CN108029508A - A kind of rape blanket special seedling substrate and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

A kind of rape blanket special seedling substrate and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108029508A
CN108029508A CN201711380662.6A CN201711380662A CN108029508A CN 108029508 A CN108029508 A CN 108029508A CN 201711380662 A CN201711380662 A CN 201711380662A CN 108029508 A CN108029508 A CN 108029508A
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parts
chaff
fermentation
rape
coconut palm
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蔡忠
蔡梦妍
蔡培元
朱忠贵
郭世荣
陈龙春
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Jiangsu Xingnong Matrix Technology Co Ltd
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Jiangsu Xingnong Matrix Technology Co Ltd
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Abstract

The present invention discloses a kind of rape blanket special seedling substrate and preparation method thereof, which is included by mushroom slag, acid-sludge, manioc waste mixed fermentation material and the coconut palm chaff of fermentation maturity processing, carbon chaff or plant ash and turf, vermiculite, perlite;The matrix is counted to form with parts by volume:35 parts of 20 30 parts of fermentation materials, 10 20 parts of coconut palm chaff, 5 10 parts of turf, 5 10 parts of vermiculite, 5 10 parts of perlite, carbon chaff or plant ash;In addition composite fertilizer and 0.1 0.3% synergist of gross weight 0.3 0.5% are added.The selection of the matrix production method including raw material and working process, the fermentation process of material, proportioning and mixing, mix fertilizer, measure adjustment physical and chemical index and quantitative package.The matrix of the present invention, nutrient content height, stable structure, have certain fiber, it is good into blanket effect, it is very suitable for cultivating rape blanket seedling, compared with bed soil nursery, seeding ratio can improve 10% or so, deposit within 7 days after emergence seedling rate and improve 15% or so, height of seedling regularity improve 15 20%, 10 disks be averaged rice shoot regularity difference reduction 15 20%.

Description

A kind of rape blanket special seedling substrate and preparation method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of rape seedling medium and production method, more particularly to a kind of special base of rape blanket nursery Matter and preparation method thereof, belongs to agricultural technology field.
Background technology
Rape is one of staple crops kind of China rural area winter planting.Traditional rape cultivation needs artificial breeding to move Plant, it is not only time-consuming, but also it is unfavorable for mechanized operation, it has also become restrict the bottleneck of China's Rape-seed production development.Yangzhou is big The rape blanket seedling machinery transplantation technique with Nanjing agricultural research institute of Ministry of Agriculture cooperative research and development is learned, oil is cultivated using plastics cave dish Dish blanket seedling, then quickly planted with rice transplanter, preferably solve artificial breeding transplanting labor intensity is big, efficiency is low etc. Problem, effectively alleviates the contradiction of the regional season anxiety of triple-cropping system, is one of China's rape production mechanization transplantation technique in recent years Important breakthrough;For relatively traditional artificial breeding transplanting, rape blanket seedling machine, which plants efficiency, can improve 100 times, and cost can reduce by three / bis-.
The plantation of rape is realized as rice, efficiently transplanting plantation can be carried out by rice transplanter, it is important to train Bring out blanket seedling that is good, being adapted to machinery transplanting, because the biological characteristics of rape and rice is widely different, its root structure It is entirely different.Rice is monocot crops, no main root but has thick and long numerous lateral roots, and well developed root system, easily tangles with soil Integrally, seedling piece is formed, and strip leaf is grown on rice shoot cane, density can be sowed greatly, thickness of sowing is big, unit area seedling Seedling easily forms seedling piece more;And rape is dicotyledonous crops, dish seedling main root is flourishing, but lateral root is carefully short, it is difficult to which formation can be with dislocation Seedling piece on to rice transplanter, is difficult to ensure that dish seedling quality when thickness of sowing is big.Therefore the rice transplanting formula transplanting of rape is realized, first The blanket seedling nursery problem of rape must be properly settled, however, good rape blanket seedling is cultivated, it is crucial that needing conjunction Suitable seedling medium(Soil)Do carrier.On January 20th, 2016,103819272 B of Chinese patent CN disclosed the cold lock of Yangzhou University A kind of " rape blanket seedling seedling bed earth and its preparation method " of the inventions such as tiger, and disclose in detail the bed soil be by standby soil, Sterilize, mix fertilizer and add plant fiber and etc. be made, be using soil as main carriers, add adequate nutrition without element, and add The plant fiber made of agricultural crop straw aids in Rape Seedling root system into blanket, can successful incubation go out rape blanket seedling.But in oil In the actual seedling raising process of dish blanket seedling, this rape seedling bed earth is big there are specific gravity of soil, and there are weight for the Brassica campestris L seedling piece of incubation Greatly, it is easily loose, it is difficult into blanket, the problems such as being not easy to transport;Secondly as the various regions soil texture is multifarious, the nutrient contained It is different, it is necessary to adaptation to local conditions, it is difficult to control;3rd, height is required to the length thickness of plant fiber, utilizes agricultural crop straw Plant fiber is produced, practical operation difficulty is big, and operating process is difficult to hold, and is less susceptible to large-scale standardized production.
