CN102898193B - Method for producing seedling-growing nutritive matrix by traditional Chinese medicine residue composting - Google Patents

Method for producing seedling-growing nutritive matrix by traditional Chinese medicine residue composting Download PDF

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CN102898193B
CN102898193B CN201210059140.7A CN201210059140A CN102898193B CN 102898193 B CN102898193 B CN 102898193B CN 201210059140 A CN201210059140 A CN 201210059140A CN 102898193 B CN102898193 B CN 102898193B
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composting
seedling
chinese medicine
decoction
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CN102898193A (en
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和苗苗
周根娣
田光明
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Hangzhou Normal University
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    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for producing a seedling-growing nutritive matrix by Chinese medicine residue composting. The method comprises the following steps of cutting mixed traditional Chinese medicine residues obtained by a traditional Chinese medicine factory into traditional Chinese medicine residue segments, detecting water content, organic carbon content and total nitrogen content of the traditional Chinese medicine residue segments and a conditioner, preparing the traditional Chinese medicine residue segments and the conditioner into a compost raw material, carrying out aerobiotic composting of the compost raw material by a pile-type composting method, turning compost piles at a time interval of 24 to 48 hours in a heating stage and a high temperature stage, turning the compost piles at a time interval of 7 to 14 days in a cooling stage, after the composting process is finished, crushing the thoroughly decomposed composting products into a matrix raw material, and uniformly mixing the matrix raw material and auxiliary materials to obtain the seedling-growing nutritive matrix. The seedling-growing nutritive matrix obtained by the method has light weight, has salinity, porosity and nutritional ingredient composition close to salinity, porosity and nutritional ingredient composition of peat, and avoids the phenomenon of a slow seed germination speed, seedling weakness and seedling burning. Compared with the common composting products, the seedling-growing nutritive matrix obtained by the method is suitable for seedling cultivation.

Description

A kind of method of utilizing Chinese medicine slag compost to produce grow seedling nutritional matrix
Technical field
The invention belongs to biological environmental production technical field, relate to a kind of compost method, specifically a kind of method of utilizing Chinese medicine slag compost to produce grow seedling nutritional matrix.
Background technology
Along with the carrying out of China's new countryside construction, seed seedling engineering has become the important component part of developing modern agriculture, and it is basis and the prerequisite of Development of Organic Agriculture, green agriculture.In order to protect, to save limited land resources and reaching the object of fast breeding seedling, people utilize substrate culture technology to cultivate the seedling of ornamental plant and melon and fruit, vegetables gradually.At present, generally the seedling medium of application is peat soil, and its air permeability is good and be rich in organic matter.But because the excavation of natural peat constitutes a serious threat to wetland and forest ecological environment, cause peat resource day by day rare.Therefore, seek the surrogate of peat soil very necessary.
In recent years, composting production, because it has the advantages such as stable character, organic matter and nutrition content are high, pathogenic bacteria quantity is few, price is low, becomes the substrate material first-selection that substitutes peat soil gradually.Yet, seed cultivation is very high to the requirement of matrix, the main raw that is generally used for compost is the organic solid castoffs such as animal excrement, wood chip, agriculture chaff ash, its composting production compares with peat that salt content is high, content of cellulose is low, ventilation property relative mistake, is easy to occur that speed of germination is slow, seedling is not strong, burns the problems such as seedling.And pharmaceutical factory of traditional Chinese medicine's dregs of a decoction nutrition is high, contain the multiple trace element that is conducive to plant-growth simultaneously, the more important thing is it is carried out after aerobic compost, EC value, porosity more approach peat soil, be conducive to emerge and strong sprout, can meet the high request of seedling medium, be more suitable for becoming the substitute of peat soil.
Summary of the invention
Object of the present invention is just to provide a kind of method of utilizing Chinese medicine slag compost to produce grow seedling nutritional matrix.
