WO2014079170A1 - Distillation-free biodiesel production method and system - Google Patents

Distillation-free biodiesel production method and system Download PDF

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WO2014079170A1
WO2014079170A1 PCT/CN2013/071228 CN2013071228W WO2014079170A1 WO 2014079170 A1 WO2014079170 A1 WO 2014079170A1 CN 2013071228 W CN2013071228 W CN 2013071228W WO 2014079170 A1 WO2014079170 A1 WO 2014079170A1
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oil
bio
grease
liquid
water
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PCT/CN2013/071228
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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许文姬
李国声
李汉声
李振声
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华南再生资源(中山)有限公司
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Publication of WO2014079170A1 publication Critical patent/WO2014079170A1/en

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B09DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE; RECLAMATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL
    • B09BDISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE
    • B09B3/00Destroying solid waste or transforming solid waste into something useful or harmless
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B09DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE; RECLAMATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL
    • B09BDISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE
    • B09B5/00Operations not covered by a single other subclass or by a single other group in this subclass
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10LFUELS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NATURAL GAS; SYNTHETIC NATURAL GAS OBTAINED BY PROCESSES NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C10G, C10K; LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS; ADDING MATERIALS TO FUELS OR FIRES TO REDUCE SMOKE OR UNDESIRABLE DEPOSITS OR TO FACILITATE SOOT REMOVAL; FIRELIGHTERS
    • C10L1/00Liquid carbonaceous fuels
    • C10L1/02Liquid carbonaceous fuels essentially based on components consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen only
    • C10L1/026Liquid carbonaceous fuels essentially based on components consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen only for compression ignition
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10LFUELS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NATURAL GAS; SYNTHETIC NATURAL GAS OBTAINED BY PROCESSES NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C10G, C10K; LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS; ADDING MATERIALS TO FUELS OR FIRES TO REDUCE SMOKE OR UNDESIRABLE DEPOSITS OR TO FACILITATE SOOT REMOVAL; FIRELIGHTERS
    • C10L5/00Solid fuels
    • C10L5/40Solid fuels essentially based on materials of non-mineral origin
    • C10L5/48Solid fuels essentially based on materials of non-mineral origin on industrial residues and waste materials
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels, e.g. bio-diesel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/30Wastewater or sewage treatment systems using renewable energies
    • Y02W10/37Wastewater or sewage treatment systems using renewable energies using solar energy

Abstract

Disclosed are a distillation-free biodiesel production method and system for use in food waste treatment. The steps of solid-liquid separation, oil-water separation, grease colloid removal, and ultrasonic room-temperature grease exchange are used to convert all grease contained in food waste into a biodiesel for further utilization. The present invention allows for automatic separation of solids and water contained in the food waste, then subsequently converts the grease contained into the biodiesel to be used, and provides a structurally simple apparatus and a treatment process that conserves energy and is of reduced production costs.

Description

免蒸馏法生物柴油生产方法及系统  Distillation-free biodiesel production method and system 技术领域  Technical field
本发明公开一种餐厨垃圾处理装置,更具体涉及一种用于餐厨垃圾处理的免蒸馏法生物柴油生产方法及系统。  The invention discloses a kitchen waste treatment device, and more particularly to a distillation-free biodiesel production method and system for kitchen waste treatment.
背景技术Background technique
废弃物资源化利用的科学技术,经过长时间的应用,已证明了一个道理,就是如果废弃物的资源化处理技术单一应用,其后果将会对人类生存环境带来更大的危机,尤其是产生二次污染的严重问题难以控制,所以废弃物的综合处理已经成为当前发展的趋势。餐厨垃圾的组成极其复杂,其中包含污水、塑料袋、塑料瓶、废布条、腐败性有机物、纸张、金属瓶罐、破碎玻璃、破碎陶瓷片、动物油脂、植物油脂、原生细菌体等物质。目前餐厨垃圾资源化处理技术在国内外的方法和工艺中已呈现“百花齐放”局面,但是基本都是单纯的单项处理,没有走向从单纯的处理转向综合处理、利用与处置的国际性环保处理趋势和方向,可能会造成餐厨垃圾中的必然附着物进行转移及乱填乱放,造成水土污染,或转移,不仅堵塞城市下水管道,散发恶臭气味,造成严重的二次污染。餐厨垃圾的单一处理工艺从资源化利用价值考虑是可行的,但从长期保护地球环境、人民宜居、保护大气环境的综合性角度来考虑,还是可能弊大于利。目前,餐厨垃圾的处理过程中,通常都是提取其中的固体物质作为饲料,而废水和油脂均混合排出,仍然会对环境造成二次污染,虽然当前有采用餐厨垃圾中的油脂制造生物柴油的技术,但是,其仅是对餐厨垃圾中的油脂进行粗处理,应用范围较小,不能被广泛应用于生活中,且其生产设备庞大、生产工艺复杂、处理成本较高。The science and technology of waste resource utilization, after a long period of application, has proved that if the waste recycling technology is applied in a single application, the consequences will bring greater crisis to the human living environment, especially The serious problem of secondary pollution is difficult to control, so the comprehensive treatment of waste has become the current development trend. The composition of kitchen waste is extremely complicated, including sewage, plastic bags, plastic bottles, waste cloth strips, spoilage organic matter, paper, metal bottles, broken glass, broken ceramic sheets, animal fats, vegetable oils, primary bacteria and other substances. . At present, the kitchen waste resource treatment technology has presented a “hundred flowers” situation in the domestic and foreign methods and processes, but basically it is a simple single item treatment, and there is no international environmental treatment that shifts from simple treatment to comprehensive treatment, utilization and disposal. The trend and direction may cause the inevitable attachments in the kitchen waste to be transferred and randomly filled, causing water and soil pollution, or transfer, not only blocking the city's sewer pipes, but also emitting a foul smell and causing serious secondary pollution. The single treatment process of kitchen waste is feasible from the perspective of resource utilization value. However, considering the comprehensive protection of the global environment, people's livability and protection of the atmospheric environment, it may still do more harm than good. At present, during the processing of kitchen waste, the solid matter is usually extracted as feed, and the waste water and oil are mixed and discharged, which still causes secondary pollution to the environment, although there are currently oils used in kitchen waste to make organisms. Diesel technology, however, is only for the rough treatment of grease in kitchen waste, the application range is small, can not be widely used in life, and its production equipment is huge, the production process is complex, and the processing cost is high.
发明内容Summary of the invention
针对上述提到的现有技术中的餐厨垃圾处理制造油脂设备结构复杂等缺点,本发明提供一种新的免蒸馏法生物柴油生产方法及系统,其通过固液分离、油水分离、油脂胶质脱除、臭氧处理反应、超声波常温脂交换等步骤将餐厨垃圾中所含有的油脂转换成生物柴油,进一步利用。In view of the above-mentioned shortcomings of the prior art kitchen waste disposal manufacturing grease equipment, the present invention provides a new distillation-free biodiesel production method and system, which is separated by solid-liquid separation, oil-water separation, and grease The steps of removing the oil, converting the oil contained in the kitchen waste into biodiesel, and further utilizing it are carried out in steps such as mass removal, ozone treatment, and ultrasonic temperature and temperature.
