CN107409706B - Method for improving transplanting survival rate of cassava seedlings - Google Patents

Method for improving transplanting survival rate of cassava seedlings Download PDF

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CN107409706B
CN107409706B CN201710673027.0A CN201710673027A CN107409706B CN 107409706 B CN107409706 B CN 107409706B CN 201710673027 A CN201710673027 A CN 201710673027A CN 107409706 B CN107409706 B CN 107409706B
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seedlings
days
seeds
cassava
transplanting
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CN107409706A (en
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杨海霞
梁振华
黎萍
李恒锐
刘连军
农秋连
青鑫
郭素云
韦雪英
谢君锋
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Guangxi South Subtropical Agricultural Science Research Institute
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for improving the transplanting survival rate of cassava seedlings, which comprises the following steps: (1) preparing a seedling substrate; (2) bagging and cultivating seedlings: transplanting the germinated seeds into a nutrition bag after germination, drenching the nutrition bag with water, culturing at normal temperature, keeping the humidity of the matrix at 50-60% by drenching the nutrition bag after the day, drenching 0.8-1.0% of urea solution every other week after 7 days, and spraying for 2-3 times; spraying 1.8 percent of abamectin emulsifiable solution with 3000-5000 times of the solution and 200-300 times of the bacillus thuringiensis insecticide after 10 days, and spraying once again after 20 days; (3) hardening seedlings; (4) and (5) transplanting to a field. According to the invention, the pesticides are added when the seedling matrix is prepared, and the bactericide is sprayed during the wearing and culturing period of the seedlings, so that the pathological changes of the seedlings are reduced, the pest resistance is improved, and a foundation is laid for improving the transplanting survival rate of the seedlings.

Description

Method for improving transplanting survival rate of cassava seedlings
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of plant sexual propagation, and particularly relates to a cultivation method of cassava seedlings.
Background
Cassava is a plant of the genus cassava of the family euphorbiaceae, is native to the south amazonon river basin, is shrub perennially, grows starch-rich root tubers underground, can obtain higher biomass, is called as "pioneer crops" and "wilderness crops", and is listed as three tuber crops in the world together with sweet potatoes and potatoes. The cassava is coarse and easy to grow, is a typical tropical crop, has outstanding biological characteristics of high starch accumulation, drought resistance, barren resistance and the like, has less plant diseases and insect pests, is distributed in a wide area with 30 degrees of south latitude to 30 degrees of north latitude, less than 1500m of altitude, more than 18 ℃ per year, 240 days in a frost-free period and more than 400mm of annual rainfall, and consists of nodes and internodes, and the growing height of the stem in the current year can reach 1-5m, and the diameter is 1-4 cm; the leaves are single-leaf intergrowth, and the palm shape is deep-split into 5, 7 and 9 small leaves; the flowers are coniform inflorescences, the flower spikes are drawn out from the branches of the stem ends, the male flowers are planted at the upper parts, the female flowers are planted at the lower parts, and fruits can be obtained 2-3 months after flowering, wherein the fruits are capsules, the seeds are kidney-shaped, and the seed coats are hard and gray or black.
With the rapid increase of energy demand in China, cassava becomes an important resource for the development of biomass energy industry in China, the cassava industry gradually changes from a primary stage to a rapid development stage, the industrialization trend is accelerated, and the raw material demand of the processing industry is vigorous. However, the average yield per unit of fresh cassava in Guangxi province and the quality of the fresh cassava are still at a lower level, and the requirements of further development of the cassava industry at present are difficult to adapt. Obviously, by cassava crossbreeding, a new excellent variety which is suitable for local environmental climate conditions and has high yield, strong stress resistance and wide adaptability is bred, and is the core problem to be solved by the current Guangxi cassava system. The cassava seedling cultivation link is also very important, and the key technology is how to improve the germination rate of cassava seeds and the transplanting survival rate of the cassava seedlings and provide more and more robust seedlings for variety breeding.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a method for improving the transplanting survival rate of cassava seedlings, which reduces the pathological changes of the seedlings by adding insecticides when preparing the seedling matrix and spraying bactericides during the wearing culture period of the seedlings, improves the insect-resistant capability and lays a foundation for improving the transplanting survival rate of the seedlings.
