CN109757274B - High-yield and high-efficiency transplanting method for momordica grosvenori tissue culture seedlings - Google Patents

High-yield and high-efficiency transplanting method for momordica grosvenori tissue culture seedlings Download PDF

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CN109757274B
CN109757274B CN201910092563.0A CN201910092563A CN109757274B CN 109757274 B CN109757274 B CN 109757274B CN 201910092563 A CN201910092563 A CN 201910092563A CN 109757274 B CN109757274 B CN 109757274B
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fertilizer
seedlings
tissue culture
transplanting
planting
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CN109757274A (en
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秦洪波
江新能
郭伦发
王新桂
韦婉羚
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Guangxi Institute of Botany of CAS
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Abstract

The invention discloses a high-yield and high-efficiency transplanting method of momordica grosvenori tissue culture seedlings, which comprises the following steps of: (1) selecting group-cultured seedlings as cultivation seedlings; (2) and (3) pot seedling cultivation: firstly, filling nutrient soil in a nutrition pot, placing the nursery stock in a small nutrition pot for cultivation, and transplanting the small seedlings of the fructus momordicae tissue culture seedlings from the small nutrition pot to a large nutrition pot for continuous cultivation in the middle 3 months; the temperature for cultivating the pot seedlings is 16-30 ℃; (3) transplanting: transplanting the tissue culture seedlings in the large nutrition pot to a large field for cultivation from the first ten days of 4 months to the middle ten days of 5 months; (4) management after transplanting: the method comprises the steps of mulching or building a shed on a field, managing water and fertilizer, culturing main vines, shaping and pruning, pollinating, managing diseases and insect pests and harvesting. According to the method for transplanting the tissue culture seedlings of the momordica grosvenori at high yield and high efficiency, the number of the momordica grosvenori grown on average is large, the seedling death rate is low, the fruit cracking rate is low, and the fruit diameter is large. Has the advantages of high survival rate, high yield, early greenhouse-growing time, large fruit size and the like.

Description

High-yield and high-efficiency transplanting method for momordica grosvenori tissue culture seedlings
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of cultivation of momordica grosvenori, in particular to a high-yield and high-efficiency transplanting method of momordica grosvenori tissue culture seedlings.
Background
Momordica grosvenori, a fruit of perennial vine plants of the Cucurbitaceae family. It has leaf-heart shape, is a male and female variant, blooms in summer, and fruits in autumn. The momordica grosvenori cultivation method is mainly produced in towns such as the Longjiang county, the Longsheng county, the Baishou county and the like in the Yongfu county and the Longsheng county in the Guilin city of the Guangxi Zhuang nationality, the Yongfu county and the Longsheng county have a long country planting history of the momordica grosvenori, the Yongfu county has more than 300 years of history of the momordica grosvenori planting, ninety percent of the momordica grosvenori in China is produced in the Yongfu county and the Longsheng county, the momordica grosvenori is a famous local special product and is one of the first approved medicinal and edible dual-purpose materials in China, and the momordica grosvenori cultivation method has the main effects of relieving cough and reducing phlegm. The fruit has high nutritive value and is rich in vitamin C (400-500 mg per 100g fresh fruit), glycoside, fructose, glucose, protein, lipid, etc.
The grosvenor momordica fruit is mainly prepared by a vegetative propagation method of root tuber and tendril, and because the vegetative propagation is adopted for a long time, the yield and the quality are reduced, and particularly, pathogens are spread along with propagules, the viral diseases of the grosvenor momordica planting area are serious. Among them, mosaic disease occurs most seriously. In addition, the cultivated varieties are degraded and single, so that partial varieties of the momordica grosvenori are in danger of being planted. In recent years, important progress is made in obtaining disease-free momordica grosvenori germchit by adopting a tissue culture method for detoxification. The application of the tissue culture seedlings of the momordica grosvenori in production has great effect on the income increase of local farmers, changes the problem of low yield of the momordica grosvenori, and needs to be further researched and solved in the technical aspects of disease control, seedling survival rate, fruit yield and the like.
