CN103694039B - The light cultivation matrix of Hubei Province, a kind of river Camellia fraternal breeding and container seedling culture method thereof - Google Patents

The light cultivation matrix of Hubei Province, a kind of river Camellia fraternal breeding and container seedling culture method thereof Download PDF

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CN103694039B
CN103694039B CN201310651797.7A CN201310651797A CN103694039B CN 103694039 B CN103694039 B CN 103694039B CN 201310651797 A CN201310651797 A CN 201310651797A CN 103694039 B CN103694039 B CN 103694039B
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cultivation matrix
breeding
fertilizer
river
hubei province
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CN103694039A (en
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许林
谢焰锋
戢小梅
陈法志
王湛昌
周媛
徐洪亮
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FORESTRY FRUIT TREE SCIENCE INST WUHAN CITY
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Abstract

The invention discloses light cultivation matrix and the container seedling culture method thereof of Hubei Province, a kind of river Camellia fraternal breeding.This light cultivation matrix comprises fermentation agricultural wastes, garden mould and perlite, and described agricultural wastes comprise stalk, deadwood and fallen leaves.Compared with traditional field seedling raising, the method has that plant growing way is healthy and strong, seedling speed fast, longer blooming period, saving liquid manure consumption, low cost and other advantages.When this law being applied to Nursery Stock cultivation, transplanting survival rate increases substantially, and improves the problem of the not resistance to transplanting of this breeding and accumulating, solves this breeding restriction bottleneck problem in actual applications.

Description

The light cultivation matrix of Hubei Province, a kind of river Camellia fraternal breeding and container seedling culture method thereof
Technical field
The invention belongs to field of plant growing technology, be specifically related to the Container nursery technique of Hubei Province, river Camellia fraternal, particularly relate to light cultivation matrix and the container seedling culture method thereof of Hubei Province, a kind of applicable river Camellia fraternal breeding growth.
Background technology
Hubei Province, river Camellia fraternal ' Tianshan Mountains snow ' ' Tianshan Mountains powder ' be I the breeding of autonomous seed selection, within 2009, have passed Hubei Province's high quality tree species authorization.This breeding has the features such as the four seasons are evergreen, plant type is attractive in appearance, flower is dense, tool delicate fragrance, strong resistance, resistance to half shade, resistance to pruning, it is rare aroma type tea flower variety resource, also be excellent Novel garden hedgerow, cover plant kind, in gardens, be applicable to being applied to sylvan life quilt, border growth, flower border, flower bed, color lump etc., application potential is huge.In actual production, this breeding mainly adopts cottage propagation, and rooting rate can reach more than 90%, and cuttage seeding is transplanted into land for growing field crops and carries out nursery stock cultivation after taking root, and 3-4 can go out garden and transplant.But easily injure root system when going out garden and transplanting, if the same day can not plant in time after digging, the problem that dehydration easily appears in plant, transplanting survival rate obviously reduces.This problem has become the main limiting factor that Hubei Province, river Camellia fraternal breeding is applied in afforestation.
Container nursery have plant root grow, be beneficial to cultivate high-quality strong sprout, do not hinder root system when transplanting, the advantage such as transplanting survival rate is high, convenient management, Economization on land, fund, become one of main seedling raising manners of modern flowers and treesmarket standardized production in recent years, being widely used in the whole world, is solve the not high direct effective means of Hubei Province, above-mentioned river Camellia fraternal breeding transplanting survival rate.
