings, bark, leaf of various forests.
Industrial waste organic matter described in the above-mentioned matrix can be after sugar presses in sugar refinery bagasse, produce mushroom residue behind the edible mushroom, pharmaceutical factory the medium-height grass dregs of a decoction, also have a kind of combination to three kinds in furfural dregs, the schlempe.
The described inert base raw material of above-mentioned matrix can be a kind of combination to three kinds in the discarded object that goes out of river sand, quartz sand, vermiculite, perlite, volcanic ash, chad, haydite, slag and coal mining such as gangue, the weathered coal.
The production method of above-mentioned solid-state soilless culture substrate comprises the steps:
(1) washing base starting material: may contain harmful substance, Acidity of Aikalinitys such as alcohol, medicine in the base starting material and cross strong or contain earth etc., influence the cultivation of crop, as far as possible fully remove above-mentioned substance by water-washing method, these raw materials mainly comprise the various dregs of a decoction, furfural dregs, schlempe, peanut shell and other contaminated base starting material;
(2) base starting material is pulverized: material shape sizes such as agricultural crop straw, corncob, peanut shell, cocoa husk, bark, gangue do not meet the preparation requirement, need carry out pulverization process; The fibre length of agricultural crop straw crushed material should be less than 3 centimetres, and width is less than 0.5 centimetre, and content of powder is less than 10%, and the powder particle diameter of materials such as corncob, peanut shell, cocoa husk, bark, gangue is less than 0.5 centimetre, and content of powder is less than 10%;
(3) regulate C/N ratio and sterilization: C/N ratio and sterilization all need be measured and regulate to other various organic substrate raw materials except that the peat composed of rotten mosses; The organic substrate stockpile is placed on the clean ground that isolates with soil, water permeable, and evenly sneak into 0.1~0.8 kilogram of nitrogen in the every cubic metre of material of C/N ratio difference according to raw material, make it to utilize solar energy carry out high temperature after covering completely with plastic foil and become thoroughly decomposed, ferment, sterilize; High temperature reaches more than 60 ℃ during processing, and the processing time is 20~90 fine days, and per 15 fine days are evenly stirred once in the processing procedure, spread out after processing finishes and dry the back as the organic substrate raw material for standby;
(4) selection of inert base and processing: inert base is selected river sand, quartz sand, vermiculite, perlite, chad, volcanic ash, haydite, slag, gangue, weathered coal etc., the screening of sieving, suitable matrix particle size scope is 0.01~1.0 centimetre, differ in size, as the inert base raw material for standby;
(5) cultivation is with the preparation of matrix: promptly prepare to become to cultivate after selecting 1~3 kind of organic substrate and 1~3 kind of inert base evenly to mix in proportion and use soilless substrate; Mixed proportion is: organic substrate accounts for 30~80% (percents by volume, down together), and inert base accounts for 20~70%.
A kind of organic solid-state fertilizer that is used for above-mentioned solid-state soilless culture substrate is formed by organic mixed fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer assembly.
Above-mentioned organic solid-state fertilizer is made up of organic mixed fertilizer 50~100% (percentage by weight, down together) and inorganic fertilizer 0~50%.
Organic mixed fertilizer described in the above-mentioned organic solid-state fertilizer is made up of muck and cake fertilizer.
Muck described in the above-mentioned organic solid-state fertilizer can be in the chicken manure, cow dung, horsehit, pig manure, sheep excrement of sterilization in a kind of combination to three kinds.
Cake fertilizer described in the above-mentioned organic solid-state fertilizer can be a kind of combination to three kinds in soybean cake, cottonseed cake, colza cake, sesame-send cake, the groundnut cake.
Inorganic fertilizer described in the above-mentioned organic solid-state fertilizer by multiple inorganic fertilizer such as ammonium attitude chemical fertilizer, phosphorus ore fertilizer, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP), diammonium hydrogen phosphate, potassium sulphate and other mineral fertilizer according to N (NH 4 +): P 2O 5: K 2O=1: 0.2~0.5: 0.7~1.5 ratio is formulated.
The production method of above-mentioned organic solid-state fertilizer comprises the steps:
(1) muck and the cake fertilizer of getting high-temperature sterilization in 1: 0.25~1 ratio mixes, organic mixed fertilizer;
(2) press N (NH 4 +): P 2O 5: K 2O=1: 0.2~0.5: 0.7~1.5 ratio is got various inorganic fertilizers and is mixed, and gets inorganic fertilizer.
