CN101176407A - Artificial cultivation technique for black fruit medlar in alkaline land - Google Patents

Artificial cultivation technique for black fruit medlar in alkaline land Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101176407A
CN101176407A CNA2007101007188A CN200710100718A CN101176407A CN 101176407 A CN101176407 A CN 101176407A CN A2007101007188 A CNA2007101007188 A CN A2007101007188A CN 200710100718 A CN200710100718 A CN 200710100718A CN 101176407 A CN101176407 A CN 101176407A
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black fruit
soil
fruit lyceum
saline
artificial cultivation
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冯立田
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冯立田
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Abstract

The invention relates to a manual cultivation technique using heavy saline land to cultivate lycium rughenicum murr, belonging to saline land agriculture, which comprises the following steps: seedling nursery in medium -> soil preparation -> transplantation -> irrigation -> field management (soil planning, weeding and other field management, top dressing, pest control) -> shaping and fixation of plant canopy -> management during flowering fruit bearing stage -> harvesting -> postharvest handling. The invention has the advantages that the crop production is achieved, coastal beach and saline-alkali wasteland are developed, and heavy saline land is adopted to produce the fruit with extremely high medicinal value and highly processed products.

Description

Artificial cultivation technique for black fruit medlar in alkaline land
The present invention relates to a kind of saline land agricultural, especially utilize the artificial cultivation technique of the black fruit lyceum of heavy saline cultivation.
Do not find similar culture technique by retrieval.Artificial cultivation technique for black fruit medlar in alkaline land has solved shortcomings such as wild black fruit lyceum seedling is uneven, maturation is inconsistent, yield poorly.
The present invention will provide a kind of black fruit lyceum output that makes significantly to improve, and make full use of the black fruit lyceum artificial cultivation technique of vast saline land of China and beach land resources.
Purpose of the present invention can reach by following measure: (1) substrate seedling; (2) select saline land, whole ground, basal dressing, preparation to transplant; (3) transplant; (4) irrigate; (5) field management (drawing soil, weeding, the conventional extermination of disease and insect pest etc.); (6) canopy orthopedic fixation is crawled and sagging (staking out or built) to prevent branch; (7) flowering fruit bearing stage management; (8) gather; (9) adopt post processing.
Purpose of the present invention can also reach by following measure: the soil of (1) cultivation black fruit lyceum comprises salinization of soil arable land, heavy saline, saline-alkali wasteland, coastal beach; (2) undertaken by " cold bed " wholely, in the mound planting that height rises, 1 meter of row spacing, the ridge is high 0.3 meter, and furrow width is advisable for 0.5 meter; (3) source of irrigation water adopts fresh water, saline groundwater, fresh water and sea water mixing water according to the water source, available once in a while seawater; (4) spacing in the rows after the field planting is suitable with 0.6 meter.
This saline land agricultural that relates to is especially utilized the artificial cultivation technique of the black fruit lyceum of heavy saline cultivation, and its special character is:
1. the present invention proposes the embodiment of saline land cultivation black fruit lyceum, filled up the blank of black fruit lyceum artificial cultivation technique, promoting China's saline land agricultural development significant.The popularization of present technique will produce positive impact to the saline and alkaline regional agriculture, rural areas and farmers of China, the local rural economic development of favourable promotion.
2. the black fruit lyceum artificial cultivation can make full use of saline-alkali wasteland, heavy saline, secondary salinization arable land, coastal beach resource, expands arable area.Simultaneously, black fruit lyceum can utilize saline groundwater, even the seawater pouring, can save freshwater resources.
3. beach establishing in large scale black fruit lyceum can prevent erosion, and fixes the sand windproofly, and absorbing carbon dioxide alleviates greenhouse effect, improves the ecological environment, and keeps the ecological balance.
4. the present invention's " canopy orthopedic fixation technology " of proposing is to adopt staking out or built method to prevent that branch from crawling and sagging,, thus black fruit lyceum output improved greatly, and solved the problem of difficult of gathering.
5. the black fruit lyceum of artificial planting of the present invention is health food and the raw material with important medical value, also is used for saline-alkali wasteland greening, bank protection.