Peat is cultivation matrix conventional during flower plants and nursery stock is produced, but non-renewable due to peat, cause utilizing peat raise seedling cost high on the one hand, the overexploitation of mud and charcoal is also unfavorable for local environment protection on the other hand.Therefore, in order to reduce Hubei Province, river Camellia fraternal breeding container nursery cost and protection of the environment, be necessary to develop eco-friendly substrate.China is large agricultural country, there are a large amount of agricultural wastes such as stalk, fallen leaves, deadwood etc. to fail Appropriate application every year, if the container nursery cultivation matrix of Hubei Province, river Camellia fraternal can be applied to, not only turn waste into wealth, also reduce production cost simultaneously, improve the comprehensive utilization ratio of natural resources.In the research of camellia cultivation matrix, document " soilless culture Flower of Japanese Camellia " (golden father-in-law, China's flowers and trees bonsai,, 2000,7:27) in author use slag 30%, vermiculite 30%, fresh sawdust 40% is as the cultivation matrix of camellia, and wherein slag not easily obtains, and cultivation matrix during foster camellia is transplanted by comparatively applicable small-scale family.Document " selection of Flower of Japanese Camellia Artificial Potting Media and fertilizer application formula " (Gao Jiyin etc., forestry scientific research, 1991,4(3): 308-313) and document " camellia seedling soilless culture substrate formulating " (Zhai rose etc., Zhejiang Forestry College, 2008,25(6); 817-822) filter out vermiculite respectively: mud stone=2:1, vermiculite: river sand: peat=10:5:1 and perlite: peat=2:1 is the substrate formula that suitable camellia is planted.But wherein all employ peat as one of formula, therefore higher at cost, and be unfavorable for that peat home environment is protected.Patent documentation " a kind of Yunnan camellia soilless culture matrix " (application number 200910095041.2, Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture Horticultural Workstation) in have employed common cultivation matrix (the accurate matrix of floating plant nursery): bark: the substrate formula of perlite=55-65:30-40:5, wherein common cultivation matrix is that Dali produces, and other regions also not easily obtain at home; Bark resource-constrained, uses bark to be also unfavorable for ecological protection as matrix components simultaneously.Patent documentation " a kind of nutraceutical matrix for camellia batch production potted flower culture " (application number 201210427543.2, Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture Horticultural Workstation) in describe camellia cultivation matrix: weight ratio is perlite 20%-25%, volcanized rock 10%-15% active substance 3-5%, the fertile 5-7% of full nutrition slow-release, surplus is leaf-humidified soil.Wherein volcanized rock is a kind of nonmetal natural filtering material, and price is more expensive, is generally used for craft articles, views and admires the purposes such as fish jar goods of furniture for display rather than for use, be applied to improve production cost in plant cultivation media.
Summary of the invention
In view of the deficiencies in the prior art, the present invention adopts container seedling culture method, conduct a research from the liquid manure demand side of light cultivation substrate formula, nursery stock, finally obtain the light cultivation substrate formula of Hubei Province, a kind of applicable river Camellia fraternal breeding and simple and convenient management, with low cost and effectively improve the container seedling culture method of transplanting survival rate, effectively can improve that the growth of traditional field seedling raising is slow, transplanting survival rate is low, high in cost of production problem, thoroughly solves the limiting factor of this breeding in production application.
The object of this invention is to provide the light cultivation matrix of Hubei Province, a kind of applicable river Camellia fraternal breeding growth.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a kind of and the matching used container nursery cultivating method of Hubei Province, above-mentioned river Camellia fraternal breeding light cultivation matrix.
The object of the present invention is achieved like this:
A kind of Hubei Province, river Camellia fraternal breeding light cultivation matrix, described light cultivation matrix comprises fermentation agricultural wastes, garden mould and perlite, and described agricultural wastes comprise stalk, deadwood and fallen leaves.
Preferably, Hubei Province, river as above Camellia fraternal breeding light cultivation matrix, wherein said light cultivation matrix by the agricultural wastes that ferment, garden mould and perlite according to volume ratio 2:(0.8-1.2): the proportioning of (0.8-1.2) is mixed.In a most preferred embodiment of the present invention, described light cultivation matrix is mixed by the agricultural wastes that ferment, garden mould and the perlite proportioning according to volume ratio 2:1:1.
Further preferably, Hubei Province, river as above Camellia fraternal breeding light cultivation matrix, wherein said fermentation agricultural wastes are prepared from as follows: powder agricultural wastes being ground into maximum particle diameter 5mm, median size 1mm, fermenting agent is added by mass percentage for 1-3 ‰, again by mass percentage for 10-15% adds chicken manure, abundant stirring, mix rear watering to be stirred to water content and to reach 55-60%(v/v), mix rear heap and be in strip long buttress, fermentation is built 0.8-1.5 month, turning 1-2 time in fermenting process with plastic film; Wherein, described fermenting agent be by saccharomycopsis fibuligera (Saccharomycopsisfibuligera) ZJY2 and grey gamboge streptomycete (Streptomycesgriseoluteus) W1 in 1: 0.1-1 parts by weight ratio carry out compound and obtain.
