CN113348939A - Efficient three-dimensional planting and breeding combination method for peach trees, common fescue and golden cicadas - Google Patents

Efficient three-dimensional planting and breeding combination method for peach trees, common fescue and golden cicadas Download PDF

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CN113348939A
CN113348939A CN202110495773.1A CN202110495773A CN113348939A CN 113348939 A CN113348939 A CN 113348939A CN 202110495773 A CN202110495773 A CN 202110495773A CN 113348939 A CN113348939 A CN 113348939A
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peach
planting
trees
golden
cicada
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董灿兴
徐凤杰
孙燕
栾玲
李继伟
李乃平
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Jiangsu Agri Animal Husbandry Vocational College
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Jiangsu Agri Animal Husbandry Vocational College
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K67/00Rearing or breeding animals, not otherwise provided for; New breeds of animals
    • A01K67/033Rearing or breeding invertebrates; New breeds of invertebrates

Abstract

The invention relates to the technical field of agricultural planting, in particular to a method for efficient three-dimensional planting and breeding combination of peach trees, common fescue and golden cicadas. The method comprises the following steps: selecting a peach tree forest land; sowing the common fescue; watering and preventing insects; sowing golden cicadas; managing and maintaining peach trees, cogongrass and golden cicadas; collecting cicada and peach; the common fescue is crushed and plowed. The invention establishes the interdependent harmonious symbiotic relationship among peach trees, cogongrass and golden cicadas, forms a complete peach orchard system, protects the soil environment, improves the yield of forest and fruit trees, improves the fruit quality and obtains the additional benefit of the golden cicadas; the problems of the existing peach trees such as under-forest weed cluster, high weeding cost, low under-forest economic benefit, serious herbicide pollution and poor soil hardening permeability are solved; the temperature and humidity environment required by the growth of peach trees in the planting area is stabilized, the occurrence of peach tree gummosis is reduced to a certain extent, and the hatching success rate of larvae of cicada is improved.

Description

Efficient three-dimensional planting and breeding combination method for peach trees, common fescue and golden cicadas
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of agricultural planting, in particular to a method for efficient three-dimensional planting and breeding combination of peach trees, common fescue and golden cicadas.
Background
The cogongrass and the grasses of the genus cogongrass are cold-resistant and not high-temperature-resistant, the overground part is tufted linear needles which naturally lodge and crawl, and the length of the needles reaches 60-70 cm. The cogongrass can naturally germinate after blooming and fructification in the forest, normally grow for 4-5 years, and provide rich organic fertilizer for fruit trees after stem leaves are dried. The cogongrass is planted in the orchard, so that the growth of other weeds can be inhibited, and the soil permeability, the soil water content and the integrity of a soil ecosystem in the orchard are kept. Domestic citionella canadensis starts to be put forward, but a plurality of growers have obvious rejection psychology to the planted weeds in the forest, and the planting psychology is considered to increase the production cost and reduce the production benefit.
Peach, a rose plant, a peach genus plant, and a native Chinese, including six categories of nectarine, yellow peach, honey peach, wild peach, and flat peach, which are widely cultivated in various provinces and cultivated all over the world. The deciduous small arbor has the advantages of root development, ornamental flower, juicy fruit, raw eating or preserved peach, can and the like, and the nucleolus can also be eaten.
The golden cicada has unique flavor and rich nutrition and has good medical and edible health care effects. With the continuous improvement of the living standard of people, the golden cicada is high in nutrition, green and delicious, the market demand is increased year by year, and the production benefit is obvious. The wild golden cicadas can not meet the market requirements far away, and the golden cicadas are mainly cultured by one person under the forest at present, so that the yield is not high, and the quality is general.
The efficient three-dimensional planting and breeding combined method can improve the production output of soil in unit area, is an effective method for increasing yield and improving efficiency of agriculture, and is a way for saving and reducing consumption. Three-dimensional planting and breeding modes such as culturing poultry and rice field shrimps and crabs in the forest are more, and the mode of inhibiting grass and culturing golden cicadas by grass in the forest is blank up to now.
In the prior art, methods for breeding cicadas by forest fruit trees such as willow forest, Hongsenhuai forest, elm and the like are available. The method comprises the following specific steps:
for example, the method for breeding the golden cicadas in the willow forest comprises the following steps: laying a layer of sandy soil 0.7-1m on the land, laying a layer of water dripping pipe in the middle of the sandy soil, and laying a layer of heat-insulating layer 1-2cm above the water dripping pipe, wherein the heat-insulating layer is made of multiple layers of cotton cloth; paving a layer of sand in the deep pit, filling fine sand with cicada larvae on the sand, and planting cicada ovum branches; spraying air around the cicada ovum branches regularly, and spraying water on the ground around the cicada ovum branches; collecting cicada and periostracum Cicadae on the ground, collecting dried ovum cicada branch, and placing in the middle of willow row for use; laying plastic film in the greenhouse, laying 3-5cm of fine sand on the plastic film, spraying water, inserting collected branches with eggs into the sand, keeping the branches moist, keeping the temperature at 25-30 ℃, and incubating the larvae for the next breeding period.
