CN108812259A - Improve the cultural method of greenhouse organic matrix type soilless cultivation thick-skinned melon quality and yield - Google Patents

Improve the cultural method of greenhouse organic matrix type soilless cultivation thick-skinned melon quality and yield Download PDF

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CN108812259A
CN108812259A CN201810392733.2A CN201810392733A CN108812259A CN 108812259 A CN108812259 A CN 108812259A CN 201810392733 A CN201810392733 A CN 201810392733A CN 108812259 A CN108812259 A CN 108812259A
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thick
fruit
melon
water
cultivation
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杨威
闫海霞
曹布霆
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Huaiyin Normal University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • Y02P60/21Dinitrogen oxide [N2O], e.g. using aquaponics, hydroponics or efficiency measures

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Soil Sciences (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Cultivation Of Plants (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of methods for improving greenhouse organic matrix type soilless cultivation thick-skinned melon quality and yield, including select excellent variety nurturing staff and be colonized in due course, and a series of scientific managements carried out after field planting;Its feature is mainly:At the beginning of the suitable sowing date of Huanghuai Area North Jiangsu Area spring stubble is first arrival in January 2 months;Top dressing uses coarse colza meal, when use its in mass ratio 1:120 are mixed into water, stir evenly, and are poured near Muskmelon Plants root system morning, mu coarse colza meal 22.5kg, Topdressing Stage avoid florescence, are arranged in thick-skinned melon plant vegetative growth phase and fruiting period, imposing number is vegetative growth phase 1-3 time, fruiting period 3-6 times.The present invention solves that its fruit quality is not excellent enough, the not high enough problem of yield, and further reduced the usage amount of chemical fertilizer and pesticide in cultivation, organising for its cultivation is realized to the maximum extent, promote growth of agricultural efficiency, increasing peasant income provide high-quality, safe table food for common people.

Description

Improve the cultivation of greenhouse organic matrix type soilless cultivation thick-skinned melon quality and yield Method
Technical field
The invention belongs to field of plant cultivation, and in particular to improve greenhouse organic matrix type soilless cultivation thick-skinned melon quality With the cultural method of yield.
Background technique
Muskmelon, alias muskmelon, honeydew melon belong to Curcurbitaceae Cucumis, are annual climbing herb plant, and fruit fragrance is sweet Sweet tea can also make dried fruit, preserved fruit etc. based on fresh food, be worldwide high-grade fruit, very popular.Melon variety money Source very abundant, classification method multiplicity, according to ecological characteristics, muskmelon is usually divided into thick-skinned melon and Melon two by China Big ecotype.The non-ecotype in thick-skinned melon category, originates in Africa, requires environmental condition stringent, pyrophilous dry climate, Not humidity, it is desirable that have biggish day and night temperature and sufficient illumination, melon meat is thicker, and generally in 2 cm or more, melon skin is harder, no It is edible.Melon originates in the warm and moist area in India and China, and it is environmental to belong to East Asia, like it is warm, compared with moisture-proof, anti- Sick, adaptable, melon skin is thin, easy to crack, not storage tolerance, and melon meat is crisp, succulence or face, few juice, and melon skin crisp fritter, melon pork skin flesh can be together It is edible.Thick-skinned melon pol in the market is different, different same breed, and most of sugar contents are not high enough, Its quality is severely impacted.By the plantation of many years, it has been found that date of seeding is influence the thick-skinned melon sugar content of fruit one big Factor, and sugar content is to measure the important indicator of its fruit quality, that is to say, that date of seeding is to influence thick-skinned melon fruit quality A key factor.
Traditional organic substrate type cultivation technique without soil is a kind of without natural soil, and uses matrix, and be equipped with certain ratio The organic solid-state fertilizer of example, without traditional nutrition liquid irrigation root system of plant, and directly uses the soilless cultivation skill of clear water irrigated crop Art.Although the technology solves the problems, such as plantation green or organic vegetable on bare place, and shorter cultivating some growth periods Leaf vegetables on be excellent in, but according to a conventional method be applied to some Long term cultivations fruit vegetables(Such as pachydermia sweet tea Melon)On then Shortcomings, be mainly reflected in that the middle and late growth stage nutrition supply is insufficient, to cause its quality not excellent enough, yield is not Situations such as enough high.According to soil cultivation, conventional solution be using chemical fertilizer carry out top dressing, though this method can increase pachydermia Melon yield, the problems such as but will cause its quality decline, and be unfavorable for realizing organising for cultivation.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is:It provides and a kind of improves greenhouse organic matrix type soilless cultivation thick-skinned melon quality and yield Cultural method, i.e., it is main by determining suitable date of seeding, organic substrate composition is adjusted, and use more quick-acting organic fertilizer-dishes Seed cake powder solves the problems, such as that its fruit quality is not excellent enough, yield is not high enough as top dressing, and further decrease cultivation in chemical fertilizer and The usage amount of pesticide realizes organising for its cultivation to the maximum extent, promotes growth of agricultural efficiency, and increasing peasant income provide for common people High-quality, safe table food.