Rape blanket nursery such as is carried out using common rice seedling raising ground substance, vegetable seedling substrate, due to nutrition, physics and chemistry Property and the requirement that physically can not meet Brassica campestris L seedling, it is difficult to for cultivating good rape blanket seedling.Therefore, in production Need a kind of quality light, stable structure, there is certain fiber, can be into blanket, and of low cost, the rape blanket that can be factory produced Shape special seedling substrate.
The content of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is in view of the deficiencies of the prior art with the nursery of rape blanket, the requirement of mechanization transplanting, there is provided A kind of technical side for replacing most of soil to make rape blanket special seedling substrate with mushroom slag, manioc waste, coconut palm chaff of fermentation etc. Case.
It is a further object to provide a kind of technical solution of rape blanket special seedling substrate production method.
The technical scheme is that be accomplished by the following way:
A kind of rape blanket special seedling substrate, including turf, vermiculite, perlite, it is characterised in that:Also wrapped in the matrix components Include the mushroom slag, biogas residue, manioc waste mixed fermentation material and the coconut palm chaff silk that are handled by fermentation maturity, carbon chaff or plant ash;The oil Dish blanket special seedling substrate in terms of parts by volume, consisting of:
Mushroom slag, biogas residue, 20-30 parts of manioc waste fermentation materials, 10-20 parts of coconut palm chaff silk, 5-10 parts of turf, 5-10 parts of vermiculite, pearl 3-5 parts of 5-10 parts of rock, carbon chaff or plant ash;In addition the composite fertilizer of gross weight 0.3-0.5% and the synergist of 0.1-0. 3% are added;
The matrix physical and chemical index is:Water content 35-45%, total porosity 65-75%, the content of organic matter >=25%, unit weight 0.3- 0.6g/cm3, total nutrient content 2.5-3.5%, EC value≤2.0mS/cm, pH 5.0-7.0, particle diameter≤5mm, wherein 2-4mm account for 50-60%;The matrix is appearance in sepia or the granular solids of dark brown, free from extraneous odour.
The mushroom slag is the mixing mushroom slag of needle mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii mushroom slag or needle mushroom and Pleurotus eryngii, water content 45-60%, PH is 5.5-7.5, EC values 2.5-3.5mS/cm;The biogas residue is that stalk, leaf organic matter produce the residue that is formed after biogas, is contained Water 50-65%, pH 5.0-6.5, EC value 2.5-3.5mS/cm;The manioc waste is the leftover bits and pieces after cassava materials extraction alcohol Material, pH 5.5-7.0, EC values 2-3.5mS/cm.
The coconut palm chaff silk is domestic or import desalination coconut palm chaff, the filamentous formed using wet expansion working process, EC values≤2.0mS/cm, water content 50-65%, diameter≤2mm, length≤5mm;The carbon chaff is left after combusting rice hull is carbonized The bran granule materials that are formed through broken, sieving of irregular material, particle diameter 0.5-2mm;The plant ash is agricultural crop straw And the ashes left after weeds, trees burning.
The composite fertilizer is 30-15-15 N P and K ternary compound fertilizer;The synergist is containing mineral calcium, magnesium, sulphur and micro- Secondary element boron, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, molybdenum, silicon, the 1000 times of aqueous solutions or Versailles nutrient solution of selenium.
The fermentation materials are that mushroom slag, biogas residue, manioc waste raw material, in proportion mixing are carried out decomposition reactor system fermentation process Afterwards, the organic materials formed by broken, dry, sieving.
The matrix components volume ratio is:Mushroom slag, biogas residue, 25 parts of manioc waste fermentation materials, 15 parts of coconut palm chaff silk, 7.5 parts of turf, 4 parts of 7.5 parts of vermiculite, 7.5 parts of perlite, carbon chaff or plant ash;In addition composite fertilizer and 0.2% synergy of gross weight 0.4% are added Agent.
The matrix physical and chemical index is:Water content 40%, total porosity 70%, the content of organic matter 30%, unit weight 0.45g/cm3, always Nutrient content 3.2%, EC values 1.5mS/cm, pH 6.3, particle diameter 2-4mm.