It should be noted that, Hubei Province, above-mentioned river Camellia fraternal breeding light cultivation matrix prepared by the present invention, it needs to sterilize to the light cultivation matrix spray prepared according to after the dilution proportion of volume ratio 1:400 with 50% commercially available derosal before use, and fine day is placed after 3-4 days for subsequent use.In addition, fermenting agent of the present invention, saccharomycopsis fibuligera (Saccharomycopsisfibuligera) ZJY2 wherein and grey gamboge streptomycete (Streptomycesgriseoluteus) W1 is selected from Chinese invention patent CN1563352A(application number: 200410039818.0; Denomination of invention: the fermenting agent and preparation method thereof for agricultural wastes process) in the bacterial strain that adopts.
Hubei Province, the river Camellia fraternal breeding container seedling culture method adopting above-mentioned light cultivation matrix to carry out, the method comprises the steps:
(1) basin on lifting
Cuttage root-taking seedling trips out from seedbed by March, plant height is about 15cm, plant in commercially available diameter × height be in the disposable polyethylene polypots of 15cm × 15cm, method for planting is: first described light cultivation matrix is filled to 1/2 of vessel volume, put into seedling, continue dress light cultivation matrix, compacting, the light cultivation matrix after compacting should to 4/5 of vessel volume;
(2) water management
Neatly put by seedling after upper basin under the shading shed of 50% transmittance, pour water with water pipe to seedling root, soil is contacted with root closely, current are unsuitable excessive, in order to avoid go out seedling, water afterwards when basin soil surface drying;
(3) apply fertilizer
Annual fertilising 2 times after upper basin, the 4-5 month in spring executes slow-release fertilizer, and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium concn are 20:10:20, and the 10-11 month in autumn executes cake fertilizer.
Preferably, Hubei Province, river as above Camellia fraternal breeding container seedling culture method, the operation wherein executing slow-release fertilizer spring is as follows: spread fertilizer over the fields slow-release fertilizer at container soil surface, and every basin is about 3-5g, waters after fertilising.
Preferably, Hubei Province, river as above Camellia fraternal breeding container seedling culture method, wherein the operation of Fertilizer In Autumn cake fertilizer is as follows, every basin is executed cake fertilizer amount and is about 25g, and fertilizing method is that cake fertilizer and garden mould volume ratio 1:1 mix, in basin, then dig the dark hole of 10cm, pour the fertilizer prepared in hole earthing, water permeable.
Further preferably, Hubei Province, river as above Camellia fraternal breeding container seedling culture method, wherein said cake fertilizer is that rape cake fertilizer is or/and peanut cake fertilizer.
Hubei Province, river provided by the invention Camellia fraternal breeding light cultivation matrix and container seedling culture method are used for the Camellia fraternal breeding container nursery of Hubei Province, river, compared with traditional field seedling raising, substantially increase out transplanting survival rate during garden, and plant strain growth speed is fast, growing way is healthy and strong, longer blooming period, and Hua Jing increases, liquid manure consumption reduces, and has saved production cost.
Embodiment
Be below the specific embodiment that the present invention relates to, technical scheme of the present invention is done to describing further, but protection scope of the present invention be not limited to these embodiments.Every do not deviate from the present invention's design change or equivalent substituting include within protection scope of the present invention.
embodiment 1
1, the preparation of light cultivation matrix
Agricultural wastes (stalk, deadwood and fallen leaves) are ground into maximum particle diameter 5mm, the powder of median size 1mm, add the fermenting agent of 2 ‰ (mass percents), add 10%(mass percent again) chicken manure, abundant stirring, mixes rear watering and is stirred to water content and reaches 55-60%(v/v), mix rear heap and be in strip long buttress, fermentation is built 1 month, turning 2 times in fermenting process with plastic film.Agricultural wastes after fermentation and garden mould and perlite are mixed according to the proportioning of 2:1:1.Sterilize to the light cultivation matrix spray prepared according to after the dilution proportion of volume ratio 1:400 with 50% commercially available derosal, fine day is placed after 3-4 days for subsequent use.