Black fruit lyceum artificial cultivation step is as follows:
1. substrate seedling
Because the black fruit lyceum seed is little, growth of seedling is slow, the method for the therefore suitable back transplant planting of growing seedlings earlier.The matrix that substrate seedling is used can be that sand, vegetable garden soil or sandy soil mix.At first matrix is sneaked into certain chemical fertilizer or dried organic manure according to routine, irrigate with fresh water.Seed is broadcasted sowing sand or sandy soil after the back covers about 0.5-1 centimetre on the surface.Later routine is poured water, Routine Management.Sowing time is at the beginning of 4 months by the end of March.
2. wholely
The soil of cultivation black fruit lyceum comprises secondary salinization of soil arable land, heavy saline, saline-alkali wasteland, coastal beach etc.At first deep ploughing is loosened the soil.If wasteland for many years, be suitable in winter of airing just wholely winter last year.
Use base manure.Base manure can be sprinkled into phosphate fertilizer (calcic) simultaneously with good barnyard manure (every mu of 1-2 ton) or the commercially available organic manure (every mu of 200-600 kilogram) of becoming thoroughly decomposed.
Undertaken by " cold bed " wholely, in the mound planting that height rises, 1 meter of row spacing, the ridge is high 0.3 meter, and furrow width is advisable for 0.5 meter.
3. transplant
When treating that seedling grows to 10-15 centimetre high, can prepare to transplant.Transplant certain seedling of selecting robust growth, unanimity.
Carry out the cave according to 0.6 centimetre of spacing in the rows and plant, every cave can plant 2-3, and in order to thinning, roguing, it is excellent to deposit.Play circular earth bank with fortifield village after the field planting around root, about 0.4 meter of earth bank diameter is irritated root with fresh water in earth bank, certain filling thoroughly.
4. irrigate
Transplanting in 10 days, the most handy fresh water of irrigation water is in order to better slow seedling.Available afterwards fresh water, saline groundwater, fresh water and sea water mixing water, available once in a while seawater waters.According to the water source situation, except hole irrigation, also can consider to use the flood irrigation method, diversion from ditch, the water flood irrigation is to the ridge.
Irrigation frequency will be suited measures to local conditions.Black fruit lyceum is more drought-enduring, and it is unsuitable too many therefore to water number of times.In time carry out row irrigation according to local condition, prevention waterlogging.
5. field management
Field management comprise draw a soil, weeding etc., topdress, the extermination of disease and insect pest etc., carry out according to routine.
(1) because harden easily in the surface, saline land, therefore drawing native number of times than traditional crop suitably increases, ventilative in order to root.
(2) according to the soil situation, in time carry out intertill and clean tillage, prevent weed growth, strive fertile and the insect pest that spreads disease with plant.
(3) topdress.Topdress and adopt the method for spreading manuer in holes.Generally topdress the vegetative period before the florescence 2 to 3 times with short seedling, attack bar, fertilizer is aided with P, K composite fertilizer based on nitrogenous fertilizer.
(4) extermination of disease and insect pest.The disease of black fruit lyceum mainly contains two kinds of black fruit and root rot, mostly occurs in rainy season.Can spray the anti-smelting of bordeaux mixture (1: 1: 200) or 1000 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim at the initial stage of a disease.The root rot their early stage can be prevented and treated with 1000 to 1500 times of liquid irrigating roots of carbendazim of 50%.Along with root rot outbreak, the blackening of diseased plant basal part of stem is rotted, branches and leaves jaundice on the ground, and last complete stool death finds that diseased plant should pull out immediately, and with the pcnb sterilization diseased plant surrounding soil of lime or 70%.The insect pest of black fruit lyceum is more rare, but as conventional control takes place.
6. canopy orthopedic fixation.
The canopy orthopedic fixation is one of key measure of black fruit lyceum high yield.Because the black fruit lyceum branch is crawled easily and is sagging, in time carry out pruning, canopy orthopedic fixation.Generally carry out the autumn in 1 year in plantation.
