CN103214315B - Greening matrix containing quarry mucks, animal manures, straws and charcoal powder and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Greening matrix containing quarry mucks, animal manures, straws and charcoal powder and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103214315B
CN103214315B CN201310169338.5A CN201310169338A CN103214315B CN 103214315 B CN103214315 B CN 103214315B CN 201310169338 A CN201310169338 A CN 201310169338A CN 103214315 B CN103214315 B CN 103214315B
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China
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stalk
animal manure
charcoal powder
stone pit
dregs
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CN201310169338.5A
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CN103214315A (en
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张艳
赵廷宁
郭晶晶
吴海龙
郭小平
张成梁
史常青
王国
冯晶晶
孙永康
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北京林业大学
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The invention relates to a greening matrix containing quarry mucks, animal manures, straws and charcoal powder and a preparation method of the greening matrix. The greening matrix comprises the following components including quarry mucks, animal manures, straws and charcoal powder. By using the greening matrix provided by the invention, vegetation is greened again, so that soil erosion resistibility and water and soil loss interception ability are increased, land and water resources can be protected, environment can be beautified, water and soil loss caused by stacking waste slag is reduced, biological environment of mines is improved, and cyclic utilization of land sources is realized.

Description

A kind of afforesting matrix containing stone pit dregs, animal manure, stalk and charcoal powder and preparation method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to dregs recycling field, stone pit, be specifically related to a kind of afforesting matrix containing stone pit dregs, animal manure, stalk and charcoal powder and preparation method thereof.
Background technology
Stone pit dregs: refer to the dregs producing in the work progress such as quarry blast excavation, hand excavation.
Dregs source, stone pit and statistics:
Since the eighties in 20th century, along with country is to the increasing sharply and the fast development of mining and metallurgy economy of mineral resources demand, the ecological disruption problem causing because of mining is also on the rise, particularly strip mining transformation.According to Bureau of Land and Resources survey data in the end of the year 2005 statistics, whole nation mining damage to land area adds up to 5,860,000 hectares, and destroy and plough approximately 1,570,000 hectares, and still with the speed increase of annual 40000 hectares.Mining causes large-scale land destruction and vegetation deterioration, in China and even the world, be all one very serious, and the problem of day by day being paid much attention to.Realizing the soil melioration of abandoned quarry and vegetation multiple green is the key point of administering abandoned mine, is the most important thing of improving Beijing ecotope, promoting economy and harmonious development.
The harm of dregs: for many years, due to the unreasonable exploitation of mineral resources, add extensive management, lack planning, not only cause the huge waste of resource, and heavy damage local ecotope.Winter-spring season, wind plays sand and raises, and abandoned mine provides Material Source for dust and sand weather.To rainy season, because vegetation is exposed, soil degradation, water and soil loss aggravation, and easily cause the natural geologic hazards such as landslide, landslide.
Dregs processing mode: it is to select low-lying land, wasteland to carry out air storage that China disposes the major way of dregs, has not only taken a large amount of soils, has aggravated the contradiction of having a large population and a few land, and contaminated soil, water body and atmosphere, affects urban look.
From above-mentioned, dregs direct value in stone pit is low, is the huge waste of resource.Dregs is piled up mining area view, land resources, water environment, bio-diversity etc. is all had an immense impact on, and even jeopardizes the mankind's existence with healthy, the sustainable development of influence area economy.
Stalk: stalk is the general name of ripe crops cauline leaf (fringe) part, is often referred to wheat, paddy rice, corn, potato class, oil plant, cotton, sugarcane and other crops remainder after results seed.
Stalk source: cereal crops stalk is still Chinese chief crop stalk type.Rice straw, maize straw, wheat stalk are the three large crops straws that Chinese output is the highest.The elementary processed side product of agricultural product has exceeded 100,000,000 tons as the gross yields such as rice husk, corncob, bagasse, sugar beet pulp add up to.
Stalk statistics and processing: China is as large agricultural country, the by products such as agricultural crop straw are important agricultural resourcess, contain abundant nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and various trace elements, in field burning or accumulation, resource but also contaminated environment were not only wasted, and the by product such as agricultural crop straw over half stacked and be used as yule logs everywhere, under the dry windy weather of northern China, they are often the roots that causes and encourage wildfire.According to incompletely statistics, the economic loss causing because of agricultural crop straw initiation fire every year just reaches 1,500,000,000 yuan more than.