The information disclosed in this background section is only for enhancement of understanding of the general background of the invention and should not be taken as an acknowledgement or any form of suggestion that this information forms the prior art already known to a person skilled in the art.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a high-yield and high-efficiency transplanting method for tissue culture seedlings of momordica grosvenori, so that the defects of low survival rate, low achievement rate and the like of the tissue culture seedlings are overcome.
In order to realize the purpose, the invention provides a high-yield and high-efficiency transplanting method of momordica grosvenori tissue culture seedlings, which comprises the following steps of:
(1) selecting group-cultured seedlings as cultivation seedlings;
(2) and (3) pot seedling cultivation: firstly, filling nutrient soil in a nutrition pot, placing the nursery stock in a small nutrition pot for cultivation, and transplanting the small seedlings of the fructus momordicae tissue culture seedlings from the small nutrition pot to a large nutrition pot for continuous cultivation in the middle 3 months; the temperature for cultivating the pot seedlings is 16-30 ℃;
(3) transplanting: transplanting the tissue culture seedlings in the large nutrition pot to a large field for cultivation from the first ten days of 4 months to the middle ten days of 5 months;
(4) management after transplanting: the method comprises the steps of mulching or building a shed on a field, managing water and fertilizer, culturing main vines, shaping and pruning, pollinating, managing diseases and insect pests and harvesting.
Preferably, in the above technical scheme, the raw materials of the nutrient soil in step (2) include slightly acidic yellow or yellow red loam, organic fertilizer and wood chips.
Preferably, in the above technical scheme, the water and fertilizer management in step (4) includes water supply management and fertilizer management, wherein the water supply management is to control the soil humidity to be 70-80%; the fertilization management comprises the following steps:
(1) after 4-6 days of planting, applying liquid fertilizer in a thin way, and once every 7-10 days; the liquid fertilizer is a liquid organic fertilizer, and urea with the total mass of 0.1-0.2% of the liquid fertilizer is added and mixed;
(2) when the height of the vines is 0.8-1.2m, applying flower-promoting fertilizer and furrow-applying the flower-promoting fertilizer near each plant;
(3) applying a fertilizer for promoting flower bud formation after the flower buds are put on the greenhouse;
(4) and after 8-9 months of flowering and pollination, applying fruit-strengthening fertilizer for 1-2 times.
Preferably, in the technical scheme, the liquid organic fertilizer in the fertilization management step (1) mainly comprises human and animal urine and biogas slurry; the flower forcing fertilizer in the fertilizing management step (2) comprises decomposed tung bran, potassium dihydrogen phosphate and borax; applying a phosphate fertilizer and a potassium fertilizer after the greenhouse is opened in the fertilization management step (3), or supplementing the phosphate fertilizer and the potassium fertilizer with a monopotassium phosphate liquid with the mass concentration of 0.2-1% to spray the liquid level for 2-3 times; the fruit-strengthening fertilizer in the fertilization management step (4) comprises one or more of organic fertilizer, compound fertilizer and urea, or/and phosphate fertilizer or/and potash fertilizer.
Preferably, in the above technical solution, the main vine cultivation in step (4) comprises: the main vines grow to be more than 15-20cm, the main vines are led to be bound on a shed frame, and lateral buds are removed;
preferably, in the above technical solution, the pruning includes: after the main vines are planted on the shed, the main vines are guided to the upward slope direction in the mountain land planting mode, the flat bottoms and the paddy field planting direction are guided to the south side, the single-column type fan-shaped vines are distributed on the shed, and the second-level lateral vines and the third-level lateral vines are cultured to form fruiting vines.
Preferably, in the above technical solution, the pollinating in the step (4) comprises: and completing pollination before the middle ten days of 7 months, wherein 6000 + 6000 flowers are pollinated per mu, and 4000 + 6000 flowers are pollinated after the autumn drought is ended.
Preferably, in the above technical scheme, the pest management in step (4) includes controlling root knot nematode disease, mosaic disease, and bacterial wilt; preventing and treating red spider and melon fly.