The technical solution of the invention is as follows the raising greenhouse organic matrix type soilless cultivation thick-skinned melon quality and yield Cultural method specifically comprise the following steps:
(1)Prepare organic substrate:It is matched using commodity organic substrate and other substances, forms the excellent of best physicochemical character Matter organic substrate;
(2)Select excellent variety:The thick-skinned melon variety for selecting high-quality, high yield, disease resistance strong;
(3)Determine date of seeding:Suitable date of seeding is selected, the plant blossom phase avoids rainy weather as far as possible, and fruiting period comes warm round the clock as far as possible When difference is big;
(4)Nurturing staff:This is conducive to the cultivation purpose that good quality and high output is better achieved in thick-skinned melon;
(4-1)Presoaking and germinating:Using the method for hoting water treatment of seeds;
(4-2)Hole plate seedling growth:Nursery carries out in facility, and using 50 or 72 hole hole trays, a seed is broadcast in every hole, above covers matrix about 1cm is sprinkled profoundly water;Seed plate is then placed on the ground hot line completed by nursery during the cold season, and plastic film is covered in hole tray, is taken thereon Small plastic shed is built, canopy film is covered, covers thick non-woven fabrics before the dusk in canopy film;In hot season nursery, then black is covered in hole tray Sunshade net;After 70% or so seed is unearthed, the covering in hole tray is removed in time;
(4-3)Seedling management:Regulate and control seedbed ambient enviroment temperature and humidity, creates the external condition for being suitble to seedling development;
(4-3-1)Temperature management:Before emergence, nursery bed temperature is maintained at 30 DEG C or so, 20 DEG C of night or so of daytime;It is white after emergence It 25-30 DEG C, 15-20 DEG C of night;First 3-4 days of field planting, suitably cooling hardening, to adapt to field planting greenhouse temperature condition;
(4-3-2)Water management:Hole tray is not watered generally before emerging, after emergence according to water regime in hole tray and weather conditions into Row watering, pouring must irrigate every time;
(4-3-3)Illumination management:After emergence, under conditions of temperature allows, guarantee good illumination condition;
(5)Field planting in due course:Three leaves wholeheartedly left and right is grown to young plant, after the tight matrix of root system disk sticks together, is colonized in time;It is loaded into before field planting The organic substrate of cultivation bed is sprinkled profoundly water using dropper band;It is selected in cold tail when field planting and warms up head, the cloudy morning or fine day afternoon carry out, single Row field planting, spacing in the rows 40cm, line-spacing 100cm, field planting depth sticks together with matrix to be flushed or slightly above matrix sticks together;It is sufficiently irrigated in matrix In the case of, small water is poured after cultivation;
(6)It is managed after field planting:It is colonized laggard trip temperature, illumination, humidity, moisture, top dressing, hanging tendril training, artificial pollination and disease pest Evil prevention and treatment;
(6-1)Temperature management:It being colonized daytime temperature in latter week and is maintained at 30 DEG C or so, nighttime temperature is maintained at 20 DEG C or so, Not less than 15 DEG C;After slow seedling to before sitting melon, temperature is maintained at 25-30 DEG C daytime, and night is at 15-20 DEG C;To fruit after seat melon End is expanded, is maintained at 30-35 DEG C daytime, night at 20 DEG C or so, is not less than 15 DEG C;Harvest stages are expanded in fruit stopping, Appropriate cooling, is maintained at 25-30 DEG C daytime, night is at 15-20 DEG C;
(6-2)Illumination management:In entire cultivation, under conditions of guaranteeing reasonable temperature, good illumination is created as far as possible Condition;Using the good high-quality anti-dropping film of light transmittance, Reflecting curtain is hanged up in rear wall of greenhouse;
(6-3)Moisture management:Greenhouse thick-skinned melon moisture management mainly reduces humidity, and the measure for reducing humidity in canopy is main It is ventilation, specific combination temperature management, equilibrium consideration ventilation size and time;
(6-4)Water management:Vegetative growth phase matrix see it is dry see it is wet;Small water is not watered or poured to florescence, depending on weather condition, matrix Depending on water regime and plant growing way;As a result initial stage, i.e. fruit, which start to expand to fruit, is formed, and matrix often keeps wet;Knot The sizing of fruit later period, i.e. fruit carries out rationally control water, does not water or pour as far as possible small water, while organic substrate humidity to fruit maturation It avoids suddenly big or suddenly small, to avoid and split melon;
