CN101697705B - Soilless culture organic matrix used for tomato seedling raising and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Soilless culture organic matrix used for tomato seedling raising and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101697705B
CN101697705B CN2009102188584A CN200910218858A CN101697705B CN 101697705 B CN101697705 B CN 101697705B CN 2009102188584 A CN2009102188584 A CN 2009102188584A CN 200910218858 A CN200910218858 A CN 200910218858A CN 101697705 B CN101697705 B CN 101697705B
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fermentation
matrix
fragment
heap
soilless culture
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CN2009102188584A
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CN101697705A (en
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程智慧
徐文俊
孟焕文
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西北农林科技大学
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • Y02P60/21Dinitrogen oxide [N2O], e.g. using aquaponics, hydroponics or efficiency measures

Abstract

The invention discloses a soilless culture organic matrix and preparation method thereof; wherein the soilless culture organic matrix is formed by evenly mixing corn cob fragments, corn stalk fragments and mushroom residue after respective piling fermentation according to volume ratio of (1.5-2.5): (4-6): (1.5-4.5). The main raw materials of the soilless culture organic matrix provided by the invention adopts waste corn stalk, corn cob and mushroom residue in local agricultural production instead of matrix raw material grass carbon commonly used in the current seedling raising, thus not only greatly saving seedling raising cost but also reducing over-exploitation of non-renewable resources grass carbon, thereby maintaining ecological sustainable development; not only environmental pollution caused by burning is avoided, but also sustainable utilization of resources is realized.

Description

A kind of soilless culture organic matrix that is used for tomato seedling and preparation method thereof
Technical field
The invention belongs to the cultivation technique without soil field, relate to a kind of soilless culture organic matrix and preparation method thereof, particularly a kind of soilless culture organic matrix that is used for tomato seedling and preparation method thereof.
Background technology
The soilless culture that originates from the 17th century is a kind of novel planting type.Soilless culture can better improve the output of crop, the better growth of controlling plant and nutrition supply.According to the regulation of supplying with soilless culture association, every without natural soil, use matrix or do not use matrix, with the nutrition liquid irrigation root system of plant or there is additive method all to belong to soilless culture.
Point disk seedling growing is to utilize the cave dish as container for plant growth, adopt light ground mass such as peat, vermiculite, perlite to make seedling medium, one in one cave, a kind of modern seedling-cultivating method of disposable Cheng Miao, be American-European countries at the new seedling growing process that grow up the seventies in 20th century, have the emergence rate height, emerge that neat, slow seedling is fast, damage by disease and insect is few, mechanization degree is high, the saving of labor, many advantages such as save time.Therefore, point disk seedling growing has become the principal mode that many countries grow seedlings.China is after the middle and later periods eighties introduces, and the scientific worker of various places explores the production system of growing seedlings that is fit to China on the basis to its digestion, absorption.Obtained certain effect.
At present, the plug seedling substrate of soilless culture mainly adopts materials such as the peat composed of rotten mosses, vermiculite, perlite, cocoa husk.The proportioning of general plug seedling substrate is the peat composed of rotten mosses: vermiculite is 2: 1.But because the peat composed of rotten mosses mainly originates in China northeast, be subjected to the region restriction and be non-renewable resources, exhaustive exploitation will inevitably cause resource exhaustion, destroys the ecological balance.At above problem, it is very necessary seeking a kind of novel matrix replacement non-renewable resources.
Summary of the invention
The problem that the present invention solves is to be provided for a kind of soilless culture organic matrix and preparation method thereof; this soilless culture organic matrix mainly is that the discarded object with local agricultural production is a primary raw material; substituting with the peat composed of rotten mosses is the existing matrix of key component; be of value to the exploitation that reduces the peat composed of rotten mosses; the resource conservation environment is kept the ecological balance.
The present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:
A kind of soilless culture organic matrix that is used for tomato seedling, this matrix be with the corncob fragment after fermenting tank for fermentation, maize straw fragment and mushroom slag respectively according to (1.5~2.5): (4~6): the volume ratio of (1.5~4.5) is mixed.
Described mushroom slag is the bar-shaped composts or fertilisers of cultivating that artificial planting is crossed the edible mushroom flat mushroom.