Preferably, in the above technical solution, the method for controlling root knot nematode disease comprises the following steps:
(1) planting the tissue culture seedlings and the traditional seedlings separately;
(2) planting fructus Siraitiae Grosvenorii in new land, turning soil 2-3 times before planting, and solarizing to kill ovum;
(3) drying the potatoes in the sun for 2-3 times per year in the growth season of the momordica grosvenori; firstly, digging 1/2 soil for potato seeds, exposing the potato seeds to sunlight to kill worm eggs attached to the surfaces of the potato seeds, or digging the surface soil around the potato seeds to separate the potato seeds and part of root systems from the soil;
(4) mixing the bactericide into farmyard manure and soil in a planting pit per mu before planting, adding water into diseased plants, and spraying the water to the roots of the plants to kill worm eggs;
(5) mixing soil with bactericide, and furrow-applying for 2 times at spring planting and summer root-knot nematode infection peak period;
(6) organic fertilizer and phosphorus-potassium fertilizer are additionally applied, so that the disease resistance of plants is enhanced;
(7) removing the diseased plant, and disinfecting or digging away the old soil with the square of 40-60cm around the diseased plant.
Preferably, in the above technical solution, the method for controlling mosaic disease comprises:
(1) planting stem tip detoxified tissue culture seedling;
(2) the phosphorus-potassium fertilizer is additionally applied, so that the disease resistance of plants is improved;
(3) mixed planting in the orchard is avoided, and cucurbitaceae and solanaceous vegetables are not suitable to be planted in or near the orchard;
(4) spraying 3000 times of liquid 2000 + imidacloprid wettable powder with 10 percent to prevent the aphids of the virus-transmitting insects;
(5) 33-50g of morphine hydrochloride wettable powder, 12-15g of 10% jinggangmycin suspending agent and 0.3-0.5g of 1.8% idoxuron are mixed and sprayed per mu; spraying 1 time respectively in seedling stage, growth stage and shed-in stage, or spraying 70-100g of 8% ningnanmycin aqua per mu for 1 time 7 days, and continuously spraying for 3-4 times, wherein the medicine is applied for protection when the rain turns to be clear for a long time or when the rain turns to be clear for a long time; when in use, pesticide or auxin is added;
preferably, in the above technical scheme, the method for controlling bacterial blight comprises: applying 50-100kg of lime and 2-5kg of borax per mu in soil preparation, and applying or spraying boron fee to plants with diseases.
Preferably, in the above technical solution, the method for controlling red spiders comprises: controlling with pesticide of avermectin during the occurrence period;
preferably, in the above technical scheme, the method for controlling melon flies comprises: mixing 35-50 parts of bananas, 0.1-1 part of 90% trichlorfon and 0.5-2 parts of essence, adding water, blending into paste to prepare poison bait, coating the poison bait on the hedgerow bamboo or putting the mixture into a container to be hung under a shed when in use, laying 10-30 points per mu, and trapping and killing adult insects every 20-30 g;
preferably, in the above technical scheme, the method for controlling melon flies comprises: the pesticide spray is used for preventing and treating, and 2.5 percent deltamethrin 1500-.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects: according to the method for transplanting the tissue culture seedlings of the momordica grosvenori at high yield and high efficiency, the number of the momordica grosvenori grown on average is large, the seedling death rate is low, the fruit cracking rate is low, and the fruit diameter is large. Has the advantages of high survival rate, high yield, early greenhouse-growing time, large fruit size and the like.
Detailed Description
The following detailed description of the present invention will be given with reference to specific examples, but it should be understood that the scope of the present invention is not limited to the specific embodiments.
A high-yield and high-efficiency transplanting method for tissue culture seedlings of momordica grosvenori comprises the following steps:
1. selection of varieties: the variety of the fructus momordicae selected by the invention is Berlin II;
2. cultivation of pot seedlings
(1) The requirement of soil: the soil is fertile, the humus is rich, the drainage and ventilation are good, the water and fertilizer retention are strong, and loose and moist subacid yellow soil or yellow red soil is mixed with a proper amount of organic fertilizer and wood dust to be used as the nutrient soil of the pot seedlings. Wherein the volume ratio of the mixture of the slightly acidic yellow soil or yellow red soil, the organic fertilizer and the wood chips is 3:3: 2.