The concrete steps of the inventive method are:
Step (1). the mixing dregs of a decoction that the pharmaceutical factory of traditional Chinese medicine is dispatched from the factory cut into the dregs of a decoction section that length is less than or equal to 15cm;
Step (2). by weighting method, detect the water content of dregs of a decoction section, with potassium bichromate titrimetric method-Outside Heating Method, measure the organic carbon content of dregs of a decoction section, with Kelvin nitriding, measure the total nitrogen content of dregs of a decoction section;
Step (3). adopt step (2) method to detect the water content of amendment, the content of organic carbon and total nitrogen content;
Described amendment is one or more the mixture in animal excrement, wood chip, mushroom residue;
Step (4). in dregs of a decoction section, add amendment and be configured to composting material, in the compost material being configured to, carbon content is 20~30:1 with the ratio of total nitrogen content, and water ratio is 60~70 wt ﹪;
If the carbon nitrogen content ratio of dregs of a decoction section is that 20~30:1, water ratio are 60~70 wt ﹪, using dregs of a decoction section directly as composting material;
Step (5). adopt bar buttress formula composting mode that composting material is carried out to aerobic banking up, the temperature that heap postpone is once piled body at interval of detection in 24 hours, temperature raising period and pliotherm period at interval of turning in 24~48 hours once, enter after cooldown period at interval of turning in 7~14 days once;
Described temperature raising period is that heap temperature is raised to the number of days of 50 ℃ by envrionment temperature, and the time length is 1~3 day; The described pliotherm period is heap temperature at the number of days of 50~70 ℃, and the time length is 5~10 days; Described cooldown period is that heap temperature drops to envrionment temperature and is stabilized in total number of days that envrionment temperature is more than or equal to 30 days from 50 ℃;
Step (6). after compost expires, form the composting production becoming thoroughly decomposed, the composting production becoming thoroughly decomposed is broken into the base starting material that length is less than or equal to 1cm; The described compost phase is temperature raising period, pliotherm period and catathermal total number of days;
Step (7). by base starting material, according to weight ratio, be that 1~9:1 mixes with auxiliary material, form grow seedling nutritional matrix;
Described auxiliary material is the mixture of perlite or perlite and vermiculite, according to the requirement of different plants, adds auxiliary material.
Chinese medicine slag is the pharmaceutical factory of traditional Chinese medicine or the hospital a large amount of byproducts after to various Chinese medicine lixiviates, processing, its quality compared with soft, crude fiber content is high, porosity is large, directly it is banked up or adds by a certain percentage the animal excrement that organic content is high to bank up, all easily reach 50 ℃ of above pliotherm periods, and then obtain the composting production becoming thoroughly decomposed and be applied to seed cultivation.
The Chinese medicine slag composting production texture that the inventive method obtains is light, salt content (EC value), porosity, nutritive ingredient are closer to peat, be not prone to the phenomenon that speed of germination is slow, seedling is not strong, burn seedling, more preferably for seed cultivation than general composting production.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1
The mixing dregs of a decoction that the pharmaceutical factory of traditional Chinese medicine is dispatched from the factory cut into the dregs of a decoction section that length is less than or equal to 15cm, the water ratio of measuring dregs of a decoction section by weighting method is 64 wt ﹪, the organic carbon content of measuring dregs of a decoction section with potassium bichromate titrimetric method-Outside Heating Method is 305.31 g/kg, the total nitrogen content of measuring dregs of a decoction section with Kelvin nitriding is 15.67 g/kg, carbon nitrogen content is than being 20:1, directly as composting material.
Adopt bar buttress formula composting mode that composting material is carried out to the heap body that aerobic heap is set to high 1.5 m * wide 2 m * length 10 m, carry out altogether 45 days, heap postpone is at interval of a heap temperature of detection in 24 hours, result shows, compost temperature raising period continues 3 days, and the pliotherm period continues 5 days, cooldown period totally 37 days.In temperature raising period and the artificial turning of 48 hours pliotherm periods once, cooldown period artificial turning in 7 days once.
