US20070264564A1 - Thin film battery on an integrated circuit or circuit board and method thereof - Google Patents

Thin film battery on an integrated circuit or circuit board and method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
US20070264564A1
US20070264564A1 US11748471 US74847107A US2007264564A1 US 20070264564 A1 US20070264564 A1 US 20070264564A1 US 11748471 US11748471 US 11748471 US 74847107 A US74847107 A US 74847107A US 2007264564 A1 US2007264564 A1 US 2007264564A1
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Prior art keywords
layer
surface
contact
battery
bonding
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Abandoned
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US11748471
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Raymond JOHNSON
Shawn Snyder
Paul Brantner
Timothy BRADOW
Bernd Neudecker
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SAPURAST RESEARCH LLC
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Infinite Power Solutions Inc
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M2/00Constructional details or processes of manufacture of the non-active parts
    • H01M2/02Cases, jackets or wrappings
    • H01M2/0202Cases, jackets or wrappings for small-sized cells or batteries, e.g. miniature battery or power cells, batteries or cells for portable equipment
    • H01M2/0207Flat-shaped cells or batteries of flat cells
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L23/00Details of semiconductor or other solid state devices
    • H01L23/58Structural electrical arrangements for semiconductor devices not otherwise provided for, e.g. in combination with batteries
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/04Construction or manufacture in general
    • H01M10/0436Small-sized flat cells or batteries for portable equipment
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M10/052Li-accumulators
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M10/052Li-accumulators
    • H01M10/0525Rocking-chair batteries, i.e. batteries with lithium insertion or intercalation in both electrodes; Lithium-ion batteries
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M10/056Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte characterised by the materials used as electrolytes, e.g. mixed inorganic/organic electrolytes
    • H01M10/0561Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte characterised by the materials used as electrolytes, e.g. mixed inorganic/organic electrolytes the electrolyte being constituted of inorganic materials only
    • H01M10/0562Solid materials
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M10/058Construction or manufacture
    • H01M10/0585Construction or manufacture of accumulators having only flat construction elements, i.e. flat positive electrodes, flat negative electrodes and flat separators
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • H01M10/425Structural combination with electronic components, e.g. electronic circuits integrated to the outside of the casing
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M2/00Constructional details or processes of manufacture of the non-active parts
    • H01M2/02Cases, jackets or wrappings
    • H01M2/08Sealing materials
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M2/00Constructional details or processes of manufacture of the non-active parts
    • H01M2/20Current conducting connections for cells
    • H01M2/22Fixed connections, i.e. not intended for disconnection
    • H01M2/26Electrode connections
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M6/00Primary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M6/40Printed batteries, e.g. thin film batteries
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/0001Technical content checked by a classifier
    • H01L2924/0002Not covered by any one of groups H01L24/00, H01L24/00 and H01L2224/00
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M2220/00Batteries for particular applications
    • H01M2220/30Batteries in portable systems, e.g. mobile phone, laptop
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M2300/00Electrolytes
    • H01M2300/0017Non-aqueous electrolytes
    • H01M2300/0065Solid electrolytes
    • H01M2300/0068Solid electrolytes inorganic
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P70/00Climate change mitigation technologies in the production process for final industrial or consumer products
    • Y02P70/50Manufacturing or production processes characterised by the final manufactured product
    • Y02P70/54Manufacturing of lithium-ion, lead-acid or alkaline secondary batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49002Electrical device making
    • Y10T29/49108Electric battery cell making
    • Y10T29/4911Electric battery cell making including sealing
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49002Electrical device making
    • Y10T29/49108Electric battery cell making
    • Y10T29/49114Electric battery cell making including adhesively bonding

Abstract

The present invention relates to flexible thin film batteries on semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device and methods of constructing such batteries. Electrochemical devices may be glued to a semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device or deposited directly thereon. The invention also relates to flexible thin film batteries on flexible printed circuit boards where the electrochemical devices may also be glued or deposited on the flexible printed circuit board.