The method for breeding the golden cicadas under the Hongsen locust forest comprises the following steps: selecting sandy loam with fertile soil, deep soil layer and good drainage as a planting field, cleaning dry branches and fallen leaves, applying base fertilizer, deeply ploughing and harrowing, and opening planting ditches with the plant spacing of 1-1.2m and the row spacing of 1.5-2m and the depth of 20-30 cm; planting Hongsen locust tree species, intercropping honeysuckle and other dwarfing shrubs; sowing golden cicadas, excavating 30-50cm pits at the interval of 40-60cm between two rows of Hongsen locust trees, wherein the diameter of each pit is 15-20cm, the thickness of fine sand filled in each pit is 8-10cm, watering thoroughly, putting fine sand with golden cicada larvae into sandy soil, planting branches with cicada eggs, and covering soil to level up; conventionally weeding, fertilizing and the like during cicada egg cultivation, and spraying water to a cicada cultivation area every day for moisturizing; collecting the cicadas when the cicadas climb out of the ground; collecting dry Hongsen dry branches, trimming, and placing under Hongsen forest for use.
The three-dimensional seed culture method for the fruit tree golden cicadas comprises the following steps: after the fruit trees are planted, soil is prepared regularly, the soil is kept loose, drip irrigation and watering are carried out, fruit branches are pruned, sufficient illumination is ensured, the single weight of the fruits is improved, and ground illumination among fruit tree plants is ensured; in early spring, burying the ground around the crown of the fruit tree for applying nitrogen phosphate fertilizer, and applying farmyard manure in the middle period; planting vegetables or medicinal crops on the open space between the fruit trees before summer; and (5) putting the cicada larvae under the tree in the middle summer period, and waiting for harvesting in the harvesting period.
Also, for example, the artificial rapid breeding method of the golden cicadas comprises the following steps: firstly, selecting elms, apricots, peaches, willows, poplars, pear trees and the like with loose wood and developed root systems, pruning the trees to form trees and dwarfing the tree forms; covering crops with a net cover during the cicada ovum period so that cicada ovum or young cicada drop into the net cover; and putting the collected cicadas eggs or young cicadas into a nutrition box, covering the nutrition box with sandy soil rich in organic matters, putting the nutrition box into a storehouse, simulating natural environments of spring, summer, autumn and winter within three months, accelerating incubation of the cicadas by manually controlling hibernation and activity time of the cicadas, and collecting the cicadas after climbing out of the nutrition box.
In the prior art, a method for planting cogongrass under navel orange trees and elm trees specifically comprises the following steps:
for example, a method for optimizing water and fertilizer supply and preventing water and soil loss in a Gannan navel orange planting area comprises the following steps: through planting the mouse couch grass under the navel orange tree, the growth of weeds in an orchard can be effectively inhibited, water and moisture are kept, the rotten effect can replace manual deep ploughing, the water and fertilizer vigorous period of the navel orange tree is staggered with that of the navel orange tree, the water and soil loss can be effectively prevented and controlled while the water and fertilizer supply of the navel orange tree is optimized, and the fruit quality of the navel orange orchard is improved. The invention is convenient to implement, and has obvious effects of optimizing water and fertilizer supply and preventing soil erosion and water flow failure.
Another example is a elm planting method: the green manure named as the cogongrass is planted among rows of the elms to inhibit the growth of weeds, improve soil and improve the ground temperature in winter, so that the survival rate of seedlings planted in autumn of the elms is improved, and the weeding cost is saved. Planting elms in late October to late November, planting mouse thatch in late November, and planting the two in half month to one month, preferably before rain; preparing soil, weeding, and digging planting holes and drainage ditches; selecting elm seedlings and treating seedlings, and selecting healthy annual elm seedlings with developed root systems, no damage, diseases and insect pests; soaking the seedling roots in a protective agent for 0.5-1 h before transplanting; sowing the common fescue: sowing seeds in a sowing amount of 1.5-2 kg/mu by using the land blocks between the rows of the elms as a cogongrass planting area, slightly pulling the soil covering by using an iron rake after sowing, and watering once; elm field planting and fertilization management.
However, the above prior art has the following disadvantages:
(1) most of golden cicadas are planted under forests such as willows, pagodatree trees, fruit trees and the like, the land utilization area is increased, the underground space is reasonably utilized, and the positive effects on soil ecological environment protection and growth and development of forest trees and fruit trees are small.
(2) In the prior art, the brevifolius includes that the brevifolius includes the cogongrass planted in the forest of elms and Gannan navel oranges to inhibit weeds in the forest, prevent water and soil loss and improve survival rate and quality of trees and fruit trees, and no related research is available for planting the brevifolius to control pest and disease damage of the trees and the fruit trees.
(3) At present, weeds under forest trees and fruit trees always troubles many farmers, and a large amount of pesticides, manpower and the like are invested, so that the production cost is greatly increased, and the effect is not good; moreover, contradiction relations exist between the forest tree and weeds, between the cicadas and the weeds removed, and the use of the herbicide can influence the cultivation of the cicadas and the protection of the ecological environment; however, the common citronella grass lacks corresponding practical data on the aspects of saving cost, improving income and the like.
(4) The research on the combination of three-dimensional planting of the forest tree, the citionella grass and the golden cicada is less, and the research is not available. The function of restraining the weeds by the lemongrass cannot be fully utilized, and a stable ecological circulation system, particularly a soil structure and a soil microbial environment cannot be provided for forest and fruit trees.
At present, no relevant research is found on a mixed three-dimensional planting method of peach trees, lemongrass and golden cicadas.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the above, the invention provides a method for efficient three-dimensional planting and breeding combination of peach trees, common fescue and golden cicadas. The invention establishes the interdependent harmonious symbiotic relationship among peach trees, cogongrass and golden cicadas, forms a complete peach orchard system, protects the soil environment, improves the yield of forest and fruit trees, improves the fruit quality and obtains the additional benefit of the golden cicadas; the problems of the existing peach trees such as under-forest weed cluster, high weeding cost, low under-forest economic benefit, serious herbicide pollution and poor soil hardening permeability are solved; the temperature and humidity environment required by the growth of peach trees in the planting area is stabilized, the occurrence of peach tree gummosis is reduced to a certain extent, and the hatching success rate of larvae of cicada is improved.