Animal manure: be the excreta of livestock, taking cow dung, pig manure and sheep excrement as main.Along with the development of livestock breeding; the livestock cultivation amount of China is in continuous increase; the discharge capacity of excrement of animals is also in continuous increase; when the development of intensive cultivation industry has improved people's living standard greatly; also brought huge pressure to environmental protection; problem of environmental pollution has become the key factor of restriction livestock breeding sustainable development; thousand pig farms are discharged 100 tons of ammonia in environment, 30 tons, phosphorus every year; environmental pollution is from common point-source pollution steering surface source; take Beijing as example, only excrement of animals generation in 2008 just reaches 7,860,000 tons.Therefore, the environmental problem that livestock cultivation produces is very serious, how to properly handle the environmental pollution bringing in breeding process, is the major issue that is related to Regional Economic Development and environmental protection.Common processing method is to become feed with other product configurations at present, or add the probioticses such as EM and reduce the stink in animal manure, but, the ight soil that most fairly large plants produce is still treated to master to topple over to abandon, not only pollute environment and also caused the waste of resource, realizing the harmless treatment of excrement of animals, is the current vital task of China.
Charcoal powder: charcoal powder is the powdered carbon that forestry residue is made.During charcoal powder is manured into soil, gas permeability and the moisture capacity of soil be can not only improve, the productivity in soil and the quality of product, the also poisonous metal in adsorbable mineral dregs improved, improve the vigor of edaphon, and blocked charcoal itself and become the passage of carbon source.In addition, by improving the amount of growth of plant, can absorb more the CO in atmosphere 2, improve carbon remittance effect.Charcoal powder has been applied to removing water pollutant, making fragrant incense and firecrackers at present, absorption formaldehyde is removed pernicious gas etc.
Dregs utilizes aspect:
CN201210045597.2(publication number is CN102584456A, open day is on July 18th, 2012) a kind of afforesting matrix that utilizes the discarded dregs in stone pit to prepare is disclosed, its formula is: dregs, sewage mud, stalk, sheep excrement, water-loss reducer, bacillus licheniformis are discarded in stone pit.
CN201210351301.X(publication number is CN102910941A, open day is on 02 06th, 2013) a kind of method of utilizing cathay hickory Pu to prepare biological organic fertilizer disclosed, the method is to take off the raw material of row weight portion: 100-150 part cathay hickory Pu, 40-50 part poultry-dung, 20-30 part bagasse, 20-30 part ore dregs, humic acid 15-20, 0.1-0.2 part leavening, first cathay hickory Pu is dropped into crusher for crushing, after again cathay hickory Pu particle fully being mixed with above-mentioned other raw material, putting into fermentation vat ferments, fermentation 30-50 days, in fermentation process, carry out turning operation, turning in 5-10 days once, temperature is down to after 20-30 DEG C by 60-70 DEG C, leave standstill again and stack 10-20 days, fermentation ends, add 10-15% biological compound fungi liquid to the material fermenting again, then granulation obtains bio-organic fertilizer.
Mixed fertilizer prepared by stalk, charcoal, ight soil:
CN200610021336.1(publication number is CN1884216A, open day is on December 27th, 2006, hereinafter to be referred as 06 year patent) disclose a kind of fowl and animal excrement that utilizes and manufactured the method for biological organic fertilizer, first respectively to stalk, peat is pulverized, again feces of livestock and poultry, powder of straw, after peat mixes by weight the ratio of 2-3:1-2:1-2, add composite bacteria agent capable by the weight ratio of said components total amount: composite bacteria agent capable=7-8:3-2 again, add again appropriate water to insert the fermenting groove 5-10 days that ferments at normal temperatures, in fermentation process, need by orbit agitator of tank system and dig-in stirring-up automatic aerator material stirring and oxygenation, stir and the method for oxygenation is every day 1-2 time, each orbit agitator of tank system and dig-in stirring-up automatic aerator are to 1-2 reciprocation cycle of each fermentation tank work, after fermentation, take out and carry out biological drying.
CN201110118433.3(publication number is CN102219570A, and open day is on October 19th, 2011) disclose one and utilize feces of livestock and poultry to manufacture high-efficiency active biological fertilizer and preparation method thereof.First feces of livestock and poultry, stalk, peat are carried out to pretreatment, again feces of livestock and poultry, powder of straw and peat are mixed by weight the ratio of 3-5:1-2:1-2, again by said components total amount: the weight ratio of highly enriched organic material composting microbial inoculum=5000-10000:1-2 adds compound decomposing microbial inoculum, mix laggard row compost fermentation 7-10 days, need during this time carry out 1-2 time to material every day and stir.Peat has higher nutrition, adds in soil and can improve the physicochemical property index in soil, is more conducive to plant growth.
CN200810015636.8(publication number is CN101248738A, open day is on 08 27th, 2008) relate to a kind of melon raise seedling or stalk cultivation ground mass, it is characterized in that being formed by the raw material of following volume proportion: stalk fermentation thing 35-80%, chemical fertilizer 0.2-0.5%, base-material 19.5-64.8%, base-material be more than one or base-material of the peat composed of rotten mosses, perlite or vermiculite be the peat composed of rotten mosses, river sand more than one.