The total nutrient is N+P2O5+K2O。
A kind of production method of rape blanket special seedling substrate, its making step are as follows:
1)The selection of raw material and working process:Select desalination coconut palm chaff and mushroom slag, biogas residue, manioc waste industrial or agricultural solid waste conduct Body material, these material qualities are light, stable structure;Mushroom slag is the leftover bits and pieces of factory culture edible mushroom, cheap, complete State various regions are readily available;Coconut palm chaff silk fiber content is high, and length thickness is stablized relatively, can make up rape root amount deficiency, auxiliary It is good into blanket effect;Raw material processing step is:
1. mushroom slag, biogas residue, the manioc waste in raw material are broken into the particulate matter of particle diameter≤30mm;
2. turf is crushed, is dried, is screened to particle diameter≤30mm, water content 15-25%;
3. the granule materials for carbon chaff or plant ash being crushed, being screened into particle diameter≤20mm are spare;
4. coconut palm chaff is processed into coconut palm chaff silk, water content 50-65%, diameter≤5mm, length 50-300mm using wet expansion;
2)The fermentation process of material:Mushroom slag in raw material, biogas residue, manioc waste are pressed into 40-60:20-30:The formula rate of 20-30 After mixing, fermentation reactor system decomposed processing 30-50 days is carried out, and fermentation time is adjusted according to season and temperature;Treat that material is fully rotten After ripe, crushed, dried, sieving obtains fermentation materials;
3)Proportioning and mixing:By formula rate by step 2)Obtained fermentation materials and step 1)2.-the turf that 4. obtains, Carbon chaff or plant ash, coconut palm chaff silk and vermiculite, perlite uniformly mix, and form matrix semi-finished product;
4)Mix fertilizer:Per kilogram semi-finished product matrix is admixed the synergist of ternary compound fertilizer and 0.1-0. 3% by gross weight 0.3-0.5%;
5)Measure, adjustment physical and chemical index:Measure, adjustment matrix physical and chemical index, make water content, total porosity, the content of organic matter, Unit weight, total nutrient content, EC values and pH indexs meet the desired value of the requirement of claim 1 or 7;
6)Quantitative package:The rape blanket special seedling substrate made quantitatively is loaded into packaging bag, every bag of charge weight 40-50L, Packaging bag will have plastic foil liner, prevent from absorbing moisture content in storage and transportation process.
The fermentation maturity processing time is 40 days.
Beneficial effects of the present invention:
1st, the present invention is directed to the deficiency of rape bed soil nursery, high with fiber contents such as the mushroom slags, manioc waste and coconut palm chaff silk of fermentation Organic materials substitutes soil as rape nursery carrier for Material synthesis rape blanket special seedling substrate, and not only weight subtracts significantly Gently, and into blanket significant effect improve, be conducive to rice transplanter mechanization transplanting, solve the technology hardly possible that bed soil nursery is difficult into blanket Topic, it is big to overcome weight existing for bed soil nursery, easily loose, is not easy to transport, the defects of nursery effect is poor.
2nd, rape blanket special seedling substrate of the invention, nutrient content height, stable structure, have certain fiber, very Suitable rape seedling growth requires, and quality is light, good permeability, the small emergence hardly possible of rape seed is can effectively improve, with bed soil nursery Compare, seeding ratio can improve 10% or so, deposit within 7 days after emergence seedling rate and improve 15% or so, height of seedling regularity improves 15- 20%, 10 disks be averaged rice shoot regularity difference reduce 15-20%.Rape blanket seedling seedling piece weight in the case of identical moisture content subtracts Light 60-70%, seedling piece tensile strength improve 20-25%, carry, roll up it is all non-breakable.Transplanter seedling taking band soil amount can improve 20%, move Rice shoot is easier living after cultivation.
3rd, mushroom slag, manioc waste, coconut palm chaff silk are all industrial or agricultural organic wastes, and quantity is more, and purposes is few, are educated for producing rape Seedling matrix, it is possible to reduce environmental pollution, turns waste into wealth, and turns harm into good.
4th, the organic materials such as mushroom slag, manioc waste effectively inhibits various pest and disease damages after fermentation maturity, reduces Brassica campestris L seedling The generation of phase pest and disease damage, reduces Pesticide use, environmental protection, improves rapeseed quality.
Embodiment
With reference to specific embodiment, the present invention is furture elucidated, it should be understood that the embodiment be merely to illustrate the present invention and It is not used in and limits the scope of the invention, after the present invention has been read, various of equal value shapes of the those skilled in the art to the present invention The modification of formula falls within the application appended claims limited range.