The preparation of fermenting agent: saccharomycopsis fibuligera (Saccharomycopsisfibuligera) ZJY2 and grey gamboge streptomycete (Streptomycesgriseoluteus) W1 is carried out compound (complex method is see patent CN1563352A specification sheets 5-6 page) in the parts by weight ratio of 1:0.5, is the fermenting agent of the present invention's agricultural wastes used.Its bacterium number is more than 0.5 hundred million cfu/ grams, and water ratio is between 8 ~ 14%.
, container nursery and water and fertilizer management
According to the people such as Chen Fazhi (Chen Fazhi, Tong Jun, hide little Mei, Xu Lin, recklessly reach the clouds. Hubei Province, river Camellia fraternal introduction and acclimatization and breed research, hubei agricultural science, 2011,51(4): method 739-743) obtains the cuttage root-taking seedling of Hubei Province, river Camellia fraternal breeding, and cuttage root-taking seedling trips out from seedbed by March, plant height is about 15cm, plant in commercially available diameter × height be in the disposable polyethylene polypots of 15cm × 15cm.Method for planting is: first light cultivation matrix is filled to 1/2 of vessel volume, puts into seedling, continues dress soil, compacting, and the Nutrition Soil after compacting should, to 4/5 of container, will be noted protecting seedling during dress soil
Neatly put by seedling after upper basin under the shading shed of 50% transmittance, pour water with water pipe to seedling root, soil is contacted with root closely, current are unsuitable excessive, in order to avoid go out seedling.Water when basin soil surface drying afterwards.
Annual fertilising 2 times after upper basin, the 4-5 month in spring executes slow-release fertilizer, and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium ratio are 20:10:20, and the 10-11 month in autumn executes cake fertilizer, rape cake fertilizer, peanut cake fertilizer.
The operation executing slow-release fertilizer spring is as follows: spread fertilizer over the fields slow-release fertilizer at container soil surface, and every basin is about 3-5g, waters after fertilising.
The operation of Fertilizer In Autumn cake fertilizer is as follows, and every basin is executed cake fertilizer amount and is about 25g, and fertilizing method is that cake fertilizer and garden mould volume ratio 1:1 mix, and in basin, then digs the dark hole of 10cm, pour the fertilizer prepared in hole earthing, water permeable.
the contrast of embodiment 2 light cultivation matrix and peat growing medium
Adopt the container seedling culture method in the present invention, with peat: garden mould: perlite volume ratio is the matrix of 2:1:1 is control group (CK), fermentation agricultural wastes with prepared by embodiment 1: garden mould: perlite volume ratio is that the light cultivation matrix of 2:1:1 is for treatment group, cultivation Hubei Province, river Camellia fraternal breeding cuttage seeding, after 2 years, contrasts seedling growth, situation of blooming.Result shows, light cultivation matrix provided by the invention with plant height, be preced with width and flower measure all slightly high than the peat growing medium contrasted.Therefore, light cultivation matrix can replace peat growing medium to carry out container nursery.
what table 1 light cultivation matrix grew Hubei Province, river Camellia fraternal breeding with peat growing medium compares
Matrix 2 years raw seedling plant heights (cm) 2 years raw seedlings hat width (cm) Individual plant flower amount (piece)
Control group 30 24 43
Treatment group 32 26 46
the contrast of embodiment 3 container nursery and field seedling raising
Adopt the container seedling culture method in embodiment 1, (before transplanting, complete cultivation is carried out to land for growing field crops with traditional field seedling raising, execute decomposed manure 6000kg/hm 2, transplanted seedling tree density is 8000-10000 strain/hm 2) be contrast, within 2 years, raw Hubei Province, river Camellia fraternal breeding seedling early growth situation is in table 2.Result shows, container nursery is at plant height, hat width and spend on amount and transplanting survival rate apparently higher than field seedling raising.