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    The present invention claims priority under 35 U.S.C. § 119(e) to U.S. provisional patent application Ser. No. 60/799,904, filed on May 12, 2006, which is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference; and is a continuation in part, and claims benefit under 35 U.S.C. § 120, of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/687,032, entitled Metal Film Encapsulation, filed 16 Mar. 2007, which claims benefit under 35 U.S.C. § 119 of U.S. provisional patent application Ser. No. 60/782,792, filed 16 Mar. 2006, both of which are incorporated herein in their entirety by reference. The present application also relates to U.S. provisional patent application Ser. No. 11/561,277, entitled Hybrid Thin Film Battery, filed 17 Nov. 2006, which claims benefit under 35 U.S.C. § 119 of U.S. provisional patent application Ser. No., 60/759,479, filed 17 Jan. 2006, and which is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference. The present application also relates to U.S. provisional patent application Ser. No. 60/737,613, entitled Flexible, Rechargeable, Solid-State, Ultra-Thin Performance Battery, filed 17 Nov. 2005, which is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference. The present application also relates to U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/209,536, entitled Electrochemical Apparatus with Barrier Layer Protected Substrate, filed 23 Aug. 2005, which is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference. The present application also relates to U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/374,282, entitled Electrochemical Apparatus with Barrier Layer Protected Substrate, filed Jun. 15, 2005, which is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference. The present application also relates to U.S. Pat. No. 6,916,679, entitled Methods of and Device for Encapsulation and Termination of Electronic Devices, issued 12 Jul. 2005, which is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference. The present application also relates to U.S. provisional patent application Ser. No. 60/690,697, entitled Electrochemical Apparatus with Barrier Layer Protected Substrate, filed 15 Jun. 2005, which is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference. The present application also relates to U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/611,431, entitled Method and Apparatus for an Ambient Energy Battery or Capacitor Recharge System, filed 2 Jul. 2003, which further claims the benefit of U.S. provisional patent application Ser. No. 60/464,357, filed 22 Apr. 2003, each of which are incorporated herein in their entirety by reference.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    The field of this invention is the device, composition, method of depositing and fabrication of flexible solid-state, thin-film, secondary and primary electrochemical devices, including batteries, onto a semiconducting surface, onto a conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device, such as integrated circuit chips, or onto a circuit board, such as printed circuit board.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0003]
    Typical electrochemical devices comprise multiple electrically active layers such as an anode, cathode, electrolyte, substrate, current collectors, etc. Some layers, such as, for example, an anode layer comprising lithium, are comprised of materials that are very environmentally sensitive. The substrate may, for example, not be a separate battery element but instead be provided by a semiconducting surface or onto a conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device to which the battery is attached. Such batteries require an encapsulation to protect such environmentally sensitive material. Some schemes encapsulate the sensitive layers of electrochemical devices, such as encapsulation with gold foil. Other schemes encapsulate the device with pouch, for example, made of metal and plastic, that seals around the perimeter of the device.
  • SUMMARY
  • [0004]
    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention includes a battery fabricated on a semiconductor chip or fabricated on a flexible printed circuit board. The battery may, for example, include a first electrical contact, a bonding layer coupled with the first electrical contact and having a first embedded conductor, at least one battery cell structure in selective electrical contact with said first electrical contact via the first embedded conductor, a semiconducting surface or a conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device.
  • [0005]
    The bonding layer coupled with the semiconducting surface or a conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device may have more than one conductor, such an optional, second embedded conductor, which in turn creates an optional, selective electrical contact of the semiconducting surface or a conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device with said first electrical contact. In any case, the bonding layer and the at least one battery cell structure may be sandwiched between the first contact layer and the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device.
  • [0006]
    The first electrical contact may, for example, include an encapsulate metal. The bonding layer may be an adhesive material, an insulating material, a plastic, a polymeric material, glass, and/or fiberglass. An insulative reinforcement layer may be embedded within the bonding layer. Such a reinforcement layer may be selectively conductive. The conductor may be, for example, a tab, a wire, a metal strip, a metal ribbon, multiple wires, multiple metal strips, multiple metal ribbons, a wire mesh, perforated metal, a metal coating applied to the adhesive layer, or a disk. The conductor may be woven within the bonding layer and the bonding layer may include a slit within which the embedded conductor is woven.
  • [0007]
    The battery cell structure may include an anode, an electrolyte, a cathode, and a barrier layer. The cathode may, for example, not be annealed at all, annealed at lower temperatures, or annealed at higher temperatures, by using convection furnaces, rapid thermal anneal methods, or by a laser annealing and/or crystallization process.