Embodiment 1:
A kind of rape blanket special seedling substrate, by by the mushroom slag of fermentation maturity processing, biogas residue, manioc waste mixed fermentation material And coconut palm chaff silk, carbon chaff or plant ash turf, vermiculite, perlite composition, constituent of the matrix in terms of parts by volume are:Mushroom slag, Biogas residue, 25 parts of manioc waste fermentation materials, 15 parts of coconut palm chaff silk, 7.5 parts of turf, 7.5 parts of vermiculite, 7.5 parts of perlite, carbon chaff or vegetation 4 parts of ash;In addition composite fertilizer and 0.2% synergist of gross weight 0.4% are added;Wherein fermentation materials are by mushroom slag, biogas residue, cassava Slag raw material, after mixing carries out decomposition reactor system fermentation process in proportion, by crushing, dry, sieve the organic materials formed.
Wherein mushroom slag is needle mushroom slag, water content 55%, pH 6.5, EC value≤3.0mS/cm;Biogas residue is stalk, leaf Organic matter produces the residue formed after biogas, water content 55%, pH 6.0, EC value≤3.0mS/cm;Manioc waste is cassava materials Extract the leftover bits and pieces after alcohol, pH 6.0, EC value≤3.0mS/cm;Coconut palm chaff silk is domestic desalination coconut palm chaff, using wet expansion The filamentous that working process is formed, EC values≤2.0mS/cm, water content 50-65%, diameter≤2mm, length≤5mm;Carbon chaff is rice The bran granule materials that the irregular material left after shell burning carbonization is formed through broken, sieving, particle diameter 0.5-2mm;Plant ash For the ashes left after agricultural crop straw and weeds, trees burning.
Composite fertilizer is 30-15-15 N P and K ternary compound fertilizer;Synergist is containing mineral calcium, magnesium, sulphur and trace element Boron, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, molybdenum, silicon, 1000 times of aqueous solutions of selenium.
Finished substrate physical and chemical index is:Water content 40%, total porosity 70%, the content of organic matter 30%, unit weight 0.45g/cm3, N+P2O5+K2O total nutrient contents 3.2%, EC values 1.5mS/cm, pH 6.3, particle diameter 2-4mm;The matrix be appearance in sepia or The granular solids of dark brown, free from extraneous odour.
The production method of the rape blanket special seedling substrate, its making step are as follows:
1)The selection of raw material and working process:Select desalination coconut palm chaff and mushroom slag, biogas residue, manioc waste industrial or agricultural solid waste conduct Body material, these material qualities are light, stable structure;Mushroom slag is the leftover bits and pieces of factory culture edible mushroom, cheap, complete State various regions are readily available;Coconut palm chaff silk fiber content is high, and length thickness is stablized relatively, can make up rape root amount deficiency, auxiliary It is good into blanket effect;Raw material processing step is:
1. mushroom slag, biogas residue, the manioc waste in raw material are broken into the particulate matter of particle diameter≤30mm;
2. turf is crushed, is dried, is screened to particle diameter≤30mm, water content 15-25%;
3. the granule materials for carbon chaff or plant ash being crushed, being screened into particle diameter≤20mm are spare;
4. coconut palm chaff is processed into coconut palm chaff silk, water content 50-65%, diameter≤5mm, length 50-300mm using wet expansion;
2)The fermentation process of material:Mushroom slag in raw material, biogas residue, manioc waste are pressed 50:25:After 25 formula rate mixing, into The decomposed processing of row fermentation reactor system 40 days, and fermentation time is adjusted according to season and temperature;After material is fully decomposed, broken Broken, drying, sieving obtain fermentation materials;
3)Proportioning and mixing:By formula rate by step 2)Obtained fermentation materials and step 1)2.-the turf that 4. obtains, Carbon chaff or plant ash, coconut palm chaff silk and vermiculite, perlite uniformly mix, and form matrix semi-finished product;
4)Mix fertilizer:Per kilogram semi-finished product matrix admixes ternary compound fertilizer and 0.2% synergist by gross weight 0.4%;
5)Measure, adjustment physical and chemical index:Measure, adjustment matrix physical and chemical index, make water content, total porosity, the content of organic matter, Unit weight, total nutrient content, EC values and pH indexs meet the desired value of finished substrate requirement;
6)Quantitative package:The rape blanket special seedling substrate made quantitatively is loaded into packaging bag, every bag of charge weight 40-50L, Packaging bag will have plastic foil liner, prevent from absorbing moisture content in storage and transportation process.