(3) organic mixed fertilizer of step (1) and step (2) inorganic fertilizer are mixed in 1: 0~0.5 ratio promptly make soilless culture organic solid-state fertilizer of the present invention.
The muck of the high-temperature sterilization described in the aforementioned production method is that dung heep is placed in the fermentation vat, covers plastic foil and utilizes solar energy fully to ferment and sterilize; Fermentation back chicken manure placed sterilization and oven dry under 300 ℃ the hot environment, the muck of must sterilizing; The method for making of cake fertilizer is after cake fertilizer is pulverized, to put into fermentation vat, and waters permeablely, covers plastic foil and utilizes 15 of solar energy fermentations more than the fine day, dries then to get final product;
A kind of soilless culture method comprises the steps:
(1), builds cultivating groove;
(2), according to preceding method preparation organic solid-state cultivation matrix, standby;
(3), according to preceding method preparation organic solid-state fertilizer, standby;
(4), the matrix that step (2) is joined is packed in the cultivating groove;
(5), in cultivating groove, pour water, make that water content reaches 60~80% in the cultivation matrix;
(6), in matrix, apply organic solid-state fertilizer that step (3) joined as base manure;
(7), the thin micro tube flexible pipe is installed as water adding system;
(8), field planting seedling;
(9), field planting begins to water after 3~10 days, watered once in per then 3~5 days;
(10), field planting brings into use the organic solid-state that step (3) joined fertile in topdressing after 10~30 days, topdress once after per then 10~15 days;
(11), results product.
The field liquid manure management method of raise crop:
Except that the management of normal temperature, light, gas, environment aspect such as wet, the invention provides a kind of simple standardization water and fertilizer management measure.The simple and easy thin wall irrigation belt of the supporting use of irrigation system, cost is lower; Pouring water replaces nutrient solution with clear water, and the individual plant water consumption is controlled in 300~1000 milliliters the scope every day, decides on growing environment and the state of this crop; The consumption that at every turn topdresses is every individual plant 5~15 grams; Fruit vegetables per 5~15 days 1 time, western muskmelon topdresses 1~2 time the time of infertility altogether, and leaf vegetables topdresses 0~1 time altogether.
Cultivation system structure involved in the present invention comprises cultivation framework and water system.
The cultivation framework mainly adopts slot type structure, i.e. cultivating groove.Cultivating groove can adopt materials such as brick, plastic foam plate, cement plate, plank, bamboo chip to make; 20~100 centimetres of internal diameters, 20~100 centimetres of clean separation are regarded the thing type as and are adjusted; The cultivating groove height is 10~30 centimetres, and wherein the draining bed thickness is 5~10 centimetres, 5~25 centimetres of cultivation layer thicknesses; Material isolation such as plastic foil are adopted on cultivating groove and ground, and drainage blanket adopts woven cloth to isolate with the cultivation interlayer.
Water system adopts Simple water saving slight irrigation device, and source of water supply can adopt height at the bottom of the running water, case of convenient pressure greater than 1 meter greenhouse water tank, and power is that 1100 watts, delivery port diameter are 50 millimeters water pump.Source pressure is 1~3 meter water column, 12~22 liters of every meter flows of slight irrigation pipe/time, the 10 minutes outputs in every hole are 400~600 milliliters, water-out manners is two little sprays of.
Advantage of the present invention and beneficial effect:
(1), cost of the present invention is low, compares with nutrient fluid cultivation, one-time investment of the present invention only needs 3000~5000 yuans for every mu, saves 50~80%.Every mu of annual fertilizer expense is lower than 1300 yuan, can save 50~60% fertilizer expenses at least; (2), simple, the present invention need not preparation and management nutrient solution, reduces technical difficulty greatly, can be suitable for common peasant, can formulate the administrative skill rules of " foolization " according to actual crop, only needs get final product according to the operational procedure execution; (3), can realize effective combination of cultivation technique without soil and organic farming technology, improve crop yield and improve quality, compare with existing domestic nutrient solution cultivation technique without soil, can improve output 10~15%; (4), be suitable for producing pollution-free food, only need water clear water during irrigation, system discharges the liquid nitrate content and has only 1~4mg/kg (1996), the tomato nitrate content of producing only is 6.08mg/kg, cucumber 41.76mg/kg, rape 2532mg/kg (1996), all well below the content of nutrient solution soilless culture, environmental pollution is little or pollution-free.(5), compare, present technique can effectively be controlled the rhizosphere disease, thoroughly solves problems such as soil disease and continuous cropping obstacle with the soil cultivation technology; Can shorten the field planting transplanting seedling time greatly, promote growing fast of root system, thereby accelerate the growth of crop, promote precocious; Can fully satisfy the demand of crop to nutrient and moisture, the yield potential of crop is fully excavated in nourishing and growing and the reproductive growth balance of effective coordination crop.