本发明解决其技术问题采用的技术方案是:一种免蒸馏法生物柴油生产系统,该系统包括卧式螺带固液分离设备、油水分离塔、储油容器、油脂胶质脱除设备、生物油常温脂交换设备、分液设备和过滤设备,卧式螺带固液分离设备的出口通过管道连接至油水分离塔中下端,油水分离塔内设有加热管道,加热管道从油水分离塔下部伸入至油水分离塔内部,再从油水分离塔中上部输出至油水分离塔外侧,油水分离塔顶部设有刮油器,油水分离塔通过出油管道与储油容器连接,出油管道入口对应于刮油器设置,储油容器通过管道与油脂胶质脱除设备连通,油脂胶质脱除设备内部设有固定设置有孔洞撞击板,撞击板的两侧对应位置分别安装有旋浆式水力推进机,旋浆式水力推进机的螺旋桨扇叶设置在油脂胶质脱除设备内,电机设置在油脂胶质脱除设备外侧,电机驱动螺旋桨扇叶转动,油脂胶质脱除设备下部设有油脂出口,油脂出口通过管道连通至强力气、液混合器与臭氧混合后进入反应器进行氧化,除去脂肪中杂质、色素、臭味、蛋白质等,再生物油常温脂交换设备内,生物油常温脂交换设备内设有一个以上的超声波发生器,生物油常温脂交换设备顶部开有投料口,生物油常温脂交换设备底部通过管道连通至分液设备,分液设备底部通过输油管道连接至过滤设备,过滤设备输出生物柴油。The technical solution adopted by the invention to solve the technical problem is: a distillation-free biodiesel production system, which comprises a horizontal ribbon solid-liquid separation device, an oil-water separation tower, an oil storage container, an oil gel removal device, and a biological Oil normal temperature grease exchange equipment, liquid separation equipment and filtration equipment, the outlet of the horizontal spiral belt solid-liquid separation equipment is connected to the lower end of the oil-water separation tower through a pipeline, and the oil-water separation tower is provided with a heating pipeline, and the heating pipeline extends from the lower part of the oil-water separation tower It enters the inside of the oil-water separation tower and is output from the upper part of the oil-water separation tower to the outside of the oil-water separation tower. The top of the oil-water separation tower is provided with an oil scraper. The oil-water separation tower is connected to the oil storage tank through the oil-discharging pipeline, and the oil pipeline inlet corresponds to The oil scraper is arranged, the oil storage container is connected with the grease colloid removal device through the pipeline, and the grease colloid removal device is internally provided with a hole impact plate fixedly disposed, and the corresponding positions on both sides of the impact plate are respectively installed with the rotary slurry type hydraulic propulsion The propeller fan blade of the rotary-type hydraulic propulsion machine is arranged in the grease colloid removal device, and the motor is arranged outside the grease colloid removal device. The motor drives the propeller blade to rotate, and the lower part of the grease colloid removal device is provided with a grease outlet. The grease outlet is connected to the strong gas through the pipeline, and the liquid mixer is mixed with ozone to enter the reactor for oxidation to remove impurities, pigments and odors in the fat. , protein, etc., in the bio-oil constant-temperature grease exchange equipment, there is more than one ultrasonic generator in the bio-oil normal-temperature grease exchange equipment, the top of the bio-oil normal-temperature grease exchange equipment has a feed port, and the bottom of the bio-oil normal-temperature grease exchange device passes through the pipeline. Connected to the liquid separation device, the bottom of the liquid separation device is connected to the filtering device through the oil pipeline, and the filtering device outputs biodiesel.
一种采用上述的免蒸馏法生物柴油生产系统的免蒸馏法生物柴油生产方法,该方法包括下述步骤:A method for producing a distillation-free biodiesel using the above-described distillation-free biodiesel production system, the method comprising the steps of:
(1)、将餐厨垃圾生产过程中所产生的油、水、固混合物通过卧式螺带固液分离设备进行脱固处理,得到油水混合液;(1) Dissolving the oil, water and solid mixture produced in the production process of the kitchen waste through the horizontal spiral belt solid-liquid separation equipment to obtain an oil-water mixture;
(2)、将油水混合液输送至油水分离塔进行油水分离,将分离后的油脂输入储油容器; (2) conveying the oil-water mixture to the oil-water separation tower for oil-water separation, and inputting the separated oil into the oil storage container;
(3)、当需要对生物油脂时行加工处理时,通过输送泵等工具将生物油脂送进油脂胶质脱除设备内后,启动旋浆水力推进机,并加入浓度85%的磷酸,磷酸与生物油脂的比例为不超过油脂总量的1%,利用油脂胶质脱除设备两端的旋浆推力使油脂胶质脱除设备内部的液体产生相向撞击,撞击时间为10 min——15min,在液体的相向撞击时间结束后,当即加入稀盐水,稀盐水中水、盐的重量比为95:5至90:10之间,生物油脂与稀盐水的重量比例为90:10至80:20之间;(3) When the biological grease is needed for processing, the bio-fat is sent into the grease colloid removal device by means of a pump or the like, and then the hydro-pneumatic propulsion machine is started, and phosphoric acid having a concentration of 85% is added. The ratio of the oil to the bio-fat is not more than 1% of the total amount of the grease. The oil-pulling thrust is used to remove the liquid from both ends of the device to cause the liquid inside the device to collide with each other. The impact time is 10 Min——15min, after the end of the phase collision time of the liquid, the diluted brine is added immediately. The weight ratio of water to salt in the dilute brine is between 95:5 and 90:10, and the weight ratio of bio-fat to dilute brine is 90: Between 10 and 80:20;
(4)、继续启动旋浆水力推进机,时间为10 min——20min;(4), continue to start the hydro-pneumatic propulsion machine, the time is 10 min - 20 min;
(5)、油脂混合体于油脂胶质脱除设备中停留60min——120min;(5), the grease mixture in the oil gel removal equipment stays 60min - 120min;
(6)、将已脱胶质的生物油脂被输进强力气、液混合器与臭氧混合,臭氧浓度为13.5g/L,臭氧流速为6.5L/min;(6), the degreased bio-oil is fed into a strong gas, liquid mixer and ozone mixed, the ozone concentration is 13.5g / L, the ozone flow rate is 6.5L / min;
(7)、将生物油脂与臭氧混合体直接输入反应器,再加入占油脂重量1.5-2.5%的正庚烷于油脂中,臭氧化反应时间为20-30min;(7), the biological oil and ozone mixture directly into the reactor, and then added 1.5-2.5% by weight of n-heptane in the oil and fat, ozonation reaction time is 20-30min;
(8)、将经过臭氧化处理的油脂输进生物油常温脂交换设备;(8), the ozonized oil is fed into the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device;
(9)、当生物油常温脂交换设备内的油脂输入的液面达到符合生产工艺设定的液面高度时,停止输入,开始启动生物油常温脂交换设备底部的鼓气管,打开投料口,加入固体催化剂和甲醇,该固体催化剂为负离子金属碱催化剂,固体催化剂用量为生物油脂质量的1.5%——3.5%,甲醇用量为生物油脂质量的13%——38%,在加入甲醇后再加入共溶剂;(9) When the liquid level input into the bio-oil normal-temperature grease exchange device reaches the liquid level set according to the production process, stop the input, start the drum tube at the bottom of the bio-oil normal-temperature grease exchange device, and open the feed port. Adding a solid catalyst and methanol, the solid catalyst is an anion metal base catalyst, the amount of the solid catalyst is 1.5%-3.5% of the mass of the bio-oil, and the amount of methanol is 13%-38% of the mass of the bio-oil, and then adding after adding methanol Cosolvent
(10)、利用搅拌器连续搅拌10 min——15min,再加入固体金属碱催化剂,加入量为生物油脂质量的3%——4.5%;(10), continuous stirring with a stirrer 10 Min - 15min, then add a solid metal base catalyst, the amount added is 3% - 4.5% of the quality of the bio-oil;
(11)、当加入所需要的助剂后,关闭投料孔,开启物料循环输送泵,并开启超声波发生器,超声波发生器的初始频率为25KHZ,时间为1min,随后逐步增大到30KHZ,时间为30 min——40min,反应温度为25——35℃。(11) After adding the required auxiliaries, close the feeding hole, open the material circulation pump, and turn on the ultrasonic generator. The initial frequency of the ultrasonic generator is 25KHZ, the time is 1min, and then gradually increase to 30KHZ, time. For 30 Min - 40 min, the reaction temperature is 25 - 35 ° C.
(12)、当油脂于生物油常温脂交换设备中完成脂交换后,将生物油脂混合物输入分液设备静置分层,上层为甲醇和甘油混合液体,下层为粗制生物柴油;(12) After the fat exchange is completed in the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device, the biological grease mixture is input into the liquid separation device to be statically layered, the upper layer is a mixed liquid of methanol and glycerin, and the lower layer is crude biodiesel;
(13)、首先将分液设备设于下部排液口开启,让粗制生物柴油输送进入过滤设备,过滤后得到精制生物柴油并回收固体催化剂。(13) First, the liquid separation device is set to be opened in the lower liquid discharge port, and the crude biodiesel is transported into the filtering device, and the purified biodiesel is obtained after filtration and the solid catalyst is recovered.