CN201010600447.4(publication number is CN102119651A, open day is on 07 13rd, 2011) a kind of small soilless culture method and device disclosed, it is contained in nutrient solution to support plants in dish or nutrient solution liquid storage tank, crop is planted in nutrient solution, in described nutrient solution, add imitative soil material, imitative soil material comprises the raw material of following weight portion: organic substance 20-90, nonmetallic mineral 2-80, wherein organic substance is peat, fermented stalk, fermentation bagasse, a kind of or its mixture in fermented livestock excrement, described nonmetallic mineral is coal ash, slag, zeolite, bentonite, albumen shale, concave convex rod ore deposit soil, perlite, vermiculite, Rectorite Clay, sepiolite clay, a kind of or its mixture in diatomite, the ratio 5-2:1 of nutrient solution and imitative soil material.The object of this patent is to configure a kind of nutrient solution, stresses soilless culture.
And in prior art:
The noncapillary poropsity of stone pit dregs is large, and capillary porosity is little, and soil water retention is poor, nutritive element content is lower, and level of aggregation is poor, does not possess the necessary soil environment of vegetation growth, use it for greening backing, just must improve its physicochemical character, realize the reconstruction of artificial soil.
Animal manure is all used as high-quality fertilizer and obtains conversion, utilization by agricultural ecosystem since ancient times.Nowadays, development extensive, intensive cultivation industry causes fowl and animal excrement to discharge in a large number, becomes the pollution source of agriculture water and soil environment, has a strong impact on water source quality and jeopardizes human health.
China's agricultural straw resource owning amount occupies first place in the world.For many years, except a small amount of stalk is used as fuel, feed, fertilizer, papermaking etc., a large amount of stalks are used to burn and cause resource huge waste, contaminated environment, fire to suffer from infinite.According to statistics, China produces 600000000 tons of stalks per year, wherein 42% direct or mistake also field of abdomen, and 30% as agricultural fuel, and 8% is industry or other purposes, and 20% approximately 1.2 hundred million ton of residue is not utilized.
There is not yet stone pit dregs, animal manure, stalk and charcoal powder and prepare the report of afforesting matrix.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is the improvement invention on CN201210045597.2 basis, its objective is a kind of afforesting matrix containing stone pit dregs, animal manure, stalk and charcoal powder is provided.
A kind of afforesting matrix containing stone pit dregs, animal manure, stalk and charcoal powder provided by the invention, contains following composition: stone pit dregs, animal manure, stalk and charcoal powder.
Concrete, described afforesting matrix contains following weight portion composition: 18 parts of stone pit dregs, animal manure 4.0-14.0 part, stalk 110-330 part and charcoal powder 1-12 part.
Preferably, described afforesting matrix contains following weight portion composition: 18 parts of stone pit dregs, animal manure 9.0-13.5 part, stalk 220-330 part and charcoal powder 6-12 part.
Further preferably, described afforesting matrix contains following weight portion composition: 6 parts of 18 parts of stone pit dregs, 9.0 parts of animal manures, 220 parts of stalks and charcoal powders.
In above-mentioned afforesting matrix:
Described weight portion can be the known unit of weights such as μ g, mg, g, kg, can be also its multiple, as 1/10,1/100,10 times, 100 times etc.
Described stone pit dregs, its particle size range is not more than 20mm, is preferably and is not more than 15mm, is more preferably not more than 10mm.
Described animal manure is the excreta of livestock, is preferably sheep excrement, cow dung or pig manure, more preferably sheep excrement.
Described stalk is the agricultural crop straws such as maize straw, wheat stalk or rice straw, is preferably maize straw, wheat stalk or rice straw, more preferably maize straw.
Described charcoal powder is the powdered carbon that forestry residue is made, and is commercially available.
The present invention also provides a kind of method of preparing above-mentioned afforesting matrix, and the method comprises the following steps:
1) stone pit dregs is crossed 10-20mm sieve, crosses respectively 5mm sieve after animal manure and crushed stalk, then takes stone pit dregs, animal manure, stalk and charcoal powder by proportioning, for subsequent use;
2) stalk is mixed with animal manure, become thoroughly decomposed completely with straw decomposing inoculant, the stalk after must becoming thoroughly decomposed and animal manure mixture;
3) by stone pit dregs, charcoal powder and step 2) described in stalk and animal manure mixture after becoming thoroughly decomposed mix completely, obtain afforesting matrix.
In said method:
Described straw decomposing inoculant is commercially available, in its active ingredient, contain multiple beneficial microorganism, can make the organic waste quick compostings such as stalk, make the elements such as organic matter contained in stalk and phosphorus, potassium become the required source of nutrition of plant growth, and breed a large amount of beneficial microbes.