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention provides the following technical solutions:
the invention provides a method for efficient three-dimensional planting and breeding combination of peach trees, common fescue and golden cicada, which comprises the following steps:
selecting a peach tree forest land: selecting fertile, loose and well-drained sandy loam, planting peach trees for 3 years or more, and illuminating sufficient peach tree forest lands by adopting a natural open heart type pruning method;
sowing the common fescue: preparing soil before planting, mixing the preprocessed common fescue seeds with sand in the middle ten days of 9 months to the last ten days of 10 months, and then sowing the mixture in a peach tree land;
watering and insect prevention: watering the lemongrass with bottom water; in 11 last ten days, simultaneously watering the mouse couch grass and the peach trees with overwintering water; irrigating the mouse couch grass and the peach trees with green turning water from the middle and last ten days of 3 months to the beginning of 4 months in the next year; preventing and treating peach aphids;
sowing golden cicadas: excavating a golden cicada planting ditch, and burying hatched larvae and/or branches of golden cicadas into the planting ditch 4 months in the next year;
managing and maintaining peach trees, cogongrass and golden cicadas;
collecting cicada and peach; after picking of fruit trees is finished, crushing and turning over the common fescue;
repeating the cicada sowing operation every year after the second year; and after 4-5 years, sowing the mouse couch grass again.
Preferably, the pH value of the sandy loam is 6.5-7.5.
Preferably, the row spacing of the peach tree forest land is (4-5) mx (4-5) m.
Preferably, the land preparation before planting comprises weeding, deep ploughing and fertilizing, and the depth of the deep ploughing is 10-15 cm.
Preferably, the periphery of the root system of the fruit tree is properly ploughed shallowly, so that the ground is smooth, and the water is drained and irrigated conveniently.
Preferably, the circumference of the peach tree trunk is not planted with the cogongrass within 1m of the radius during sowing.
Preferably, the seeds of Cymbopogon citratus are seeds of Cymbopogon citratus in the current year.
Preferably, the seeds of the citionella are seeds which are harvested in the same year, have the purity of more than 98 percent and the germination rate of more than 85 percent.
Preferably, the pretreatment of the seeds of the citionella comprises at least one of the following modes: exposing the seeds of the common fescue in the sun for 2-3 hours; soaking the seeds in warm water at 30 ℃ for 3-5 hours.
Preferably, the seeding rate of the seeds of the citionella is 1.5-2 kg/mu.
Preferably, the sowing is in a mode of growing grass in a whole garden.
Preferably, the watering is carried out by using a micro-spray pipe belt.
Preferably, the laying method of the micro-spray pipe belt comprises the following steps: and 2 micro-spraying pipe belts are laid between the rows for planting the peach trees according to the interval of 2-2.5 m.
Preferably, the planting furrows are located at the position 0.8-1.0m or 0.6-0.8m around the trunk of the peach tree, have the inner radius of 0.8m and the outer radius of 1.0m and the depth of the furrows of 35-45cm, and are filled with fine sand of 5-10 cm.
Preferably, the depth of the golden cicada sowing is 30-40 cm.
Preferably, the management and maintenance of peach trees, common fescue and golden cicada are as follows: during the golden cicada cultivation period, the peach trees are normally watered, fertilized, pollinated, bagged, pruned in summer and pruned in winter, and the aphids of the peach trees are continuously prevented and controlled.
Preferably, the sowing and harvesting of the golden cicadas further comprises the following steps: and winding a smooth adhesive tape at a position 40-60cm away from the ground of the trunk of the peach tree.
Preferably, the method for preventing and treating the peach aphids is to use lime sulphur to prevent and treat the peach aphids.
Preferably, every other year cicada planting furrows are alternately arranged at different positions around the trunk of the peach tree.
The invention provides a method for efficient three-dimensional planting and breeding combination of peach trees, common fescue and golden cicadas. The method comprises the following steps: selecting a peach tree forest land; sowing the common fescue; watering and preventing insects; sowing golden cicadas; managing and maintaining peach trees, cogongrass and golden cicadas; collecting cicada and peach; the common fescue is crushed and plowed. Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following advantages:
(1) and (3) increasing the peach tree benefit: the cogongrass provides uniform water supply for the growth of the peach trees, meanwhile, the temperature of the peach trees in forests can be properly reduced in summer, the ground temperature of the forests can be increased in winter, and the branches and the roots of the peach trees are protected; compared with the existing single peach tree planting technology, the peach tree yield is obviously improved, and the yield per mu is increased by about 2-5%; after the peach tree, the cogongrass and the golden cicada are planted in a three-dimensional way, the quality of the peach tree product is obviously improved, the quantity of the cracked nectarine is obviously reduced, the nutrient substances are richer, and the content of soluble sugar, soluble protein and soluble solid matters is slightly improved.
The cogongrass is planted under the peach trees, so that relatively constant temperature and humidity conditions can be provided for the peach trees in the growth period and the wintering period of the peach trees, the condition that the peach trees grow badly due to sudden changes of environmental temperature and humidity is avoided, and particularly the occurrence probability of gummosis of the peach trees is greatly reduced.
(2) Grass is scientifically planted, and the pollution of herbicides is avoided: the cogongrass is planted under the peach trees, so that the growth of other weeds under the forest is inhibited and reduced, and the use of herbicides is avoided.