After compost expires, the composting production becoming thoroughly decomposed is broken into the base starting material that length is less than or equal to 1cm, and add perlite, vermiculite comes for cucumber seedling-raising, adding part by weight is Chinese medicine slag compost: perlite: vermiculite=2:1:1.Formulated product unit weight (g/ml): 0.25, organic carbon (g/kg): 212.6, pH value: 6.4, EC(ds/m): 0.20, porosity (%): 73.6, total nitrogen (g/kg): 7.9.
Cucumber seeds is implanted in 50 holes dishes, each processing establish 30 parallel, measure seedling rate.After seedling all sprouts, choose 84 strain definite values in the black plastic basin of the high 12cm of being in footpath, each processes 6 repetitions, will commonly use matrix (peat: perlite: vermiculite=2:1:1) in contrast simultaneously.Every day making plant growing way, per week optionally water a plant (3-4 time/week).At seedling age, in the time of 30 days, stop watering, in seedling age harvesting in 40 days, measure its plant height, stem is thick, maximum leaf area, and over-ground part dry weight and fresh weight of plant seedlings, root dry weight and fresh weight of plant seedlings, calculates index in strong sprout, the results are shown in Table 1.
From strong sprout index analyze, pure Chinese medicine slag compost > peat.The effect with underground part is synthetically gone up in this explanation, and pure Chinese medicine slag compost is conducive to the growth of cucumber seedling.
Embodiment 2
The mixing dregs of a decoction that the pharmaceutical factory of traditional Chinese medicine is dispatched from the factory cut into the dregs of a decoction section that length is less than or equal to 15cm, the water ratio of measuring dregs of a decoction section by weighting method is 60 wt ﹪, the organic carbon content of measuring dregs of a decoction section with potassium bichromate titrimetric method-Outside Heating Method is 390.05 g/kg, and the total nitrogen content of measuring dregs of a decoction section with Kelvin nitriding is 13.27 g/kg.Adding water ratio is the fresh pig dung of 80 wt ﹪, carbon-nitrogen ratio 14:1, and adding proportion is Chinese medicine slag: pig manure=4:1(volume ratio), after adding, composting material water ratio is 70 wt ﹪, and carbon-nitrogen ratio is 26:1.
Adopt bar buttress formula composting mode that composting material is carried out to the heap body that aerobic heap is set to high 1.5 m * wide 2 m * long 10m, carry out altogether 60 days, heap postpone is at interval of a heap temperature of detection in 24 hours, result shows, compost temperature raising period continues 3 days, and the pliotherm period continues 9 days, cooldown period totally 48 days.In temperature raising period and the artificial turning of 24 hours pliotherm periods once, cooldown period artificial turning in 14 days once.
Compost is broken into by the composting production becoming thoroughly decomposed the base starting material that length is less than or equal to 1cm after expiring, and adds perlite and come for cucumber seedling-raising.Adding proportion is Chinese medicine slag compost: perlite=3:1.Formulated product unit weight (g/ml): 0.31, organic carbon (g/kg): 190.33, pH value: 6.7, EC(ds/m): 0.31, porosity (%): 74.9, total nitrogen (g/kg): 9.0.
Cucumber seeds is implanted in 50 holes dishes, each processing establish 30 parallel, measure seedling rate.After seedling all sprouts, choose 84 strain definite values in the black plastic basin of the high 12cm of being in footpath, each processes 6 repetitions.To commonly use matrix (peat: perlite=3:1) in contrast simultaneously.Every day making plant growing way, per week optionally water a plant (3-4 time/week).At seedling age, in the time of 30 days, stop watering, in seedling age harvesting in 40 days, measure its plant height, stem is thick, maximum leaf area, and over-ground part dry weight and fresh weight of plant seedlings, root dry weight and fresh weight of plant seedlings, calculates index in strong sprout, the results are shown in Table 2.
Table 2 Chinese medicine slag+pig manure is cultivated cucumber seedling growth situation as matrix
From seedling rate and the growth of seedling situation of cucumber, nursery effect and the peat of Chinese medicine slag+pig manure are suitable, are all conducive to the growth of cucumber seedling.