(6-5)Top dressing management:Top dressing uses coarse colza meal, i.e., resulting powder after crushing block-like rape cake with pulverizer Object;1 is pressed when use:120 ratios are mixed into water, are stirred evenly, and are poured near Muskmelon Plants root system morning, mu coarse colza meal 22.5kg;Topdressing Stage will avoid florescence, be arranged in thick-skinned melon plant vegetative growth phase and fruiting period, impose number as battalion Health is 1-3 time long-term, and fruiting period 3-6 times, specific number is depending on plant growing way and weather condition;
(6-6)Hanging tendril training:When thick-skinned melon plant length to 5-6 leaves, timely hanging tendril;Plant adjustment takes single climing training Mode, stay 3-4 climing seat melons of son at the 12nd-15 leaf of main stem, minor is climing to be removed early, the seat melon seeds selected and remain it is climing 1 leaf pinching is stayed before female flower, the fruit that one or two are straight, growth potential is strong is selected and remain in pollination after the flowers are in blossom when fruit grows to egg size Real, remaining fruit is thinning out in time, and main stem stays 12-13 leaf pinching from melon section is sat upwards;
(6-7)Artificial pollination:Pollination is carried out in 8-10 point of the morning, and the male flower that the same day blooms is taken, petal is removed, by pollen It is gently applied on female chapiter, a male flower smears a female flower;
(6-8)The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:Disease pest is relied mainly on prevention, and environmental condition in control facility is focused on, and reduces humidity, in order to avoid cause disease Occur and spread, while hanging up champac insect-attracting board in facility, ventilation opening adds fly net, physically traps and kills as far as possible Pest cuts off worm sources, prevents insect pest;If the above-mentioned unreachable position of behave, causes pest and disease damage to spread, then select corresponding low Poison, low-residual fumigant carry out smoked kill;
(7)Harvesting:The maturity of fruit is determined according to the maturity of pollination period and kind;It is harvested in time after fruit maturation, simultaneously It avoids harvesting underdone melon.
It is characterized in that:At the beginning of the suitable sowing date of Huanghuai Area North Jiangsu Area spring stubble is first arrival in January 2 months;Top dressing uses rape cake Powder, when use its in mass ratio 1:120 are mixed into water, stir evenly, and are poured near Muskmelon Plants root system morning, mu vegetable seed Cake powder 22.5kg;Topdressing Stage avoids florescence, is arranged in thick-skinned melon plant vegetative growth phase and fruiting period, and imposing number is Vegetative growth phase 1-3 time, fruiting period 3-6 times;Raw material involved in organic substrate composition has coarse colza meal, commodity cultivation base Matter, dregs of beans organic fertilizer, ternary compound fertilizer, potassium dihydrogen phosphate and carbendazim, ratio press quality(kg)To be calculated as 1:75: 8.33:0.33:0.067:0.027.
Wherein, coarse colza meal is resulting powder object after crushing block-like rape cake with pulverizer.
Wherein, the brand of commodity cultivation matrix is:Middle promise, N+P2O5+K2O >=2%, organic matter >=40%, producer:Huaian Zhong Nuo development in agricultural science and technology Co., Ltd of city.
Wherein, the brand of dregs of beans organic fertilizer is:Rich moisture in the soil, trade name:Gao Erji, N+P2O5+K2O >=5%, organic matter >= 80%, living bacteria count >=200,000,000/gram, producer:Hebei Jin Diyuan bio-fertilizer Co., Ltd.
Wherein, the brand of ternary compound fertilizer is:Bright spring day, trade name:Sulphur 56 bulk blended fertilizers of energy, N-P2O5-K2O is 15- 15-15, total nutrient >=45%, total sulfur(S)>=11%, producer:Shandong Hongri Acron Chemical Joint Stock Co., Ltd..
Wherein, the brand of potassium dihydrogen phosphate is:Awake lion, producer:Wuhan chemical industry of inorganic salt Co., Ltd.
Wherein, the brand of carbendazim is:Yang Nong, trade name:Peasant, active constituent content:50%, dosage form:Wettable powder Agent, producer:Jiangsu Yangnong Chemical Group Co., Ltd.
The beneficial effects of the invention are as follows:
(1)This method combines suitable date of seeding, adjusts organic substrate composition, and use more quick-acting organic fertilizer-coarse colza meals As the top dressing of greenhouse organic matrix type soilless cultivation thick-skinned melon, the hair of its Later growth fertilizer deficiency phenomenon is not only prevented in this way It is raw, also solve that its fruit quality is not excellent enough, the not high enough problem of yield, while the trophic level of entire plant is improved, increase Its strong disease resistance, and then reduce the use of chemical pesticide, to realize organising for cultivation, further ensure common people The deliciousness and safety of vegetables on dining table.