(3) Protecting the microbial environment of soil: after the ground is covered by the common fescue, the evaporation of soil moisture is slowed down, the watering times are reduced, and water resources are saved; meanwhile, the straws are crushed and returned to the field after the citionella herb withers, so that the organic matter content of the soil is increased, the soil permeability and the granular structure are improved, the soil hardening is avoided, and the microbial environment of the soil is protected; the golden cicada polypide can be movably fed on the peach tree and the lemongrass root in the soil layer of 30-50cm under the peach tree forest, so that the regeneration of the peach tree root is promoted, and the soil permeability is improved.
(4) Increase the benefit of the golden cicada: the golden cicadas are cultured in the forest, the root system nutrition of the peach trees and the common fescue is fully utilized, and the benefit output of the soil in unit area is improved. The peach essence has the reputation of birthday peaches and nectarines, has delicious meat quality and rich nutrition, contains various vitamins, mineral substances and fruit acids, and has iron content in the crowns of fruits; after the golden cicada eats the root system of the peach trees and the festuca arundinacea, the obtained nutrient substances are richer than other garden trees, and the golden cicada is beneficial to improving the quality of the golden cicada. After the festuca arundinacea is turned green, stable soil moisture conditions and a certain shading effect can be provided for the golden cicadas, and the hatching and growth of the golden cicadas can be accelerated compared with the situation that the golden cicadas are planted in pure forests; after the sundew of the sundew, the sundew is returned to the field, so that the underground temperature of the forest can be increased, and better soil and temperature conditions are provided for safe overwintering of the golden cicadas. Compared with a single fruit tree golden cicada planting and breeding technology, the golden cicada has richer plant root systems which can be eaten by the golden cicada, the individual size and the yield of the golden cicada are improved, and the yield per mu can be improved by about 1-2 kg.
(5) Water economy resource reduces manufacturing cost: compared with the existing cultivation mode, weeds under peach trees are obviously reduced, no herbicide is sprayed, the cost of artificial weeding or chemical weeding under the trees is indirectly reduced, watering is saved for 1-2 times, the amount of irrigation water for farmlands is saved by 30-50 tons/mu/year, and the cost of artificial weeding, watering and the like is saved by 55 yuan/mu.
(6) The invention provides reliable technical support for efficient planting and breeding combination under other trees and fruit trees, soil environment improvement, agriculture unit area income improvement and the like.
Detailed Description
The invention discloses a method for efficient three-dimensional planting and breeding combination of peach trees, common fescue and golden cicada, and the technical personnel in the field can appropriately improve process parameters by referring to the contents. It is specifically noted that all such substitutions and modifications will be apparent to those skilled in the art, and are intended to be included within the present invention. While the methods and applications of this invention have been described in terms of preferred embodiments, it will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art that variations and modifications in the methods and applications described herein, as well as other suitable variations and combinations, may be made to implement and use the techniques of this invention without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
Interpretation of terms:
three-dimensional planting and breeding: the method makes full use of planting (breeding) conditions in various aspects such as time, space and the like to realize an agricultural planting and breeding mode with high quality, high yield, high efficiency, energy conservation and ecology.
The invention provides a method for efficient three-dimensional planting and breeding combination of peach trees, common fescue and golden cicada, which comprises the following steps:
(1) selection of planting and planting combined land blocks: selecting sandy loam which has a deep soil layer, is fertile and loose, has good drainage and is rich in organic matters, and the pH value of the soil is between 6.5 and 7.5.
(2) Preparing a peach tree land block: deeply ploughing 35-40cm before planting, picking up agricultural wastes, applying decomposed organic fertilizer for 1.8-2 t/mu, mechanically raking and planting peach trees; the peach trees have been planted for 3 years or more during planting and breeding, and underground nutrient substances necessary for the growth of the golden cicadas are guaranteed.
(3) Cultivating and shaping peach trees: planting peach trees according to the plant spacing of 4-5m and the row spacing of 4-5 m; the tree shape adopts a three-trunk natural open heart shape, the trunk height is 60-80cm, the opening angle of peach branches is large, the peach branches receive uniform illumination, and the blooming and the fruiting are good.
(4) Pruning the peach tree: pruning work is carried out on peach trees in summer and winter every year, and main overgrown branches are pruned in summer, so that the nutrition consumption is reduced, and ventilation and light transmission are increased; in winter, diseased branches and old branches are mainly trimmed, dense fruiting branches are thinned, and robust fruiting branches and branch groups are updated.
(5) And (3) water and fertilizer management of peach trees: drip irrigation belts are laid among rows of peach trees, and water and fertilizer can be integrally carried out, so that water and fertilizer conditions required by normal flowering and fruiting of the peach trees are ensured; 15-20 kg/mu of water flush fertilizer of N15-P15-K15 is applied in the flowering period and the fruiting period respectively.
(6) And (3) pest and disease control of peach trees: in the middle and last ten days of 3 months, selecting a lime sulfur mixture to be sprayed on the peach aphids; if the occurrence is serious, secondary spraying is needed, and a crowndaisy chrysanthemum essence aqua is selected to continuously prevent and control peach aphids; the peach trees planted in the open air have less diseases, and chlorothalonil can be sprayed on the leaf surfaces to prevent the peach trees from being damaged in watering or in continuous cloudy days.