A method for improving the transplanting survival rate of cassava seedlings comprises the following steps:
(1) preparing a seedling substrate: mixing pond sludge, surface soil, organic fertilizer and river sand in a ratio of 3-5: 1 to prepare moisture-retaining transparent nutrient soil, fully stirring, mixing 1-2 g of 50% wettable carbendazim powder per square meter of soil, sealing for 5-7 days, ventilating for 3-5 days before use, and filling into a nutrient bag;
(2) bagging and cultivating seedlings: after germination of seedling seeds, transplanting the seedlings into a nutrition bag after true leaves of the seedlings are completely unfolded, burying the roots of the seedlings to the depth of a matrix of 2-3 cm, one bag for one strain, drenching the seedlings thoroughly, placing the seedlings under a sunshade for cultivation at normal temperature, drenching the seedlings to keep the humidity of the matrix of 50-60% in the future, spraying 0.8-1.0% of urea solution for topdressing of the leaves of the seedlings after 7 days, spraying once every 7 days, and spraying 2-3 times until transplanting the seedlings to a field; after 10 days of cultivation, spraying 1.8 percent of abamectin emulsifiable solution with 3000-5000 times of liquid and 200-300 times of bacillus thuringiensis insecticide, and spraying once again after 20 days;
(3) hardening seedlings: removing the sunshade net after 20 days, hardening off seedlings and cultivating for 5-7 days, and outplanting and field planting when the seedlings grow to 25-30 cm; the seedlings are gradually exercised before field planting, so that the resistance of the seedlings to adverse environments can be improved, the cold resistance and drought resistance of the seedlings are enhanced, and the exercised seedlings are quickly revived and early rooted after field planting;
(4) transplanting the field: transplanting the seedlings to a land field with existing irrigation conditions and waterlogging drainage by using the row spacing of 80-100 cm and the plant spacing of 40-50 cm, pouring enough root fixing water after transplanting, keeping the humidity at 70-80%, and performing conventional field management after 5-7 days to enhance water and fertilizer management and pest control.
Preferably, bagging and cultivating the seedlings, spraying 0.8% urea solution after 7 days to perform seedling leaf surface dressing, spraying once every 7 days, and spraying 2-3 times until transplanting to a field; after 10 days, spraying with 5000 times of 1.8% avermectin emulsifiable solution and 200 times of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticide, and spraying once more after 20 days.
According to the invention, a 0.8% urea solution is adopted as foliage dressing, so that the low-concentration urea can promote the growth of leaves, the root system is robust, the transplanting survival rate is improved, and the seedling hardening caused by excessive fertilization is avoided.
The 1.8% abamectin emulsifiable solution adopting 5000 times of the solution can perform stomach toxicity and contact killing effects on tetranychus cinnabarinus harming cassava, pests have paralysis symptoms, do not move and eat, and die after 2-4 days, so that the insect prevention effect is achieved, the influence of the pests is reduced, the transplanting survival rate is improved, and meanwhile, the pesticide with the concentration does not harm seedlings. The bacillus thuringiensis is a microbial insecticide, 200-time liquid is adopted, toxin generated by the bacillus thuringiensis can stop pests from eating the bacillus thuringiensis, the pests are starved and die to achieve the insect prevention effect, the pests are prevented from biting seedlings to influence the transplanting survival rate, and meanwhile, the pesticide with the concentration does not harm the seedlings.
Preferably, the pond sludge adopted by the invention is old pond sludge smashed by a crusher after being naturally aired for 6-8 months. The surface soil is an area 15-20 cm away from the top of the soil and contains more organic matters and microorganisms. The average grain diameter of the river sand is 0.35-0.50 mm.