(2) The appropriate growth temperature is as follows: grosvenor momordica fruit is warm, afraid of frost and snow and not resistant to high temperature. In early spring, when the temperature is lower than 12 deg.C, the seedlings are easy to freeze, grow at the temperature above 15 deg.C, grow well at 22-30 deg.C, and inhibit continuous high-temperature (above 33 deg.C), and the suitable annual average temperature is 16-22 deg.C.
(3) And (3) watering in a proper amount: fructus Siraitiae Grosvenorii is wet and foggy, and the rain amount is sufficient and uniform in the growth period, but water accumulation is avoided;
(4) and (3) fertilizing in a proper amount: in the growing period, a proper amount of fertilizer is applied, which is beneficial to the rapid growth of pot seedlings;
(5) and (3) transferring the small pot seedlings to the large pot seedlings to cultivate in a greenhouse: the effective measure for accelerating the growth speed of the momordica grosvenori planted in early spring is to increase the temperature of the growth environment of the momordica grosvenori while topdressing, so that small seedlings of the momordica grosvenori tissue culture seedlings are transferred from a small nutrition pot to a large nutrition pot in the middle 3 months and are continuously cultivated in a greenhouse to the middle 4 months.
3. Time of transplantation
The selected transplanting time is from the first ten days of 4 months to the middle ten days of 5 months, the time is the most suitable period for transplanting the tissue culture seedlings to the field, the temperature is raised and stable after the first ten days of 5 months, the tissue culture seedlings can adapt to the external environment after being transplanted, the tissue culture seedlings grow normally, the disease infection is less, the management is convenient, the full-bloom period occurs in the early stage of high temperature drought, the influence on the growth and development of fruits is small, the yield is high, the number of commercial fruits is large, and the planting in the weather with over-strong sunlight and over-high temperature is avoided as much as possible.
4. Management after transplanting: transplanting the tissue culture seedlings to a greenhouse for culture, transplanting the seedlings to a field in the first ten days of 4 months to the middle ten days of 5 months, and covering the seedlings with a small arched film after transplanting the seedlings to the field.
(1) Building a shed: the shed frame is built before planting, the height of the shed is determined by the height of managers, and the shed can be built by using cement columns and iron wires and paved by small bamboo branches or small tree branches.
(2) Water supply: the humidity required during the whole growth period of the cultured seedlings is about 80 percent. High-temperature drought is a big enemy of siraitia grosvenorii planting and is also a main reason for difficult planting on flat lands. Only if water is supplied in due time, the success of planting can be ensured.
(3) Picking lateral buds, preserving main vines and putting the main vines on a shed: the main vines grow to be more than 15-20cm, a bamboo branch is inserted, and the main vines are led and tied to the shed frame section by section through ropes. The side buds of the tissue culture seedlings are more in germination and should be erased in time so as to facilitate the concentrated nutrients for the growth of main tendrils and the early shed-keeping;
(4) shaping and trimming: the shaping and pruning are one of the key technologies for the success or failure of the planting of the tissue culture seedlings of the momordica grosvenori. After the main vines are planted on the shed, the main vines are guided to the ascending direction in mountainous region planting, the flat ground and the paddy field face the south, and the single plants are distributed in the shed in a fan shape. The tissue culture seedling of the momordica grosvenori is mainly fruited by secondary and tertiary lateral tendrils, so that the formation of the secondary lateral tendrils as soon as possible is the key point of high yield;
(5) pollination: the grosvener siraitia is a male and female heteroplant, and the fruit bearing can be realized only by artificial pollination (flower spotting), and the pollination is preferably carried out in the morning. In the Guilin area, autumn drought occurs frequently, the flower pollination of the Grosvenor momordica fruit is finished before the middle ten days of 7 months, and about 1 ten thousand flowers are planted every 667m 2; after the autumn drought is finished, a batch of flowers are spotted again, and the number of the flowers is controlled to be about 6000.