(2)At the beginning of the suitable sowing date of Huanghuai Area North Jiangsu Area spring stubble is first arrival in January 2 months, this is to determine fruit pol One critically important external cause.
(3)Seed is sown into hole plate seedling growth after budding using insulating box vernalization is put into after hoting water treatment of seeds;Regulate and control ring around seedbed Border temperature and humidity creates the external condition for being suitble to seedling development;These be all be conducive to thick-skinned melon be better achieved it is high-quality The cultivation step of high yield.
Specific embodiment
Technical solution of the present invention is further illustrated below with reference to embodiment, but these embodiments are not to be construed as to skill The limitation of art scheme.
One, greenhouse cleaning and relevant supplies preparation:After preceding vegetable harvest, greenhouse is cleaned, substrate grooves are emptied, if any The fly net that more renews of necessity, and with the fumigant of controlling disease and insect pest(Such as chlorothalonil smoke and Mobucin fumicants)Smoked canopy, To achieve the purpose that eliminate pathogen and kill pest;Cultivation bed south-north direction in greenhouse, gradient 0.5%, long 740cm are wide 50cm, deep 25cm, separation 50cm, slot bottom spread the small chad of 1-2cm of diameter, the permeable woven cloth in upper berth, then upper berth cultivation base Matter;Wherein, gravelstone gravel bed thickness about 5cm, cultivation matrix thickness about 20cm;Wherein, raw material involved in organic substrate composition has Coarse colza meal(The powder that the rape cake of remaining solid that extracts oil is worn into), commodity cultivation matrix(Brand:Middle promise, N+P2O5+K2O≥ 2%, organic matter >=40%, producer:Huai'an Zhong Nuo development in agricultural science and technology Co., Ltd), dregs of beans organic fertilizer(Brand:Rich moisture in the soil, quotient The name of an article:Gao Erji, N+P2O5+K2O >=5%, organic matter >=80%, living bacteria count >=200,000,000/gram, producer:Hebei Jin Diyuan biology Fertile Co., Ltd), ternary compound fertilizer(Brand:Bright spring day, trade name:Sulphur 56 bulk blended fertilizers of energy, N-P2O5-K2O is 15-15-15, Total nutrient >=45%, total sulfur(S)>=11%, producer:Shandong Hongri Acron Chemical Joint Stock Co., Ltd.), potassium dihydrogen phosphate(Brand: Awake lion, producer:Wuhan chemical industry of inorganic salt Co., Ltd), carbendazim(Brand:Yang Nong, trade name:Peasant, active constituent content: 50%, dosage form:Wettable powder, producer:Jiangsu Yangnong Chemical Group Co., Ltd), ratio is by quality(kg)To be calculated as 1: 75:8.33:0.33:0.067:0.027;
Two, excellent variety is selected:The thick-skinned melon variety for selecting high-quality, high yield, disease resistance strong, what this example was selected is western thin Lip river support 3;
Three, date of seeding is determined:This is a critically important external cause for determining fruit pol, and the plant blossom phase avoids rainy days as far as possible Gas, fruiting period come as far as possible day and night temperature it is big when, as the Huanghuai Area North Jiangsu Area spring stubble suitable sowing date be first arrival in January 2 The beginning of the month;
Four, nurturing staff:Seed is sown into hole plate seedling growth after budding using insulating box vernalization is put into after hoting water treatment of seeds;
(1)Presoaking and germinating:Thick-skinned melon seed is put into 55 DEG C of warm water and impregnates 15min, then pulls out and is put into 30 DEG C of warm water 3-5h are impregnated, is finally wrapped to be fitted into plastic storage box and be put into 30 DEG C of insulating boxs with wet towel and carries out vernalization;Seed is daily It is gently eluriated once with 30 DEG C of warm water, 1-2d budding;
(2)Hole plate seedling growth:Nursery carries out in the greenhouse, and using 50 hole hole trays, a seed is broadcast in every hole, above covers matrix about 1cm, pours It is permeable(Preferably thoroughly without dripping), it is placed on the ground hot line completed, plastic film is covered in hole tray, builds Small plastic shed thereon, is covered Canopy film covers thick non-woven fabrics in canopy film before the dusk;When 70% or so seed is unearthed, the plastics removed in hole tray in time are thin Film;
(3)Seedling management:Regulate and control seedbed ambient enviroment temperature and humidity, creates the external condition for being suitble to seedling development;
(3-1)Temperature management:Before emergence, nursery bed temperature is maintained at 30 DEG C or so, 20 DEG C of night or so of daytime;After emergence, daytime 25-30 DEG C, 15-20 DEG C of night;First 3-4 days of field planting, suitably cooling hardening, to adapt to field planting greenhouse temperature condition;
(3-2)Water management:Hole tray is not watered generally before emerging, and is carried out after emergence according to water regime in hole tray and weather conditions Watering, pouring must irrigate every time;
(3-3)Illumination management:After emergence, under conditions of temperature allows, late lid insulation quilt is taken off as early as possible, and it is thin to open Small plastic shed Film covers again at night for heat preservation, as much as possible guarantees good illumination condition;