Preferably, the pH value of the organic fertilizer is 6.5-7.5, the nutrient content is 10-15% of organic matters, 0.6-0.9% of total nitrogen, 0.3-0.6% of phosphoric acid, 1.0-1.5% of potassium oxide, 280-300 ppm of quick-acting nitrogen, 80-100 ppm of quick-acting phosphorus and 300-320 ppm of quick-acting potassium.
Preferably, before field planting, the field is applied with 20-25 kg of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer as base fertilizer per mu of field, and the base fertilizer is mixed with the planting ditch mud and fished out to serve as planting conditions. The weight ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer is 15: 15.
As the optimization of the technical scheme, the seed selection, the seed soaking in warm soup and the seed germination acceleration are carried out before the seedling substrate is prepared.
Selecting seeds, harvesting mature and full fruits, airing the fruits in a shade, popping the seeds after the fruits naturally burst, and selecting the seeds with full particles. Soaking seeds in water according to the ratio of 1:5 of seeds to water, uniformly stirring, after ten minutes, most of the seeds still floating on the water surface are hollow, discarding, and selecting the seeds with sunk bottoms as breeding materials.
Soaking cassava seeds in warm soup, namely filling the settled cassava seeds into a mesh bag, tightly binding the opening of the bag, and soaking the cassava seeds in a 30-DEG C constant-temperature water bath for 7 hours to carry out warm soup treatment, wherein the warm soup soaking can accelerate the water absorption speed of the seeds and shorten the germination and emergence time.
Accelerating germination of seeds, sowing the seeds soaked in the warm soup by adopting a sand bed, putting clean pure river sand into a tray of 45 x 35 x 7cm, dibbling the seeds in the sand bed, keeping the seeds about 1.0cm away from the sand surface, germinating the seeds in an artificial climate incubator with the temperature of 30 ℃ and the humidity of 70%, keeping the sand bed moist in the period, accelerating germination by manually controlling proper conditions after the seeds absorb enough moisture through the warm soup treatment, and promoting the rapid decomposition and operation of nutrients in the seeds for the growth of young embryos so as to accelerate the germination speed of the seeds. The average grain size of the pure fine river sand is 0.25-0.35 mm; the tray is 40-45 cm long, 30-35 cm wide and 7-10 cm high.
The sunshade shed adopted in the invention uses cement upright posts as supports, uses special steel-plastic composite pipes for the shed as frameworks, and has an arc-shaped top, a span of 10m, a bay of about 4m and a eave height of 3 m. The periphery is naturally ventilated, a layer of six-needle sunshade net is covered on the cassava seed, the sunshade rate is 85% -90%, and because the cassava seed seedling is not moisture-proof, if the cassava seed seedling is packed and cultivated in the first five days and rainy days are met, a layer of plastic film is covered on the sunshade net to prevent waterlogging damage of the small seedling.
When the seedling raising substrate is prepared, the carbendazim is added, so that various fungal diseases can be prevented and treated, the prevention and treatment effects on diseases such as root rot, stem rot, leaf blight, gray leaf spot and the like are good, the diseases in the seedling stage can be effectively prevented and treated, the disease resistance effect in the seedling stage is improved, and the survival rate of subsequent transplanting is improved.
The cassava seeds are natural hybrid seeds. The seeds are brown or grayish brown with tan, gray yellow spots or black tiger spots.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. in the invention, the carbendazim is added in the process of preparing the seedling substrate for mixing, the sterilization effect on microorganisms, fungal diseases and the like in the substrate is achieved, and the pathological changes of root rot, leaf withering and the like in the process of bagging and cultivating the seedlings are avoided. Meanwhile, the seedling culture medium contains nutrient elements required by seedling growth, so that the development of the root system of the seedling can be promoted, and the transplanting survival rate is improved.