table 2 container nursery and field seedling raising grow Hubei Province, river Camellia fraternal breeding and the comparing of transplanting survival rate
Method for culturing seedlings 2 years raw seedling plant heights (cm) 2 years raw seedlings hat width (cm) Individual plant flower amount (piece) Transplanting survival rate %
Field seedling raising (CK) 25 21 28 74
Container nursery 32 24 45 98
embodiment 4 container seedling culture method of the present invention affects the nursery of different varieties
Adopt the container seedling culture method in embodiment 1, in March, 2012 ' avenges ' 1 year handsome give birth to a cuttage seeding to Hubei Province, river Camellia fraternal breeding ' Tianshan Mountains powder ' and Yunnan Tea flower variety and carry out nursery simultaneous test in Forestry Fruit Tree Science Inst., Wuhan City.Result shows, adopt cultivation after 1 year, ' Tianshan Mountains powder ' all survives, robust growth; ' avenging handsome ' surviving rate is only 67%, illustrates that this method is applicable to Hubei Province, river Camellia fraternal, and not too applicable for the Camellia reticulata strain that heat-resisting winter hardiness is poor.

Claims (6)

1. Hubei Province, river Camellia fraternal breeding light cultivation matrix, it is characterized in that: described light cultivation matrix comprises fermentation agricultural wastes, garden mould and perlite, fermentation agricultural wastes, garden mould and perlitic volume ratio are 2:0.8-1.2:0.8-1.2, described agricultural wastes comprise stalk, deadwood and fallen leaves, described fermentation agricultural wastes are prepared from as follows: agricultural wastes are ground into maximum particle diameter 5mm, the powder of median size 1mm, fermenting agent is added by mass percentage for 1-3 ‰, again by mass percentage for 10-15% adds chicken manure, abundant stirring, mix rear watering and be stirred to the volume percent that water content reaches 55-60%, mix rear heap and be in strip long buttress, fermentation is built 0.8-1.5 month with plastic film, turning 1-2 time in fermenting process, wherein, described fermenting agent is by saccharomycopsis fibuligera (Saccharomycopsisfibuligera) ZJY 2with grey gamboge streptomycete (Streptomycesgriseoluteus) W1 in 1: 0.1-1 parts by weight ratio carry out compound and obtain.
2. Hubei Province, river according to claim 1 Camellia fraternal breeding light cultivation matrix, is characterized in that: described light cultivation matrix is mixed by the agricultural wastes that ferment, garden mould and the perlite proportioning according to volume ratio 2:1:1.
3. Hubei Province, the river Camellia fraternal breeding container seedling culture method adopting light cultivation matrix described in claim 1 to carry out, is characterized in that the method comprises the steps:
(1) basin on lifting
Cuttage root-taking seedling trips out from seedbed by March, plant height 15cm, plant in commercially available diameter × height be in the disposable polyethylene polypots of 15cm × 15cm, method for planting is: first described light cultivation matrix is filled to 1/2 of vessel volume, put into seedling, continue dress light cultivation matrix, compacting, the light cultivation matrix after compacting should to 4/5 of vessel volume;
(2) water management
Neatly put by seedling after upper basin under the shading shed of 50% transmittance, pour water with water pipe to seedling root, soil is contacted with root closely, current are unsuitable excessive, in order to avoid go out seedling, water afterwards when basin soil surface drying;
(3) apply fertilizer
Annual fertilising 2 times after upper basin, the 4-5 month in spring executes slow-release fertilizer, and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium concn are 20:10:20, and the 10-11 month in autumn executes cake fertilizer.
4. Hubei Province, river according to claim 3 Camellia fraternal breeding container seedling culture method, is characterized in that: the operation executing slow-release fertilizer spring is as follows: spread fertilizer over the fields slow-release fertilizer at container soil surface, and every basin 3-5g, waters after fertilising.
5. Hubei Province, river according to claim 3 Camellia fraternal breeding container seedling culture method, it is characterized in that: the operation of Fertilizer In Autumn cake fertilizer is as follows, cake fertilizer amount executed by every basin is 25g, fertilizing method is that cake fertilizer and garden mould volume ratio 1:1 mix, then in basin, dig the dark hole of 10cm, pour the fertilizer prepared in hole earthing, water permeable.
6. Hubei Province, river according to claim 5 Camellia fraternal breeding container seedling culture method, is characterized in that: described cake fertilizer is that rape cake fertilizer is or/and peanut cake fertilizer.
CN201310651797.7A 2013-12-09 2013-12-09 The light cultivation matrix of Hubei Province, a kind of river Camellia fraternal breeding and container seedling culture method thereof Active CN103694039B (en)

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