Embodiment 2:
A kind of rape blanket special seedling substrate, by by the mushroom slag of fermentation maturity processing, biogas residue, manioc waste mixed fermentation material And coconut palm chaff silk, carbon chaff or plant ash turf, vermiculite, perlite composition, constituent of the matrix in terms of parts by volume are:Mushroom slag, 3 parts of 20 parts of biogas residue, manioc waste fermentation materials, 10 parts of coconut palm chaff silk, 5 parts of turf, 5 parts of vermiculite, 5 parts of perlite, carbon chaff or plant ash, In addition composite fertilizer and 0. 1% synergist of gross weight 0.3% are added, wherein composite fertilizer is 30-15-15 N P and K tri compounds Fertilizer;Synergist be containing mineral calcium, magnesium, sulphur and micronutrient boron, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, molybdenum, silicon, selenium 1000 times of aqueous solutions.
Wherein fermentation materials are that mushroom slag, biogas residue, manioc waste raw material, in proportion mixing are carried out decomposition reactor system fermentation process Afterwards, the organic materials formed by broken, dry, sieving;Wherein mushroom slag is Pleurotus eryngii mushroom slag, water content 45%, pH 5.5, EC Value 2.5mS/cm;Biogas residue is that stalk, leaf organic matter produce the residue that is formed after biogas, water content 50%, pH 5.0, EC values 2.5mS/cm;Manioc waste is that cassava materials extract the leftover bits and pieces after alcohol, pH 5.5, EC values 2.0mS/cm;Coconut palm chaff silk is import Desalination coconut palm chaff, using wet expansion working process formed filamentous, EC values≤2.0mS/cm, water content 50-65%, diameter ≤ 2mm, length≤5mm;Carbon chaff is the bran particle that the irregular material left after combusting rice hull is carbonized is formed through broken, sieving Material, particle diameter 0.5-2mm;The ashes that plant ash is agricultural crop straw and weeds, trees leave after burning.
Finished substrate physical and chemical index is:Water content 35%, total porosity 65%, the content of organic matter 25%, unit weight 0.3g/cm3, N +P2O5+K2O total nutrient contents 2.5%, EC values 1.5mS/cm, pH 5.0, particle diameter 0-5mm;The matrix be appearance in sepia or The granular solids of dark brown, free from extraneous odour.
A kind of production method of rape blanket special seedling substrate, its making step are as follows:
1)The selection of raw material and working process:Select desalination coconut palm chaff and mushroom slag, biogas residue, manioc waste industrial or agricultural solid waste conduct Body material, these material qualities are light, stable structure;Mushroom slag is the leftover bits and pieces of factory culture edible mushroom, cheap, complete State various regions are readily available;Coconut palm chaff silk fiber content is high, and length thickness is stablized relatively, can make up rape root amount deficiency, auxiliary It is good into blanket effect;Raw material processing step is:
1. mushroom slag, biogas residue, the manioc waste in raw material are broken into the particulate matter of particle diameter≤30mm;
2. turf is crushed, is dried, is screened to particle diameter≤30mm, water content 15-25%;
3. the granule materials for carbon chaff or plant ash being crushed, being screened into particle diameter≤20mm are spare;
4. coconut palm chaff is processed into coconut palm chaff silk, water content 50-65%, diameter≤5mm, length 50-300mm using wet expansion.
2)The fermentation process of material:Mushroom slag in raw material, biogas residue, manioc waste are pressed 60:20:20 formula rate mixing Afterwards, the decomposed processing of fermentation reactor system 30 days is carried out, and fermentation time is adjusted according to season and temperature;, will after material is fully decomposed Its broken, drying, sieving obtain fermentation materials;
3)Proportioning and mixing:By formula rate by step 2)Obtained fermentation materials and step 1)2.-the turf that 4. obtains, Carbon chaff or plant ash, coconut palm chaff silk and vermiculite, perlite uniformly mix, and form matrix semi-finished product;
4)Mix fertilizer:Per kilogram semi-finished product matrix admixes ternary compound fertilizer and 0.1% synergist by gross weight 0.3%;
5)Measure, adjustment physical and chemical index:Measure, adjustment matrix physical and chemical index, make water content, total porosity, the content of organic matter, Unit weight, total nutrient content, EC values and pH indexs meet the desired value of finished substrate requirement;
6)Quantitative package:The rape blanket special seedling substrate made quantitatively is loaded into packaging bag, every bag of charge weight 40L, bag Pack will have plastic foil liner, prevent from absorbing moisture content in storage and transportation process.