The consumption of described straw decomposing inoculant is the 0.1-0.5% of stalk weight, is preferably 0.2-0.4%, more preferably 0.4%.
Described method of becoming thoroughly decomposed comprises the following steps:
1) straw decomposing dilution agent: the weight ratio of straw decomposing inoculant and water is 11:50-60, obtains straw decomposing inoculant dilution, for subsequent use;
2) stalk is soaked in advance, drip and be advisable with holding tightly, stalk and animal manure are mixed to rear neat stacking in proportion, every layer of thick stalk and animal manure mixture of paving 15-20cm, then successively sprinkle into straw decomposing inoculant dilution, heap height is 0.6-1.2m, width 0.6-2.0m, wraps with film, prevent moisture loss, the time of becoming thoroughly decomposed is 15-30 days.
Afforesting matrix provided by the invention can replace soil to be applied to the revegetation in the difficult habitats such as Abandoned Land of Mine, according to the different laying depth of different choice of greening mode (planting plant hole, spraying and seeding afforesting etc.), is advisable with 4-15cm, is preferably 8cm.
Afforesting matrix provided by the invention has the following advantages:
1, in afforesting matrix provided by the invention:
1) porosity of stone pit dregs is larger, and nutritive element content is lower, if will be applied to afforesting matrix aspect, need carry out to it improvement of soil physico-chemical property, rebuilds artificial soil.Compared with the dregs of stone pit, river sand be natural stone under nature, through the active force of water repeatedly collide for a long time, fricative, river sand is containing organic composition, preserve moisture and fertility ability does not possess the fundamental characteristics of soil.
2) animal manure is a kind of quick-acting, alkalescence, nitrogen, phosphorus, the high-quality fertilizer that potassium content is higher.In seedling raising process, add the animal manure of suitable consumption can improve the function of soil alleviation low temperature and high temperature damage, regulate soil temperature, alleviate degeneration and the desertification of soil.Also there is the functions such as absorption, integration, complexing oxidoreduction, ion exchange, improve edaphon and soil enzyme activities etc.Also can alleviate heavy metal in soil component content, the afforesting matrix that adds animal manure is a kind of important method that ensures the not only fast but also strong growth of nursery stock.
3) stalk: stalk is the general name of ripe crops cauline leaf (fringe) part.Straw-returning can be optimized crop growth environment (soil climate, soil hydro-thermal situation, plant nutrient circulation), improves granular structure and the physicochemical character of soil.After stalk buries, in decomposable process, carry out mineral, discharge nutrient, carry out humification simultaneously, make some organic compounds form more complicated humus, thereby improve the proterties such as the structure of soil and water conservation, water suction, bonding, ventilative, insulation, improved soil itself and regulate the ability of water, fertilizer, temperature, gas, increase soil porosity, reduce the bulk density of soil, make that the soil is porous, permeability improves, and is beneficial to plant and emerges.
4) charcoal powder: charcoal powder is the powdered carbon that forestry residue is made.Utilize charcoal powder to discard sediment improvement, can improve ground temperature, improvement soil, keep soil moisture, the poisonous metal of absorption in soil etc., be specially:
A improves ground temperature: apply after charcoal powder, because black carbon granules absorbs solar thermal energy, can make soil temperature raise, promote seed sprouting.
B improves soil: in soil, apply after charcoal powder, can generate root grain bacterium, thereby can improve soil on charcoal powder surface, form the soil that is applicable to plant cultivation.
C keeps soil moisture: charcoal powder has function that can quick adsorption moisture, can also improve gas permeability and the drainage of soil.
D improves soil ph: charcoal powder can increase soil CO 2content, has the function of adsorbing the poisonous metal in soil.
And the peat atmospheric swamp that to be a kind of process form for several thousand ground product (being called the peat composed of rotten mosses or mud coal), it is the coal that degree of coalification is minimum, also be the most original state of coal, aseptic, nontoxic, pollution-free, venting capability is good simultaneously, light weight, water holding, fertilizer conservation, be conducive to microbial activities, strengthen biological property, nutritious, be cultivation matrix, be again good soil mediator agent, and contain very high organic matter, humus and nutrition.
The difference of charcoal powder and peat: difference 1: both are made up of different products.Difference 2: peat has been widely used in the production process of afforestation, lawn, flowers etc., and charcoal powder is less in the application of the aspects such as afforestation, lawn, flowers, is urgently applied to dregs recycling field.
Grow with each passing day for stone pit dregs generation, take up an area and stack, vegetation destruction, the present situations such as water and soil loss aggravation, inventor carries out application technology as the second resource research to stone pit dregs, utilize stone pit dregs, be equipped with the afforesting matrix that animal manure, stalk, charcoal powder make and can replace the revegetation of soil for difficult habitats such as Abandoned Land of Mines, the heap that can reduce discarded dregs high-volume, alleviate soil pressure, can effectively solve the dregs problem of dissolving, eliminate the potential safety hazard that dregs is stacked, reduce water and soil loss, realize the recycling of stone pit dregs.