2. During the period of transplanting the seedlings into the nutrition bag for cultivation, in order to promote the growth of the seedlings and the prevention and control of diseases and insect pests of the seedlings, the invention sprays low-concentration urea as a foliar fertilizer at intervals, thereby accelerating the growth of leaves and strengthening roots; and meanwhile, 1.8 percent of abamectin missible oil with low concentration and bacillus thuringiensis are sprayed to kill insects and bacteria, so that the influence of plant diseases and insect pests is avoided, the resistance of seedlings is improved, a foundation is laid for subsequent field transplantation, the emergence rate is improved, and the survival rate of transplantation is also improved.
3. The method is simple and easy to master and operate, and the survival rate of the bagged culture reaches more than 95 percent and the survival rate of the field planting reaches 100 percent.
Detailed Description
The present invention is further illustrated by the following specific examples in order that the advantages and features of the invention may be more readily understood, it being understood that the following examples are only preferred versions of the invention, and are not intended to limit the invention.
Example 1
The test selects 5 natural hybrid seeds as test varieties, namely 5 cassava south China, 4 sweet osmanthus, Guangxi cassava, Thailand and glutinous rice, and the specific test comprises the following steps:
(1) seed selection: selecting plump seeds, soaking the seeds in water according to the ratio of 1:5 of the seeds to the water, uniformly stirring, discarding most of the seeds still floating on the water surface after ten minutes, and selecting the seeds with sunk bottoms as breeding materials. 50 seeds were selected per group.
(2) Soaking seeds in warm soup: the 5 groups of screened seeds are respectively put into a mesh bag, the mouth of the mesh bag is tightened, and the mesh bag is put into a constant-temperature water bath kettle at the temperature of 30 ℃ to be soaked for 7 hours for warm soup treatment.
(3) Sand seeding germination acceleration: sowing seeds soaked in the warm soup by adopting a sand bed, putting clean pure river sand in a tray of 45 x 35 x 7cm, dibbling the seeds in the sand bed, keeping the seeds at about 1.0cm away from the sand surface, and carrying out a seed germination test in a climatic incubator with the temperature of 30 ℃ and the humidity of 70% while keeping the sand bed wet.
(4) Preparing a seedling substrate: mixing pond sludge, surface soil, organic fertilizer and river sand in a ratio of 3: 1 to prepare moisture-retaining transparent nutrient soil, fully stirring, mixing 1.2g of 50% wettable carbendazim powder per square meter of soil, sealing for 5-7 days, ventilating for 3-5 days before use, and filling into a nutrient bag;
(5) bagging and cultivating seedlings: after germination of seedling seeds, transplanting the seedlings into a nutrition bag after true leaves of the seedlings are completely unfolded, burying the roots of the seedlings to the depth of a matrix of 2-3 cm, one bag for one strain, spraying water thoroughly, placing the seedlings under a sunshade for cultivation at normal temperature, spraying water to keep the humidity of the matrix to be 50-60% in the future, spraying 0.8% urea solution for 7 days to perform topdressing on the leaves of the seedlings, and spraying once every 7 days until the seedlings are transplanted to a field; spraying 5000 times of 1.8% of abamectin emulsifiable solution and 200 times of bacillus thuringiensis insecticide after culturing for 10 days, and spraying once more after 20 days;
(6) hardening seedlings: and (4) removing the sunshade net after 20 days, hardening off seedlings and cultivating for 7 days, and taking out of the nursery and planting the seedlings in a field when the seedlings grow to 25-30 cm.
(7) Transplanting the field: transplanting the seedlings to land blocks and fields with irrigation conditions and waterlogging drainage by using the row spacing of 80cm and the plant spacing of 40cm, and planting different varieties in groups. And (3) spraying enough root fixing water after transplanting, keeping the humidity at 70-80%, and performing conventional field management after 7 days to enhance water and fertilizer management and pest control. After one month, statistics are carried out, and the germination rate of cassava seeds and the transplanting survival rate of seedlings are shown in table 1.