The specific embodiment
Embodiment 1 organic ecological soilless culture is produced the tomato test
This is tested in July, 1999~2000 and cultivate friendly demonstration farm of Mitsubishi year July in the Xiao Tangshan of Changping Carry out in the greenhouse; Cultivar is adopted Dutch greenhouse specific breed " Caruso " (Caruso), plot experiment Area is 2.3 square metres, 4 repetitions, and this test comprises the steps:
(1), make cultivation bed:
The cultivation bed framework is selected 24 * 12 * 5 centimetres3Standard brick, internal diameter is 48 centimetres, and is high 20 centimetres, 40 meters of length, 98 centimetres of separation (internal diameter spacing), the extending direction gradient is 7 ‰, isolation soil Thick 0.1 millimeter of film, wide 80 centimetres, 41 meters of length;
(2), preparation organic solid-state cultivation matrix:
A. wash the flushing of slag water, reduce the pH value of slag, for subsequent use;
B. pulverize corn stalk is pulverized, comminuted fibres length is less than 3 centimetres, and width is less than 0.5 centimetre, Content of powder is less than 10%, and is for subsequent use;
C. regulate carbon-nitrogen ratio and sterilization with 15 meters of crushing maize straw3, 14 meters of mushroom residues3Be deposited in separately On the clean ground of soil isolation, water permeablely, evenly sneak into 2.5 kilo sulfuric acid ammoniums in every cubic metre of material, Making it to utilize solar energy to carry out high temperature after covering tightly with plastic foil becomes thoroughly decomposed, ferments, sterilizes; High temperature reaches during processing More than 60 ℃, the processing time is 30 fine days. Per 15 fine days are evenly stirred once in the processing procedure; The place Spread out after reason finishes dry rear for subsequent use;
D. the preparation of slag is crossed 1 centimetre of sieve with slag, chooses for subsequent use than fine slag after sieving;
E. prepare cultivation matrix with 9 meters in slag3, 12 meters of mushroom slags3, 9 meters of corn stalk3Mix namely Can;
(3), preparation organic solid-state fertilizer:
A. the preparation of organic fertilizer is deposited in chicken manure in the fermentation vat, covers plastic foil and utilizes solar energy to carry out Fully fermentation and sterilization; Chicken manure after the fermentation is placed sterilization and oven dry under 300 ℃ the hot environment, for subsequent use; After soya-bean cake pulverized, put into fermentation vat, and water permeablely, cover plastic foil and utilize 15 of solar energy fermentations fine More than it, dry then, for subsequent use;
B. being mixed of organic batch mixes 267 kilograms of 533 kilograms of sterilization chicken manures and soya-bean cakes, namely Be mixed with 800 kilograms of organic batches;
C. inorganic batch is mixed 110 kilograms in ammonium sulfate, 30 kilograms of diammonium hydrogen phosphates, potassium sulfate 60 kilograms mix, and namely are mixed with 200 kilograms of inorganic batches;
D. it is fertile inorganic with above-mentioned 800 kilograms of organic batches that are mixed and 200 kilograms to prepare organic solid-state Batch evenly mixes, and namely is mixed with 1000 kilograms of organic solid-state fertilizer;
(4), water system: source pressure is 2 meter water columns, 15 l/hs of every meter flows of drip irrigation pipe, every hole Output was 500 milliliters in 10 minutes, and water-out manners is two little sprays;
(5), 0.103 cubic metre of matrix is had in the 2.3 square metres of cultivation beds of packing into, then with 1.03 thousand Gram organic solid-state fertilizer evenly spills to be executed in stromal surface, and matrix and organic solid-state fertilizer are mixed;
(6), field planting: every residential quarter field planting 10 strain tomato seedling;
(7), water management after the field planting: the needs according to vine growth and development are supplied with moisture; Bloom and bear fruit Before keep soil humidity 60%~65%; Blooming, it is rear take short as main to bear fruit, and keeps soil humidity 70%~80 About %; Require winter water temperature more than 10 ℃, 4 days begin to water after the field planting, and per 5 days once, every Inferior 15 minutes, to irrigate in the morning of fine day, the cloudy day does not water; By the end of August or early September, begin to bloom After bearing fruit, so long as fine, the conditions such as temperature are also suitable, irrigate every day 1~2 time, check one in per 3 days Inferior water supply in media situation has too much performance such as moisture, stops according to circumstances feedwater after 1~2 day; Enter in 10 months In the last ten-days period, the cloudy day does not generally water, but after connecting cloudy a couple of days, according to circumstances on a small quantity feedwater; Way of supplying water is pressed after February Increase the needs that grow to satisfy it gradually 1 day 1 time, 1 day 2 times, 1 day 3 times;
(8), the management of the nutrient after the field planting: field planting began to topdress after 20 days, and consumption is 15 gram/strain Solid Organics Attitude fertilizer, after this per 10 days 1 time, enter autumn and winter, when plant begins slowly to grow, be adjusted into 15 days one Inferior, recover spring to topdress in 10 days 1 time; Uproot plants after their edible portions have been harvested and stopped to topdress in front 1 month.