  • [0008]
    Another exemplary embodiment of the present invention includes a method of manufacturing a thin film battery comprising, in no particular order, the steps of creating a selectively conductive bonding layer, coupling the bonding layer with a first contact layer, coupling a first side of a battery cell structure with a semiconducting surface or a conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device or flexible printed circuit board, and coupling a second side of the battery cell structure with the bonding layer. Optionally, the bonding layer may be made selectively conductive at an additional location at which the selectively conductive boding layer creates an electrical contact between the first contact layer and the semiconducting surface or a conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device or flexible printed circuit board. Yet another exemplary embodiment of the present invention includes a method of manufacturing a thin film battery comprising, in no particular order, the steps of creating a selectively conductive bonding layer, coupling the bonding layer with a first contact layer, coupling a first side of a battery cell with the first contact layer as well, coupling the bonding layer with the a semiconducting surface or a conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device or flexible printed circuit board, and coupling a second side of the battery cell structure with the bonding layer.
  • [0009]
    Examples of this embodiment may include creating a battery cell structure with an anode, cathode, and electrolyte layers, embedding at least one conductor within the bonding layer, weaving at least one conductive wire through the bonding layer wherein selective portions of the conductive wire are exposed, heating the bonding layer and compressing the conductor within the bonding layer, and insulating the battery with an insulating material. This exemplary embodiment may include providing an insulative reinforcement layer embedded within the bonding layer. The reinforcement layer may be selectively conductive.
  • [0010]
    Yet another exemplary embodiment of the present invention involves a battery on a flexible printed circuit board wherein the first side of the battery cell structure is at least in direct mechanical contact with the flexible printed circuit board. The battery includes a first electrical contact, a bonding layer coupled with the first electrical contact and comprising an first embedded conductor, at least one battery cell structure in selective electrical contact with the first electrical contact via the first embedded conductor, the bonding layer coupled with the first electrical contact and comprising a second embedded conductor that is in selective electrical contact with the first electrical contact and the flexible printed circuit board. The bonding layer and the at least one battery cell structure are sandwiched between the first contact layer and a flexible printed circuit board.
  • [0011]
    Another exemplary embodiment of the present invention involves a battery on a flexible printed circuit board wherein the battery cell structure is not in direct mechanical contact with the flexible printed circuit board but mechanically separated by at least the bonding layer. The battery includes a first electrical contact, a bonding layer coupled with the first electrical contact and comprising a first embedded conductor, at least one battery cell structure in selective electrical contact with the first electrical contact via said first embedded conductor, the bonding layer coupled with the flexible printed circuit board and having an optional, second embedded conductor in the bonding layer, which in turn creates an optional, selective electrical contact of the flexible printed circuit board with said first electrical contact. The bonding layer and the at least one battery cell structure are sandwiched between the first contact layer and a flexible printed circuit board.
  • [0012]
    In another exemplary embodiment, a method of manufacturing a thin film battery includes creating a selectively conductive bonding layer, coupling the bonding layer with a first contact layer, coupling a first side of a battery cell structure with a flexible printed circuit board; and coupling a second side of the battery cell structure with the bonding layer.
  • [0013]
    In yet another exemplary embodiment, a method of manufacturing a thin film battery includes creating a selectively conductive bonding layer, coupling the bonding layer with a first contact layer, coupling a first side of a battery cell structure with the first contact layer; and coupling a second side of the battery cell structure with the selectively conductive bonding layer, and coupling the bonding layer with the flexible printed circuit board.
  • [0014]
    Another exemplary embodiment of the present invention includes the electrical connection between the battery cell and the semiconducting surface or the conductive packaging surface of a semiconductor device. The electrical connection between the battery cell and the semiconducting surface or the conductive packaging surface of a semiconductor device can be made by direct physical contact or by wire bonding.
  • [0015]
    In another aspect, prior to its integration onto the semiconducting surface or a conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device or into or onto a flexible printed circuit board, the battery may be fabricated as a discrete device and then integrated as a whole together with its substrate and its encapsulation.