Described corncob fragment, maize straw fragment are regulated its C/N=20~30: 1 before fermentation.
Described fermenting tank for fermentation is to become thoroughly decomposed in the accumulation that contains under the regimen condition of mass fraction 60%~70%, and the fermentation preference temperature is advisable for 40~45 ℃ with the matrix stack temperature, carries out turning when fermentation substrate heap central temperature surpasses 60 ℃.
A kind of preparation method who is used for the soilless culture organic matrix of tomato seedling may further comprise the steps:
1) maize straw and maize cob meal being broken into particle diameter is that the long fragment of 1cm~3cm is standby;
2) maize straw fragment and corncob fragment are regulated its C/N=20~30: 1 with aqueous solution of urea respectively;
3) water content that will regulate the mushroom slag after maize straw fragment, corncob fragment and the fragmentation of C/N is adjusted between the mass fraction 60%~70%, is that fermentation substrate is inserted fermentation vat and carried out heap fermentation with it respectively then; The fermentation temperature of matrix heap is 40~45 ℃, carries out turning when fermentation substrate heap central temperature surpasses 60 ℃, continues fermentation then, and turning is 3~5 times between whole yeast phase;
4) corncob fragment, maize straw fragment and the mushroom slag after will fermenting is according to (1.5~2.5): (4~6): the volume ratio of (1.5~4.5) is mixed.
Described heap fermentation also adds the leavening of fermentation substrate quality 0.3 ‰, to improve fermentation rate.
The stacking volume that described heap fermentation is also pressed fermentation substrate adds the living cow dung of 20kg~30kg/m3, to improve fermentation rate.
Turning every month of described heap fermentation once.
Compared with prior art, the present invention has following beneficial technical effects:
1, its main raw material of soilless culture organic matrix provided by the invention adopts local agricultural production discarded maize straw, corncob, mushroom slag, the base starting material peat composed of rotten mosses that generally uses in replacing growing seedlings at present with this, so not only can save seedling cost greatly, and the exhaustive exploitation of the minimizing non-renewable resources peat composed of rotten mosses, safeguard ecological sustainable development; Rationally utilize these agricultural wastes on the other hand, both avoided burning the environmental pollution that causes, realized Sustainable utilization of resources again.
2, soilless culture organic matrix provided by the invention carries out heap fermentation after adjusting the C/N of fermentation substrate, make corncob, maize straw and mushroom slag be converted into the nutrient component of crop to absorb by fermentation maturity; And with the contrast matrix phase ratio of the peat composed of rotten mosses as key component, especially the content of its quick-acting nitrogen, rapid available phosphorus is improved greatly, can suitably reduce between nursery stage replenishing of nitrogen, phosphate fertilizer in the water and fertilizer management.
3, soilless culture organic matrix provided by the invention, with the contrast matrix phase ratio of the peat composed of rotten mosses as key component, its unit weight, total porosity, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, pH value, EC value and contrast approaching, all in the suitable physicochemical character scope of general matrix; Show through the comparative test of point disk seedling growing effect: the plant height of its rice shoot, stem are thick, single-strain fresh weight, total dry weight and strong sprout index all with the contrast matrix seedling there was no significant difference that with the peat composed of rotten mosses is key component; Observe in the test, the root system of contrast seedling has formed dense root net in matrix, and hair root is a lot, and the seedling of formulation media has also formed closeer root net;
From the seedling total quality, and the root moulding (root sticks together can moulding directly to affect and transplants quality) that sticks together, soilless culture organic matrix does not have significant difference with the contrast that with the peat composed of rotten mosses is key component.Therefore, can to substitute with the peat composed of rotten mosses be the contrast matrix of key component to this soilless culture organic matrix.
4, soilless culture organic matrix preparation method provided by the invention adopts the form of common fermentation vat heap fermentation to become thoroughly decomposed, and it drops into seldom, and is simple to operate; For the efficient that guarantees to ferment, can also add matrix nutrition soil leavening or give birth to cow dung quickening and ferment.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment the present invention is done to describe in further detail, described is to introduction of the present invention, and non-limiting.