(6) Fertilizing: the tissue culture seedling with the seedling fertilizer grows slowly in the early period and grows fast in the later period. After planting for 5 days, the liquid fertilizer can be thinly applied to promote the growth of plants, and the liquid fertilizer is generally applied for 1 time in 7-10 days. Mainly retting mature human excrement and biogas slurry, and adding 0.1-0.2% of urea. When the height of the vines is about 1m, 0.5kg of decomposed tung tree bran is applied to each plant, and 100-150g of monopotassium phosphate and a proper amount of borax are added (furrow application), so that the early flowering of the plants is promoted. After the flower is put on the shed, 150g of phosphate fertilizer and 150g of potassium fertilizer (potassium sulfate) are applied, and if necessary, 0.5% monopotassium phosphate solution can be sprayed on the leaf surface for 2-3 times so as to promote the formation of flower buds. The strong fruit fertilizer is applied for 1-2 times in the period of fast fruit expansion (8-9 months), mainly human excrement, compound fertilizer and urea, and properly added with phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer. And simultaneously, a small amount of boron fertilizer is sprayed to promote fruit enlargement.
(7) Fruit picking: the fruits of the momordica grosvenori are ripe in the morning and at the evening, and are ripe for 70-90 days after pollination due to different varieties and different climatic conditions of the flowering phase. Collected when the peel is green and hard and the stalk turns yellow and fully matures.
Major pest control
1. Root knot nematode disease (root and tuber diseases caused by root knot nematodes, which are main diseases in local momordica grosvenori production), the control method comprises the following steps:
(1) the disease-free nursery garden is established without planting the tissue culture seedlings and the traditional seedlings in a mixed mode.
(2) The fructus momordicae is planted in a newly reclaimed land, and the soil is turned over 2-3 times before planting to expose the sun to kill eggs.
(3) And (3) sunning the potatoes for 2-3 times per year in the growth season of the momordica grosvenori, wherein soil for planting the potatoes is opened 1/2, the potatoes are sunned by sunlight to kill eggs attached to the surfaces of the potatoes and enhance the disease resistance, or surface soil around the potatoes is excavated, the potatoes and part of root systems are separated from the soil, and the harm of root-knot nematodes is reduced.
(4) 0.5kg of good fortune, 4-5kg of Anoplophorae Seu Aprionae, 1kg of nematode killer and the like are added into farmyard manure and soil in each mu before planting, and the roots of the infected plants are drenched with water to kill worm eggs.
(5) 3-4kg of miele soil is used for planting in spring every year and furrow application is carried out for 2 times in summer at the peak of root-knot nematode infection.
(6) Organic fertilizer and phosphorus-potassium fertilizer are additionally applied, and the disease resistance of plants is enhanced.
(7) The diseased plants are removed in time and burned out intensively. The old soil 50cm square around the diseased plant is disinfected or dug away.
2. Mosaic disease: prevention and control method
(1) Planting stem tip detoxified tissue culture seedling.
(2) And 4, applying a phosphorus-potassium fertilizer to improve the disease resistance of plants.
(3) Preventing diseases from being artificially transmitted.
(4) Avoid mixed planting in the orchard. Particularly, cucurbits and solanaceous vegetables are not suitable to be planted in or near orchards.
(5) 10% imidacloprid wettable powder 2000-3000 times liquid is sprayed in time to prevent the aphids of the virus-transmitting insects.
(6) 33-50g of morphine hydrochloride wettable powder, 12-15g of 10% jinggangmycin suspending agent and 0.3-0.5g of 1.8% idoxue are mixed and sprayed per mu. The spraying is carried out for 1 time in seedling stage, growth stage and shed-in stage respectively, which can reduce the damage of mosaic disease, and 8% ningnanmycin solution 70-100g is sprayed for 1 time 7 days, and the application is carried out for 3-4 times continuously, when the long rain turns to be clear or when the long rain turns to be rain, the application is carried out in time. When the pesticide is applied, an insecticide or auxin is added.