(1) adopts " staking out " method, near every strain plant root, bury concrete stake or timber, bamboo pole exactly underground, about diameter 5-10 centimetre, highly about 1.7 meters, utilize the thin nylon marline etc. of corrosion resistant that the plant branch is highly gone in ring for 0.5 meter from plant then and upwards be fixed in the staking out, branch is in ring.According to plant height timely adjustment height, be beneficial to upwards growth of branch, branch and horizon angle are not less than miter angle and are advisable.
(2) adopt " built " way, bury herringbone underground exactly near every strain plant root, material can be selected the bamboo pole of 2 centimetres of left and right sides diameters for use, and the support infall is more than plant 50-100 cm height, according to the plant height timely adjustment.Utilize the thin nylon marline of corrosion resistant that branch is fixed on the support, branch and horizon angle are not less than miter angle and are advisable.
7. flowering fruit bearing stage management
The black fruit lyceum happiness is fertile, and flowering fruit bearing stage is longer, should note fertilising.The flowering fruit bearing stage fertilizer N fertilizer before the florescence gradually is main, changes into based on phosphorus, potassium, is aided with nitrogenous fertilizer.Impose trace element fertilizer 2-3 time simultaneously.
8. gather
To in time gather behind the black fruit lyceum fruit maturation, at present mainly manually to gather.The personnel of gathering will properly protect, and wear oversleeve and gloves and carry out.
9. adopt post processing
Will be after gathering according to black fruit lyceum utilize situation to perform immediately to adopt post processing.If as medicinal material, dry immediately or dry, if as squeezing the juice raw material, should do fresh-keeping immediately and the refrigeration processing.
The present invention does further detailed description below in conjunction with example:
Black fruit lyceum (Lycium ruthenicum) belongs to the Solanaceae Lycium, shrub, and the berry sphere, black purple when ripe, juice is purple, florescence 4-5, the fruit phase 7-10 month.Generally 1 year after cultivation promptly begins to bloom.The characteristic feature of black fruit lyceum is the height salt tolerant, belongs to halophytes.
Black fruit lyceum has very high medical value, and Tibetan medicine claims " other agate ", and its flavor is sweet, property flat, and the heat that clears away heart-fire is used for the treatment of illnesss such as cardiopyretic disease, cardiopathy, irregular menstruation, menelipsis.
Black fruit lyceum contains various nutrient components such as protein, fat, carbohydrate, free amino acid, organic acid, mineral matter, trace element, vitamin C, B1, B2.Ascorbic content is abundanter in the black fruit lyceum pulp, can be used for replenishing the deficiency of body vitamin C.Detect 17 seed amino acids in the black fruit lyceum fruit, wherein 8 seed amino acids of needed by human have, and from content, the content of paddy nitronic acid, the amino acid of asparagus, arginine, leucine, alanine, phenyl alanine and glycine is higher.The amino acid majority is free state, and free amino acid accounts for 50% of total amino acid content, helps human body and directly absorbs.Contain abundant trace element in the black fruit lyceum,, can be used for cancer preventing and treating because trace element has direct or indirect effect to synthetic, the immunity of organism of the activity of plurality of enzymes and nucleic acid, protein and cell proliferation etc.
The fruit pigment content height of black fruit lyceum, juice color is bright-coloured, good stability under different pH values, different heating time, condition of different temperatures, strong coloring force, aboundresources, processing technology are simple, be suitable for being used as medicine, food custom is arranged again, be the desirable edible natural anthocyanin of domestic urgent need, can replace the azopigment of synthetic, be widely used in medicine and the food.
On the basis that black fruit lyceum biological property, nutritive value are studied comprehensively, the inventor has invented artificial cultivation technique for black fruit medlar in alkaline land.Utilize this technology artificial cultivation black fruit lyceum, when obtaining economic benefit, solved saline land, beach ground development and use problem.Artificial cultivation technique for black fruit medlar in alkaline land this plant species that is through with does not have tame history, for the development and use of black fruit lyceum resource are laid a good foundation, find a very promising direction for the saline land development and use simultaneously, will promote saline and alkaline regional agricultural development effectively.

Claims (6)

1. one kind relates to the saline land agricultural, especially utilizes the artificial cultivation technique of heavy saline cultivation black fruit lyceum, it is characterized in that:
(1) substrate seedling, matrix can be that sand, vegetable garden soil or sandy soil mix.Cover the sand or the sandy soil of about 0.5-1 cm thick behind the seed broadcasting.Routine is poured water, Routine Management.