  • [0016]
    Another embodiment of the present invention includes the electrical connection between a multi-battery cell stack and the semiconducting surface or the conductive packaging surface of a semiconductor device.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
  • [0017]
    FIG. 1A shows a side view of an example of a thin film battery with a semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device or a flexible printed circuit board according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0018]
    FIG. 1B shows a side view of another example of a thin film battery with a semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device or a flexible printed circuit board according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0019]
    FIG. 2 shows a side view of an example of a thin film battery with a semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device according to another exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0020]
    FIG. 3A shows a side view of an exemplary thin film battery on a semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device or a flexible printed circuit board according to another exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0021]
    FIG. 3B shows a side view of an exemplary thin film battery on a semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device or flexible printed circuit board according to another exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0022]
    FIG. 3C shows a top view of an exemplary thin film battery on a semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device or flexible printed circuit board according to another exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0023]
    FIG. 4A shows a side view of an exemplary thin film battery on a semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device according to another exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0024]
    FIG. 4B shows a side view of an exemplary thin film battery on a flexible printed circuit board according to another exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0025]
    FIG. 1A shows a side view of an electrochemical device according to one exemplary embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment, a first contact 101 is coupled with bonding layer 110 with a portion of the first contact 101 extending past the bonding layer 110. The bonding layer 110 may, for example, be bonded with the cell structure 115. A semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device 105 is placed under the battery cell structure 115. An insulating surface of the semiconductor device 105 may be, for example, an insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device or an upper insulating surface the semiconductor device. A conductive surface may include, for example, a conductive contact pad, a conductive line, conductive via or other conductive layer formed on or at the device surface. A conductive surface also may be formed together with an insulating surface, such as a conductive surface formed on a packaging surface of a semiconductor device. Shown embedded within the bonding layer 110 is a first embedded conductor 120. This first embedded conductor 120, for example, creates a selectively conductive bonding layer. A selectively conductive bonding layer 110 permits conduction from the cell structure 115 through the bonding layer 110 to the first contact 101 at specific points, and yet provides insulation between the first contact 101 and the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device 105. Other types of battery cell structures may be also be included.
  • [0026]
    The electrochemical device may have a second embedded conductor 121 that selectively creates an electrical contact between the first contact 101 and the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device 105. In this case, the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device 105 must be selectively insulating between the contacts points at which the first embedded conductor 120 and the second embedded conductor 121 meet the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating (e.g., packaging) surface of a semiconductor device 105.
  • [0027]
    FIG. 1B shows a side view of an electrochemical device according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment, a first contact 101 is coupled with the battery cell structure 115. A bonding layer 110 is coupled to the battery cell structure 115 and a portion of the first contact 101, which extends past the bonding layer 110. A semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device 105 is coupled with the bonding layer 110. Shown embedded within the bonding layer 110 is the first embedded conductor 120. This first embedded conductor 120, for example, creates a selectively conductive bonding layer. A selectively conductive bonding layer 110 permits conduction from the cell structure 115 through the bonding layer 110 to the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating (e.g., packaging) surface of a semiconductor device 105 at specific points, and yet provides insulation between the first contact 101 and the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device 105. The electrochemical device may have a second embedded conductor 121 that selectively creates an electrical contact between the first contact 101 and the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device 105. In this case the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device 105 must be selectively insulating between the contact points at which the first embedded conductor 120 and the second embedded conductor 121 meet the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device 105. The first embedded conductor 120 and the second embedded conductor 121 may be placed within the bonding layer 110 in many different ways. For example, a metal tab, a metal wire, a metal strip, a metal ribbon, multiple metal wires, multiple metal strips, multiple metal ribbons, a metal wire mesh, perforated metal foil, perforated metal, a metal coating applied to the adhesive layer, a metallic disk, a metallically coated fiberglass or combinations thereof may be used. In each of these examples, the first embedded conductor 120 and the second embedded conductor 121 can provide electrical conduction between the cell structure 115 and the first contact 101 and the boding layer 110 provides insulation between the first contact 101 and the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device 105. In some embodiments, the embedded conductors 120 and 121 may be woven within the bonding layer 110. The embedded conductors 120 and 121 may be, for example, disks embedded within the bonding layer 110. In some embodiments slits within the bonding layer 110 may be made in order to weave or place the embedded conductors 120 and 121 through the bonding layer 110. Also, for example, holes or other means may be used to place the embedded conductors 120 and 121 through the bonding layer 110.