Embodiment 3:
A kind of rape blanket special seedling substrate, by by the mushroom slag of fermentation maturity processing, biogas residue, manioc waste mixed fermentation material And coconut palm chaff silk, carbon chaff or plant ash turf, vermiculite, perlite composition, constituent of the matrix in terms of parts by volume are:Mushroom slag, Biogas residue, 30 parts of manioc waste fermentation materials, 20 parts of coconut palm chaff silk, 10 parts of turf, 10 parts of vermiculite, 10 parts of perlite, carbon chaff or plant ash 5 Part;In addition the 30-15-15 N P and Ks ternary compound fertilizer and 0.3% Versailles nutrient solution synergist of gross weight 0.5% are added;Its Middle fermentation materials are by mushroom slag, biogas residue, manioc waste raw material, are mixed in proportion after carrying out decomposition reactor system fermentation process, by crushing, The organic materials that dry, sieving is formed.
Wherein mushroom slag is the mixing mushroom slag of needle mushroom and Pleurotus eryngii, water content 60%, pH 7.5, EC values 3.5mS/cm;Natural pond Slag is that stalk, leaf organic matter produce the residue that is formed after biogas, water content 65%, pH 6.5, EC value≤3.5mS/cm;Cassava Slag is that cassava materials extract the leftover bits and pieces after alcohol, pH 7.0, EC value≤3.5mS/cm;Coconut palm chaff silk is domestic or import Desalination coconut palm chaff, the filamentous formed using wet expansion working process, EC values≤2.0mS/cm, water content 50-65%, diameter≤ 2mm, length≤5mm;Carbon chaff is the bran particulate matter that the irregular material left after combusting rice hull is carbonized is formed through broken, sieving Material, particle diameter 0.5-2mm;The ashes that plant ash is agricultural crop straw and weeds, trees leave after burning.
Finished substrate physical and chemical index is:Water content 45%, total porosity 75%, the content of organic matter >=25%, unit weight 0.6g/ cm3, total nutrient content 3.5%, EC values≤2.0mS/cm, pH 7.0, particle diameter≤5mm, wherein 2-4mm account for 50-60%;The matrix It is appearance in sepia or the granular solids of dark brown, free from extraneous odour.
A kind of production method of rape blanket special seedling substrate, its making step are as follows:
1)The selection of raw material and working process:Select desalination coconut palm chaff and mushroom slag, biogas residue, manioc waste industrial or agricultural solid waste conduct Body material, these material qualities are light, stable structure;Mushroom slag is the leftover bits and pieces of factory culture edible mushroom, cheap, complete State various regions are readily available;Coconut palm chaff silk fiber content is high, and length thickness is stablized relatively, can make up rape root amount deficiency, auxiliary It is good into blanket effect;Raw material processing step is:
1. mushroom slag, biogas residue, the manioc waste in raw material are broken into the particulate matter of particle diameter≤30mm;
2. turf is crushed, is dried, is screened to particle diameter≤30mm, water content 15-25%;
3. the granule materials for carbon chaff or plant ash being crushed, being screened into particle diameter≤20mm are spare;
4. coconut palm chaff is processed into coconut palm chaff silk, water content 50-65%, diameter≤5mm, length 50-300mm using wet expansion;
2)The fermentation process of material:Mushroom slag in raw material, biogas residue, manioc waste are pressed 40:30:After 30 formula rate mixing, into The decomposed processing of row fermentation reactor system 50 days, and fermentation time is adjusted according to season and temperature;After material is fully decomposed, broken Broken, drying, sieving obtain fermentation materials;
3)Proportioning and mixing:By formula rate by step 2)Obtained fermentation materials and step 1)2.-the turf that 4. obtains, Carbon chaff or plant ash, coconut palm chaff silk and vermiculite, perlite uniformly mix, and form matrix semi-finished product;
4)Mix fertilizer:Per kilogram semi-finished product matrix admixes ternary compound fertilizer and 0. 3% Versailles nutrient solution by gross weight 0.5%;
5)Measure, adjustment physical and chemical index:Measure, adjustment matrix physical and chemical index, make water content, total porosity, the content of organic matter, Unit weight, total nutrient content, EC values and pH indexs meet the desired value of finished substrate requirement;
6)Quantitative package:The rape blanket special seedling substrate made quantitatively is loaded into packaging bag, every bag of charge weight 50L, bag Pack will have plastic foil liner, prevent from absorbing moisture content in storage and transportation process.