2, utilize afforesting matrix provided by the invention to carry out after Abandoned Land of Mine revegetation; soil fertility improves; soil structure improves, and vegetation coverage improves, by vegetation rainfall interception; can subdue raindrop kinetic energy; reduce slope runoff amount, water and soil loss total amount is effectively controlled, both protected water and soil resources; can beautify the environment again, reduce waste and pile up the water and soil loss harm bringing.
3, experimental result shows, add the growth that afforesting matrix provided by the invention can promote Festuca Arundinacea and perennial ryegrass, seed sprouting is had to active influence, phytomass obviously increases, the vegetation that can accelerate the impaired habitat of Abandoned Land of Mine is multiple green, and effect is better than prior art.
Embodiment
Following examples are used for illustrating the present invention, but are not used for limiting the scope of the invention.
The present invention stone pit used dregs, takes from stone pit, Zhen Huangyuan village, Zhou Kou Dian, Fangshan, Beijing, selects the dregs of three kinds of particle diameters, the screening of sieving through 10mm sieve, 15mm sieve, 20mm respectively.
Described charcoal powder can commercially availablely be bought, specification 200 orders, and manufacturer is the Shanghai Tan Ye commerce trading center that names a person for a particular job.
Described straw decomposing inoculant can commercially availablely be bought, and manufacturer is Anhui Guang Yu Bioisystech Co., Ltd.
Described cm, m, mm are respectively the units such as known centimetre, meter, millimeter.
Mentioned component only, for the exploitativeness of embodiment is described, should not be construed as limiting the invention.
Embodiment 1: a kind of afforesting matrix containing stone pit dregs, animal manure, stalk and charcoal powder
1, composition: stone pit dregs 18g(particle diameter was 10mm sieve), sheep excrement 9.0g, maize straw 220g and charcoal powder 6g.
2, preparation method:
1) straw decomposing dilution agent: be that 11:50 mixes by straw decomposing inoculant and water according to weight ratio, obtain straw decomposing inoculant dilution, for subsequent use;
2) maize straw and sheep excrement were pulverized respectively to 5mm sieve, took stone pit dregs, sheep excrement, maize straw and charcoal powder according to proportioning, for subsequent use;
3) maize straw is soaked in advance, drip and be advisable with holding tightly, then itself and sheep excrement are mixed, be neatly stacked in the bamboo basket of finishing, every layer of thick maize straw and sheep excrement mixture of paving 15cm, then successively sprinkle into straw decomposing inoculant dilution, the consumption of straw decomposing inoculant be about 0.88g(be about stalk gross weight 0.4%), pile high 0.75m, width 1.8m, wrap with film, prevent moisture loss, the time of becoming thoroughly decomposed is 15 days, the sheep excrement after must becoming thoroughly decomposed, the mixture of maize straw;
4) the sheep excrement after step 3) gained is become thoroughly decomposed and the mixture of maize straw mix with stone pit dregs, charcoal powder, to obtain final product.
Embodiment 2: a kind of afforesting matrix containing stone pit dregs, animal manure, stalk and charcoal powder
1, composition: stone pit dregs 18g(particle diameter was 10mm sieve), sheep excrement 13.5g, maize straw 330g and charcoal powder 12g.
2, preparation method:
1) straw decomposing dilution agent: by straw decomposing inoculant and water be that 11:52 mixes according to weight ratio, obtain straw decomposing inoculant dilution, for subsequent use;
2) maize straw and sheep excrement were pulverized respectively to 5mm sieve, took stone pit dregs, sheep excrement, maize straw and charcoal powder according to proportioning, for subsequent use;
3) maize straw is soaked in advance, drip and be advisable with holding tightly, then itself and sheep excrement are mixed, be neatly stacked in the bamboo basket of finishing, every layer of thick maize straw and sheep excrement mixture of paving 20cm, then successively sprinkle into straw decomposing inoculant dilution, the consumption of straw decomposing inoculant be 1.32g(be about stalk gross weight 0.4%), pile high 1.2m, width 2.0m, wrap with film, prevent moisture loss, the time of becoming thoroughly decomposed is 30 days, the sheep excrement after must becoming thoroughly decomposed and the mixture of maize straw;
4) the sheep excrement after step 3) gained is become thoroughly decomposed and the mixture of maize straw mix with stone pit dregs, charcoal powder, to obtain final product.
Embodiment 3: a kind of afforesting matrix containing stone pit dregs, animal manure, stalk and charcoal powder
1, composition: stone pit dregs 18g(particle diameter was 10mm sieve), cow dung 9.0g, maize straw 220g and charcoal powder 6g.
