CN104381109B - Greenhouse vegetable soil-free cultivation technology - Google Patents

Greenhouse vegetable soil-free cultivation technology Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104381109B
CN104381109B CN201410686243.5A CN201410686243A CN104381109B CN 104381109 B CN104381109 B CN 104381109B CN 201410686243 A CN201410686243 A CN 201410686243A CN 104381109 B CN104381109 B CN 104381109B
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greenhouse
parts
fermentation
substrate
planting
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CN104381109A (en
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郭诗谦
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Shandong Hailan Agricultural Technology Co.,Ltd.
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XIANGTAN YILVYUAN VEGETABLE PRODUCTION AND MARKETING PROFESSION COOPERATIVES
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/02Receptacles, e.g. flower-pots or boxes; Glasses for cultivating flowers
    • A01G9/021Pots formed in one piece; Materials used therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/02Receptacles, e.g. flower-pots or boxes; Glasses for cultivating flowers
    • A01G9/029Receptacles for seedlings
    • A01G9/0293Seed or shoot receptacles
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/14Greenhouses
    • A01G9/1438Covering materials therefor; Materials for protective coverings used for soil and plants, e.g. films, canopies, tunnels or cloches
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/22Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing plant material
    • A01G24/23Wood, e.g. wood chips or sawdust

Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of agricultural cultivation, and particularly relates to an off-soil cultivation technology for greenhouse vegetables. Comprises the steps of greenhouse reconstruction, substrate culture and soilless culture; the greenhouse reconstruction is to reconstruct a single vegetable greenhouse into a conjoined vegetable greenhouse and combine the original single production cells into a large production region; the substrate culture method comprises the steps of mixing livestock and poultry manure, adding microbial strains, fermenting, decomposing, sieving, grading the particle size, and uniformly mixing with slag and gravel to obtain a substrate culture medium; the soilless culture process comprises the steps of covering the ground of a greenhouse with a PE film, planting bags with the PE film, spraying water in the planting process, keeping the relative humidity of a matrix to be 15-30%, and spraying nutrient solution on leaf surfaces.