Five, field planting in due course:Three leaves wholeheartedly left and right is grown to young plant, after the tight matrix of root system disk sticks together, is colonized in time;It is loaded into before field planting The organic substrate of cultivation bed is sprinkled profoundly water using dropper band, in order to avoid noon greenhouse temperature is again high because of moisture supply deficiency after field planting, is drawn It plays plant to wilt, to extend seedling-slowing stage, reduces survival rate;Be selected in cold tail when field planting and warm up head, the cloudy morning or fine day afternoon into Row, uniline field planting, spacing in the rows 40cm, line-spacing 100cm, field planting depth sticks together with matrix to be flushed or slightly above matrix sticks together;It is abundant in matrix Small water is poured in the case where irrigating, after cultivation, is come into full contact with sharp young plant root system with organic substrate;
Six, it is managed after being colonized:It is colonized laggard trip temperature, illumination, humidity, moisture, top dressing, hanging tendril training, artificial pollination and disease pest Evil prevention and treatment;
(1)Temperature management:It is colonized daytime temperature in latter week and is maintained at 30 DEG C or so, nighttime temperature is maintained at 20 DEG C or so, no Lower than 15 DEG C;After slow seedling to before sitting melon, temperature is maintained at 25-30 DEG C daytime, and night is at 15-20 DEG C;It is swollen to fruit after seat melon Terminate greatly, be maintained at 30-35 DEG C daytime, night at 20 DEG C or so, is not less than 15 DEG C;Harvest stages are expanded in fruit stopping, being fitted Work as cooling, is maintained at 25-30 DEG C daytime, night is at 15-20 DEG C;
(2)Illumination management:In entire cultivation, under conditions of guaranteeing reasonable temperature, good illumination item is created as far as possible Part;Using the good high-quality anti-dropping film of light transmittance, Reflecting curtain is hanged up in rear wall of greenhouse;
(3)Moisture management:Greenhouse thick-skinned melon moisture management mainly reduces humidity, and the major measure for reducing humidity in canopy is Ventilation, specifically needs combination temperature management, and equilibrium considers ventilation size and time;
(4)Water management:Vegetative growth phase matrix inquire for it is dry see it is wet;Small water is not watered or poured to florescence, depending on weather condition, matrix Depending on water regime and plant growing way;As a result initial stage, i.e. fruit, which start to expand to fruit, is formed, and matrix will often keep wet; As a result the sizing of later period, i.e. fruit carries out rationally control water, does not water or pour as far as possible small water, fruit otherwise can be made sugared to fruit maturation Degree reduces, while organic substrate humidity will avoid suddenly big or suddenly small, to avoid and split melon;
(5)Top dressing management:Top dressing uses coarse colza meal, i.e., resulting powder object after crushing block-like rape cake with pulverizer; 1 is pressed when use:120 ratios are mixed into water, are stirred evenly, and are poured near Muskmelon Plants root system morning, mu coarse colza meal 22.5kg;Topdressing Stage will avoid florescence, be arranged in thick-skinned melon plant vegetative growth phase and fruiting period, impose number as battalion Health is 1-3 time long-term, and fruiting period 3-6 times, specific number is depending on plant growing way and weather condition;
(6)Hanging tendril training:When thick-skinned melon plant length to 5-6 leaves, timely hanging tendril;Plant adjustment takes single climing training Mode stays 3-4 climing seat melons of son at the 12nd-15 leaf of main stem, and minor is climing to be removed early, and the seat melon seeds selected and remain are climing female 1 leaf pinching is stayed before spending, the fruit that one is straight, growth potential is strong is selected and remain in pollination after the flowers are in blossom when fruit grows to egg size, remaining Fruit is thinning out in time, and main stem stays 12-13 leaf pinching from melon section is sat upwards;
(7)Artificial pollination:Pollination is carried out in 8-10 point of the morning, and the male flower that the same day blooms is taken, petal is removed, and pollen is light Dab is put on female chapiter, and a male flower smears a female flower;
(8)The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:Disease pest is relied mainly on prevention, and environmental condition in control facility is focused on, and reduces humidity, in order to avoid disease is caused to be sent out Raw and sprawling, while champac insect-attracting board is hanged up in facility, ventilation opening adds fly net, and physically trapping is done harm to as far as possible Worm cuts off worm sources, prevents insect pest;If the above-mentioned unreachable position of behave, causes pest and disease damage to spread, then select corresponding low Poison, low-residual fumigant(Such as chlorothalonil smoke or Mobucin fumicants)Carry out smoked kill;
Seven, it harvests:The maturity of fruit is determined according to the maturity of pollination period and kind;It is harvested in time after fruit maturation, simultaneously It avoids harvesting underdone melon.