(7) Managing the weeds in the peach trees: before the citionella planting, the weeds in the peach trees are manually removed or mechanically turned deeply, and the weeds are prevented from being reserved according to the principle of removing early weeds and small weeds, so that the later-stage management cost is reduced; after the citionella is planted, other weeds are inhibited, the germination is less, the weeds need to be pulled out manually, the weeds cannot be cut by a sickle, and the late flowering and fruiting of the citionella can be influenced.
(8) Treating seeds of common fescue: selecting seeds of the Caragheena major harvested in the current year, wherein the purity is more than 98 percent, and the germination rate is more than 85 percent; before sowing, the seeds of the citionella are exposed to the sun for 2 to 3 hours, and can be soaked in warm water at the temperature of 30 ℃ for 3 to 5 hours, so that the seeds of the citionella fully absorb water.
(9) Sowing the common fescue: the seeding time in the Shandong area is from 9 to 10 in the middle of the month (the seeding time is adjusted according to the local climate temperature in different areas, generally speaking, the seeding time in the north is earlier than that in the south). Adopting a mode of growing grass in a whole garden, wherein the seed consumption per mu is 1.5-2kg, uniformly mixing the soaked seeds and fine sand according to the proportion of 1:10, adopting a broadcast sowing mode, slightly pulling the seeds once by using an iron rake after sowing, achieving the purposes of thin covering soil, compacting, and preventing the seeds from being hung dry to influence the seedling emergence. Branches and leaves of the peach tree which grow normally can provide better shading conditions for the germination of the lemongrass and promote the germination of the lemongrass.
(10) Paving a micro-spray pipe belt by using the mouse couch grass: paving 2 micro spray pipe belts between rows for planting peach trees at intervals of 2-2.5m, and watering sole water after sowing to ensure normal germination of the common fescue; in the last ten days of the month, the overwintering water is poured together with the fruit trees.
(11) In the middle and last ten days of 3 months in the next year, the peach trees and the lemongrass are irrigated with green water at the same time, so that the growth of branches and leaves of the lemongrass is promoted, tillering is increased, and the coverage effect of a unit area is improved; and (3) spraying lime sulphur mixture to the peach to prevent and control aphids.
(12) Excavating golden cicada planting ditches: the second year after the planting of the common fescue; in last 3 months, when the soil is not wet and sticky and the land is convenient to enter for working, excavating a circular planting ditch with the inner radius of 0.8m, the outer radius of 1.0m and the ditch depth of 35-45cm at the position of 0.8-1.0m on the periphery of the trunk of the peach tree, and filling fine sand with the depth of 5-10 cm.
(13) Sowing golden cicadas: sowing the hatched fine sand containing the cicada larvae into the dug planting ditch; burying the cicada branches subjected to greenhouse incubation treatment in a planting ditch at a position of 30-40cm, watering and backfilling soil after the cicada larvae penetrate into a sand layer; keeping the soil of the golden cicada planting area wet before the cogongrass jointing; if ants exist in the peach tree, the ants can be trapped and killed 5-7 days earlier by adopting wheat bran and cypermethrin to prepare poison bait or using an ant killing bait which is scattered within the range of 1m of the radius of the trunk of the peach tree.
(14) Managing and maintaining the mouse couch grass and the golden cicadas: the common cogongrass grows normally when growing to about 40cm, and starts to fruit at the beginning of 6 months at the bottom of 5 months, then dies and dries up, covers the ground under the forest, and germinates again after the orchard is watered at the beginning of 10 months at the bottom of 9 months.
(15) Harvesting golden cicadas: and the transparent and smooth adhesive tape is wound at the position 40-60cm away from the ground of the trunk of the peach tree in the next year after the golden cicadas are planted, so that the golden cicadas are convenient to harvest and can be prevented from climbing the tree too high to lay eggs, and the normal growth of the peach tree is influenced.
(16) In the middle and last ten days of 9 months, after picking of fruit trees, crushing and turning over the common vetch grass by using a small-sized rotary cultivator, crushing straws and shallowly burying seeds in a soil layer.
(17) And (4) continuously planting golden cicadas: excavating planting furrows at 0.6-0.8m of the trunk of the peach tree in the third year, and repeatedly planting golden cicadas; and planting ditches are alternately dug at different positions of the periphery of the trunk of the peach tree, so that the damage to the larvae of the cicada is reduced.
(18) After the mouse couch grass grows for 4-5 years, the growth capacity is weakened, and the mouse couch grass is sowed again after land preparation and seed selection.
The invention is further illustrated by the following examples:
example 1
A method for efficient three-dimensional planting and breeding combination of peach trees, common fescue and golden cicada comprises the following steps:
(1) selecting a juicy peach planting land block: in the southwest of Lu, sandy loam which is deep in soil layer, fertile, loose, good in drainage and rich in organic matters is selected; the juicy peaches are planted for 4 years, the tree form is in a shape that three main branches are opened naturally, the plant spacing is 5m, and the row spacing is 5 m.
(2) Preparing land before sowing: deeply ploughing the peach trees under the field before sowing, ploughing the land by 10-15cm, shallowly ploughing the positions close to the trunks of the peach trees by 5-10cm, and removing residual branches and fallen leaves to ensure that the peach orchard is clean; the organic fertilizer is applied for 2t per mu, and the soil and the fertilizer are uniformly mixed by using a rotary cultivator, so that the ground is guaranteed to be flat, and the water is drained and irrigated conveniently.
(3) Selecting seeds of common fescue and treating: selecting seeds of the Caragheena major harvested in the current year, wherein the purity is more than 98 percent, and the germination rate is more than 85 percent; before sowing, seeds of the common vetiver are soaked in warm water at 30 ℃ for 5 hours to ensure that the common vetiver seeds fully absorb water.