Embodiment 3
The mixing dregs of a decoction that the pharmaceutical factory of traditional Chinese medicine is dispatched from the factory cut into the dregs of a decoction section that length is less than or equal to 15cm, the water ratio of measuring dregs of a decoction section by weighting method is 56 wt ﹪, the organic carbon content of measuring dregs of a decoction section with potassium bichromate titrimetric method-Outside Heating Method is 303.20 g/kg, and the total nitrogen content of measuring dregs of a decoction section with Kelvin nitriding is 18.09 g/kg.Adding water ratio is the fresh pig dung of 73wt ﹪, carbon-nitrogen ratio 15:1, and water ratio is the wood chip of 40wt ﹪, carbon-nitrogen ratio 57:1, adding proportion is Chinese medicine slag: pig manure: wood chip=4:2:1(volume ratio), after adding, composting material water ratio is 65 wt ﹪, and carbon-nitrogen ratio is 30:1.
Adopt bar buttress formula composting mode that composting material is carried out to the heap body that aerobic heap is set to high 1.5 m * wide 2 m * long 5m, carry out altogether 48 days, heap postpone is at interval of a heap temperature of detection in 24 hours, result shows, compost temperature raising period continues 1 day, and the pliotherm period continues 10 days, cooldown period totally 37 days.In temperature raising period and the artificial turning of 36 hours pliotherm periods once, cooldown period artificial turning in 10 days once.
Compost is broken into by the composting production becoming thoroughly decomposed the base starting material that length is less than or equal to 1cm after expiring, and adds perlite and grow seedlings for Bermuda grass and Flower of Garden Balsam.The mixed-matrix formula of different treatment is in Table 3.
Table 3 substrate formula and physico-chemical property thereof
By the plastic flowerpot of pack into * 15cm of the matrix mixing, every basin dress 2.5L matrix, each processing arranges 3 repetitions, then waters, sowing in afternoon after a week.In pot experiment process, do not add other fertilizer.Every day making plant growing way, (3-4 time/week) optionally waters a plant.In sowing, after 5,10,30 days, measure its seedling rate, in Table 3.In after planting 30 days, stop watering, harvesting, measures its plant fresh weight, plant height, and maximum leaf area, in Table 4.
As can be seen from Table 4, Bermuda grass is emerged the soonest and the highest processing of seedling rate appears at formula 2(compost: perlite=4:1), Flower of Garden Balsam is emerged the fastest and seedling rate is the highest is treated to the 1(compost of filling a prescription: perlite=9:1), and be all better than the nursery effect of peat.From the growing state of crop, also can find out (table 5), in each substrate formula of application dregs of a decoction compost, plant seedlings fresh weight and plant height are all significantly higher than peat in sowing after 30 days, and this use that shows dregs of a decoction compost is very favourable to the growth of Bermuda grass, Flower of Garden Balsam seedling.
The seedling rate of table 4 sowing Bermuda grass, Flower of Garden Balsam after 5,10,30 days
Table 5 sowing is Bermuda grass, Flower of Garden Balsam seedling fresh weight, plant height after 30 days
Embodiment 4
The mixing dregs of a decoction that the pharmaceutical factory of traditional Chinese medicine is dispatched from the factory cut into the dregs of a decoction section that length is less than or equal to 15cm, the water ratio of measuring dregs of a decoction section by weighting method is 64 wt ﹪, the organic carbon content of measuring dregs of a decoction section with potassium bichromate titrimetric method-Outside Heating Method is 305.31 g/kg, the total nitrogen content of measuring dregs of a decoction section with Kelvin nitriding is 15.67 g/kg, and carbon nitrogen content is than being 20:1.Adding water ratio is that fresh pig dung, the water ratio of 80 wt ﹪, carbon-nitrogen ratio 10:1 is that wood chip and the water ratio of 21 wt ﹪, carbon-nitrogen ratio 46:1 is the mushroom residue of 46wt ﹪, carbon-nitrogen ratio 40:1, adding proportion is Chinese medicine slag: pig manure: wood chip: mushroom residue=4:2:1:1(volume ratio), after adding, composting material water ratio is 60 wt ﹪, and carbon-nitrogen ratio is 25:1
Adopt bar buttress formula composting mode that composting material is carried out to the heap body that aerobic heap is set to high 1.5 m * wide 2 m * length 10 m, carry out altogether 50 days, heap postpone is at interval of a heap temperature of detection in 24 hours, result shows, compost temperature raising period continues 2 days, and the pliotherm period continues 10 days, cooldown period totally 38 days.In temperature raising period and the artificial turning of 48 hours pliotherm periods once, cooldown period artificial turning in 7 days once.