本发明解决其技术问题采用的技术方案进一步还包括:The technical solution adopted by the present invention to solve the technical problem thereof further includes:
所述的卧式螺带固液分离设备包括有一个卧式圆筒形外壳,外壳内设有滤网,滤网内部固定设有输送螺带,螺带驱动电机配合变速器带动滤网及螺带转动,卧式螺带固液分离设备底部设有油、水混合体输出管道。The horizontal spiral belt solid-liquid separation device comprises a horizontal cylindrical outer casing, a filter mesh is arranged in the outer casing, a conveying screw is fixed inside the filter mesh, and the spiral belt driving motor cooperates with the transmission to drive the filter mesh and the spiral belt. Rotating, horizontal spiral belt solid-liquid separation equipment is provided with an oil and water mixture output pipe at the bottom.
所述的油水分离塔的顶部装有红外线水体液面定位仪。The top of the oil-water separation tower is equipped with an infrared water body liquid level locator.
所述的出油管道上设有电动阀。An electric valve is arranged on the oil discharge pipe.
所述的臭氧气体由臭氧发生器提供。The ozone gas is supplied by an ozone generator.
所述的超声波发生器外围分别装有套管,套管四周开有内螺纹射流孔,套管的材质为能释放阳离子的耐酸碱塑料。The outer periphery of the ultrasonic generator is respectively provided with a sleeve, and an inner threaded jet hole is formed around the sleeve, and the sleeve is made of an acid-resistant plastic capable of releasing cations.
所述的套管上方固定设有卡定器,通过卡定器将超声波发生器安装在生物油常温脂交换设备内部。A locking device is fixed above the sleeve, and the ultrasonic generator is installed inside the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device through the locking device.
所述的生物油常温脂交换设备内装有液体导流管,液体导流管一端连接在生物油常温脂交换设备上部,另一端连接在生物油常温脂交换设备底部,液体导流管上连接有泵具。The bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device is provided with a liquid guiding tube, one end of the liquid guiding tube is connected to the upper part of the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device, and the other end is connected to the bottom of the bio-oil normal temperature fat exchange device, and the liquid guiding tube is connected Pump.
所述的生物油常温脂交换设备底部设有鼓气管,鼓气管的一端连接压缩空气机。The bottom of the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device is provided with a gas pipe, and one end of the gas pipe is connected to the compressed air machine.
所述的油水分离时,油水分离塔内的油水混合液加热至60℃——85℃,待生物油脂上浮后实现油水分层,上层的生物油脂由刮油器刮出,并通过出油管道送入储油容器内;When the oil and water are separated, the oil-water mixture in the oil-water separation tower is heated to 60° C. to 85° C., after the bio-oil is floated, the oil moisture layer is realized, and the upper layer of bio-oil is scraped by the scraper and passes through the oil pipeline. Feeded into the oil storage container;
所述的共溶剂的选择为甲乙酮和叔丁醇,共溶剂的加入量是生物油脂质量的0.5%——2%。The cosolvent is selected from methyl ethyl ketone and t-butanol, and the co-solvent is added in an amount of 0.5% to 2% by mass of the bio-fat.
所述的共溶剂还包括有加入量是生物油脂质量的0.5%的叔丁醇。The co-solvent further comprises t-butanol in an amount of 0.5% by weight of the bio-fat.
所述的固体阴离子金属碱催化剂的特征是以试剂活性碳和铝、钠、铁、镁和锂的环状结构硅酸盐矿物的纳米颗粒为基核,外裹硅、铝、锂网状骨架介质且带极性的杂化荷为载体,含负载15%——25% KNO3的固体催化剂。The solid anionic metal base catalyst is characterized by a reagent activated carbon and a nano-particle of a cyclic structure silicate mineral of aluminum, sodium, iron, magnesium and lithium, and is surrounded by a silicon, aluminum and lithium network skeleton. The medium and the polar hybridization carrier are carriers, and the solid catalyst containing 15% - 25% KNO 3 is loaded.
本发明的有益效果是:本发明可自动将餐厨垃圾中所包含的固体、水分等进行分离,然后进一步将所含油脂转换成生物柴油使用,设备结构简单,处理过程,节约能源、生产成本低。The invention has the beneficial effects that the invention can automatically separate the solids, moisture and the like contained in the kitchen waste, and then further convert the contained fats and oils into biodiesel, the device structure is simple, the processing process, energy conservation and production cost are saved. low.
下面将结合附图和具体实施方式对本发明做进一步说明。The invention will be further described with reference to the drawings and specific embodiments.
附图说明DRAWINGS
图1为本发明中水、油、固分离装置结构示意图。Figure 1 is a schematic view showing the structure of a water, oil and solid separation device of the present invention.
图2为本发明中生物柴油生产装置结构示意图。2 is a schematic view showing the structure of a biodiesel production apparatus according to the present invention.
图3为本发明中生物油常温脂交换设备切面结构示意图。Fig. 3 is a schematic view showing the structure of a cut surface of a bio-oil normal temperature fat exchange device according to the present invention.
图4为本发明中超声波换能器切面结构示意图。Figure 4 is a schematic view showing the structure of the ultrasonic transducer in the present invention.
图中,1-储油容器,2-油水混合池,3-卧式螺带固液分离设备,4-油水分离塔,5-加热管道,6-红外线水体液面定位仪,7-刮油器,8-出油管道,9-电动阀,10-进油管,11-油脂胶质脱除设备,12-孔洞撞击板,13-定量加料器,14-旋浆式水力推进机,15-出水口,16-生物油常温脂交换设备,17-超声波换能器,18-套管,19-内螺纹射流孔,20-卡定器,21-液体导流管,22-泵具,23-顶盖,24-投料口,25-压缩空气鼓动管,26-分液设备,27-过滤设备,28-臭氧化反应器,28A-臭氧发生器,29-防反冲阀,30-强力气、液混合器,31-液面控制器,32-臭氧余气毁灭器,33-定理加料器,34-循环泵,35-气动起降器。In the figure, 1- oil storage container, 2-oil-water mixing tank, 3-horizontal spiral belt solid-liquid separation equipment, 4-oil water separation tower, 5-heating pipeline, 6-infrared water body liquid level locator, 7-scraping oil , 8-oil pipe, 9-electric valve, 10-inlet pipe, 11-oil gel removal equipment, 12-hole impact plate, 13-dosing feeder, 14-spindle hydraulic propulsion, 15- Water outlet, 16-bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange equipment, 17-ultrasonic transducer, 18-sleeve, 19-internal threaded orifice, 20-locker, 21-liquid guide tube, 22-pump, 23 - Top cover, 24-feed port, 25-compressed air drum, 26-separation unit, 27-filter unit, 28-ozonation reactor, 28A-ozone generator, 29-anti-backlash valve, 30-strong Force gas, liquid mixer, 31-liquid level controller, 32-ozone residual gas destroyer, 33-theoretical feeder, 34-circulation pump, 35-pneumatic take-off and lowering.
具体实施方式detailed description
本实施例为本发明优选实施方式,其他凡其原理和基本结构与本实施例相同或近似的,均在本发明保护范围之内。This embodiment is a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and other principles and basic structures are the same as or similar to those of the present embodiment, and are all within the scope of the present invention.
本发明是对餐厨垃圾处理过程中各个工段产生的油、水、固体混合物进行处理,用其制作生物柴油的系统。The invention relates to a system for processing a mixture of oil, water and solid produced in various sections of a kitchen waste treatment process, and using the same to produce biodiesel.