Embodiment 1
A kind of soilless culture organic matrix that is used for tomato seedling, this matrix are that corncob fragment, maize straw fragment and mushroom slag behind the difference heap fermentation volume ratio according to 1.5: 4: 1.5 is mixed.
The following method of concrete employing prepares:
1) maize straw and maize cob meal being broken into particle diameter is that the long fragment of 1cm~3cm is standby;
2) regulate the C/N of fermentation substrate, make into balanced in nutrition behind the material
Routine Test Lab is measured the C/N ratio of base starting material, is specially: the C/N=76 of maize straw: 1, and the C/N=82 of corncob: 1;
According to the actual C/N of each matrix that records before the substrate fermentation, calculate and regulate C/N to 20: 1 needed urea amount is respectively that every kg corn stalk adds urea 6.13g, every kg corn core adds urea 6.79g, add low amounts of water dissolved dilution (amount of water is considered the control of water content of substrate simultaneously), evenly admix urea water in the base starting material;
3) corncob fragment, maize straw fragment and mushroom slag difference heap fermentation
The water content of matrix is controlled between 60%~65%, promptly holds agglomerating and diffusing being advisable; This be because: water content is too high, the easy mouldy fouling of fermentation process mesostroma; Water content is low excessively, and matrix then can not complete fermentation, discharges nutrient;
And the 0.3 ‰ adding leavenings of pressing the matrix quality specifically adopt Beijing China Kang Yuan Gymboree matrix nutrition soil fermentation assistant to improve fermenting speed;
The materials mixed accumulation is become thoroughly decomposed, the mushroom slag after corncob fragment, maize straw fragment and the fragmentation is inserted fermentation vat respectively ferment, cover waterproof cloth above;
The fermentation preference temperature is advisable for 40~45 ℃ with the matrix stack temperature, carries out turning when fermentation substrate heap central temperature surpasses 60 ℃, and continues fermentation, during turning 3 times, make inside and outside fermentation evenly;
4) corncob fragment, maize straw fragment and the mushroom slag after will fermenting is mixed promptly according to 1.5: 4: 1.5 volume ratio.
Embodiment 2
A kind of soilless culture organic matrix that is used for tomato seedling, this matrix are that corncob fragment, maize straw fragment and mushroom slag behind the difference heap fermentation volume ratio according to 2: 5: 3 is mixed.
The following method of concrete employing prepares:
1) maize straw and maize cob meal being broken into particle diameter is that the long fragment of 1cm~3cm is standby;
2) regulate the C/N of fermentation substrate, make into balanced in nutrition behind the material
Routine Test Lab is measured the C/N ratio of base starting material, is specially: the C/N=80 of maize straw: 1, and the C/N=85 of corncob: 1, the C/N=108 of mushroom slag: 1;
According to the actual C/N of each matrix that records before the substrate fermentation, calculate and regulate C/N to 25: 1 needed urea amount is respectively that every kg corn stalk adds urea 4.8g, every kg corn core adds urea 5.23g, every kilogram of mushroom slag adds urea 7.24g, add low amounts of water dissolved dilution (amount of water is considered the control of water content of substrate simultaneously), evenly admix urea water in the base starting material;
3) corncob fragment, maize straw fragment and mushroom slag difference heap fermentation
The water content of matrix is controlled between 65%~70%, promptly holds agglomerating and diffusing being advisable; This be because: water content is too high, the easy mouldy fouling of fermentation process mesostroma; Water content is low excessively, and matrix then can not complete fermentation, discharges nutrient;
The stacking volume that described heap fermentation is also pressed fermentation substrate adds 20kg~25kg/m 3Living cow dung, to improve fermentation rate;
The materials mixed accumulation is become thoroughly decomposed, the mushroom slag after corncob fragment, maize straw fragment and the fragmentation is inserted fermentation vat respectively ferment, cover waterproof cloth above;
The fermentation preference temperature is advisable for 40~45 ℃ with the matrix stack temperature, carries out turning when fermentation substrate heap central temperature surpasses 60 ℃, and continues fermentation, during turning 4 times, make inside and outside fermentation evenly;
4) corncob fragment, maize straw fragment and the mushroom slag after will fermenting is mixed according to 2: 5: 3 volume ratio.