After compost expires, the composting production becoming thoroughly decomposed is broken into the base starting material that length is less than or equal to 1cm, and add perlite, vermiculite comes for cucumber seedling-raising, adding proportion is compost: perlite: vermiculite=4:1:1.Formulated product unit weight (g/ml): 0.30, organic carbon (g/kg): 285.4, pH value: 6.2, EC(ds/m): 0.21, porosity (%): 80.5, total nitrogen (g/kg): 6.5.
Cucumber seeds is implanted in 50 holes dishes, each processing establish 30 parallel, measure seedling rate, will commonly use matrix (peat: perlite: vermiculite=4:1:1) in contrast simultaneously.The results are shown in Table 6.
Table 6 Chinese medicine slag compost is cultivated the seedling rate of cucumber seedling as seedling medium
? Seedling rate (%)
Chinese medicine slag+pig manure+wood chip+mushroom residue compost 98.7
Peat 94.3
Can find out, the seedling rate that the seedling medium that Chinese medicine slag+pig manure+wood chip+mushroom residue compost is made is cultivated cucumber is significantly higher than the matrix that peat is made.

Claims (1)

1. utilize Chinese medicine slag compost to produce a method for grow seedling nutritional matrix, it is characterized in that the concrete steps of method are:
Step (1). the mixing dregs of a decoction that the pharmaceutical factory of traditional Chinese medicine is dispatched from the factory cut into the dregs of a decoction section that length is less than or equal to 15cm;
Step (2). by weighting method, detect the water content of dregs of a decoction section, with potassium bichromate titrimetric method-Outside Heating Method, measure the organic carbon content of dregs of a decoction section, with Kelvin nitriding, measure the total nitrogen content of dregs of a decoction section;
Step (3). adopt step (2) method to detect the water content of amendment, the content of organic carbon and total nitrogen content;
Described amendment is one or more the mixture in animal excrement, wood chip, mushroom residue;
Step (4). in dregs of a decoction section, add amendment and be configured to composting material, in the compost material being configured to, carbon content is 20~30:1 with the ratio of total nitrogen content, and water ratio is 60~70 wt ﹪;
If the carbon nitrogen content ratio of dregs of a decoction section is that 20~30:1, water ratio are 60~70 wt ﹪, using dregs of a decoction section directly as composting material;
Step (5). adopt bar buttress formula composting mode that composting material is carried out to aerobic banking up, the temperature that heap postpone is once piled body at interval of detection in 24 hours, temperature raising period and pliotherm period at interval of turning in 24~48 hours once, enter after cooldown period at interval of turning in 7~14 days once;
Described temperature raising period is that heap temperature is raised to the number of days of 50 ℃ by envrionment temperature, and the time length is 1~3 day; The described pliotherm period is heap temperature at the number of days of 50~70 ℃, and the time length is 5~10 days; Described cooldown period is that heap temperature drops to envrionment temperature and is stabilized in total number of days that envrionment temperature is more than or equal to 30 days from 50 ℃;
Step (6). after compost expires, form the composting production becoming thoroughly decomposed, the composting production becoming thoroughly decomposed is broken into the base starting material that length is less than or equal to 1cm; The described compost phase is temperature raising period, pliotherm period and catathermal total number of days;
Step (7). by base starting material, according to weight ratio, be that 1~9:1 mixes with auxiliary material, form grow seedling nutritional matrix;
Described auxiliary material is the mixture of perlite or perlite and vermiculite.
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