请参看附图1,本发明中的生物柴油制造系统前端设有油水混合池2,餐厨垃圾处理过程中各个工段产生的油、水、固体混合物通过出水管道输送至油水混合池2内,油水混合池2设置在出水管道尾端。油水混合池2后端设有一个卧式螺带固液分离设备3,用于将油、水、固体混合物的固体脱出,本实施例中,卧式螺带固液分离设备3包括有一个卧式圆筒形外壳,外壳内设有滤网,滤网内部固定设有输送螺带,电机配合变速器带动滤网及螺带转动,卧式螺带固液分离设备3底部设有油、水混合体输送管道。油、水、固混合体由泵具通过管道输入卧式螺带固液分离设备3内,经卧式螺带固液分离设备3进行液固分离后,油、水混合体通过输送管道输入下一处理装置,固体排出。卧式螺带固液分离设备3的液体排出后端连接油水分离塔4,经过脱固体后的油、水混合体被输送到油水分离塔4内,本实施例中,油水分离塔4呈立式圆筒形,其进料口设置在侧面中下部,油水分离塔4内部设有加热管道5,加热管道5从油水分离塔4下部伸入至油水分离塔4内部,再从油水分离塔4中上部输出至油水分离塔4外侧,本实施例中,加热管道5所采用的热源为导热油炉的余热,可节约能源的使用,具体实施时,也可以单独设置有热源。油水分离塔4的顶部装有红外线水体液面定位仪6,用于油水分离时的油水混合体高度的定位,并以此来自动控制油水混合液的进入量。油水分离塔4接近上部的一侧装有刮油器7和出油管道8,本实施例中,刮油器7呈条形板状,由设置在油水分离塔4顶部的电机带动转动,将油水混合体中的油刮入油槽中,并通过出油管道8输出。本实施例中,在出油管道8上设有电动阀9,通过电动阀9控制生物油料从出油管道8进入储油容器1。Referring to FIG. 1, the front end of the biodiesel manufacturing system of the present invention is provided with an oil-water mixing tank 2, and the oil, water and solid mixture generated in each section of the kitchen waste treatment process is transported to the oil-water mixing tank 2 through the water outlet pipe, the oil water The mixing tank 2 is disposed at the end of the water outlet pipe. The horizontal end of the oil-water mixing tank 2 is provided with a horizontal ribbon solid-liquid separation device 3 for removing solids of oil, water and solid mixture. In the present embodiment, the horizontal ribbon solid-liquid separation device 3 includes a lying The cylindrical casing has a filter screen inside the casing, and a conveying screw is fixed inside the filter screen, and the motor cooperates with the transmission to drive the filter screen and the spiral belt to rotate, and the horizontal spiral belt solid-liquid separation device 3 is provided with oil and water mixing at the bottom. Body delivery pipe. The oil, water and solid mixture is input into the horizontal spiral belt solid-liquid separation device 3 through the pipeline through the pump, and after the liquid-solid separation by the horizontal spiral-belt solid-liquid separation device 3, the oil and water mixture is input through the conveying pipeline. A processing device that discharges solids. The liquid discharge rear end of the horizontal spiral belt solid-liquid separation device 3 is connected to the oil-water separation tower 4, and the deoiled oil and water mixture is sent to the oil-water separation tower 4. In the present embodiment, the oil-water separation tower 4 is stood The cylindrical shape has a feeding port disposed at the middle and lower sides of the side, and the oil-water separation tower 4 is internally provided with a heating pipe 5, and the heating pipe 5 extends from the lower portion of the oil-water separation tower 4 to the inside of the oil-water separation tower 4, and then from the oil-water separation tower 4 The upper middle portion is output to the outside of the oil-water separation tower 4. In the present embodiment, the heat source used in the heating pipe 5 is the residual heat of the heat-conducting oil furnace, which can save energy. In specific implementation, a heat source can also be separately provided. The top of the oil-water separation tower 4 is equipped with an infrared water level locator 6 for automatically positioning the oil-water mixture at the time of oil-water separation, and thereby automatically controlling the amount of the oil-water mixture. The oil-water separation tower 4 is provided with an oil scraper 7 and an oil discharge pipe 8 on the side close to the upper portion. In this embodiment, the oil scraper 7 has a strip-shaped plate shape, and is driven by a motor disposed at the top of the oil-water separation tower 4 to rotate. The oil in the oil-water mixture is scraped into the oil sump and is output through the oil discharge pipe 8. In the present embodiment, an electric valve 9 is provided on the oil discharge pipe 8, and the bio-oil is controlled to enter the oil storage container 1 from the oil discharge pipe 8 through the electric valve 9.
请结合参看附图2,本发明中,利用餐厨垃圾中脱出的油脂进行生物柴油的生产,生物柴油生产装置前端为油脂胶质脱除设备11,本实施例中,油脂胶质脱除设备11为长方形,油脂胶质脱除设备11中间固定设置有孔洞撞击板12,撞击板12上开有孔洞,孔洞直径为0.5-1mm,孔距为50-80mm,撞击板12的两面对开位置分别安装有旋浆式水力推进机14,旋浆扇叶背面距离油脂胶质脱除设备壳体内壁150-200mm。本实施例中,旋浆式水力推进机14包括有设置在油脂胶质脱除设备11内部的螺旋桨扇叶和设置在油脂胶质脱除设备11外侧的电机,电机带动螺旋桨扇叶转动,转速为500-700转/min,由变频器调整控制。当需要生产生物柴油时,由专用油泵将生物油料从储油容器1中输入至油脂胶质脱除设备11内,进行有效地脱除油脂中的磷酯、糖、蛋白质及其它杂质,防止胶质在后一工段中遮盖油脂细小粒子,而障碍油脂与催化剂的接触。本实施例中,臭氧氧化处理器是由臭氧发生器28A,防液体反冲阀29,强力气、液混合器30,反应器28,循环泵34,进油管道A1,出油口A2,液面控制器31和臭氧余气毁器32组成,臭氧发生器28A通过防液体反冲阀29与强力气、液混合器30连接,强力气、液混合器30通过进油管道A1与油脂胶质脱除设备11连接,强力气、液混合器30通过管道与反应器28连接,反应器28上连接有循环泵34,反应器28底部为出油口A2,出油口A2通过管道与生物油常温脂交换设备16连接,反应器28内安装有液面控制器31,反应器28顶部安装有臭氧余气毁器32。反应器28顶部还安装有定量加料器33。通过臭氧氧化处理器可以对油脂进行除去脂中杂质、色素、臭味、蛋白质等。生物柴油生产装置主体为生物油常温脂交换设备16,本实施例中,生物油常温脂交换设备16为一圆筒形锥底反应釜,生物油常温脂交换设备16内部装有一支以上的超声波换能器17,本实施例中,设有四个,每个超声波换能器17外围分别装有套管18,套管18四周开有内螺纹射流孔19,套管18上方固定设有卡定器20,卡定器20上方连接有气动起降器35,作用于控制套管18与超声波换能器17在生物油常温脂交换设备内的入液深度,通过卡定器20将超声波换能器17固定在套管内部中心。生物油常温脂交换设备16内装有液体导流管21,液体导流管21一端连接在生物油常温脂交换设备16上部,并进入套管18的内腔,另一端连接在生物油常温脂交换设备16底部,泵具连接在液体导流管18上。生物油常温脂交换设备16顶部装有顶盖23,顶盖23上设有投料口24,生物油常温脂交换设备16侧面装有视窗A3。本实施例中,在生物油常温脂交换设备16底部设有鼓气管25,鼓气管25的一端连接压缩空气机。当生物油脂输入生物油常温脂交换设备16后,再从投料口24加入甲醇和共溶剂,本实施例中,共溶剂宜选择可增强油脂与甲醇的互溶性的液态剂,并加入可再生利用的固体阴离子金属碱催化剂后,超声波换能器17通过气动或液压工具35由生物油常温脂交换设备16顶盖23处从上而下进入生物油中,同时,压缩空气从生物油常温脂交换设备16底部开始鼓气,从而促进生物油与甲醇加速共溶,并通过油泵22将生物油脂混合体输入到套管18的内腔上方,由上而下流动进入超声处理,超声波频率由25KHz逐步增强到30KHz,时间为20——60min。生物油常温脂交换设备16下部出料口连接有分液设备26,本实施例中,分液设备26呈立式筒状,分液设备26后端设有过滤设备27,经超声波处理完毕后的混合液体输入分液设备26,所取得的粗生物柴油通过过滤设备27而取得生物柴油。Referring to FIG. 2, in the present invention, biodiesel production is carried out by using the grease removed from the kitchen waste. The front end of the biodiesel production device is a grease colloid removal device 11. In this embodiment, the grease colloid removal device is used. 11 is a rectangular shape, and the grease colloid removal device 11 is fixedly provided with a hole impact plate 12 in the middle, and the impact plate 12 has a hole formed therein, the hole diameter is 0.5-1 mm, the hole pitch is 50-80 mm, and the two faces of the impact plate 12 are open. The rotary hydraulic propulsion machine 14 is respectively installed at the position, and the back surface of the rotary fan blade is 150-200 mm away from the inner wall of the oil gel removal device. In the present embodiment, the rotary hydraulic propulsion machine 14 includes a propeller blade disposed inside the grease colloid removal device 11 and a motor disposed outside the grease colloid removal device 11, and the motor drives the propeller blade to rotate, and the rotation speed It is 500-700 rpm, which is controlled by the inverter. When it is required to produce biodiesel, the bio-oil material is input from the oil storage container 1 into the grease colloid removal device 11 by a special oil pump, and the phosphorus ester, sugar, protein and other impurities in the oil and fat are effectively removed, and the glue is prevented. The quality covers the fine particles of grease in the latter stage, and the barrier grease contacts the catalyst. In this embodiment, the ozone oxidation processor is composed of an ozone generator 28A, an anti-liquid recoil valve 29, a powerful gas and liquid mixer 30, a reactor 28, a circulation pump 34, an oil inlet pipe A1, an oil outlet A2, and a liquid. The surface controller 31 and the ozone residual gas destroyer 32 are composed. The ozone generator 28A is connected to the strong gas and liquid mixer 30 through the anti-liquid recoil valve 29, and the powerful gas and liquid mixer 30 passes through the oil inlet pipe A1 and the grease colloid. The removal device 11 is connected, the powerful gas and liquid mixer 30 is connected to the reactor 28 through a pipeline, and the circulation pump 34 is connected to the reactor 28. The bottom of the reactor 28 is the oil outlet A2, and the oil outlet A2 is passed through the