(4) Sowing the common fescue: in the middle ten days of 9 months to the last ten days of 10 months, the mode of growing grass in the whole garden is adopted to broadcast the seeds of the common fescue. The seed consumption per mu is 2kg, and the seeds and the fine sand are uniformly mixed according to the proportion of 1: 10. After sowing, the seeds are lightly pulled by an iron harrow once, the seeds are not seen on the surface of the soil, and the soil is properly pressed to ensure high emergence rate.
(5) Laying a micro-spray pipe with watering: after sowing, laying 2 micro-spray pipe belts among the rows for planting the honey peaches at intervals of 2m, and watering the water on the soles after sowing to ensure the normal germination of the common fescue; in the last ten days of the month, the overwintering water is poured together with the fruit trees.
(6) In the middle and last ten days of 3 months in the next year, the peach trees and the lemongrass are irrigated with green water at the same time, so that the growth of branches and leaves of the lemongrass is promoted, tillering is increased, and the coverage effect of a unit area is improved; spraying lime sulphur mixture to peach tree to prevent and control aphid.
(7) Excavating golden cicada planting ditches: when the soil is not wet and sticky and is convenient to enter the field for working, a circular planting ditch is dug at a position of 0.8-1.0m of the periphery of the trunk of the peach tree, the inner radius is 0.8m, the outer radius is 1.0m, the ditch depth is 35-45cm, and fine sand of 5-10cm is filled in the ditch.
(8) Sowing golden cicadas: sowing the hatched fine sand containing the larvae of the cicadas into the dug planting ditch, wherein the planting quantity of each peach tree is 50 hatched egg branches and about 300 larvae; burying the cicada branches subjected to greenhouse incubation treatment into a planting ditch at a position of 30-40cm, and watering to backfill soil after the larvae penetrate into a sand layer; keeping the soil of the golden cicada planting area moist before the cogongrass jointing.
(9) Managing and maintaining peach trees, mouse thatch and golden cicadas: during the golden cicada cultivation period, the peach trees normally carry out farming management work such as watering, fertilizing, pollination, bagging, summer pruning, winter pruning and the like; after the golden cicada is sowed, if the peach trees still have aphids, selecting garland chrysanthemum vegetable water aqua to continuously spray for prevention and treatment; cogongrass grows normally when it grows to around 40cm and starts to set at the end of 5 months and early 6 months, then dies and dries up and covers the ground under the forest. And (5) sprouting the common fescue again after the orchard is watered for 10 months at the bottom of 9 months.
(10) Harvesting golden cicadas: and in the next year, the transparent and smooth adhesive tape is wound at the position 40-60cm away from the ground of the peach tree trunk, so that the collecting is convenient, and the golden cicadas are prevented from climbing the tree too high to lay eggs, and the normal growth of the peach tree is influenced.
(11) In the middle and last ten days of 9 months, after picking of fruit trees, crushing and turning over the common vetch grass by using a small-sized rotary cultivator, crushing straws and shallowly burying seeds in a soil layer.
(12) And (4) continuously planting golden cicadas: and in the third year, planting furrows are dug at 0.6-0.8m of the trunk of the peach tree, and the golden cicada planting is repeated.
(13) After the mouse couch grass grows for 4-5 years, the growth capacity is weakened, and the mouse couch grass is sown again at the time.
Example 2
A method for efficient three-dimensional planting and breeding combination of peach trees, common fescue and golden cicada comprises the following steps:
(1) selecting a proper peach tree planting land block: selecting sandy loam with deep soil layer, rich and loose soil, good drainage and rich organic matters in Suzhong region; nectarine is planted in high ridges for 3 years, the tree shape is a natural open-heart shaping mode, the illumination of peach tree forest land is sufficient, and the plant row spacing is 4 m; one drainage ditch is dug in the middle of two rows of nectarines, and the depth is 50 cm.
(2) Preparing land before sowing: before sowing, weeds in the orchard are removed, organic fertilizer is applied for 1.8t per mu, a rotary cultivator is used for deep ploughing and ploughing the land for about 10-15cm, the soil and the fertilizer are mixed uniformly, the periphery of the root system of the fruit tree is ploughed shallowly and properly, the ground is guaranteed to be flat, and drainage and irrigation are convenient.
(3) Selecting seeds of common fescue and treating: the method comprises the following steps of selecting seeds of the Caragana plant Festuca in the current year, wherein the purity is more than 98%, and the germination rate is more than 85%; before sowing, the seeds of the citionella are exposed to the sun for 2 to 3 hours, then the seeds and the fine sand are uniformly mixed according to the proportion of 1:10, and then the sowing is carried out.
(4) The sowing time is 10 middle ten days by adopting a broadcasting sowing mode. The mode of growing grass in a whole garden is adopted, and the seed consumption per mu is 1.8 kg. And slightly pulling the seeds once by using an iron rake after sowing, covering soil for 1cm, avoiding seeds from appearing, and ensuring seedling emergence.
(5) Laying a micro-jet pipe belt: 2 micro-spray pipe belts are laid between rows where peach trees are planted according to 2 intervals, and water is poured to the soles after sowing to ensure normal germination of the common fescue; and (4) watering overwintering water together with the fruit trees in the middle ten days of the month 11.
(6) In the middle and last ten days of 3 months in the next year, the peach trees and the lemongrass are irrigated with green water at the same time, so that the growth of branches and leaves of the lemongrass is promoted, tillering is increased, and the coverage effect of a unit area is improved; spraying lime sulphur mixture to peach tree to prevent and control aphid.