Description

Greenhouse vegetable soil-free cultivation technology
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of agricultural cultivation, and particularly relates to an off-soil cultivation technology for greenhouse vegetables.
Background
In the process of cultivating the vegetables in the greenhouse, the vegetable production space is covered by the plastic film, so that a proper ecological environment can be artificially created, the vegetable production season is adjusted, the vegetables are cultivated according to market requirements, the high quality and the high yield of the vegetables are promoted, the requirements of consumers are met, and the income of farmers is increased. Because the fixed space is closed and the space is limited in the greenhouse vegetable cultivation process, the automation and mechanization degree in the vegetable planting process is greatly reduced.
The soil-free cultivation refers to a cultivation method of cultivating crops without using natural soil, adopting an organic substrate and irrigating with a nutrient solution. The method is mainly applied to cultivation of fruits, vegetables or flowers, and is a high-yield high-quality advanced technology which saves water, fertilizer and labor. The substrate cultivation is a mode with the largest popularization area in the soilless cultivation. The root system of the crop is fixed in an organic or inorganic matrix and is supplied with the crop nutrient solution by a drip irrigation or trickle irrigation method. At present, most countries in the world adopt gravel, sand, peat (grass), vermiculite, perlite, rock wool, sawdust and the like as fixing substrates.
Along with the continuous expansion of cities, the building land area is continuously increased, the land area capable of being cultivated is less and less, and the land resources are deficient, so that the development of the soil-free cultivation technology which does not depend on the land resources has important significance for solving the problem of land shortage. The existing soilless culture technology has the disadvantages of complex operation process, scattered planting, large difficulty in centralized industrial management, single livestock and poultry manure fermentation, single product and low organic matter content.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the technical problems, the invention aims to provide a greenhouse vegetable soil-free cultivation technology capable of realizing centralized industrial management, which has the advantages of simple operation, low substrate cost, good effect and high organic matter content, and can effectively ensure the nutrition required by the growth of vegetables. The invention is realized by the following technical scheme:
comprises the steps of greenhouse reconstruction, substrate culture and soilless culture; the greenhouse reconstruction is to reconstruct a single vegetable greenhouse into a conjoined vegetable greenhouse and combine a single production cell into a large production area; the substrate culture is carried out by uniformly mixing wood chips, livestock and poultry manure, perlite, lotus seed shells, limestone mineral powder and sea ore mineral powder, adding microbial strains, fermenting, decomposing, sieving and grading the particle size to obtain a substrate culture medium; the soilless culture process comprises the steps of covering the ground of a greenhouse with a PE film, planting in bags with the PE film, spraying water in the planting process, keeping the relative humidity of a matrix to be 15-30%, and spraying nutrient solution on leaf surfaces.
Specifically, the matrix comprises the following components in parts by weight: 100 parts of wood chips, 15-25 parts of livestock and poultry manure, 8-15 parts of perlite, 12-20 parts of lotus seed shells, 3-8 parts of limestone mineral powder and 3-8 parts of sea ore mineral powder; the microbial strain used for substrate culture is an EM microbial inoculum, the fermentation condition is compost fermentation, the pile height is 0.5-1 meter, the pile is punched downwards from the top, the number of holes per square meter is 10-15, a plastic film is covered, aerobic fermentation is carried out, timing is started when the pile temperature rises to 55 ℃, the fermentation is carried out for 3-5 days, the pile is turned, the pile temperature rises to 50 ℃, the fermentation is carried out for 3-4 days, the fermentation process is finished, and the moisture is naturally dried to 10% -25%.
Specifically, after the substrate is fermented and matured, the particle size grading is carried out, and the three grades are divided into three grades of 0.1-0.5mm, 1.0-2.5mm and 2.5-5.0mm, wherein one third of the three grades of particles are uniformly mixed and then uniformly mixed with the equal mixture of slag and gravel according to the ratio of 4-6: 1, so as to obtain the substrate culture medium.
Specifically, the PE planting bag for soilless culture is a white PE cylindrical plastic bag with the thickness of 0.1 mm and the width of 70 cm, and is folded into a double layer, ropes are threaded on two sides of the double layer to be wrapped, and the cross section of the double layer is a U-shaped planting bag with the depth of 20 cm.
Specifically, the nutrient solution sprayed on the leaf surfaces is an inorganic fertilizer solution, the concentration of the nutrient solution is not more than 0.2%, and the pH value is 5.5-6.5.
The invention realizes the soil-free culture of vegetables through greenhouse reconstruction, matrix culture and soilless culture, and has the following technical advantages:
(1) the management of being convenient for, low in labor strength, land use rate is high: the greenhouse is reconstructed to combine the greenhouses of the single production cells into a production area, so that intensive and unified management is facilitated, the planting, harvesting and collecting of vegetables are realized, and the mechanical operation and the factory management are facilitated; the labor intensity of workers is reduced, and the land utilization rate is improved.
(2) Low cost, simple process, rich organic matter: the wood chips, the livestock and poultry manure, the perlite, the lotus seed shells, the limestone mineral powder and the sea ore mineral powder are uniformly mixed and then added with the microbial agent, the traditional composting fermentation technology is adopted for fermentation, the operation process is simple, the fermentation time is short, the effective decomposition fermentation of the matrix can be realized, and the phenomena of seedling burning and the like are not caused. By adopting the mixing of multiple organic matters, compared with single livestock and poultry manure, the organic matter content is more balanced and sufficient, the fermentation process has no peculiar smell, and the nutritional requirements of the vegetables in the whole production cycle can be ensured. The substrate has simple raw material components and low price, so that the cost of the substrate is greatly reduced, the vegetable planting cost is further reduced, and the economic benefit of farmers is improved.
(3) Good air permeability and developed plant root system: in the preparation process, the substrates are dried and then are subjected to artificial grading, the substrates with different particle sizes are mixed according to requirements, the porosity of the substrates is ensured to be more than 55%, the respiration of plant roots is increased, the burning and rotting of the roots are prevented, and the growth of the vegetable plant roots is promoted.
Detailed Description
The present invention is further described in the following detailed description, which should be construed as merely illustrative and not limitative of the remainder of the disclosure, in order to limit the scope of the disclosure to the particular embodiments disclosed herein.
Example 1