  • [0028]
    In another exemplary embodiment of the present invention, a reinforcement layer may be placed within the bonding layer. For example, a fiberglass material may cover half of one surface of the bonding layer, woven through the layer and then cover the other half of the bonding layer. Such a layer of fiberglass without a conductive coating would insulate the materials placed between. The fiberglass may be coated in a localized area with a conductive material. Such conductive coatings can coat the fiberglass area in the top and bottom surface of the bonding layer. In such an embodiment, for example, the fiberglass may conduct between the upper contact and the cell. Conductive material may be disposed on the fiberglass using ink jet, silk screen, plasma deposition, e-beam deposition, spray and/or brush methods. Other materials may be used rather than fiberglass, such as, for example, Kevlar®, plastic, glass or other insulating materials.
  • [0029]
    Another exemplary embodiment of the present invention may provide for selective contact between the first contact and the battery cell structure through holes in the bonding layer. In such an embodiment, holes in the bonding layer may allow the first contact and battery cell structure to remain in contact. The layers may be, for example, pressed together to create a contact. Alternatively, conductive glues or inks may be applied in or near the hole area in the bonding layer to make the contact between the layers. Lithium may also be used.
  • [0030]
    The embedded conductors 120 and 121 and/or first contact, for example, may be made of gold, platinum, stainless steel, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, aluminum, indium, tin, silver, carbon, bronze, brass, beryllium, or oxides, nitrides, carbides, and alloys thereof. The first contact may be a metal foil, for example, may be made of stainless steel or any other metallic substance having the necessary or suitable characteristics and properties such as a requisite amount of conductivity. The metal foil may preferably comprise a solderable alloy, for instance, alloys of copper, nickel, or tin. The first contact may be, for example, less than 100 microns thick, less than 50 microns thick, or less than 25 microns thick.
  • [0031]
    The electrochemical device 115 may include a cathode, anode and electrolyte. For example, the cathode may comprise LiCoO2, the anode may comprise Lithium and the electrolyte may comprise LIPON. Other electrochemical devices may be used as needed.
  • [0032]
    The electrochemical device 115 may be coupled with the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device 105 in a number of ways. In one embodiment, the electrochemical device, for example, may be coupled with the semiconducting surface or the conducting or insulating surface of a semiconductor device 105 using glue. Glue, as used in this application, extends to any material that may adhere the electrochemical device 115 to the semiconducting surface or the conducting or insulating surface of a semiconductor device 105. The glue may create either a mechanical or chemical bond between the two layers. Glue may also include chemically bonding the two layers without introducing another material or layer. Glue, for example, may include but is not limited to cement glue and resin glue. The glue may be electrically conducting, semi-conducting, or insulating.
  • [0033]
    In another exemplary embodiment, the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating (e.g., packaging) surface of a semiconductor device 105 acts as a substrate for the battery. The semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device 105 is provided and the electrochemical device 115 may be deposited thereon. The electrochemical device 115 may also be glued to the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device 105.
  • [0034]
    In an exemplary embodiment, a LiCoO2 cathode layer is deposited on the semiconducting surface or the conducting or insulating surface of a semiconductor device 105. A number of deposition techniques are known in the art, these include, but are not limited to reactive or non-reactive RF magnetron sputtering, reactive or non-reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering, reactive or non-reactive DC diode sputtering, reactive or non-reactive thermal (resistive) evaporation, reactive or non-reactive electron beam evaporation, ion-beam assisted deposition, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, or deposition methods, which may include, for example, spin coating, ink-jetting, thermal spray deposition, dip coating or the like. As part of the fabrication process, for example, the cathode may be annealed using a thermal anneal such as anneal at lower temperatures, anneal at higher temperatures, or by using convection furnaces or rapid thermal anneal methods. Another or an alternative post-deposition anneal may include laser annealing to improve the crystallization of the LiCoO2 layer so as to fine-tune and optimize its chemical properties, such as its electrochemical potential, its energy, its power performance, and its reversible lattice parameters on electrochemical and thermal cycling.