2, preparation method:
1) straw decomposing dilution agent: be that 11:60 mixes by straw decomposing inoculant and water according to weight ratio, obtain straw decomposing inoculant dilution, for subsequent use;
2) maize straw and cow dung were pulverized respectively to 5mm sieve, took stone pit dregs, cow dung, maize straw and charcoal powder according to proportioning, for subsequent use;
3) maize straw is soaked in advance, drip and be advisable with holding tightly, then itself and cow dung are mixed, be neatly stacked in the bamboo basket of finishing, every layer of thick maize straw and cow dung mixture of paving 15cm, then successively sprinkle into straw decomposing inoculant dilution, the consumption of straw decomposing inoculant be 0.88g(be about stalk gross weight 0.4%), pile high 0.9m, width 1.0m, wrap with film, prevent moisture loss, the time of becoming thoroughly decomposed is 23 days, the cow dung after must becoming thoroughly decomposed and the mixture of maize straw;
4) cow dung after step 3) gained is become thoroughly decomposed and the mixture of maize straw mix with stone pit dregs, charcoal powder, to obtain final product.
Embodiment 4: a kind of afforesting matrix containing stone pit dregs, animal manure, stalk and charcoal powder
1, composition: stone pit dregs 18g(particle diameter was 15mm sieve), sheep excrement 13.5g, maize straw 110g and charcoal powder 6g.
2, preparation method:
1) straw decomposing dilution agent: be that 11:55 mixes by straw decomposing inoculant and water according to weight ratio, obtain straw decomposing inoculant dilution, for subsequent use;
2) maize straw and sheep excrement were pulverized respectively to 5mm sieve, took stone pit dregs, sheep excrement, maize straw and charcoal powder according to proportioning, for subsequent use;
3) maize straw is soaked in advance, drip and be advisable with holding tightly, then itself and sheep excrement are mixed, be neatly stacked in the bamboo basket of finishing, every layer of thick maize straw and sheep excrement mixture of paving 20cm, then successively sprinkle into straw decomposing inoculant dilution, the consumption of straw decomposing inoculant be 0.44g(be about stalk gross weight 0.4%), pile high 0.6m, width 1.2m, wrap with film, prevent moisture loss, the time of becoming thoroughly decomposed is 20 days, the sheep excrement after must becoming thoroughly decomposed and the mixture of maize straw;
4) the sheep excrement after step 3) gained is become thoroughly decomposed and the mixture of maize straw mix with stone pit dregs, charcoal powder, to obtain final product.
Embodiment 5: a kind of afforesting matrix containing stone pit dregs, animal manure, stalk and charcoal powder
1, composition: stone pit dregs 18g(particle diameter was 15mm sieve), pig manure 4.5g, maize straw 330g and charcoal powder 6g.
2, preparation method:
1) straw decomposing dilution agent: be that 11:58 mixes by straw decomposing inoculant and water according to weight ratio, obtain straw decomposing inoculant dilution, for subsequent use;
2) maize straw and pig manure were pulverized respectively to 5mm sieve, took stone pit dregs, pig manure, maize straw and charcoal powder according to proportioning, for subsequent use;
3) maize straw is soaked in advance, drip and be advisable with holding tightly, then itself and pig manure are mixed, be neatly stacked in the bamboo basket of finishing, every layer of thick maize straw and pig manure mixture of paving 16cm, then successively sprinkle into straw decomposing inoculant dilution, the consumption of straw decomposing inoculant be 1.32g(be about stalk gross weight 0.4%), pile high 1.2m, width 1.3m, wrap with film, prevent moisture loss, the time of becoming thoroughly decomposed is 16 days, the pig manure after must becoming thoroughly decomposed and the mixture of maize straw;
4) pig manure after step 3) gained is become thoroughly decomposed and the mixture of maize straw mix with stone pit dregs, charcoal powder, to obtain final product.
Embodiment 6: a kind of afforesting matrix containing stone pit dregs, animal manure, stalk and charcoal powder
1, composition: stone pit dregs 18g(particle diameter was 20mm sieve), cow dung 4.5g, wheat stalk 110g and charcoal powder 6g.