Two tests have been done in this cultivation:
Test one:Date of seeding, is scheduled on 2 03rd, 2017, while being also the processing on 2 23rd, 2017 and March 16 with date of seeding As control;It is western thin Lip river support 3 for examination thick-skinned melon variety(It is purchased from Shanghai favour and Seed company);Top dressing is rape cake Powder, i.e., resulting powder object after crushing blocky rape cake with pulverizer, when use its in mass ratio 1:120 are mixed into water, stir It mixes uniformly, is poured morning near Muskmelon Plants root system, mu coarse colza meal 22.5kg;The Topdressing Stage of coarse colza meal is avoided out Florescence is arranged in thick-skinned melon plant vegetative growth phase and fruiting period, and imposing number is vegetative growth phase 1-3 time, fruiting period 3-6 times;Three processing are other than date of seeding, is different, remaining cultivation step is all the same, as described in example;Wherein, date of seeding is 03 day 2 months Processing, March 07 field planting, fruit May 25, harvesting terminated;The processing that date of seeding is 23 days 2 months, field planting on March 27, fruit 6 The harvesting of the moon 13 terminates;Date of seeding is the processing on March 16, and field planting on April 16, fruit July 4, harvesting terminated.Specific test knot Fruit is as follows:
Influence of 1 different sowing dates of table to thick-skinned melon quality and yield
Note:Numerical value is the average value of three repeated experiments in table.
It can be seen in table 1 that the processing that date of seeding is 03 day 2 months, thick-skinned melon fruit pol highest are respectively 2 months than date of seeding The processing in 23 days and March 16 improves about 6.67% and 17.65%, per mu yield also highest, respectively than date of seeding be 23 days 2 months and The processing on March 16 improves 0.27% and 3.92%.Therefore, the processing that date of seeding is 03 day 2 months is best, and quality is high with yield In other processing.
Test two:Doing top dressing is Yi Punong inorganic fertilizer(NPK12-5-40+1MgO+TE, mu dosage 22.5kg)And clear water(No Top dressing, when other processing carry out top dressing every time, which replaces solution with equal amount clear water)Control, control and coarse colza meal Top dressing processing is in addition to After fertilizer is different, remaining cultivation step is all the same, as described in example;Thick-skinned melon variety used is west Bao Luo support 3(It is purchased from Shanghai favour and Seed company), date of seeding is on 2 03rd, 2017.Specific test result is as follows:
Influence of the different top dressings of table 2 to thick-skinned melon quality and yield
Note:Numerical value is the average value of three repeated experiments in table.
As seen from Table 2, top dressing is the processing of coarse colza meal, and thick-skinned melon fruit pol highest is respectively easily general than top dressing Agriculture and the processing of clear water improve 5.96% and 6.67%, though the processing that its per mu yield is Yi Punong lower than top dressing, is only by a narrow margin 0.05%, top dressing is the processing per mu yield of coarse colza meal higher than clear water processing, amplification 4.46%.Comprehensively consider, top dressing is vegetable seed The processing of cake powder behaves oneself best.