  • [0035]
    Following deposition of the cathode layer, an electrolyte may be deposited on the cathode, followed by an anode. Again, these layers may be deposited by any of a number of processes common in the art. In one specific embodiment, once the electrochemical device 115 has been deposited on the semiconducting surface or the conducting or insulating surface of a semiconductor device 105, a bonding layer 110 may be placed between the electrochemical device and a first electrical contact 101. In this specific embodiment shown in FIG. 1A, a metal encapsulate layer 101 may also be the first contact. In another specific embodiment, once the electrochemical device 115 has been deposited on the first electrical contact 101, a bonding layer 110 may be placed between the electrochemical device 115 and the semiconducting surface or the conducting or insulating surface of a semiconductor device 105. In this specific embodiment shown in FIG. 1B, a metal encapsulate layer 101 may also be the first contact. As described above, the first contact may be a metal foil, for example, may be made of stainless steel or any other metallic substance having the necessary characteristics and properties such as a requisite amount of conductivity. The metal foil may preferably comprise a solderable alloy, for instance, alloys of copper, nickel, or tin. The first contact may be, for example, less than 100 microns thick, less than 50 microns thick, or less than 25 microns thick.
  • [0036]
    The bonding layer 110 may include, for example, an adhesive material, an insulating material, polymeric material, glass, Kevlar®, reinforcement materials, and fiberglass. The embedded conductors 120 and 121 may include, for example, a tab, a wire, a metal strip, a metal ribbon, multiple wires, multiple metal strips, multiple metal ribbons, a wire mesh, perforated metal, a metal coating applied to the adhesive layer, and a disk.
  • [0037]
    FIG. 2 shows a second embodiment of a thin film battery on a chip. In this embodiment the battery may include a semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device 105, a cathode layer 145 deposited on the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device 105, an electrolyte 150, an anode 165, a modulating layer 160, an encapsulate 155, an anode current collector 170 and an insulator 175. For example, the cathode 145 may comprise LiCoO2, the anode 160 may comprise Lithium and the electrolyte 150 may comprise LIPON. Other electrochemical devices may be used as needed. The encapsulate 155 may comprise a ceramic-metal composite laminate of a multiple of alternating layers of Zirconium Nitride and Zirconium or Titanium Nitride and Titanium.
  • [0038]
    The electrochemical device which may include the cathode 145, electrolyte 150 and anode 155, may be semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device 105 in a number of ways. In one embodiment, the electrochemical device, for example, may be coupled with the substantially conductive, semiconducting surface or the conductive packaging surface of a semiconductor device 105 using glue. Glue, as used in this application, extends to any material that may adhere parts of the electrochemical device to the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device 105. The glue may create either a mechanical or chemical bond between the two layers. Glue may also include chemically bonding the two layers without introducing another material or layer. The glue may be electrically conductive in order to use the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device 105 as current collector. Glue, for example, may include but is not limited to electrically conductive cement glue and resin glue.
  • [0039]
    The cathode 145 may also be deposited directly on the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device 105. In a specific embodiment, a LiCoO2 cathode layer is deposited on semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device 105. A number of deposition techniques are known in the art, these include, but are not limited to reactive or non-reactive RF magnetron sputtering, reactive or non-reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering, reactive or non-reactive DC diode sputtering, reactive or non-reactive thermal (resistive) evaporation, reactive or non-reactive electron beam evaporation, ion-beam assisted deposition, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, deposition methods, which may include, for example, spin coating, ink-jetting, thermal spray deposition, dip coating or the like. As part of the fabrication process for example, a post-deposition laser anneal may be used to improve the crystallization of the cathode layer 145 in order to fine-tune and optimize its chemical properties, such as its electrochemical potential, its energy, its power performance, and its reversible lattice parameters on electrochemical and thermal cycling. Examples of methods used to deposit LiCoO2 are disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/557,383, filed on Nov. 7, 2006, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
  • [0040]
    The semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device in the above embodiments may be part of any integrated circuit and may include, memory devices, processors or other logic circuits.