pipeline and the bio-oil. The room temperature grease exchange unit 16 is connected, a liquid level controller 31 is installed in the reactor 28, and an ozone residual gas destroyer 32 is installed on the top of the reactor 28. A doser 33 is also mounted on top of the reactor 28. The oil and fat can remove impurities, pigments, odors, proteins, and the like from the fat by the ozone oxidation processor. The main body of the biodiesel production device is a bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device 16. In this embodiment, the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device 16 is a cylindrical cone-bottom reaction kettle, and the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device 16 is equipped with more than one ultrasonic wave. In the present embodiment, four transducers are provided, and each of the ultrasonic transducers 17 is respectively provided with a sleeve 18 around the sleeve 18, and an inner threaded jet hole 19 is formed around the sleeve 18, and a card is fixed on the sleeve 18 The stator 20 is connected with a pneumatic take-off device 35 above the locking device 20, and acts on the depth of the inlet of the control sleeve 18 and the ultrasonic transducer 17 in the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device, and the ultrasonic wave is exchanged by the card stopper 20. The energy device 17 is fixed to the inner center of the sleeve. The bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device 16 is provided with a liquid guiding tube 21, one end of which is connected to the upper part of the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device 16 and enters the inner cavity of the casing 18, and the other end is connected to the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange. At the bottom of the device 16, the pump is attached to the liquid conduit 18. The top of the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device 16 is provided with a top cover 23, the top cover 23 is provided with a feed port 24, and the side of the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device 16 is provided with a window A3. In the present embodiment, a gas pipe 25 is provided at the bottom of the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device 16, and one end of the gas pipe 25 is connected to a compressed air machine. After the bio-fat is input into the bio-oil normal-temperature fat exchange device 16, methanol and a co-solvent are added from the feed port 24. In this embodiment, the co-solvent should be selected from a liquid agent capable of enhancing the mutual solubility of the oil and the methanol, and added to the recyclable use. After the solid anionic metal base catalyst, the ultrasonic transducer 17 is passed from the top to the bottom of the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device 16 into the bio-oil through a pneumatic or hydraulic tool 35, and at the same time, the compressed air is exchanged from the bio-oil at room temperature. The bottom of the device 16 starts to aerate, thereby promoting the accelerated co-solubilization of the bio-oil with the methanol, and the bio-oil mixture is input to the inner cavity of the casing 18 through the oil pump 22, and flows from top to bottom into the ultrasonic treatment, and the ultrasonic frequency is gradually stepped from 25 kHz. Enhanced to 30KHz, time is 20-60min. The liquid discharging device 26 is connected to the lower discharge port of the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device 16. In the embodiment, the liquid-dispensing device 26 is in the form of a vertical cylinder, and the filtering device 27 is disposed at the rear end of the liquid-dispensing device 26, after the ultrasonic treatment is completed. The mixed liquid is supplied to the liquid separation device 26, and the obtained crude biodiesel is passed through the filtration device 27 to obtain biodiesel.
本发明中,生物柴油的制造方法,即上述装置的运作方法包括下述步骤:In the present invention, the method for producing biodiesel, that is, the method for operating the above apparatus, comprises the following steps:
(1)、将餐厨垃圾生产过程中所产生的油、水、固混合物进行脱固处理,得到油水混合液;(1) De-solidifying the oil, water and solid mixture produced in the production process of the kitchen waste to obtain an oil-water mixture;
(2)、将油水混合液输送至油水分离塔4,进行油水分离,本实施例中,油水分离时,利用导热油炉余热将油水分离塔4内的油水混合液加热至60℃——85℃,待生物油脂上浮后实现油水分层,下层的水体由输送管道送至污水处理系统,上层的生物油脂由刮油器7刮出,并通过出油管道8送入储油容器内;(2) The oil-water mixture is sent to the oil-water separation tower 4 to perform oil-water separation. In the present embodiment, when the oil-water separation is performed, the oil-water mixture in the oil-water separation tower 4 is heated to 60 ° C by using the residual heat of the heat-conducting oil furnace - 85 °C, after the biological grease floats, the oil moisture layer is realized, and the lower water body is sent to the sewage treatment system by the conveying pipeline, and the upper layer of the biological grease is scraped by the oil scraper 7 and sent into the oil storage container through the oil discharge pipe 8;
(3)、当需要对生物油脂时行加工处理时,通过输送泵等工具将生物油脂送进油脂胶质脱除设备11内后,启动旋浆水力推进机14,并加如磷酸,磷酸与生物油脂的比例为不超过油脂总量的1%——1.2%,利用油脂胶质脱除设备11两端的旋浆推力使油脂胶质脱除设备11内部的液体产生相向撞击,撞击时间建立在设定的工艺条件的所需时间范围内,本实施例中,对撞时间为10 min——15min,在液体的相向撞击时间结束后,当即加入稀盐水,水、盐的重量比为95:5至90:10之间,生物油脂与稀盐水的重量比例为90:10至80:20之间,加入稀盐水是作用于利用电解质盐的作用,使絮凝加快,形成的胶团更加稳定;(3) When the biological grease is required to be processed, the bio-fat is fed into the grease colloid removal device 11 by a tool such as a transfer pump, and then the hydro-pneumatic propulsion machine 14 is started, and phosphoric acid, phosphoric acid and phosphoric acid are added. The ratio of the bio-fat is not more than 1%-1.2% of the total amount of the oil, and the liquid-pulling thrust at both ends of the grease-removing device 11 causes the liquid inside the grease-removing device 11 to collide with each other, and the impact time is established. Within the required time range of the set process conditions, in this embodiment, the collision time is 10 Min——15min, after the end of the liquid phase impact time, immediately add diluted brine, the weight ratio of water to salt is between 95:5 and 90:10, the weight ratio of bio-fat to dilute brine is 90:10-80 Between 20 and 20, the addition of dilute brine acts to utilize the electrolyte salt to accelerate the flocculation and form a more stable micelle;
(4)、继续启动旋浆水力推进机14,时间为10 min——20min;(4), continue to start the hydro-pneumatic propulsion machine 14, the time is 10 min - 20min;
(5)、当上述脱胶工序完成,油脂混合体于设备中停留60min——120min;(5), when the above degumming process is completed, the grease mixture stays in the device for 60 min - 120 min;
(6)、将带有胶团的水体排出另行处理,而已脱胶质的生物油脂被输进强力气、液混合器30,与臭氧气体发生器28A输出的气体混合后,进入臭氧化处理反应器28内,本实施例中,臭氧浓度为13.5g/L,臭氧流速为6.5L/min,具体实施时,可根据实际情况适当调整。在臭氧化反应器28内的混合体中再加入占油脂总重量2%的正庚烷,利用设于反应器外的循环管道34在油泵的作用下,将气、液混合体作循环运动,以此作为反应过程,反应时间为30min,反应时间完成后,废油脂的黏度降低,油中异味去除,色度下降明显。(6) Discharging the water body with the micelles separately, and the degummed bio-oil is fed into the strong gas and liquid mixer 30, mixed with the gas output from the ozone gas generator 28A, and then enters the ozonation reaction. In the present embodiment 28, the ozone concentration is 13.5 g/L, and the ozone flow rate is 6.5 L/min. In specific implementation, it can be appropriately adjusted according to actual conditions. Further, n-heptane which accounts for 2% of the total weight of the oil and fat is added to the mixture in the ozonation reactor 28, and the gas and liquid mixture is circulated by the action of the oil pump by the circulation pipe 34 provided outside the reactor. As the reaction process, the reaction time is 30 min. After the reaction time is completed, the viscosity of the waste oil is lowered, the odor in the oil is removed, and the chromaticity is obviously decreased.