(9), results, the results are shown in Table 1:
Table 1 tomato yield statistical analysis table

Claims (12)

1, a kind of organic solid-state soilless culture substrate is characterized in that being made up of organic substrate raw material and inert base raw material.
2,, it is characterized in that forming by organic substrate raw material 30~80% (percent by volume) and inert base raw material 20~70% according to the described matrix of claim 1.
3,, it is characterized in that described organic substrate raw material is a kind of combination to three kinds in agriculture waste organic matter, forestry organic waste, industrial waste organic matter or the natural organic matter peat composed of rotten mosses of pulverizing according to the described matrix of claim 1.
4,, it is characterized in that described agriculture waste organic matter is meant that a kind of combination to three kinds is or/and a kind of combination to three kinds in the accessory substance cocoa husk of various agricultural product, corncob, peanut shell, wheat husk, rice husk in the stalk corn stalk, sorghum straw, rape straw, sunflower straw, wheat straw of various crops according to the described matrix of claim 3.
5,, it is characterized in that described forestry organic waste is meant a kind of combination to three kinds in the sawdust of various forests, wood shavings, bark, the leaf according to the described matrix of claim 3.
6,, it is characterized in that described industrial waste organic matter is a kind of combination to three kinds in bagasse, mushroom residue, the medium-height grass dregs of a decoction, furfural dregs, the schlempe according to the described matrix of claim 3.
7,, it is characterized in that described inert base raw material is a kind of combination to three kinds in river sand, quartz sand, vermiculite, perlite, volcanic ash, chad, haydite, slag, gangue, the weathered coal according to the described matrix of claim 1.
8, a kind of organic solid-state fertilizer that is used for the described matrix of claim 1 is formed by organic mixed fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer assembly.
9,, it is characterized in that forming by organic mixed fertilizer 50~100% (percentage by weight) and inorganic fertilizer 0~50% according to the described organic solid-state fertilizer of claim 8.
10, according to the described organic solid-state fertilizer of claim 8, it is characterized in that described muck can chicken manure, a kind of combination to three kinds in the cow dung, horsehit, pig manure, sheep excrement; Its described cake fertilizer can be a kind of combination to three kinds in soybean cake, cottonseed cake, colza cake, sesame-send cake, the groundnut cake.
11, according to the described organic solid-state fertilizer of claim 8, it is characterized in that described inorganic fertilizer by ammonium attitude chemical fertilizer, phosphorus ore fertilizer, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP), diammonium hydrogen phosphate, potassium sulphate according to N (NH 4 +): P 2O 5: K 2O=1: 0.2~0.5: 0.7~1.5 ratio is formulated.
12, a kind of soilless culture method comprises the steps:
(1), builds cultivating groove;
(2), preparation organic solid-state cultivation matrix, standby;
(3), preparation organic solid-state fertilizer, standby;
(4), the matrix that step (2) is joined is packed in the cultivating groove;
(5), in cultivating groove, pour water, make that water content reaches 60~80% in the cultivation matrix;
(6), in matrix, apply organic solid-state fertilizer that step (3) joined as base manure;
(7), the thin micro tube flexible pipe is installed as water adding system;
(8), field planting seedling;
(9), field planting begins to water after 3~10 days, watered once in per then 3~5 days;
(10), field planting brings into use the organic solid-state that step (3) joined fertile in topdressing after 10~30 days, topdress once after per then 10~15 days;
(11), results product.
CN01141775A 2001-09-19 2001-09-19 Organic soil-less culture substrate, orgainc solid fertilizer and soil-less cultivation method Pending CN1336104A (en)

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