  • [0041]
    Another embodiment of the present invention includes a battery deposited on a flexible printed circuit board including, for example, a first electrical contact; a bonding layer coupled with the first electrical contact and having an embedded conductor; at least one battery cell structure; and a flexible printed circuit board. A bonding layer and the at least one battery cell structure may be sandwiched between the first contact layer and the flexible printed circuit board. The bonding layer may be selectively conductive through the embedded conductor. The battery cell structure may further be in selective electrical contact with the first electrical contact via the embedded conductor.
  • [0042]
    FIG. 3A shows a side view of an electrochemical device according to another embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment, a first contact 301 is coupled with bonding layer 310 with a portion of the first contact 301 extending past the bonding layer 310. The bonding layer 310 may, for example, be bonded with the cell structure 315. A flexible printed circuit board 305 is placed under the battery cell structure 315. Shown embedded within the bonding layer 310 is a first embedded conductor 320. This first embedded conductor 320, for example, creates a selectively conductive bonding layer. A selectively conductive bonding layer 310 permits conduction from the cell structure 315 through the bonding layer 310 to the first contact 301 at specific points, and yet provides insulation between the first contact 301 and the flexible circuit board 305. Also shown embedded within the bonding layer 310 is the second embedded conductor 321. This second conductor, for example, further creates a selectively conductive bonding layer. The further selectively conductive boding layer 310 permits conduction from the flexible printed circuit board 305 through the bonding layer 310 to the first contact 301 at specific points, and yet provides insulation between the first contact 301 and the flexible printed circuit board 305. Other types of battery cell structures may be also be included.
  • [0043]
    FIG. 3B shows a side view of an electrochemical device according to one exemplary embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment, a first contact 301 is coupled with the battery cell structure 315. A bonding layer 310 is coupled to the battery cell structure 315 and a portion of the first contact 301, which extends past the bonding layer 310. A flexible printed circuit board 305 is coupled with the bonding layer 310. Shown embedded within the bonding layer 310 is the first embedded conductor 320. This first embedded conductor 320, for example, creates a selectively conductive bonding layer. A selectively conductive bonding layer 310 permits conduction from the cell structure 315 through the bonding layer 310 to the flexible printed circuit board 305 at specific points, and yet provides insulation between the first contact 301 and the flexible printed circuit board 305. The electrochemical device may have a second embedded conductor 321 that selectively creates an electrical contact between the first contact 301 and the flexible printed circuit board 305. In this case, the flexible printed circuit board 305 must be selectively insulating between the contacts points at which the first embedded conductor 320 and the second embedded conductor 321 meet the flexible printed circuit board 305.
  • [0044]
    FIG. 3C is a top view of an exemplary electrochemical device integrated with a flexible circuit board 305, such as the exemplary devices described above with respect to FIGS. 3A and 3B. As shown in FIG. 3C, conductive traces 330, 331 are formed on a surface of the circuit board 305. Other types of conductive surfaces, such as contact pads, wiring, exposed conductive vias etc., or combinations thereof may be provided on the circuit board surface to receive the electrochemical device. In the plan view, the first embedded conductor 320 is shown passing through bonding layer 310 to make electrical contact with conductive trace 330, and the second embedded conductor 321 is shown passing through bonding layer 310 to make electrical contact with conductive trace 331. It should be appreciated that an analogous arrangement can be achieved with respect to the examples including a semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device, as described above with respect to FIGS. 1A and 1B.
  • [0045]
    The flexible circuit board 305 may comprise, for example, multiple circuit board layers with and without traces, single or double sided, semi-rigid, a film, and/or a polyimide film.
  • [0046]
    The embedded conductors 320 and 321 may be placed within the bonding layer 310 in many different ways. For example, a metal tab, a metal wire, a metal strip, a metal ribbon, multiple metal wires, multiple metal strips, multiple metal ribbons, a metal wire mesh, perforated metal foil, perforated metal, a metal coating applied to the adhesive layer, a metallic disk, a metallically coated fiberglass or combinations thereof may be used. In each of these examples, the first embedded conductor 320 can provide selective electrical conduction between the cell structure 315 and the first contact 301 or the flexible printed circuit board 305, and yet provide insulation between the battery cell structure 315 and the first contact 301 or the flexible printed circuit board 305. Also in each of these examples, the second embedded conductor 321 can provide selective electrical conduction between the first contact 301 and the flexible printed circuit board 305 and yet provide insulation between the first contact 301 and the flexible printed circuit board 305. In some embodiments the first embedded conductor 320 may be woven within the bonding layer 310. The first embedded conductor 320 may be, for example, disks embedded within the bonding layer 310. In some embodiments slits within the bonding layer 310 may be made in order to weave or place the first embedded conductor 320 through the bonding layer 310. Also, for example, holes or other means may be used to place the first embedded conductor 320 through the bonding layer 310. In some embodiments the second embedded conductor 321 may be woven within the bonding layer 310. The second embedded conductor 321 may be, for example, disks embedded within the bonding layer 310. In some embodiments slits within the bonding layer 310 may be made in order to weave or place the second embedded conductor 321 through the bonding layer 310. Also, for example, holes or other means may be used to place the second embedded conductor 321 through the bonding layer 310.