(7)、将已臭氧化处理完毕后的油脂输进生物油常温脂交换设备16;(7), the ozonized oil after the loss into the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device 16;
(8)、当生物油常温脂交换设备16内的油脂输入的液面达到生产工艺设定的液面高度时,停止输入,开始启动生物油常温脂交换设备16底部的鼓气管25,使液面迅速强力翻滚浮动,此时,打开投料口24,加入固体催化剂和甲醇,催化剂用量为生物油脂质量的1.5%——3.5%,甲醇用量为生物油脂质量的13%——38%,在加入甲醇后再加入共溶剂,加强生物油脂和甲醇的共溶性能,形成均相体系,共溶剂的选择为甲乙酮,共溶剂的加入量是生物油脂质量的0.5%——2%,本实施例中,共溶剂还包括有加入量是生物油脂质量的0.5%的丁叔醇;(8) When the liquid level input by the oil in the bio-oil normal-temperature grease exchange device 16 reaches the liquid level set by the production process, the input is stopped, and the gas pipe 25 at the bottom of the bio-oil normal-temperature grease exchange device 16 is started to be activated. The surface quickly and vigorously rolls and floats. At this time, the feed port 24 is opened, and the solid catalyst and methanol are added. The amount of the catalyst is 1.5%-3.5% of the mass of the bio-oil, and the amount of methanol is 13%-38% of the mass of the bio-oil. After adding methanol, the co-solvent is added to strengthen the co-solubilizing property of the bio-oil and methanol to form a homogeneous system. The co-solvent is selected as methyl ethyl ketone, and the co-solvent is added in an amount of 0.5% to 2% of the mass of the bio-oil, in this embodiment. The co-solvent further comprises a butyl tertiary alcohol added in an amount of 0.5% by mass of the bio-fat;
(9)、其后利用高压空气于脂交换设备下部连续鼓动搅拌10 min——15min,再加入固体阴离子金属碱催化剂(本实施例中采用的为华南再生资源(中山)有限公司生产的型号为华南713#的催化剂),加入量为生物油脂质量的3%——4.5%,该固体催化剂的特征是以试剂活性碳及铝、钠、铁、镁和锂的环状结构硅酸盐矿物的纳米颗粒(其为一种电气石)为基核,首先测得基核自身能释放出12000个/cm3以上负离子为合格品,然后将基核浸渍在碱性硅溶胶与铝溶胶及氢化锂的混合液体中,其三种物质的混合比例为1:1:0.5,取出后于650-720℃的温度条件下,恒温一小时,降温后经过筛选细化,制成一种外裹硅、铝、锂网状骨架介质,且带极性的杂化荷电载体,再将此载体浸渍于KNO3的溶液中,取出后于110℃烘干设备中干燥制得载有15%——25%的KNO3的碱性催化剂。(9), after which the high-pressure air is continuously stirred and stirred in the lower part of the grease exchange equipment for 10 min - 15 min, and then the solid anionic metal base catalyst is added (the model used in this embodiment is the South China Renewable Resources (Zhongshan) Co., Ltd. Huanan 713# catalyst) is added in an amount of 3% to 4.5% of the mass of the bio-fat. The solid catalyst is characterized by a reagent activated carbon and a cyclic structure of silicate minerals of aluminum, sodium, iron, magnesium and lithium. The nanoparticle (which is a tourmaline) is the base nucleus. Firstly, the nucleus itself can release 12,000/cm 3 or more negative ions as a good product, and then the base nucleus is immersed in the alkaline silica sol and the aluminum sol and lithium hydride. In the mixed liquid, the mixing ratio of the three substances is 1:1:0.5, and after taking out, the temperature is kept at 650-720 ° C for one hour, and after cooling, it is subjected to screening and refining to form an outer wrapped silicon. Aluminum, lithium mesh skeleton medium, and polar hybrid carrier, then the carrier is immersed in the solution of KNO 3 , taken out and dried in a drying equipment at 110 ° C to produce 15% - 25 % KNO 3 alkaline catalyst.
(10)、当加入所需要的助剂后,关闭投料孔21,开启物料循环输送泵,并开启超声波换能器17,超声波换器器17的初始频率为25KHZ,时间为1min,随后逐步增大到30KHZ,时间为30 min——40min,反应温度为25——35℃。(10), after adding the required auxiliary agent, close the feeding hole 21, open the material circulation conveying pump, and turn on the ultrasonic transducer 17, the initial frequency of the ultrasonic converter 17 is 25KHZ, the time is 1 min, and then gradually increase Up to 30KHZ, time is 30 Min - 40 min, the reaction temperature is 25 - 35 ° C.
(11)、当油脂于生物油常温脂交换设备16中完成脂交换后,将生物油脂混合物输入分液设备26静置分层,上层为甲醇和甘油混合液体,下层为粗制生物柴油;(11), after the fat exchange in the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device 16 is completed, the bio-fat mixture is input into the liquid separation device 26 to be statically layered, the upper layer is a mixed liquid of methanol and glycerin, and the lower layer is crude biodiesel;
(12)、首先将分液设备设于下部排液口开启,让粗制生物柴油输送进入过滤设备27,过滤后得到精制生物柴油并回收固体催化剂,待再生后可循环再用。而生物柴油被输入进储存容器内待进一步精制,而甲醇和甘油混合液另作他用。(12) First, the liquid separation device is set to be opened in the lower liquid discharge port, and the crude biodiesel is transported into the filtering device 27, and the purified biodiesel is obtained after filtration and the solid catalyst is recovered, and can be recycled after being recycled. The biodiesel is then fed into a storage container for further refining, while the methanol and glycerin mixture is used for other purposes.
本发明可自动将餐厨垃圾中所包含的固体、水分等进行分离,然后进一步将所含油脂转换成生物柴油使用,设备结构简单,处理过程,节约能源、生产成本低。The invention can automatically separate the solids, moisture and the like contained in the kitchen waste, and then further convert the contained fats and oils into biodiesel for use, the device structure is simple, the treatment process saves energy and the production cost is low.