(7) Excavating golden cicada planting ditches: when the soil is not wet and sticky and is convenient to enter the field for working, a circular planting ditch is dug at a position of 0.8-1.0m of the periphery of the trunk of the peach tree, the inner radius is 0.8m, the outer radius is 1.0m, the ditch depth is 35-45cm, and fine sand of 5-10cm is filled in the ditch.
(8) Sowing golden cicadas: sowing the hatched fine sand containing the larvae of the cicadas into the dug planting ditch, wherein the planting quantity of each peach tree is 40 hatched egg branches and about 250 larvae; burying the cicada branches subjected to greenhouse incubation treatment into a planting ditch at a position of 30-40cm, and watering to backfill soil after the larvae penetrate into a sand layer; keeping the soil of the golden cicada planting area moist before the cogongrass jointing.
(9) Managing and maintaining peach trees, mouse thatch and golden cicadas: during the cicada cultivation period, the peach trees normally carry out farming management work such as watering, fertilizing, pollination, summer pruning, winter pruning and the like, and matrine is selected to continuously prevent and control the peach tree aphids; the cogongrass grows normally when growing to about 40cm, and starts to fruit at the bottom of 5 months and at the beginning of 6 months, then dies and dries up, covers the ground under the forest, and germinates again after the orchard is watered at the bottom of 9 months and at the beginning of 10 months.
(10) Harvesting golden cicadas: and in the next year, the transparent and smooth adhesive tape is wound at the position 40-60cm away from the ground of the peach tree trunk, so that the collecting is convenient, and the golden cicadas are prevented from climbing the tree too high to lay eggs, and the normal growth of the peach tree is influenced.
(11) Picking nectarines in the first ten days of 6 months; in the last 10 th month, the small rotary cultivator is used for crushing the common fescue and turning the land, the straw is crushed, and the seeds are shallow buried in the soil layer.
(12) And (4) continuously planting golden cicadas: and in the third year, planting furrows are dug at 0.6-0.8m of the trunk of the peach tree, and the golden cicadas are repeatedly planted.
(13) After 5 years of growth of the cymbopogon citratus, the growth capacity becomes weak, and the cymbopogon citratus is sown again.
Comparative example 1
A method for combining three-dimensional planting and breeding of peach trees and golden cicadas comprises the following steps:
(1) selecting a peach tree planting land block: selecting sandy loam with deep soil layer, rich and loose soil, good drainage and rich organic matters in Suzhong region; nectarine is planted in high ridges for 3 years, the tree shape is a natural open-heart shaping mode, the illumination of peach tree forest land is sufficient, and the plant row spacing is 4 m; one drainage ditch is dug in the middle of two rows of nectarines, and the depth is 50 cm.
(2) Fertilizing and managing peach trees: in the last 11 th month, residual branches, fallen leaves, weeds and the like in the orchard are removed completely, rectangular ditches with the depth of 30-40cm and the width of 20cm are dug horizontally at the position 0.8-1.5m away from the trunk of the peach tree by adopting a radial ditch fertilization method, about 1.5kg of fertilizer is fertilized for each tree, 60kg of fertilizer is fertilized for each mu in total, and the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are 15 percent of the Strobile compound fertilizer.
(3) In 11 middle of the month, the overwintering water is timely poured by adopting a micro-spraying belt after fertilization.
(4) In the middle and last ten days of 3 months, spraying lime sulphur mixture on the peach trees to prevent aphids; the pendimethalin is selected to be sprayed on the underground surface of the peach tree, so that the weeds are reduced.
(5) In late 3 th day, watering the peach tree with water before flowering to promote the peach tree to bloom and sprout new leaves; and 4-10 months, timely draining and irrigating according to soil moisture and weather conditions, and ensuring the water required by the normal growth of the peach trees.
(6) In the last ten days of 4 months, the ground temperature is kept above 10 ℃, larvae of the golden cicadas and hatched egg branches of the golden cicadas in winter are purchased, and the golden cicadas are prepared; the ant killing bait is selected for killing ants and other insects under peach forests for 1 time.
(7) Excavating golden cicada planting ditches: when the soil is not wet and sticky and is convenient to carry out soil working, uniformly digging holes with the length of 30-40cm, the width of 20-25cm and the depth of 35-40cm at a position of 0.5-1.0m on the periphery of the trunk of the peach tree, and filling a small amount of fine sand.
(8) Sowing golden cicadas: sowing the hatched fine sand containing the larvae of the cicadas into the dug planting ditch, wherein the planting quantity of each peach tree is 40 hatched egg branches and about 250 larvae; and then burying the cicada branches subjected to greenhouse hatching treatment into planting holes, watering and backfilling soil after the larvae penetrate into a sand layer, and keeping the soil of the cicada planting area moist.
(9) And (3) management and maintenance of peach trees and golden cicadas: during the golden cicada cultivation period, the peach trees normally carry out the farming management work of watering, fertilizing, pollination, summer pruning, winter pruning and the like, and matrine is selected to continuously prevent and control peach tree aphids; in plum rain season in Suzhongsan areas, the air humidity is high, and chlorothalonil and carbendazim are selected to prevent diseases; the prochloraz or prochloraz is selected to be sprayed to prevent and treat the gummosis of peach trees, and about 75-80 percent of peach trees can generate gummosis.
(10) Harvesting golden cicadas: and in the next year, the transparent and smooth adhesive tape is wound at the position 40-60cm away from the ground of the peach tree trunk, so that the collecting is convenient, and the golden cicadas are prevented from climbing the tree too high to lay eggs, and the normal growth of the peach tree is influenced.