Claims (8)

1. a kind of cultural method for improving greenhouse organic matrix type soilless cultivation thick-skinned melon quality and yield, the cultural method packet Include that specific step is as follows:
(1)Prepare organic substrate:It is matched using commodity organic substrate and other substances, forms the excellent of best physicochemical character Matter organic substrate;
(2)Select excellent variety:The thick-skinned melon variety for selecting high-quality, high yield, disease resistance strong;
(3)Determine date of seeding:Suitable date of seeding is selected, the plant blossom phase avoids rainy weather as far as possible, and fruiting period comes warm round the clock as far as possible When difference is big;
(4)Nurturing staff:Seed is sown into hole plate seedling growth after budding using insulating box vernalization is put into after hoting water treatment of seeds;
(4-1)Presoaking and germinating:Thick-skinned melon seed is put into 55 DEG C of warm water and impregnates 15min, then pulls out and is put into 30 DEG C of warm water Middle immersion 3-5h, is finally wrapped to be fitted into plastic storage box and be put into 30 DEG C of insulating boxs with wet towel and carries out vernalization;Seed is every It is gently eluriated once with 30 DEG C of warm water, 1-2d budding;
(4-2)Hole plate seedling growth:Nursery carries out in facility, and using 50 or 72 hole hole trays, a seed is broadcast in every hole, above covers matrix about 1cm is sprinkled profoundly water;Seed plate is then placed on the ground hot line completed by nursery during the cold season, and plastic film is covered in hole tray, is taken thereon Small plastic shed is built, canopy film is covered, covers thick non-woven fabrics before the dusk in canopy film;In hot season nursery, then black is covered in hole tray Sunshade net;After 70% or so seed is unearthed, the covering in hole tray is removed in time;
(4-3)Seedling management:Regulate and control seedbed ambient enviroment temperature and humidity, creates the external condition for being suitble to seedling development;
(4-3-1)Temperature management:Before emergence, nursery bed temperature is maintained at 30 DEG C or so, 20 DEG C of night or so of daytime;It is white after emergence It 25-30 DEG C, 15-20 DEG C of night;First 3-4 days of field planting, suitably cooling hardening, to adapt to field planting greenhouse temperature condition;
(4-3-2)Water management:Hole tray is not watered generally before emerging, after emergence according to water regime in hole tray and weather conditions into Row watering, pouring must irrigate every time;
(4-3-3)Illumination management:After emergence, under conditions of temperature allows, guarantee good illumination condition;
(5)Field planting in due course:Three leaves wholeheartedly left and right is grown to young plant, after the tight matrix of root system disk sticks together, is colonized in time;It is loaded into before field planting The organic substrate of cultivation bed is sprinkled profoundly water using dropper band;It is selected in cold tail when field planting and warms up head, the cloudy morning or fine day afternoon carry out, single Row field planting, spacing in the rows 40cm, line-spacing 100cm, field planting depth sticks together with matrix to be flushed or slightly above matrix sticks together;It is sufficiently irrigated in matrix In the case of, small water is poured after cultivation;
(6)It is managed after field planting:It is colonized laggard trip temperature, illumination, humidity, moisture, top dressing, hanging tendril training, artificial pollination and disease pest Evil prevention and treatment;
(6-1)Temperature management:It being colonized daytime temperature in latter week and is maintained at 30 DEG C or so, nighttime temperature is maintained at 20 DEG C or so, Not less than 15 DEG C;After slow seedling to before sitting melon, temperature is maintained at 25-30 DEG C daytime, and night is at 15-20 DEG C;To fruit after seat melon End is expanded, is maintained at 30-35 DEG C daytime, night at 20 DEG C or so, is not less than 15 DEG C;Harvest stages are expanded in fruit stopping, Appropriate cooling, is maintained at 25-30 DEG C daytime, night is at 15-20 DEG C;
(6-2)Illumination management:In entire cultivation, under conditions of guaranteeing reasonable temperature, good illumination is created as far as possible Condition;Using the good high-quality anti-dropping film of light transmittance, Reflecting curtain is hanged up in rear wall of greenhouse;
(6-3)Moisture management:Greenhouse thick-skinned melon moisture management mainly reduces humidity, and reduces the major measure of humidity in canopy It is ventilation, specific combination temperature management, equilibrium consideration ventilation size and time;
(6-4)Water management:Vegetative growth phase matrix see it is dry see it is wet;Small water is not watered or poured to florescence, depending on weather condition, matrix Depending on water regime and plant growing way;As a result initial stage, i.e. fruit, which start to expand to fruit, is formed, and matrix often keeps wet;Knot The sizing of fruit later period, i.e. fruit carries out rationally control water, does not water or pour as far as possible small water, while organic substrate humidity to fruit maturation It avoids suddenly big or suddenly small, to avoid and split melon;
(6-5)Top dressing management:Top dressing uses coarse colza meal, i.e., resulting powder after crushing block-like rape cake with pulverizer Object;1 is pressed when use:120 ratios are mixed into water, are stirred evenly, and are poured near Muskmelon Plants root system morning, mu coarse colza meal 22.5kg;Topdressing Stage will avoid florescence, be arranged in thick-skinned melon plant vegetative growth phase and fruiting period, impose number as battalion Health is 1-3 time long-term, and fruiting period 3-6 times, specific number is depending on plant growing way and weather condition;
(6-6)Hanging tendril training:When thick-skinned melon plant length to 5-6 leaves, timely hanging tendril;Plant adjustment takes single climing training Mode, stay 3-4 climing seat melons of son at the 12nd-15 leaf of main stem, minor is climing to be removed early, the seat melon seeds selected and remain it is climing 1 leaf pinching is stayed before female flower, the fruit that one or two are straight, growth potential is strong is selected and remain in pollination after the flowers are in blossom when fruit grows to egg size Real, remaining fruit is thinning out in time, and main stem stays 12-13 leaf pinching from melon section is sat upwards;
(6-7)Artificial pollination:Pollination is carried out in 8-10 point of the morning, and the male flower that the same day blooms is taken, petal is removed, by pollen It is gently applied on female chapiter, a male flower smears a female flower;
(6-8)The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:Disease pest is relied mainly on prevention, and environmental condition in control facility is focused on, and reduces humidity, in order to avoid cause disease Occur and spread, while hanging up champac insect-attracting board in facility, ventilation opening adds fly net, physically traps and kills as far as possible Pest cuts off worm sources, prevents insect pest;If the above-mentioned unreachable position of behave, causes pest and disease damage to spread, then select corresponding low Poison, low-residual fumigant carry out smoked kill;
(7)Harvesting:The maturity of fruit is determined according to the maturity of pollination period and kind;It is harvested in time after fruit maturation, simultaneously It avoids harvesting underdone melon.