The soil-free cultivation technique of greenhouse vegetables comprises the steps of greenhouse reconstruction, substrate cultivation and soilless culture; the greenhouse reconstruction method has the advantages that the single vegetable greenhouse is reconstructed into the conjoined vegetable greenhouse, the single production cells are combined into the large production area, the area of the production area is increased, and intensive factory management of production is facilitated. Cultivating a substrate while rebuilding a greenhouse, uniformly mixing sawdust, livestock and poultry manure, perlite, lotus seed shells, limestone mineral powder and sea ore mineral powder, adding an EM microbial inoculum according to 0.1-0.2% of the weight of the fermented substrate, fermenting until the fermented substrate is thoroughly decomposed, and naturally airing; then sieving to classify the decomposed substrate into different particle sizes, and uniformly mixing the substrates with different particle size ranges meeting the requirements in proportion to obtain the substrate culture medium. In the process of the soil-free cultivation, a PE film is selected to cover the ground of the greenhouse, a PE film planting bag is filled into a matrix culture medium, water is sprayed in the planting process, the relative humidity of the matrix is kept at 15%, and nutrient solution is sprayed on the leaf surfaces according to the nutrient requirement of vegetables.
Example 2
The soil-free cultivation technique of greenhouse vegetables comprises the steps of greenhouse reconstruction, substrate cultivation and soilless culture; the single vegetable greenhouse is reconstructed into the conjoined vegetable greenhouse in the greenhouse reconstruction, and the original single production cell is combined into a production large area, so that the area of the production area is increased, and the intensive factory management of production is facilitated. The method comprises the steps of simultaneously building a greenhouse and cultivating a substrate, uniformly mixing 100 parts of wood chips, 15 parts of livestock and poultry manure, 8 parts of perlite, 12 parts of lotus seed shells, 3 parts of limestone mineral powder and 3 parts of sea ore mineral powder, adding EM microbial inoculum, wherein the addition amount of EM microbial inoculum is 0.1-0.2% of the weight of the fermented substrate, adopting compost fermentation, piling up to 0.5m, punching holes from the top downwards, wherein the number of the holes per square meter is 10, covering a plastic film, carrying out aerobic fermentation, starting timing when the temperature of the pile rises to 55 ℃, fermenting for 3 days, turning the pile, raising the temperature of the pile to 50 ℃, fermenting for 3 days again, completing the fermentation process, and naturally airing the water to 10%. Then sieving to classify the decomposed substrate into three grades of 0.1-0.5mm, 1.0-2.5mm and 2.5-5.0mm, wherein one third of the three grades of particles are respectively uniformly mixed to obtain the substrate culture medium. In the process of the soil-free cultivation, a PE film is selected to cover the ground of the greenhouse, a PE film planting bag is filled into a matrix culture medium, water is sprayed in the planting process, the relative humidity of the matrix is kept at 15%, and nutrient solution is sprayed on the leaf surfaces according to the nutrient requirement of vegetables.
Example 3
The soil-free cultivation technique of greenhouse vegetables comprises the steps of greenhouse reconstruction, substrate cultivation and soilless culture; the single vegetable greenhouse is reconstructed into the conjoined vegetable greenhouse in the greenhouse reconstruction, and the original single production cell is combined into a production large area, so that the area of the production area is increased, and the intensive factory management of production is facilitated. The method comprises the steps of simultaneously building a greenhouse and cultivating a substrate, uniformly mixing 100 parts of wood chips, 25 parts of livestock and poultry manure, 15 parts of perlite, 20 parts of lotus seed shells, 8 parts of limestone mineral powder and 8 parts of sea ore mineral powder, adding EM microbial inoculum according to the amount of 0.1-0.2% of the weight of the fermented substrate, fermenting by adopting compost, piling to be 0.7 m high, punching from the top downwards, counting 12 holes per square meter, covering a plastic film, carrying out aerobic fermentation, starting timing when the temperature of the pile rises to 55 ℃, fermenting for 4 days, turning the pile, rising the temperature of the pile to 50 ℃, fermenting for 4 days again, completing the fermentation process, and naturally airing the water to 15%. Then sieving to classify the decomposed substrate into three grades of 0.1-0.5mm, 1.0-2.5mm and 2.5-5.0mm, wherein one third of the three grades of particles are uniformly mixed to obtain the substrate culture medium. In the process of soil-leaving cultivation, a PE film is selected to cover the ground of the greenhouse, a matrix culture medium is filled in PE film planting bags, the PE planting bags are white cylindrical plastic bags with the thickness of 0.1 mm and the width of 70 cm, the PE film planting bags are folded into double layers, ropes are threaded on the two sides of the PE film planting bags, and the PE film planting bags are wrapped up and form U-shaped planting bags with the cross sections of 20 cm in depth. Spraying water in the planting process, keeping the relative humidity of the substrate at 15%, spraying nutrient solution on the leaf surfaces according to the nutritional requirements of the vegetables, wherein the concentration of the nutrient solution is not more than 0.2%, and the pH value is 5.5.
Example 4
The soil-free cultivation technique of greenhouse vegetables comprises the steps of greenhouse reconstruction, substrate cultivation and soilless culture; the single vegetable greenhouse is reconstructed into the conjoined vegetable greenhouse in the greenhouse reconstruction, and the original single production cell is combined into a production large area, so that the area of the production area is increased, and the intensive factory management of production is facilitated. The method comprises the steps of simultaneously building a greenhouse and cultivating a substrate, uniformly mixing 100 parts of wood chips, 20 parts of livestock and poultry manure, 10 parts of perlite, 15 parts of lotus seed shells, 7 parts of limestone mineral powder and 5 parts of sea ore mineral powder, adding EM microbial inoculum, wherein the addition amount is 0.1-0.2% of the weight of the fermented substrate, adopting compost fermentation, piling to be 0.7 m high, punching from the top downwards, wherein the number of holes per square meter is 12, covering a plastic film, carrying out aerobic fermentation, starting timing when the temperature of the pile rises to 55 ℃, fermenting for 5 days, turning the pile, rising to 50 ℃, fermenting for 3 days again, completing the fermentation process, and naturally airing water to 25%. Then sieving to classify the decomposed substrate into three grades of 0.1-0.5mm, 1.0-2.5mm and 2.5-5.0mm, wherein one third of the three grades of particles are uniformly mixed to obtain the substrate culture medium. In the process of soil-leaving cultivation, a PE film is selected to cover the ground of the greenhouse, a matrix culture medium is filled in PE film planting bags, the PE planting bags are white cylindrical plastic bags with the thickness of 0.1 mm and the width of 70 cm, the PE film planting bags are folded into double layers, ropes are threaded on the two sides of the PE film planting bags, and the PE film planting bags are wrapped up and form U-shaped planting bags with the cross sections of 20 cm in depth. Spraying water in the planting process, keeping the relative humidity of the substrate at 15%, spraying nutrient solution on the leaf surfaces according to the nutritional requirements of the vegetables, wherein the concentration of the nutrient solution is not more than 0.2%, and the pH value is 6.5.