A kind of rape blanket special seedling substrate that the present embodiment makes, nutrient content height, stable structure, have certain fibre Dimension, is very suitable for cultivating rape blanket seedling, and quality is light, good permeability, the small emergence hardly possible of rape seed is can effectively improve, with bed soil Nursery is compared, and seeding ratio can improve 10% or so, is deposited within 7 days after emergence seedling rate and is improved 15% or so, height of seedling regularity improves 15-20%, 10 disks be averaged rice shoot regularity difference reduce 15-20%.Rape blanket seedling seedling piece weight in the case of identical moisture content Amount mitigate 60-70%, seedling piece tensile strength improve 20-25%, carry, roll up it is all non-breakable.Transplanter seedling taking band soil amount can improve 20%, rice shoot is easier to survive after rape transplanting.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of rape blanket special seedling substrate, including turf, vermiculite, perlite, it is characterised in that:In the matrix components also Including mushroom slag, biogas residue, manioc waste mixed fermentation material and the coconut palm chaff silk, carbon chaff or plant ash by fermentation maturity processing;It is described Rape blanket special seedling substrate in terms of parts by volume, consisting of:
Mushroom slag, biogas residue, 20-30 parts of manioc waste fermentation materials
10-20 parts of coconut palm chaff silk
5-10 parts of turf
5-10 parts of vermiculite
5-10 parts of perlite
3-5 parts of carbon chaff or plant ash
In addition the composite fertilizer of gross weight 0.3-0.5% and the synergist of 0.1-0. 3% are added;
The matrix physical and chemical index is:Water content 25-40%, total porosity 65-75%, the content of organic matter >=25%, unit weight 0.3- 0.6g/cm3, total nutrient content 2.5-3.5% ,≤2.0mS/cm, pH 5.0-7.0, particle diameter≤5mm, wherein 2-4mm account for 50- 60%;The matrix is appearance in sepia or the granular solids of dark brown, free from extraneous odour.
A kind of 2. rape blanket special seedling substrate according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The mushroom slag for needle mushroom, The mixing mushroom slag of Pleurotus eryngii mushroom slag or needle mushroom and Pleurotus eryngii, water content 45-60%, pH 5.5-7.5, EC value 2.5- 3.5mS/cm;The biogas residue is that stalk, leaf organic matter produce the residue that is formed after biogas, water content 50-65%, pH 5.0- 6.5, EC value 2.5-3.5mS/cm;The manioc waste is that cassava materials extract the leftover bits and pieces after alcohol, pH 5.5-7.0, EC values 2-3.5mS/cm。
A kind of 3. rape blanket special seedling substrate according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The coconut palm chaff silk to be domestic or The desalination coconut palm chaff of person's import, the filamentous formed using wet expansion working process, EC values≤2.0mS/cm, water content 50- 65%, diameter≤2mm, length≤5mm;The carbon chaff is the irregular material left after combusting rice hull is carbonized through broken, sieving shape Into bran granule materials, particle diameter 0.5-2mm;The ash that the plant ash is agricultural crop straw and weeds, trees leave after burning Cinder.
A kind of 4. rape blanket special seedling substrate according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The composite fertilizer is 30-15- 15 N P and K ternary compound fertilizer;The synergist be containing mineral calcium, magnesium, sulphur and micronutrient boron, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, molybdenum, The 1000 times of aqueous solutions or Versailles nutrient solution of silicon, selenium.
A kind of 5. rape blanket special seedling substrate according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The fermentation materials are by mushroom Slag, biogas residue, manioc waste raw material, after mixing carries out decomposition reactor system fermentation process in proportion, form by broken, dry, sieving Organic materials.
A kind of 6. rape blanket special seedling substrate according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The matrix components volume ratio For:Mushroom slag, biogas residue, 25 parts of manioc waste fermentation materials, 15 parts of coconut palm chaff silk, 7.5 parts of turf, 7.5 parts of vermiculite, 7.5 parts of perlite, carbon 4 parts of chaff or plant ash;In addition composite fertilizer and 0.2% synergist of gross weight 0.4% are added.
A kind of 7. rape blanket special seedling substrate according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The matrix physical and chemical index is: Water content 40%, total porosity 70%, the content of organic matter 30%, unit weight 0.45g/cm3, total nutrient content 3.2%, EC values 1.5mS/ Cm, pH 6.3, particle diameter 2-4mm.