Claims (11)

  1. 一种免蒸馏法生物柴油生产系统,其特征是:所述的系统包括卧式螺带固液分离设备(3)、油水分离塔(4)、储油容器(1)、油脂胶质脱除设备(11)、生物油常温脂交换设备(16)、分液设备(26)和过滤设备(27),卧式螺带固液分离设备(3)的出口通过管道连接至油水分离塔(4)中下端,油水分离塔(4)内设有加热管道(5),加热管道(5)从油水分离塔(4)下部伸入至油水分离塔(4)内部,再从油水分离塔(4)中上部输出至油水分离塔(4)外侧,油水分离塔(4)顶部设有刮油器(7),油水分离塔(4)通过出油管道(8)与储油容器(1)连接,出油管道(8)入口对应于刮油器(7)设置,储油容器(1)通过管道(10)与油脂胶质脱除设备(10)连通,油脂胶质脱除设备(11)内部设有固定设置有孔洞撞击板(12),撞击板(12)的两侧对应位置分别安装有旋浆式水力推进机(14),旋浆式水力推进机(14)的螺旋桨扇叶设置在油脂胶质脱除设备(11)内,电机设置在油脂胶质脱除设备(11)外侧,电机驱动螺旋桨扇叶转动,油脂胶质脱除设备(11)下部设有油脂出口,油脂出口通过管道连通至强力气、液混合器(30),与臭氧气体混合后,进入臭氧处理反应器(28)内,经过臭氧化处理的油脂由反应器的下部出口输往生物油常温脂交换设备(16)内,生物油常温脂交换设备(16)内设有一个以上的超声波换能器(17),生物油常温脂交换设备(16)顶部开有投料口(24),生物油常温脂交换设备(16)底部通过管道连通至分液设备(26),分液设备(26)底部通过输油管道连接至过滤设备(27),过滤设备(27)输出生物柴油。 A distillation-free biodiesel production system, characterized in that: the system comprises horizontal spiral belt solid-liquid separation equipment (3), oil-water separation tower (4), oil storage container (1), oil gel removal The device (11), the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device (16), the liquid separation device (26) and the filtration device (27), and the outlet of the horizontal ribbon solid-liquid separation device (3) is connected to the oil-water separation tower through a pipeline (4) In the middle and lower end, the oil-water separation tower (4) is provided with a heating pipe (5), and the heating pipe (5) extends from the lower part of the oil-water separation tower (4) into the oil-water separation tower (4), and then from the oil-water separation tower (4) The upper middle part is output to the outside of the oil-water separation tower (4), the top of the oil-water separation tower (4) is provided with an oil scraper (7), and the oil-water separation tower (4) is connected to the oil storage container (1) through the oil discharge pipe (8) The outlet of the oil delivery pipe (8) corresponds to the arrangement of the oil scraper (7), and the oil storage container (1) is connected to the grease removal device (10) through the pipe (10), and the grease removal device (11) The inside is fixedly provided with a hole impact plate (12), and both sides of the impact plate (12) The rotary-type hydraulic propulsion machine (14) is installed at the position, and the propeller blades of the rotary-type hydraulic propulsion machine (14) are disposed in the grease colloid removal device (11), and the motor is disposed in the grease colloid removal device. (11) On the outer side, the motor drives the propeller blade to rotate, and the lower part of the grease colloid removal device (11) is provided with a grease outlet, and the grease outlet is connected to the strong gas and liquid mixer (30) through the pipeline, and is mixed with the ozone gas to enter In the ozone treatment reactor (28), the ozonized oil is transported from the lower outlet of the reactor to the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device (16), and the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device (16) is provided with more than one ultrasonic wave. The transducer (17), the top of the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device (16) has a feed port (24), and the bottom of the bio-oil normal-temperature grease exchange device (16) is connected to the liquid separation device (26) through a pipe, and the liquid separation device ( 26) The bottom is connected to the filtering device (27) through an oil pipeline, and the filtering device (27) outputs biodiesel.
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的免蒸馏法生物柴油生产系统,其特征是:所述的卧式螺带固液分离设备(3)包括有一个卧式圆筒形外壳,外壳内设有滤网,滤网内部固定设有输送螺带,螺带驱动电机配合变速器带动滤网及螺带转动,卧式螺带固液分离设备(3)底部设有油、水混合体输出管道。The distillation-free biodiesel production system according to claim 1, wherein said horizontal ribbon solid-liquid separation device (3) comprises a horizontal cylindrical casing, and a filter mesh is arranged in the casing. A filter belt is fixed inside the filter screen, the screw drive motor cooperates with the transmission to drive the filter screen and the spiral belt rotates, and the horizontal spiral belt solid-liquid separation device (3) is provided with an oil and water mixture output pipeline at the bottom.
  3. 根据权利要求1所述的免蒸馏法生物柴油生产系统,其特征是:所述的油水分离塔(4)的顶部装有红外线水体液面定位仪(6)。The distillation-free biodiesel production system according to claim 1, characterized in that the top of the oil-water separation tower (4) is provided with an infrared water body liquid level aligner (6).
  4. 根据权利要求1所述的免蒸馏法生物柴油生产系统,其特征是:所述的超声波换能器(17)外围分别装有套管(18),套管(18)四周开有内螺纹射流孔(19),套管(15)上方固定设有卡定器(20),通过卡定器(20)将超声波换能器(17),套管(18)及超声波换能器(17)由设于脂交换设备(16)顶部外的气动或液动提降器(35)控制其深入于生物油常温脂交换设备(16)内部的高度。The distillation-free biodiesel production system according to claim 1, characterized in that: the ultrasonic transducer (17) is respectively provided with a sleeve (18) on the periphery thereof, and an internal thread jet is formed around the sleeve (18). A hole (19), a locking device (20) is fixed above the sleeve (15), and the ultrasonic transducer (17), the sleeve (18) and the ultrasonic transducer (17) are fixed by the locking device (20). It is controlled by a pneumatic or hydraulic lift (35) located outside the top of the grease exchange device (16) to a depth inside the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device (16).
  5. 根据权利要求1所述的免蒸馏法生物柴油生产系统,其特征是:所述的生物油常温脂交换设备(16)内装有液体导流管(21),液体导流管(21)一端连接在生物油常温脂交换设备(16)上部,并由出液口进入套管(18)的内腔上部,另一端连接在生物油常温脂交换设备(16)底部,液体导流管(21)上连接有泵具(22)。The distillation-free biodiesel production system according to claim 1, characterized in that: the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device (16) is provided with a liquid guiding tube (21), and the liquid guiding tube (21) is connected at one end. In the upper part of the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device (16), and from the liquid outlet to the upper part of the inner cavity of the casing (18), the other end is connected to the bottom of the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device (16), the liquid guiding tube (21) A pump (22) is attached to the upper part.
  6. 根据权利要求1所述的免蒸馏法生物柴油生产系统,其特征是:所述的生物油常温脂交换设备(16)底部设有鼓气管(25),鼓气管(25)的一端连接压缩空气机。The distillation-free biodiesel production system according to claim 1, wherein said bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device (16) is provided with a gas pipe (25) at the bottom, and one end of the gas pipe (25) is connected to the compressed air. machine.
  7. 根据权利要求4所述的免蒸馏法生物柴油生产系统,其特征是:所述的套管材质为能释放阴离子的耐酸碱塑料或陶瓷,阴离子释放量为10000个以上/cm2,所述的内螺纹射流孔为一塔形空心形,内有螺纹,并具有能自然释放15000个以上/ cm2阴离子的能量。The distillation-free biodiesel production system according to claim 4, wherein the sleeve material is an acid-base plastic or ceramic capable of releasing an anion, and the anion release amount is 10,000 or more/cm 2 . The internal threaded jet hole is a tower-shaped hollow shape with a thread inside and has a natural release of more than 15,000 / The energy of the cm2 anion.