Claims (1)

1. A greenhouse vegetable soil-free cultivation method is characterized by comprising the steps of greenhouse reconstruction, substrate culture and soilless culture; the greenhouse reconstruction is to reconstruct a single vegetable greenhouse into a conjoined vegetable greenhouse and combine a single production cell into a large production area; the substrate culture is carried out by uniformly mixing wood chips, livestock and poultry manure, perlite, lotus seed shells, limestone mineral powder and sea ore mineral powder, adding microbial strains, fermenting, decomposing, sieving and grading the particle size to obtain a substrate culture medium; in the soilless culture process, a PE film is selected to cover the ground of the greenhouse, a planting bag is planted by the PE film, water is sprayed in the planting process, the relative humidity of a matrix is kept at 15-30%, and nutrient solution is sprayed on leaf surfaces;
the matrix comprises the following components in parts by weight: 100 parts of wood chips, 15-25 parts of livestock and poultry manure, 8-15 parts of perlite, 12-20 parts of lotus seed shells, 3-8 parts of limestone mineral powder and 3-8 parts of sea ore mineral powder; the microbial strain used for substrate culture is an EM microbial inoculum, the fermentation condition is compost fermentation, the pile height is 0.5-1 meter, the pile is punched downwards from the top, the number of holes per square meter is 10-15, a plastic film is covered, aerobic fermentation is carried out, timing is started when the pile temperature rises to 55 ℃, the fermentation is carried out for 3-5 days, the pile is turned, the pile temperature rises to 50 ℃, the fermentation is carried out for 3-4 days, the fermentation process is finished, and the moisture is naturally dried to 10% -25%;
the PE planting bag for soilless culture is a white PE cylindrical plastic bag with the thickness of 0.1 mm and the width of 70 cm, and is folded into double layers, ropes are threaded on two sides of the double layers to be wrapped, and the cross section of the double layers is a U-shaped planting bag with the depth of 20 cm;
the nutrient solution sprayed on the leaf surface is an inorganic fertilizer solution, the concentration of the nutrient solution is not more than 0.2 percent, and the pH value is 5.5-6.5.
CN201410686243.5A 2014-11-18 2014-11-18 Greenhouse vegetable soil-free cultivation technology Active CN104381109B (en)

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CN106613822A (en) * 2016-11-03 2017-05-10 牛占峰 Planting method for organic fruit and vegetable
CN107484510A (en) * 2017-08-12 2017-12-19 佛山推启农业研究院(普通合伙) A kind of big top balsam pear implantation methods of selenium-rich Du Ruan
CN108811963A (en) * 2018-08-03 2018-11-16 东莞市济丰农业生态园开发有限公司 A kind of greenhouse gardening method of vegetables
CN109042225A (en) * 2018-09-28 2018-12-21 武汉华天园林艺术有限公司 The cheap production method of the non-earth greensward cultivation ground mass and its preparation cost of a kind of convenient transportation
CN110402806A (en) * 2019-08-30 2019-11-05 武汉市农业科学院 A method of broccoli nursery is carried out using industrialized cultivation for needle mushroom bacteria residue

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