(11) In the last ten days of 6 months, nectarines are picked.
(12) And (4) continuously planting golden cicadas: and excavating planting holes at 0.5-1.0m of the trunk of the peach tree in the third year, and uniformly and repeatedly planting golden cicadas.
(13) The yield of the cicadas is 20-25 kg/mu in the first year, and the yield of the cicadas is 30-35 kg/mu in the second year and later.
Test examples Effect verification test
The advantages of examples 1-2 compared to comparative example 1 are shown as:
(1) peach yield and quality: after the mouse couch grass is planted, the yield of each peach tree can be increased by about 4-6 jin, the yield per mu can be increased by 240 jin, and the yield per mu can be increased by about 2.4-5.0% comprehensively; after the cogongrass is planted, the fruit cracking amount of the juicy peaches is obviously reduced, the quality of the peaches is obviously improved, and the content of soluble sugar, soluble protein and soluble solid matters is slightly improved.
(2) Yield of golden cicadas: compared with the single method for planting the golden cicadas under the forest, the hatching rate of the golden cicadas is improved after the cogongrass is planted, the ground temperature is improved in winter, the growth of the golden cicadas is promoted, the yield of the golden cicadas per mu can be improved by about 1-2kg in the planting mode of nectarine, cogongrass and the golden cicadas in Suzhong areas, and the yield of the golden cicadas per mu is stabilized at 32-38 kg/mu and even exceeds 40 kg/mu.
(3) Peach tree gummosis: in summer and autumn, the sunshine is sufficient, the rainwater is abundant, the peach gummosis commonly occurs by more than 50 percent, the growth and fructification of the peach are seriously influenced, and the number of watering times of soil is reduced by 2-3 times per year after the cogongrass is planted; and effectively reduce the temperature change in the orchard by 2-3 ℃, effectively control the occurrence of gummosis of honey peaches and nectarines, and reduce the incidence of 10-12%.
(4) And (3) management cost of the peach trees: after the cogongrass is planted, on one hand, weeds under peach trees are obviously reduced, a herbicide is not needed, only scattered tall grass is needed to be pulled out, and the cost of artificial weeding or chemical weeding under forests is indirectly reduced; on the other hand, watering is reduced for 1-2 times in the same period, the farmland irrigation water quantity is saved by 30-50 tons/mu/year, and the management cost of the peach trees is comprehensively reduced by about 55 yuan/mu.
The foregoing is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and it should be noted that, for those skilled in the art, various modifications and decorations can be made without departing from the principle of the present invention, and these modifications and decorations should also be regarded as the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. A method for efficient three-dimensional planting and breeding combination of peach trees, common fescue and golden cicada is characterized by comprising the following steps:
selecting a peach tree forest land: selecting fertile, loose and well-drained sandy loam, planting peach trees for 3 years or more, and illuminating sufficient peach tree forest lands by adopting a natural open heart type pruning method;
sowing the common fescue: preparing soil before planting, mixing the preprocessed common fescue seeds with sand in the middle ten days of 9 months to the last ten days of 10 months, and then sowing the mixture in a peach tree land;
watering and insect prevention: watering the lemongrass with bottom water; in 11 last ten days, simultaneously watering the mouse couch grass and the peach trees with overwintering water; irrigating the mouse couch grass and the peach trees with green turning water from the middle and last ten days of 3 months to the beginning of 4 months in the next year; preventing and treating peach aphids;
sowing golden cicadas: excavating a golden cicada planting ditch, and burying hatched larvae and/or branches of golden cicadas into the planting ditch 4 months in the next year;
managing and maintaining peach trees, cogongrass and golden cicadas;
collecting cicada and peach; after picking of fruit trees is finished, crushing and turning over the common fescue;
repeating the cicada sowing operation every year after the second year; and after 4-5 years, sowing the mouse couch grass again.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein said sandy loam has a pH of 6.5 to 7.5; the row spacing of the peach tree forest land is (4-5) mx (4-5) m.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the seeds of Cymbopogon citratus are seeds of Cymbopogon citratus in the current year.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein the pre-treatment of the seeds of Cymbopogon citratus comprises at least one of: exposing the seeds of the common fescue in the sun for 2-3 hours; soaking the seeds in warm water at 30 ℃ for 3-5 hours.
5. The method according to claim 1, wherein the seeding amount of the seeds of the Cymbopogon citratus is 1.5-2 kg/mu; the sowing adopts a mode of growing grass in a whole garden.
6. The method of claim 1, wherein the watering is performed using a micro-lance tape, the micro-lance tape being laid by: and 2 micro-spraying pipe belts are laid between the rows for planting the peach trees according to the interval of 2-2.5 m.
7. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the planting furrows are located at 0.8-1.0m or 0.6-0.8m of the periphery of the trunk of the peach tree, have an inner radius of 0.8m and an outer radius of 1.0m, have a furrow depth of 35-45cm and are filled with fine sand of 5-10 cm;
the depth of the cicada seeding is 30-40 cm.
8. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the peach tree, the cogongrass and the cicada are managed and maintained as follows: during the golden cicada cultivation period, the peach trees are normally watered, fertilized, pollinated, bagged, pruned in summer and pruned in winter, and the aphids of the peach trees are continuously prevented and controlled.
9. The method as claimed in claim 1, further comprising, between the sowing of the cicadas and the harvesting of the cicadas: and winding a smooth adhesive tape at a position 40-60cm away from the ground of the trunk of the peach tree.
10. The method as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the alternative cicada planting furrows alternate at different positions around the trunk of the peach tree.
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