TABLE 1 germination percentage of cassava seeds and survival rate of transplanted seedlings
Remarking: the germination rate is (germination number/sowing number) multiplied by 100%;
survival rate (actual number of surviving plants/actual number of seeds) x 100%;
the actual number of plants bagged and cultured in the shade is the germination number, and the actual number of plants planted in the field is the survival number of bagged and cultured in the shade.
As can be seen from Table 1, the seedlings which have germinated and have true leaves are bagged and placed in a shade shed for cultivation, the survival rate reaches more than 95%, the cassava seedlings grow to about 25cm and are transplanted to a field after hardening seedlings for 7-10 days, all the plants survive, and the survival rate reaches 100%. The method of the invention is practical and effective.
Example 2
The test selects 5 natural hybrid seeds of cassava No. 5, Guire No. 4, Guangxi cassava, Thailand species and glutinous rice species as test varieties. The conventional method is adopted for seed selection, seed soaking and germination acceleration. After the germination is promoted to grow true leaves and the true leaves are completely unfolded, a transplantation culture test is carried out, and the specific test comprises the following steps:
(1) preparing a seedling substrate: mixing pond sludge, surface soil, organic fertilizer and river sand in a ratio of 3: 1 to prepare moisture-retaining transparent nutrient soil, fully stirring, mixing 1.2g of 50% wettable carbendazim powder per square meter of soil, sealing for 5-7 days, ventilating for 3-5 days before use, and filling into a nutrient bag for later use;
(5) bagging and cultivating seedlings: after sprouting five varieties of seedling seeds of No. 5 cassava, No. 4 sweet osmanthus, Guangxi cassava, Thailand and glutinous rice, completely unfolding true leaves of seedlings, transplanting the seedlings into a nutrition bag according to 50 varieties, burying the roots of the seedlings until the depth of a matrix is 2-3 cm, and planting the seedlings one bag by one bag, thoroughly spraying water, and placing the seedlings under a sunshade for cultivation at normal temperature. Each group is marked. Spraying water to keep the humidity of the matrix at 50-60% in the future, spraying 0.8% urea solution after 7 days for topdressing of the leaf surfaces of the seedlings, and spraying once every 7 days until transplanting to a field; after 10 days of cultivation, 1.8 percent of abamectin emulsifiable solution with 5000 times of liquid and 200 times of bacillus thuringiensis insecticide are sprayed, and after 20 days, the spraying is carried out again.
(6) Hardening seedlings: and (4) removing the sunshade net after 20 days, hardening off seedlings and cultivating for 7 days, and taking out of the nursery and planting the seedlings in a field when the seedlings grow to 25-30 cm.
(7) Transplanting the field: transplanting the seedlings to land blocks and fields with irrigation conditions and waterlogging drainage by using the row spacing of 80cm and the plant spacing of 40cm, and planting different varieties in groups. And (3) spraying enough root fixing water after transplanting, keeping the humidity at 70-80%, and performing conventional field management after 7 days to enhance water and fertilizer management and pest control. After one month, statistics is carried out, and the transplanting survival rate of the cassava seedlings is shown in the table 2.
TABLE 2 cassava seedling transplanting survival rate
Remarking: survival rate (actual number of surviving plants/actual number of seeds) x 100%; the actual number of plants planted in the field is the number of survival rate of bagged cultivation in the shade.
As can be seen from Table 2, the seedlings which have germinated and have grown out true leaves are bagged and placed in a shade shed for cultivation, the survival rate reaches over 96 percent, the cassava seedlings grow to about 25-30 cm and are transplanted to a field after hardening, all plants survive, and the survival rate reaches 100 percent. The method of the invention is practical and effective.