2. it is characterized in that:At the beginning of the suitable sowing date of Huanghuai Area North Jiangsu Area spring stubble is first arrival in January 2 months;Top dressing uses coarse colza meal, When use its in mass ratio 1:120 are mixed into water, stir evenly, and are poured near Muskmelon Plants root system morning, mu rape cake Powder 22.5kg;Topdressing Stage avoids florescence, is arranged in thick-skinned melon plant vegetative growth phase and fruiting period, imposes number as battalion Health is 1-3 time long-term, and fruiting period 3-6 times;Raw material involved in organic substrate composition has coarse colza meal, commodity cultivation base Matter, dregs of beans organic fertilizer, ternary compound fertilizer, potassium dihydrogen phosphate and carbendazim, ratio press quality(kg)To be calculated as 1:75: 8.33:0.33:0.067:0.027.
3. the method for greenhouse organic matrix type soilless cultivation thick-skinned melon according to claim 1, it is characterized in that:The dish Seed cake powder is resulting powder object after crushing block-like rape cake with pulverizer.
4. the method for greenhouse organic matrix type soilless cultivation thick-skinned melon according to claim 1, it is characterized in that:The quotient The brand of product cultivation matrix is:Middle promise, N+P2O5+K2O >=2%, organic matter >=40%, producer:Promise agricultural science and technology is sent out in Huai'an Open up Co., Ltd.
5. the method for greenhouse organic matrix type soilless cultivation thick-skinned melon according to claim 1, it is characterized in that:The beans The brand of dregs of rice organic fertilizer is:Rich moisture in the soil, trade name:Gao Erji, N+P2O5+K2O >=5%, organic matter >=80%, living bacteria count >=2 Hundred million/gram, producer:Hebei Jin Diyuan bio-fertilizer Co., Ltd.
6. the method for greenhouse organic matrix type soilless cultivation thick-skinned melon according to claim 1, it is characterized in that:Described three The brand of component composite fertilizer is:Bright spring day, trade name:Sulphur 56 bulk blended fertilizers of energy, N-P2O5-K2O is 15-15-15, total nutrient >= 45%, total sulfur(S)>=11%, producer:Shandong Hongri Acron Chemical Joint Stock Co., Ltd..
7. the method for greenhouse organic matrix type soilless cultivation thick-skinned melon according to claim 1, it is characterized in that:The phosphorus The brand of acid dihydride potassium is:Awake lion, producer:Wuhan chemical industry of inorganic salt Co., Ltd.
8. the method for greenhouse organic matrix type soilless cultivation thick-skinned melon according to claim 1, it is characterized in that:It is described more The brand of bacterium spirit is:Yang Nong, trade name:Peasant, active constituent content:50%, dosage form:Wettable powder, producer:It raises in Jiangsu Agrochemicals Group Co., Ltd.
CN201810392733.2A 2018-04-27 2018-04-27 Improve the cultural method of greenhouse organic matrix type soilless cultivation thick-skinned melon quality and yield Pending CN108812259A (en)

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CN117084158A (en) * 2023-10-20 2023-11-21 南昌市农业科学院 Facility cultivation nutrient supply system based on closed-loop environment and measuring method

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CN103598076A (en) * 2013-11-25 2014-02-26 青岛东颐锦禾农业科技有限公司 Solar greenhouse muskmelon organic ecological soilless culture technology
CN103609414A (en) * 2013-11-26 2014-03-05 青岛东颐锦禾农业科技有限公司 Organic ecotype soilless culture technology for muskmelons in sunlight greenhouse
CN104429852A (en) * 2014-11-05 2015-03-25 董承启 Soilless culturing method for small-fruited watermelons
CN107721564A (en) * 2017-10-20 2018-02-23 成都先先先生物科技有限公司 A kind of soilless culture nutrient fluid for increasing production cucumber and preparation method thereof

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CN103598076A (en) * 2013-11-25 2014-02-26 青岛东颐锦禾农业科技有限公司 Solar greenhouse muskmelon organic ecological soilless culture technology
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