3. Method for preventing and treating bacterial wilt
Boron deficiency is a major cause of the occurrence of bacterial blight. Applying 50-100kg lime and 3kg borax in each mu of land preparation for preventing diseases. The plants that have developed the disease may be sprayed with boron fertilizers, such as boron celecoxib.
4. Preventing and treating red spider of momordica grosvenori
The larva and imago are used as the harm to the leaves, calyx and fruits of the grosvenor momordica. The leaves become yellow, crisp and hard, and are in a curled shape, the plant growth is poor, even the leaves and fruits fall, and the yield and the quality of the momordica grosvenori are greatly influenced. The majority of the diseases are concentrated in 7-9 months. During the occurrence period, biological pesticides of avermectins are used for control.
5. Prevention and control of melon flies
The fruit flies eat fruits by boring with larvae, so that the fruits are rotten, yellow and shed, and the yield and the quality of the momordica grosvenori are seriously affected. The adult insects can be trapped and killed by poison bait, which is prepared by mixing 40 parts of banana, 0.5 part of 90% trichlorfon and 1 part of essence with water to obtain paste, directly coating the paste on the hedgerow of the melon shed or placing the paste in a container to hang under the shed, wherein 20 dots are distributed per mu, and each dot is 25g, so that the adult insects can be trapped and killed. The pesticide can be sprayed with 3000 times of 2.5% deltamethrin solution.
Influence of planting at different time on growth and yield of tissue culture seedlings of momordica grosvenori
The cultivation methods are the same, but the planting time is different. The plants were observed for time to shed, flowering and fruit ripening, individual plant yield, seedling mortality and fruit dehiscence, and the results are shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1 Effect of different planting times on plant growth and yield
Figure BDA0001963674130000081
Figure BDA0001963674130000091
Note: the different lower case letters after the same column of data indicate significant differences at the 0.05 level, the same below.
As shown in Table 1, the seedling death rate of the plants planted in the middle 3 months is the highest and reaches 11.63%, while the seedling death rate of the plants planted in the middle 5 months is the lowest and is only 2.12%, and the difference between the two is obvious. The fruit cracking rate is arranged from large to small: the number of the last 6 th-month is more than 5 the middle of the month and the number of the last 4 th-month is more than 3 the middle of the month, and the fruit cracking rate of the momordica grosvenori is increased sequentially along with the delay of the planting time; the fruit cracking rate is as high as 26.36% in more than 6 th ten days, and the method is remarkably different from other four treatments; the fruit cracking rate in the last 6 months is 4.82-14.10 times higher than that of the other four treatments on average. The average plant yield of the momordica grosvenori planted in the middle of 5 months, the last of 4 months and the middle of 3 months is not greatly different, and the variance analysis result shows that the difference between the four is not obvious. Of the 5 treatments, the average plant yield was highest in the last 4 months, and the average plant yield was lowest in the last 6 months, which are significantly different.
Therefore, the time of shed-setting, flowering and fruit ripening of each treatment are combined to show that early planting can lead the plants to be earlier shed-setting, flowering and fruit-bearing, the air temperature begins to rise along with the prolonging of the planting time, the time from planting to shed-setting, flowering and fruit-bearing is gradually shortened, the seedling death rate begins to decrease, and the fruit-cracking rate gradually increases.
Secondly, the influence of different transplanting modes on the growth and yield of the tissue culture seedlings of the momordica grosvenori
The cultivation methods are the same, except that 4 different transplanting modes are adopted.
T1: transferring the small seedlings from the small nutrition bowls to the big bowls in the middle 3 months, continuously cultivating in a greenhouse (controlling the temperature to be 25-30 ℃) until the temperature is relatively high in the middle 4 months, transplanting the seedlings into a field for field planting, and applying retted bran fertilizer or 1% potassium sulfate compound fertilizer liquid fertilizer every 3 days.
T2: and (3) directly transplanting the seedlings in the middle ten days of the month to a field for field planting, and then covering the seedlings with a small arch film, wherein the seedlings are timely opened and covered according to weather change in the period.
T3: and (3) directly transplanting the seedlings in the middle ten days of the month to a field for field planting, and covering the compartment surface with a black film.