Claims (5)

1. A method for improving the transplanting survival rate of cassava seedlings is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) preparing a seedling substrate: mixing pond sludge, surface soil, organic fertilizer and river sand in a ratio of 3-5: 1:1:1 to prepare moisture-retaining transparent nutrient soil, fully stirring, mixing 1-2 g of 50% wettable carbendazim powder per square meter of soil, sealing for 5-7 days, ventilating for 3-5 days before use, and filling into a nutrient bag;
the pond sludge is old pond sludge smashed by a crusher after being naturally aired for 6-8 months; the surface soil is an area 15-20 cm from the top of the soil and contains more organic matters and microorganisms; the average grain size of the river sand is 0.35-0.50 mm; the pH value of the organic fertilizer is 6.5-7.5, the nutrient content is 10-15% of organic matters, 0.6-0.9% of total nitrogen, 0.3-0.6% of phosphoric acid, 1.0-1.5% of potassium oxide, 280-300 ppm of quick-acting nitrogen, 80-100 ppm of quick-acting phosphorus and 300-320 ppm of quick-acting potassium;
(2) bagging and cultivating seedlings: after germination of seedling seeds, transplanting the seedlings into a nutrition bag after true leaves of the seedlings are completely unfolded, burying the roots of the seedlings to the depth of a matrix of 2-3 cm, one bag for one strain, drenching the seedlings thoroughly, placing the seedlings under a sunshade for cultivation at normal temperature, drenching the seedlings to keep the humidity of the matrix to be 50-60% in the future, drenching 0.8% of urea solution every other week after 7 days, and spraying for 2-3 times; spraying with 5000 times of 1.8% avermectin emulsifiable solution and 200 times of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticide after 10 days, and spraying once more after 20 days;
(3) hardening seedlings: removing the sunshade net after 20 days, hardening off seedlings and cultivating for 5-7 days, and outplanting and field planting when the seedlings grow to 25-30 cm;
(4) transplanting the field: transplanting the seedlings to a land field with existing irrigation conditions and waterlogging drainage by using the row spacing of 80-100 cm and the plant spacing of 40-50 cm, pouring enough root fixing water after transplanting, keeping the humidity at 70-80%, and performing conventional field management after 5-7 days to enhance water and fertilizer management and pest control.
2. The method for improving the transplanting survival rate of the cassava seedlings according to claim 1, wherein the germination of the cassava seeds is performed before the seedling substrate is prepared, the cassava seeds are sowed in a sand bed, the seeds are sowed in the sand bed, the distance from the sand surface is 1.0cm, the germination of the seeds is performed in a climatic incubator with 30 ℃, 70% humidity, and the sand bed is kept wet in the period.
3. The method for improving the transplanting survival rate of the cassava seedlings according to claim 2, wherein seed selection and seed soaking in warm water are carried out before seed germination; according to the seed: soaking seeds for ten minutes in a ratio of water =1:5, selecting the seeds with sunk bottoms as breeding materials, and discarding the seeds floating on the water surface; putting the cassava seeds with the bottom sinking into a mesh bag, fastening the opening of the mesh bag, and soaking in a constant-temperature water bath kettle at 30 ℃ for 7 hours for warm water treatment.
4. The method for improving the transplanting survival rate of the cassava seedlings according to claim 1, wherein 20-25 kg of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer is applied to each mu of the field as a base fertilizer before field planting, and the base fertilizer is mixed with the furrow mud and fished for planting.
5. The method for improving the survival rate of transplanted cassava seedlings according to claim 4, wherein the weight ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer is 15: 15: 15.
CN201710673027.0A 2017-08-07 2017-08-07 Method for improving transplanting survival rate of cassava seedlings Active CN107409706B (en)

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CN109349044A (en) * 2018-11-14 2019-02-19 罗泽源 The implantation methods of cassava
CN110558229B (en) * 2019-09-30 2022-05-03 海南大学 Seedling hardening method for remarkably improving transplanting survival rate of cassava tissue culture seedlings
CN110741895A (en) * 2019-11-18 2020-02-04 华中农业大学 Cultivation method for increasing purple sweet potato root tuber pigment yield

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CN103583337A (en) * 2013-11-14 2014-02-19 广西大学 Solution culture method of cassava seedlings
CN104054484B (en) * 2014-06-16 2016-09-14 广西南亚热带农业科学研究所 A kind of method improving cane seedlings transplanting success
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