2, preparation method:
1) straw decomposing dilution agent: be that 11:55 mixes by straw decomposing inoculant and water according to weight ratio, obtain straw decomposing inoculant dilution, for subsequent use;
2) wheat stalk and cow dung were pulverized respectively to 5mm sieve, took stone pit dregs, cow dung, wheat stalk and charcoal powder according to proportioning, for subsequent use;
3) wheat stalk is soaked in advance, drip and be advisable with holding tightly, then itself and cow dung are mixed, be neatly stacked in the bamboo basket of finishing, every layer of thick wheat stalk and cow dung mixture of paving 20cm, then successively sprinkle into straw decomposing inoculant dilution, the consumption of straw decomposing inoculant be 0.22g(be about stalk gross weight 0.2%), pile high 0.6m, width 0.6m, wrap with film, prevent moisture loss, the time of becoming thoroughly decomposed is 30 days, the cow dung after must becoming thoroughly decomposed and the mixture of wheat stalk;
4) cow dung after step 3) gained is become thoroughly decomposed and the mixture of wheat stalk mix with stone pit dregs, charcoal powder, to obtain final product.
Embodiment 7: a kind of afforesting matrix containing stone pit dregs, animal manure, stalk and charcoal powder
1, composition: stone pit dregs 18g(particle diameter was 20mm sieve), sheep excrement 13.5g, rice straw 110g and charcoal powder 12g.
2, preparation method:
1) straw decomposing dilution agent: be that 11:56 mixes by straw decomposing inoculant and water according to weight ratio, obtain straw decomposing inoculant dilution, for subsequent use;
2) rice straw and sheep excrement were pulverized respectively to 5mm sieve, took stone pit dregs, sheep excrement, rice straw and charcoal powder according to proportioning, for subsequent use;
3) rice straw is soaked in advance, drip and be advisable with holding tightly, then itself and sheep excrement are mixed, be neatly stacked in the bamboo basket of finishing, every layer of thick rice straw and sheep excrement mixture of paving 15cm, then successively sprinkle into straw decomposing inoculant dilution, the consumption of straw decomposing inoculant be 0.33g(be about stalk gross weight 0.3%), pile high 0.6m, width 1.0m, wrap with film, prevent moisture loss, the time of becoming thoroughly decomposed is 28 days, the sheep excrement after must becoming thoroughly decomposed and the mixture of rice straw;
4) the sheep excrement after step 3) gained is become thoroughly decomposed and the mixture of rice straw mix with stone pit dregs, charcoal powder, to obtain final product.
Experimental example:
1, test grass seeds
The principle choice experiment grass seeds such as, strong stress resistance strong according to plant adaptability, as follows:
Festuca Arundinacea (Festuca arundinacea) thousand grain weigth 2.42g, purity is 95%, and germination rate is higher than 80%, and seeding quantity is 5.0g/m 2, fibrous root prosperity, happiness warm and moist soil, drought resisting, moisture-proof, heat-resisting, diseases and insect pests resistance is strong.
Perennial ryegrass (Loliumperenne L.) thousand grain weigth 2.64g, purity is 98%, and germination rate is higher than 85%, and seeding quantity is 4.5g/m 2, habit of growth happiness cold wet, warm weather, acidproof, barren-resistant, strong stress resistance, disease resistance is strong, all can plant in the place of annual precipitation 500~1500mm.
2, experiment grouping:
Two large group experiments are set, broadcast sowing respectively Festuca Arundinacea, ryegrass seed, experiment arranges three repetition, and every large group experiment comprises that contrast 1(is abbreviated as CK1), contrast 2(is abbreviated as CK2) with processing 1-7 totally 9 groups.Flowerpot diameter 16cm, high 12cm, permeable hole is arranged at flowerpot bottom.
3, experimental technique:
In the flowerpot of CK1, CK2 and processing 1-7, respectively pack the corresponding matrix of 6cm into, cover the same matrix that is evenly mixed with 100 seeds, THICKNESS CONTROL, in 2cm, ensures that in flowerpot, matrix gross thickness is no more than 8cm, wherein:
The matrix of CK1 was the stone pit dregs of 10mm sieve;
The matrix of CK2 is selected the herbaceous plant matrix formulations of selecting in 201210045597.2 claims 4;
Process the matrix of 1-7 according to the requirement configuration in embodiment 1-7;
In each group experiment, all flowerpots all water to saturated (flowerpot bottom permeable hole can be permeable), within 7 days, water once, under natural lighting, cultivate, and the external condition of experiment remains on same level.
After planting observe and record the growing state of grass seeds every day, the test period is 3 months, and monitors the indexs such as emergence rate, growing height, biomass.
Emergence rate: start record from the day (on April 18th, 2012) of grass seeds sowing, process of the test is lasted 18 days, observed and recorded the number of emerging every 1 day, the stable end until emerged May 6, add up the number of emerging, emerge and count the percentage that accounts for sowed subnumber according to Festuca Arundinacea and perennial ryegrass under different proportionings, calculate emergence rate.
Growing height: until grass seeds emerge stable after, adopt meter ruler to measure method, measure its growing height, every basin is chosen representational 10 strains and is averaged.