(2) soil of cultivation black fruit lyceum comprises secondary salinization of soil arable land, heavy saline, saline-alkali wasteland, coastal beach etc.At first deep ploughing is loosened the soil, and uses base manure.Base manure can be removed into phosphate fertilizer (calcic) simultaneously with barnyard manure or the commercially available organic manure of becoming thoroughly decomposed.Undertaken by " cold bed " wholely.
When (3) treating that seedling grows to 10-15 centimetre high, can prepare to transplant.
(4) irrigate available fresh water, saline groundwater, fresh water and sea water mixing water, available once in a while seawater waters.According to the water source situation, except hole irrigation, also can consider to use the flood irrigation method.
(5) field management comprise draw a soil, weeding etc., topdress, the extermination of disease and insect pest etc., carry out according to routine.
(6) one of key technology of canopy orthopedic fixation black fruit lyceum high yield.
(7) flowering fruit bearing stage is longer, should note fertilising.
(8) fruit is carried out and is manually gathered.
(9) carry out after gathering and adopt post processing, dry, dry or do fresh-keeping, refrigeration immediately and handle.
The artificial cultivation technique of black fruit lyceum according to claim 1 is characterized in that: grow seedlings earlier and afterwards transplant.Sowing time is at the beginning of by the end of March to 4 months.
2. the artificial cultivation technique of black fruit lyceum according to claim 1 is characterized in that: undertaken by " cold bed " wholely, and in the mound planting that height rises, 1 meter of row spacing, the ridge is high 0.3 meter, and furrow width is advisable for 0.5 meter.
3. the artificial cultivation technique of black fruit lyceum according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the seedling replanting of necessarily selecting robust growth, unanimity.Carry out the cave according to 0.6 meter of spacing in the rows and plant, every cave can plant 2-3, in order to thinning.Around root, play circular earth bank with fortifield village, about 0.4 meter of diameter after the field planting.Irrigate with fresh water in 10 days after the transplanting, in order to better slow seedling.
4. the artificial cultivation technique of black fruit lyceum according to claim 1 is characterized in that: owing to harden easily in the surface, saline land, drawing native number of times than traditional crop suitably increases, ventilative in order to root.Topdress and adopt the method for spreading manuer in holes.Vegetative period fertilizer based on nitrogenous fertilizer, be aided with phosphorus, potash fertilizer.
5. the artificial cultivation technique of black fruit lyceum according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the canopy orthopedic fixation is generally carried out in plantation the autumn in 1 year, " staking out " method of employing and " built " way, branch and horizon angle are not less than miter angle and are advisable.
6. the artificial cultivation technique of black fruit lyceum according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: flowering fruit bearing stage is longer, should note fertilising, and fertilizer is aided with nitrogenous fertilizer based on phosphorus, potash fertilizer.Impose trace element fertilizer 2-3 time simultaneously.