Embodiment 3
A kind of soilless culture organic matrix that is used for tomato seedling, this matrix are that corncob fragment, maize straw fragment and mushroom slag behind the difference heap fermentation volume ratio according to 2.5: 6: 4.5 is mixed.
The following method of concrete employing prepares:
1) maize straw and maize cob meal being broken into particle diameter is that the long fragment of 1cm~3cm is standby;
2) regulate the C/N of fermentation substrate, make into balanced in nutrition behind the material
Routine Test Lab is measured the C/N ratio of base starting material, is specially: the C/N=78 of maize straw: 1, and the C/N=82 of corncob: 1, the C/N=118 of mushroom slag: 1;
Calculate adjusting C/N to 25 according to the actual C/N of each matrix that records before the substrate fermentation: 1 needed urea amount is respectively that every kg corn stalk adds urea 4.8g, every kg corn core adds urea 5.23g, every kilogram of mushroom slag adds urea 7.24g, add low amounts of water dissolved dilution (amount of water is considered the control of water content of substrate simultaneously), evenly admix urea water in the base starting material;
3) corncob fragment, maize straw fragment and mushroom slag difference heap fermentation
The water content of matrix is controlled between 60%~70%, promptly holds agglomerating and diffusing being advisable; This be because: water content is too high, the easy mouldy fouling of fermentation process mesostroma; Water content is low excessively, and matrix then can not complete fermentation, discharges nutrient;
Heap fermentation also adds the leavening of fermentation substrate quality 0.3 ‰, and the stacking volume adding 25kg~30kg/m that presses fermentation substrate 3Living cow dung, to improve fermentation rate;
The materials mixed accumulation is become thoroughly decomposed, the mushroom slag after corncob fragment, maize straw fragment and the fragmentation is inserted fermentation vat respectively ferment, cover waterproof cloth above;
The fermentation preference temperature is advisable for 40~45 ℃ with the matrix stack temperature, carries out turning when fermentation substrate heap central temperature surpasses 60 ℃, and continues fermentation, during turning 3 times, make inside and outside fermentation evenly;
4) corncob fragment, maize straw fragment and the mushroom slag after will fermenting is mixed according to 2.5: 6: 4.5 volume ratio.
The organic substrate and the peat composed of rotten mosses of embodiment 2 preparation: vermiculite be 2: 1 in contrast the physicochemical property of matrix relatively reach the nursery effect checking
A, concrete physicochemical property are more as shown in table 1, and detection method wherein all adopts conventional laboratory facilities
Table 1 compares with the physicochemical property of contrast matrix
Matrix species Unit weight (g/cm 3) Total porosity (%) Quick-acting nitrogen (mg.kg -1) Rapid available phosphorus (mg.kg -1) pH EC (ms/cm)
Contrast matrix 0.260 83.2 453.4 520.0 5.86 1.06
Embodiment 2 0.219 75.2 768.9 889.6 6.89 1.13
As shown in Table 1: the unit weight of formulation media of the present invention, total porosity, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, pH value, EC value and contrast matrix are approaching, all in the suitable physicochemical character scope of general matrix, can satisfy the needs of tomato seedling growth;
The quick-acting nitrogen of formulation media of the present invention, available phosphorus contents be apparently higher than contrast, can suitably reduce between nursery stage replenishing of nitrogen, phosphate fertilizer in the water and fertilizer management.
B, nursery effect checking
Respectively two kinds of mechanism are packed into after evenly in the dish of 50 holes, sow preceding 1 day water and irrigate standby;
Seed is selected for use: tomato seeds of Jinpeng
Rearing condition: between nursery stage, daytime, thermophilic was 20~25 ℃, and night, thermophilic was 10~15 ℃, and tomato is a happiness photosensitiveness crop, thus grow seedlings should be suitable at temperature condition, intensity of illumination carries out in the facility preferably;
Spray water every day 1~2 time between nursery stage, and after first true leaf occurred, water management was tending towards normally promptly once irrigating, and watered the water second time when waiting to become a cadre again, during need carry out surface sprinkling, watering time is to be advisable morning;
And begin to water nutrient solution when rough leaf occurs, jede Woche waters once, and nutrient solution is CO (NH 2) 2500mg.kg -1, KH 2PO 4400mg.kg -1Aqueous solution liquid; The calendar seedling age of growing seedlings autumn is 40~50 days, or form reaches 5~7 true leaves and can go out the garden.