8. according to a kind of rape blanket special seedling substrate of claim 1 or 7, it is characterised in that:The total nutrient is N+ P2O5+K2O。
A kind of 9. production method of rape blanket special seedling substrate described in claim 1, it is characterised in that:Making step is such as Under:
1)The selection of raw material and working process:Select desalination coconut palm chaff and mushroom slag, biogas residue, manioc waste industrial or agricultural solid waste conduct Body material, these material qualities are light, stable structure;Mushroom slag is the leftover bits and pieces of factory culture edible mushroom, cheap, complete State various regions are readily available;Coconut palm chaff silk fiber content is high, and length thickness is stablized relatively, can make up rape root amount deficiency, auxiliary It is good into blanket effect;Raw material processing step is:
1. mushroom slag, biogas residue, the manioc waste in raw material are broken into the particulate matter of particle diameter≤30mm;
2. turf is crushed, is dried, is screened to particle diameter≤30mm, water content 15-25%;
3. the granule materials for carbon chaff or plant ash being crushed, being screened into particle diameter≤20mm are spare;
4. coconut palm chaff is processed into coconut palm chaff silk, water content 50-65%, diameter≤5mm, length 50-300mm using wet expansion;
2)The fermentation process of material:Mushroom slag in raw material, biogas residue, manioc waste are pressed into 40-60:20-30:The formula rate of 20-30 After mixing, fermentation reactor system decomposed processing 30-50 days is carried out, and fermentation time is adjusted according to season and temperature;Treat that material is fully rotten After ripe, crushed, dried, sieving obtains fermentation materials;
3)Proportioning and mixing:By formula rate by step 2)Obtained fermentation materials and step 1)2.-the turf that 4. obtains, Carbon chaff or plant ash, coconut palm chaff silk and vermiculite, perlite uniformly mix, and form matrix semi-finished product;
4)Mix fertilizer:Per kilogram semi-finished product matrix is admixed the synergist of ternary compound fertilizer and 0.1-0. 3% by gross weight 0.3-0.5%;
5)Measure, adjustment physical and chemical index:Measure, adjustment matrix physical and chemical index, make water content, total porosity, the content of organic matter, Unit weight, total nutrient content, EC values and pH indexs meet the desired value of the requirement of claim 1 or 7;
6)Quantitative package:The rape blanket special seedling substrate made quantitatively is loaded into packaging bag, every bag of charge weight 40-50L, Packaging bag will have plastic foil liner, prevent from absorbing moisture content in storage and transportation process.
A kind of 10. production method of rape blanket special seedling substrate according to claim 9, it is characterised in that:The hair Ferment decomposed processing time is 40 days.
CN201711380662.6A 2017-12-20 2017-12-20 A kind of rape blanket special seedling substrate and preparation method thereof Pending CN108029508A (en)

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CN109169155A (en) * 2018-11-09 2019-01-11 山东商道生物科技股份有限公司 A kind of dedicated growing nursery and culture matrix of prevention and control Cruciferae clubroot and its manufacturing technology
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CN111149654A (en) * 2020-01-17 2020-05-15 山东农业大学 Culture medium taking cassava residues as raw materials and preparation method and application thereof
CN111149653A (en) * 2019-07-24 2020-05-15 广州市生升农业有限公司 Seedling raising substrate and processing method thereof
CN111357612A (en) * 2020-04-03 2020-07-03 安徽省农业科学院园艺研究所 Composite microbial matrix for watermelon planting and preparation method and application thereof
CN114230383A (en) * 2021-12-06 2022-03-25 山西博研生物科技有限公司 Formula of landscaping nutrient medium for soil improvement and preparation method thereof
CN115385734A (en) * 2022-09-05 2022-11-25 吉林省农业科学院 Black fungus bran functional matrix fertilizer and preparation method thereof
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CN108668838A (en) * 2018-06-29 2018-10-19 平凉锐博知识产权服务有限公司 A kind of seedling medium of enhancing rheum officinale seedling disease resistance
CN109169155A (en) * 2018-11-09 2019-01-11 山东商道生物科技股份有限公司 A kind of dedicated growing nursery and culture matrix of prevention and control Cruciferae clubroot and its manufacturing technology
CN111149653A (en) * 2019-07-24 2020-05-15 广州市生升农业有限公司 Seedling raising substrate and processing method thereof
CN110604034A (en) * 2019-08-19 2019-12-24 富蓝农业科技(江苏)有限公司 Wood fiber mixed matrix for planting colored calla and manufacturing method thereof
CN111149654A (en) * 2020-01-17 2020-05-15 山东农业大学 Culture medium taking cassava residues as raw materials and preparation method and application thereof
CN111357612A (en) * 2020-04-03 2020-07-03 安徽省农业科学院园艺研究所 Composite microbial matrix for watermelon planting and preparation method and application thereof
CN111357612B (en) * 2020-04-03 2022-04-12 安徽省农业科学院园艺研究所 Composite microbial matrix for watermelon planting and preparation method and application thereof
CN114230383A (en) * 2021-12-06 2022-03-25 山西博研生物科技有限公司 Formula of landscaping nutrient medium for soil improvement and preparation method thereof
CN115385734A (en) * 2022-09-05 2022-11-25 吉林省农业科学院 Black fungus bran functional matrix fertilizer and preparation method thereof
CN116508616A (en) * 2023-03-16 2023-08-01 中国农业科学院油料作物研究所 Mechanically transplanted rape strong seedling cultivation matrix and preparation method thereof

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