Biomass: after 2 months, adopt harvest method to obtain whole strain plant sample in flowerpot until plant growth, take on the spot weight in wet base, and take back laboratory and carry out subsequent treatment.Prior to completing in 105 DEG C of baking ovens, then at 80 DEG C, dry 12h to constant weight, obtain dry matter weight, the electronic balance that service precision is 0.01g takes dry weight.
4, experimental result:
4.1 growth indexes: in table 1
Table 1: growth indexes summary sheet
Table 1 result shows:
Festuca Arundinacea: contrast 1 group, its emergence rate is 46%, growing height is 48mm, and biomass is 9.72g; The emergence rate that contrasts 2 groups is 60%, growing height is 52mm, and biomass is 10.97g; The emergence rate of processing 1-7 group is 61-83%, and growing height is 57-70mm, and biomass is 12.05-20.10g;
Perennial ryegrass group: CK1 emergence rate is 55%, growing height is 58mm, and biomass is 16.52; CK2 emergence rate is 58%, growing height is 62mm, and biomass is 17.96g; The emergence rate of processing 1-7 group is 64-78%, and growing height is 71-78mm, and biomass is 22.17-31.76g.
5, conclusion: experimental result shows, add the growth that afforesting matrix provided by the invention can promote Festuca Arundinacea and perennial ryegrass, seed sprouting is had to active influence, phytomass obviously increases, the revegetation process that can accelerate the impaired habitat of Abandoned Land of Mine, effect is better than prior art.
Although, above use general explanation, embodiment and test, the present invention is described in detail, on basis of the present invention, can make some modifications or improvements it, and this will be apparent to those skilled in the art.Therefore, these modifications or improvements without departing from theon the basis of the spirit of the present invention, all belong to the scope of protection of present invention.

Claims (7)

1. the afforesting matrix containing stone pit dregs, animal manure, stalk and charcoal powder, it is characterized in that, described afforesting matrix is made up of following weight portion composition: 18 parts of stone pit dregs, animal manure 9.0-13.5 part, stalk 220-330 part, charcoal powder 6-12 part and consumption are the straw decomposing inoculant of the 0.2-0.4% of stalk weight, the particle size range of described stone pit dregs is not more than 20mm, described animal manure is sheep excrement, described charcoal powder is the powdered carbon that forestry residue is made, described stalk is maize straw, wheat stalk or rice straw, and its preparation method comprises the following steps:
1) stone pit dregs is crossed 10-20mm sieve, crosses respectively 5mm sieve after animal manure and crushed stalk, then takes stone pit dregs, animal manure, stalk and charcoal powder by proportioning, for subsequent use;
2) stalk is mixed with animal manure, become thoroughly decomposed completely with straw decomposing inoculant, the stalk after must becoming thoroughly decomposed and animal manure mixture;
3) by stone pit dregs, charcoal powder and step 2) described in stalk and animal manure mixture after becoming thoroughly decomposed mix completely, obtain afforesting matrix.
2. afforesting matrix according to claim 1, is characterized in that, described afforesting matrix is made up of following weight portion composition: 18 parts of stone pit dregs, 9.0 parts of animal manures, 220 parts of stalks, 6 parts of charcoal powders and consumption are 0.4% straw decomposing inoculant of stalk weight.
3. afforesting matrix according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that, the particle size range of described stone pit dregs is not more than 15mm.
4. afforesting matrix according to claim 3, is characterized in that, the particle size range of described stone pit dregs is not more than 10mm.
5. afforesting matrix according to claim 1, is characterized in that, described stalk is maize straw.
6. a method of preparing the afforesting matrix described in claim 1-5 any one, is characterized in that, the method comprises the following steps:
1) stone pit dregs is crossed 10-20mm sieve, crosses respectively 5mm sieve after animal manure and crushed stalk, then takes stone pit dregs, animal manure, stalk and charcoal powder by proportioning, for subsequent use;
2) stalk is mixed with animal manure, become thoroughly decomposed completely with straw decomposing inoculant, the stalk after must becoming thoroughly decomposed and animal manure mixture;
3) by stone pit dregs, charcoal powder and step 2) described in stalk and animal manure mixture after becoming thoroughly decomposed mix completely, obtain afforesting matrix.
7. method according to claim 6, is characterized in that, described in the method for becoming thoroughly decomposed comprise the following steps:
1) straw decomposing dilution agent: the weight ratio of straw decomposing inoculant and water is 11:50-60, obtains straw decomposing inoculant dilution, for subsequent use;
2) stalk is soaked in advance, drip and be advisable with holding tightly, stalk and animal manure are mixed to rear neat stacking in proportion, every layer of thick stalk and animal manure mixture of paving 15-20cm, then successively sprinkle into straw decomposing inoculant dilution, heap height is 0.6-1.2m, width 0.6-2.0m, wraps with film, prevent moisture loss, the time of becoming thoroughly decomposed is 15-30 days.
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