CNA2007101007188A 2007-04-14 2007-04-14 Artificial cultivation technique for black fruit medlar in alkaline land Pending CN101176407A (en)

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Cited By (27)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101836571A (en) * 2010-03-25 2010-09-22 甘肃农业大学 Method for planting medlar in high-altitude saline-alkali soil
CN101507403B (en) * 2009-04-03 2011-01-05 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 Saline-land salt-water drip-irrigation medlar cultivation method
CN102057848A (en) * 2010-10-14 2011-05-18 宁夏农林科学院 Cultivation method for realizing high yield of male sterile Chinese wolfberry and application
CN102150593A (en) * 2011-03-29 2011-08-17 天津市农业生物技术研究中心 Method for planting hedgerow on saline-alkali soil by using halophyte medlar
CN102369867A (en) * 2010-08-24 2012-03-14 甘肃农业大学 Water-saving cultivation method of Chinese wolfberry
CN102511258A (en) * 2011-11-18 2012-06-27 高万功 Container seedling-raising method for greenhouse of Chinese wolfberry
CN102599033A (en) * 2012-03-30 2012-07-25 宁夏农林科学院 Water-saving salinity-controlled mulching cultivation method for Chinese wolfberry in saline and alkaline land
CN102972252A (en) * 2012-12-18 2013-03-20 镇江高冠食品有限公司 Cultivation method for increasing picking quantity of matrimony vine
CN103999722A (en) * 2014-05-08 2014-08-27 中宁县沃杞农业科技有限公司 Mushroom-shaped wolfberry tree and pruning method thereof
CN104351001A (en) * 2014-11-14 2015-02-18 甘肃农业大学 Lycium ruthenicum container nursery method
CN104686138A (en) * 2015-02-10 2015-06-10 宁夏农林科学院 Pot-planting method for Ningxia wolfberry
CN104686275A (en) * 2015-03-30 2015-06-10 四川禾木本业农林科技有限公司 Method for increasing yield of lycium ruthenicum
CN104855225A (en) * 2015-06-02 2015-08-26 中国科学院武汉植物园 Field production method of ningxia wolfberries in central China
CN105165357A (en) * 2015-09-28 2015-12-23 曾小虎 Planting method for high-altitude saline-alkali soil black medlar tree
CN105340544A (en) * 2015-11-20 2016-02-24 西北师范大学 LyciumruthenicumMurr introduction domestication seedling growing method
CN105432302A (en) * 2015-12-04 2016-03-30 新疆林科院经济林研究所 Lycium ruthenicum Murr. #1 snow-sowing seedling method
CN106305274A (en) * 2016-08-20 2017-01-11 阿拉善盟林木种苗站 Shoot cutting method for lyciumruthenicum murayr
CN106489482A (en) * 2016-10-18 2017-03-15 内蒙古自治区林业科学研究院 The efficient seeding growing seedlings method of Desert Area black fruit lyceum
CN106550790A (en) * 2016-10-30 2017-04-05 贵州省蕙安农业科技发展有限公司 A kind of portable forming devices for matrimony vine plantation
CN106818432A (en) * 2016-11-23 2017-06-13 江苏沿海地区农业科学研究所 A kind of method of utilization matrix culture and improvement matrimony vine seedling salt tolerance
CN107125080A (en) * 2017-04-16 2017-09-05 陈星瑞 The cultural method of black fruit fructus lycii
CN107125079A (en) * 2017-04-16 2017-09-05 陈星瑞 The artificial method for planting of black fruit fructus lycii
CN107135869A (en) * 2017-04-16 2017-09-08 陈星瑞 Improve the cultural method of black fruit fructus lycii yield
CN107182472A (en) * 2017-04-16 2017-09-22 陈星瑞 The method that black fruit fructus lycii is cultivated in salt-soda soil
CN107698385A (en) * 2017-09-12 2018-02-16 南京百世维康信息科技有限公司 A kind of organic culture substrate and its transformation salt-soda soil, the method for planting black fruit fructus lycii
CN109168382A (en) * 2018-11-06 2019-01-11 江苏省农业科学院 A kind of coastal area is checked winds and fixed drifting sand salt reduction method
CN111226672A (en) * 2020-01-17 2020-06-05 武威市林业科学研究院 Lycium ruthenicum seedling culture and afforestation method

Cited By (34)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101507403B (en) * 2009-04-03 2011-01-05 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 Saline-land salt-water drip-irrigation medlar cultivation method
CN101836571A (en) * 2010-03-25 2010-09-22 甘肃农业大学 Method for planting medlar in high-altitude saline-alkali soil