  8. 一种采用如权利要求1至6中任意一项所述的免蒸馏法生物柴油生产系统的免蒸馏法生物柴油生产方法,其特征是:所述的方法包括下述步骤:A method for producing a distillation-free biodiesel using the distillation-free biodiesel production system according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the method comprises the steps of:
    (1)、将餐厨垃圾生产过程中所产生的油、水、固混合物通过卧式螺带固液分离设备(3)进行脱固处理,得到油水混合液;(1) Dissolving the oil, water and solid mixture produced in the production process of the kitchen waste through the horizontal spiral belt solid-liquid separation device (3) to obtain an oil-water mixture;
    (2)、将油水混合液输送至油水分离塔(4)进行油水分离,将分离后的油脂输入储油容器(1); (2), the oil-water mixture is sent to the oil-water separation tower (4) for oil-water separation, the separated grease is input into the oil storage container (1);
    (3)、当需要对生物油脂进行加工处理时,通过输送泵等工具将生物油脂送进油脂胶质脱除设备(11)内后,启动旋浆水力推进机(14),并加入磷酸,磷酸与生物油脂的比例为不超过油脂总量的1%(0.8%——1.2%),利用油脂胶质脱除设备(11)两端的旋浆推力使油脂胶质脱除设备(11)内部的液体产生相向撞击,撞击时间为10 min——15min,在液体的相向撞击时间结束后,当即加入稀盐水,稀盐水中水、盐的重量比为95:5至90:10之间,生物油脂与稀盐水的重量比例为90:10至80:20之间;(3) When the biological grease needs to be processed, the bio-fat is sent into the grease colloid removal device (11) by a pump or the like, and then the hydro-pneumatic propulsion machine (14) is started, and phosphoric acid is added. The ratio of phosphoric acid to bio-fat is not more than 1% (0.8%-1.2%) of the total amount of oil and fat, and the oil-gel removal device (11) is used to remove the grease from both ends of the equipment (11). The liquid produces a phase impact with an impact time of 10 Min——15min, after the end of the phase collision time of the liquid, the diluted brine is added immediately. The weight ratio of water to salt in the dilute brine is between 95:5 and 90:10, and the weight ratio of bio-fat to dilute brine is 90: Between 10 and 80:20;
    (4)、继续启动旋浆水力推进机(14),时间为10 min——20min;(4), continue to start the hydro-pneumatic propulsion machine (14), the time is 10 min - 20 min;
    (5)、油脂混合体于油脂胶质脱除设备(11)中停留60min——120min;(5), the grease mixture in the oil gel removal device (11) stays 60min - 120min;
    (6)、将已脱胶质的生物油脂被输进强力气、液混合器(29)与臭氧发生器(28A)供给的臭氧气体透过防反冲阀(29)后,进行油、气混合合,臭氧流速为5-6.5L/min;(6) After the degreased bio-fat is fed into the strong gas, the liquid mixer (29) and the ozone gas supplied by the ozone generator (28A) are passed through the anti-backlash valve (29), and then oil and gas are supplied. Mixing, ozone flow rate is 5-6.5L / min;
    (7)、将经过强力气、液混合器(29)混合的油气混合体输进臭氧氧化处理反应器(28)内,并通过定量加料器(33)加入占油脂总重量2%的正庚烷,进行反应器油中臭氧浓度含量为10-13.5g/L,反应时间为25-30min;(7), the oil-gas mixture mixed by the strong gas and liquid mixer (29) is input into the ozone oxidation treatment reactor (28), and is added to the positive gem which accounts for 2% of the total weight of the oil by the quantitative feeder (33). Alkane, the concentration of ozone in the reactor oil is 10-13.5g / L, the reaction time is 25-30min;
    (8)、将已完成臭氧化反应的油脂送入生物油常温脂交换设备(16);(8), the oil that has completed the ozonation reaction is sent to the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device (16);
    (9)、当生物油常温脂交换设备(16)内的油脂输入的液面达到生产工艺设定的液面高度时,停止输入,开始启动生物油常温脂交换设备(16)底部的鼓气管(25),打开投料口(24),加入固体催化剂和甲醇,固体阴离子金属碱催化剂用量为生物油脂质量的1.5%——3.5%,甲醇用量为生物油脂质量的13%——38%,在加入甲醇后再加入共溶剂;(9) When the liquid level input by the grease in the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device (16) reaches the liquid level set by the production process, stop the input and start to start the gas pipe at the bottom of the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device (16). (25), open the feed port (24), add solid catalyst and methanol, the amount of solid anionic metal base catalyst is 1.5% - 3.5% of the quality of the bio-oil, and the amount of methanol is 13% - 38% of the quality of the bio-oil. Adding cosolvent after adding methanol;
    (10)、利用设于生物油常温脂交换设备(16)下部的压缩空气鼓动管(25)输出的高压空气连续鼓动油脂与甲醇的混合液10 min——15min,再加入固体阴离子金属碱催化剂,加入量为生物油脂质量的3%——4.5%;(10) continuously pulsing a mixture of grease and methanol using high-pressure air output from a compressed air agitating tube (25) provided at a lower portion of a bio-oil normal-temperature grease exchange device (16) Min - 15min, then add a solid anionic metal base catalyst, the amount added is 3% - 4.5% of the quality of the bio-oil;
    (11)、当加入所需要的助剂后,关闭投料孔(24),开启物料循环输送泵,空气鼓动管(25)所输出的高压空气由连续性转为间歇性,并开启超声波换能器(17),超声波换能器(17)的初始发出频率为25KHZ,时间为1min,随后逐步增大到30KHZ,时间为30 min——40min,反应温度为25——35℃。(11) After adding the required auxiliary agent, close the feeding hole (24), open the material circulation conveying pump, and the high-pressure air outputted by the air agitating tube (25) is changed from continuous to intermittent, and the ultrasonic energy is turned on. (17), the initial frequency of the ultrasonic transducer (17) is 25KHZ, the time is 1min, and then gradually increases to 30KHZ, the time is 30 Min - 40 min, the reaction temperature is 25 - 35 ° C.
    (12)、当油脂于生物油常温脂交换设备(16)中完成脂交换后,将生物油脂混合物输入分液设备(26)静置分层,上层为甲醇和甘油混合液体,下层为粗制生物柴油;(12) After the fat exchange is completed in the bio-oil normal temperature grease exchange device (16), the bio-fat mixture is input into the liquid separation device (26) and left to be layered, the upper layer is a mixed liquid of methanol and glycerin, and the lower layer is crude. Biodiesel;
    (13)、首先将分液设备设于下部排液口开启,让粗制生物柴油输送进入过滤设备(27),过滤后得到精制生物柴油并回收固体阴离子金属碱催化剂。(13) First, the liquid separation device is set to be opened in the lower liquid discharge port, and the crude biodiesel is transported into the filtering device (27), and the purified biodiesel is obtained after filtration and the solid anionic metal base catalyst is recovered.
  9. 根据权利要求7所述的免蒸馏法生物柴油生产方法,其特征是:所述的油水分离时,油水分离塔(4)内的油水混合液加热至60℃——85℃,待生物油脂上浮后实现油水分层,上层的生物油脂由刮油器(7)刮出,并通过出油管道(8)送入储油容器内。The method for producing a distillate-free biodiesel according to claim 7, wherein when the oil and water are separated, the oil-water mixture in the oil-water separation tower (4) is heated to 60 ° C - 85 ° C until the bio-fat rises. After the oil moisture layer is realized, the upper layer of the biological grease is scraped off by the oil scraper (7) and sent into the oil storage container through the oil discharge pipe (8).
  10. 根据权利要求7所述的免蒸馏法生物柴油生产方法,其特征是:所述的共溶剂的选择为甲乙醇,共溶剂的加入量是生物油脂质量的0.5%——2%,共溶剂还包括有加入量是生物油脂质量的0.5%的丁醇。The method for producing a distillation-free biodiesel according to claim 7, wherein the cosolvent is selected from the group consisting of methyl alcohol, and the co-solvent is added in an amount of 0.5% to 2% of the mass of the bio-oil, and the co-solvent is further It includes butanol in an amount of 0.5% by mass of the bio-fat.
  11. 根据权利要求7所述的免蒸馏法生物柴油生产方法,其特征是:所述的固体阴离子金属碱催化剂的特征是以试剂活性碳和铝、钠、铁、锂的环状结构硅酸盐矿物的纳米颗粒为基核,再外裹硅、铝、锂网状骨架介质,且带极性的杂化荷载体,再净该载体浸渍于KNO3液体中,经处理后而成为带极性的杂化荷电,含15%——25%的KNO3的固体阴离子金属碱催化剂。The method for producing a distillation-free biodiesel according to claim 7, wherein the solid anionic metal base catalyst is characterized by a reagent activated carbon and a cyclic structure silicate mineral of aluminum, sodium, iron and lithium. The nano-particles are based on the core, and then wrapped with silicon, aluminum, and lithium mesh-like skeleton medium, and the hybrid carrier with polarity is immersed in the KNO3 liquid, and then treated to become polar with impurities. Charged, solid anionic metal base catalyst containing 15% - 25% KNO 3 .
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