T4: the seedlings without cultivation were directly planted in the field in late 4 months, and the amount of plant growth, the time to put on the greenhouse, the time to bud, the time to bloom and the yield were observed. The results are detailed in table 2.
TABLE 2 Effect of different management methods on plant growth and yield
Figure BDA0001963674130000101
Note: different lower case letters after the same column of data indicate significant differences at the 0.05 level.
As shown in Table 2, T1 treated Lo Han Guo plants were first shed, bud, early flowering and full flowering. The shed setting time of the three treatments of T2, T3 and T4 is basically the same, but the bud development time, the initial flower and the full-bloom time are all slower than the treatment of T2 and T3 by one month; the growth stages of the T2 and T3 treatments were consistent. From table 2, the average plant yield of the treated siraitia grosvenorii is arranged from large to small: t1 > T2 > T3 > T4, and the fruit diameters are arranged from large to small: t1 > T3 > T2 > T4; the average plant yield, the daily average growth amount and the maximum fruit diameter of the momordica grosvenori are processed at T1, the minimum value is processed at T4, and the difference between the two is obvious.
The foregoing descriptions of specific exemplary embodiments of the present invention have been presented for purposes of illustration and description. It is not intended to limit the invention to the precise form disclosed, and obviously many modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teaching. The exemplary embodiments were chosen and described in order to explain certain principles of the invention and its practical application to enable one skilled in the art to make and use various exemplary embodiments of the invention and various alternatives and modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated. It is intended that the scope of the invention be defined by the claims and their equivalents.

Claims (4)

1. A high-yield and high-efficiency transplanting method of Momordica grosvenori tissue culture seedlings is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) selecting group-cultured seedlings as cultivation seedlings;
(2) and (3) pot seedling cultivation: firstly, filling nutrient soil in a nutrition pot, placing the nursery stock in a small nutrition pot for cultivation, and transplanting the small seedlings of the fructus momordicae tissue culture seedlings from the small nutrition pot to a large nutrition pot for continuous cultivation in the middle 3 months; the temperature for cultivating the pot seedlings is 16-30 ℃;
(3) transplanting: transplanting the tissue culture seedlings in the large nutrition pot to a large field for cultivation from the first ten days of 4 months to the middle ten days of 5 months;
(4) management after transplanting: the method comprises the steps of mulching or building a shed on a field, managing water and fertilizer, culturing main vines, shaping and pruning, pollinating, managing diseases and insect pests and harvesting;
wherein the water and fertilizer management comprises water supply management and fertilization management, and the water supply management is to control the soil humidity to be 70-80%; the fertilization management comprises the following steps:
(a) after 4-6 days of planting, applying liquid fertilizer in a thin way, and once every 7-10 days; the liquid fertilizer is a liquid organic fertilizer, and urea with the total mass of 0.1-0.2% of the liquid fertilizer is added and mixed; the liquid organic fertilizer consists of human and animal urine and biogas slurry;
(b) when the height of the vines is 0.8-1.2m, applying flower-promoting fertilizer and furrow-applying the flower-promoting fertilizer near each plant; the flower forcing fertilizer comprises decomposed tung bran, monopotassium phosphate and borax;
(c) after the plant is put on the greenhouse, phosphate fertilizer and potassium fertilizer for promoting flower bud formation are applied, or monopotassium phosphate solution with mass concentration of 0.2-1% is applied to spray the liquid surface for 2-3 times
(d) After 8-9 months of flowering and pollination, applying fruit-strengthening fertilizer for 1-2 times, wherein the fruit-strengthening fertilizer comprises one or more of organic fertilizer, compound fertilizer and urea, or/and phosphate fertilizer or/and potassium fertilizer;
wherein, the pest and disease control in the step (4) comprises root knot nematode disease, mosaic disease and bacterial wilt prevention and control; preventing and controlling red spiders and melon flies;
the method for controlling root knot nematode disease comprises the following steps:
(a) planting the tissue culture seedlings and the traditional seedlings separately;
(b) planting fructus Siraitiae Grosvenorii in new land, turning soil 2-3 times before planting, and solarizing to kill ovum;
(c) drying the potatoes in the sun for 2-3 times per year in the growth season of the momordica grosvenori; firstly, digging 1/2 soil for potato seeds, exposing the potato seeds to sunlight to kill worm eggs attached to the surfaces of the potato seeds, or digging the surface soil around the potato seeds to separate the potato seeds and part of root systems from the soil;
(d) mixing the bactericide into farmyard manure and soil in a planting pit per mu before planting, adding water into diseased plants, and spraying the water to the roots of the plants to kill worm eggs;
(e) mixing soil with bactericide, and furrow-applying for 2 times at spring planting and summer root-knot nematode infection peak period;
(f) organic fertilizer and phosphorus-potassium fertilizer are additionally applied, so that the disease resistance of plants is enhanced;
(g) removing the diseased plant, and disinfecting or digging away the old soil with the square of 40-60cm around the diseased plant;
the method for preventing and treating the mosaic disease comprises the following steps:
(a) planting stem tip detoxified tissue culture seedling;
(b) the phosphorus-potassium fertilizer is additionally applied, so that the disease resistance of plants is improved;
(c) mixed planting in the orchard is avoided, and cucurbitaceae and solanaceous vegetables are not suitable to be planted in or near the orchard;
(d) spraying 3000 times of liquid 2000 + imidacloprid wettable powder with 10 percent to prevent the aphids of the virus-transmitting insects;
(e) 33-50g of morphine hydrochloride wettable powder, 12-15g of 10% jinggangmycin suspending agent and 0.3-0.5g of 1.8% idoxuron are mixed and sprayed per mu; spraying 1 time respectively in seedling stage, growth stage and shed-in stage, or spraying 70-100g of 8% ningnanmycin aqua per mu for 1 time 7 days, and continuously spraying for 3-4 times, wherein the medicine is applied for protection when the rain turns to be clear for a long time or when the rain turns to be clear for a long time; when in use, pesticide or auxin is added;
the method for preventing and treating the bacterial wilt comprises the following steps: applying 50-100kg of lime and 2-5kg of borax per mu in soil preparation, and applying or spraying boron fee to plants with diseases;
the method for controlling red spiders comprises the following steps: controlling with pesticide of avermectin during the occurrence period;
the method for controlling the melon flies comprises the following steps: mixing 35-50 parts of bananas, 0.1-1 part of 90% trichlorfon and 0.5-2 parts of essence, adding water, blending into paste to prepare poison bait, coating the poison bait on the hedgerow bamboo or putting the mixture into a container to be hung under a shed when in use, laying 10-30 points per mu, and trapping and killing adult insects every 20-30 g; or spraying the pesticide for prevention and treatment, and spraying the pesticide with 2.5% deltamethrin 1500-.
2. The high-yield and high-efficiency transplanting method of the tissue culture seedlings of momordica grosvenori according to claim 1, wherein the raw materials of the nutrient soil in the step (2) comprise slightly acidic yellow loam or yellow red loam, organic fertilizer and wood chips.
3. The high-yield and high-efficiency transplanting method of the grosvenor momordica tissue culture seedlings according to claim 1, wherein the main vine culture in the step (4) comprises: the main vines grow to be more than 15-20cm, the main vines are led to be bound on a shed frame, and lateral buds are removed;
the plastic pruning comprises the following steps: after the main vines are planted on the shed, the main vines are guided to the upward slope direction in the mountain land planting mode, the flat bottoms and the paddy field planting direction are guided to the south side, the single-column type fan-shaped vines are distributed on the shed, and the second-level lateral vines and the third-level lateral vines are cultured to form fruiting vines.
4. The high-yield and high-efficiency transplanting method of the momordica grosvenori tissue culture seedlings according to claim 1, wherein the pollination in the step (4) comprises the following steps: and completing pollination before the middle ten days of 7 months, wherein 6000 + 6000 flowers are pollinated per mu, and 4000 + 6000 flowers are pollinated after the autumn drought is ended.
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