CN102369867A (en) * 2010-08-24 2012-03-14 甘肃农业大学 Water-saving cultivation method of Chinese wolfberry
CN102057848A (en) * 2010-10-14 2011-05-18 宁夏农林科学院 Cultivation method for realizing high yield of male sterile Chinese wolfberry and application
CN102150593A (en) * 2011-03-29 2011-08-17 天津市农业生物技术研究中心 Method for planting hedgerow on saline-alkali soil by using halophyte medlar
CN102511258A (en) * 2011-11-18 2012-06-27 高万功 Container seedling-raising method for greenhouse of Chinese wolfberry
CN102599033B (en) * 2012-03-30 2013-05-22 宁夏农林科学院 Water-saving salinity-controlled mulching cultivation method for Chinese wolfberry in saline and alkaline land
CN102599033A (en) * 2012-03-30 2012-07-25 宁夏农林科学院 Water-saving salinity-controlled mulching cultivation method for Chinese wolfberry in saline and alkaline land
CN102972252A (en) * 2012-12-18 2013-03-20 镇江高冠食品有限公司 Cultivation method for increasing picking quantity of matrimony vine
CN103999722A (en) * 2014-05-08 2014-08-27 中宁县沃杞农业科技有限公司 Mushroom-shaped wolfberry tree and pruning method thereof
CN103999722B (en) * 2014-05-08 2016-03-02 中宁县沃杞农业科技有限公司 A kind of mushroom-shaped matrimony vine tree and shaping and trimming method thereof
CN104351001A (en) * 2014-11-14 2015-02-18 甘肃农业大学 Lycium ruthenicum container nursery method
CN104351001B (en) * 2014-11-14 2017-02-22 甘肃农业大学 Lycium ruthenicum container nursery method
CN104686138A (en) * 2015-02-10 2015-06-10 宁夏农林科学院 Pot-planting method for Ningxia wolfberry
CN104686275A (en) * 2015-03-30 2015-06-10 四川禾木本业农林科技有限公司 Method for increasing yield of lycium ruthenicum
CN104855225B (en) * 2015-06-02 2017-05-31 中国科学院武汉植物园 Field production method of the lycium barbarum in Central China
CN104855225A (en) * 2015-06-02 2015-08-26 中国科学院武汉植物园 Field production method of ningxia wolfberries in central China
CN105165357A (en) * 2015-09-28 2015-12-23 曾小虎 Planting method for high-altitude saline-alkali soil black medlar tree
CN105340544A (en) * 2015-11-20 2016-02-24 西北师范大学 LyciumruthenicumMurr introduction domestication seedling growing method
CN105340544B (en) * 2015-11-20 2019-03-29 西北师范大学 A kind of introduction and acclimatization method for culturing seedlings of wild lycium ruthenicum
CN105432302B (en) * 2015-12-04 2018-03-23 新疆林科院经济林研究所 A kind of method that black Qi No.1 snow broadcasts nursery
CN105432302A (en) * 2015-12-04 2016-03-30 新疆林科院经济林研究所 Lycium ruthenicum Murr. #1 snow-sowing seedling method
CN106305274A (en) * 2016-08-20 2017-01-11 阿拉善盟林木种苗站 Shoot cutting method for lyciumruthenicum murayr
CN106489482A (en) * 2016-10-18 2017-03-15 内蒙古自治区林业科学研究院 The efficient seeding growing seedlings method of Desert Area black fruit lyceum
CN106550790A (en) * 2016-10-30 2017-04-05 贵州省蕙安农业科技发展有限公司 A kind of portable forming devices for matrimony vine plantation
CN106818432A (en) * 2016-11-23 2017-06-13 江苏沿海地区农业科学研究所 A kind of method of utilization matrix culture and improvement matrimony vine seedling salt tolerance
CN107125080A (en) * 2017-04-16 2017-09-05 陈星瑞 The cultural method of black fruit fructus lycii
CN107135869A (en) * 2017-04-16 2017-09-08 陈星瑞 Improve the cultural method of black fruit fructus lycii yield
CN107182472A (en) * 2017-04-16 2017-09-22 陈星瑞 The method that black fruit fructus lycii is cultivated in salt-soda soil
CN107125079A (en) * 2017-04-16 2017-09-05 陈星瑞 The artificial method for planting of black fruit fructus lycii
CN107698385A (en) * 2017-09-12 2018-02-16 南京百世维康信息科技有限公司 A kind of organic culture substrate and its transformation salt-soda soil, the method for planting black fruit fructus lycii
CN109168382A (en) * 2018-11-06 2019-01-11 江苏省农业科学院 A kind of coastal area is checked winds and fixed drifting sand salt reduction method
CN111226672A (en) * 2020-01-17 2020-06-05 武威市林业科学研究院 Lycium ruthenicum seedling culture and afforestation method
CN111226672B (en) * 2020-01-17 2021-07-30 武威市林业科学研究院 Lycium ruthenicum seedling culture and afforestation method

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