Concrete nursery effect contrast is as shown in table 2:
Table 2 and the comparison of contrast to the tomato seedling morphological index
Matrix species Plant height (cm) Stem thick (cm) Single-strain fresh weight (g) Ground fresh weight (g) Strong sprout index
Contrast matrix 16.87 0.348 ?18.13 ?2.08 0.3099
Embodiment 2 16.83 0.341 18.17 2.02 0.4114
Annotate: strong sprout index be stem thick/plant height * single-strain fresh weight.
By nursery effect comparative test (table 2) as can be known: the matrix formulations of Application Example 2 is grown seedlings in cave dish, the plant height of its rice shoot, stem are thick, single-strain fresh weight, total dry weight and strong sprout index all with the contrast matrix seedling there was no significant difference that with the peat composed of rotten mosses is key component;
Observe in the test, the tomato seedling root system that contrast seedling matrix is cultivated has formed dense root net in matrix, and hair root is a lot; And the seedling that organic substrate of the present invention is cultivated has also formed closeer root net.From the moulding (can root stick together moulding directly to affect and transplant quality) that sticks together of seedling total quality and root, soilless culture organic matrix provided by the invention does not have significant difference with the contrast that with the peat composed of rotten mosses is key component.Therefore, can to substitute with the peat composed of rotten mosses be the contrast matrix of key component to this matrix formulations.

Claims (5)

1. soilless culture organic matrix that is used for tomato seedling, it is characterized in that, this matrix be with the corncob fragment behind the fermentation vat heap fermentation, maize straw fragment and mushroom slag respectively according to (1.5~2.5): (4~6): the volume ratio of (1.5~4.5) is mixed;
Described mushroom slag is the bar-shaped composts or fertilisers of cultivating that artificial planting is crossed the edible mushroom flat mushroom;
Described corncob fragment, maize straw fragment are regulated its C/N=20~30: 1 before fermentation.
2. the soilless culture organic matrix that is used for tomato seedling as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that: described heap fermentation is to be that 2 meters of fermentation heap bottom width, 1.8~2 meters of height are become thoroughly decomposed in accumulation under the situation of mass fraction 60%~70% in water content; The fermentation temperature of matrix heap is 40~45 ℃, carries out turning when fermentation substrate heap central temperature surpasses 60 ℃.
3. a preparation method who is used for the soilless culture organic matrix of tomato seedling is characterized in that, may further comprise the steps:
1) maize straw and maize cob meal being broken into particle diameter is that the long fragment of 1cm~3cm is standby;
2) maize straw fragment and corncob fragment are regulated its C/N=20~30: 1 with aqueous solution of urea respectively;
3) water content that will regulate the mushroom slag after maize straw fragment, corncob fragment and the fragmentation of C/N is adjusted between the mass fraction 60%~70%, is that fermentation substrate is inserted fermentation vat and carried out heap fermentation with it respectively then; The fermentation temperature of matrix heap is 40~45 ℃, carries out turning when fermentation substrate heap central temperature surpasses 60 ℃, continues fermentation then, and turning is 3~5 times between whole yeast phase;
4) corncob fragment, maize straw fragment and the mushroom slag after will fermenting is according to (1.5~2.5): (4~6): the volume ratio of (1.5~4.5) is mixed.
4. the preparation method who is used for the soilless culture organic matrix of tomato seedling as claimed in claim 3 is characterized in that described heap fermentation also adds the leavening of fermentation substrate quality 0.3 ‰, to improve fermentation rate.
5. the preparation method who is used for the soilless culture organic matrix of tomato seedling as claimed in claim 3 is characterized in that, the stacking volume that described heap fermentation is also pressed fermentation substrate adds 20kg~30kg/m 3Living cow dung, to improve fermentation rate.
CN2009102188584A 2009-11-06 2009-11-06 Soilless culture organic matrix used for tomato seedling raising and preparation method thereof CN101697705B (en)

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