  • [0047]
    The electrochemical device 315 may include a cathode, anode and electrolyte. For example, the cathode may comprise LiCoO2, the anode may comprise Lithium and the electrolyte may comprise LIPON. Other electrochemical devices may be used as needed.
  • [0048]
    The electrochemical device 315 may be coupled with the flexible printed circuit board 305 in a number of ways. In one embodiment, the electrochemical device 315, for example, may be coupled with the flexible printed circuit board 305 using glue. Glue, as used in this application, extends to any material that may adhere the electrochemical device 315 to the flexible printed circuit board 305. The glue may create either a mechanical or chemical bond between the two layers. Glue may also include chemically bonding the two layers without introducing another material or layer. Glue, for example, may include but is not limited to cement glue and resin glue. The glue may be electrically conducting, semi-conducting, or insulating.
  • [0049]
    The electrochemical device 315 may be coupled with the first electrical contact 301 in a number of ways. In one embodiment, the electrochemical device 315, for example, may be coupled with the first electrical contact 301 using glue. Glue, as used in this application, extends to any material that may adhere the electrochemical device 315 to the first electrical contact 301. The glue may create either a mechanical or chemical bond between the two layers. Glue may also include chemically bonding the two layers without introducing another material or layer. Glue, for example, may include but is not limited to cement glue and resin glue. The glue may be electrically conducting, semi-conducting, or insulating.
  • [0050]
    In another embodiment the flexible printed circuit board 305 acts as a substrate for the battery, which may be deposited thereon.
  • [0051]
    In another embodiment the first electrical contact 301 acts as a substrate for the battery, which may be deposited thereon.
  • [0052]
    In another embodiment the flexible printed circuit board 305 acts as an encapsulate for the battery.
  • [0053]
    In another embodiment the first electrical contact 301 acts as an encapsulate for the battery.
  • [0054]
    In another exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 4A, a thin film battery is provided on a semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device with a barrier layer therebetween. Elements depicted in FIG. 4A like those above in FIG. 1A are shown having the same reference numbers. In this embodiment, a first contact 101 is coupled with bonding layer 110 with a portion of the first contact 101 extending past the bonding layer 110. The bonding layer 110 may, for example, be bonded with the cell structure 115. A semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating (e.g., packaging) surface of a semiconductor device 105 with a barrier layer 107 is placed under the battery cell structure 115.
  • [0055]
    In this embodiment, barrier layer 107 may include, for example, titanium nitride. The barrier layer 107 may also comprise a semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device 105. A conductive surface may include, for example, a conductive contact pad, a conductive line, conductive via or other conductive layer formed on or at the device surface. A conductive surface also may be formed together with an insulating surface, such as a conductive surface formed on a packaging surface of a semiconductor device. An insulating surface of the semiconductor device 105 may be, for example, an insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device or an upper insulating surface the semiconductor device. Shown embedded within the bonding layer 110 is conductor 120. This conductor 120, for example, creates a selectively conductive bonding layer. A selectively conductive bonding layer 110 permits conduction from the cell structure 115 through the bonding layer 110 to the first contact 101 at specific points, and yet provides insulation between the first contact 101 and the barrier layer 107. Other types of battery cell structures may be also be included.
  • [0056]
    The electrochemical device 115 may be coupled with the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating (e.g., packaging) surface of a semiconductor device 105 and barrier layer 107 in a number of ways. In one embodiment, the electrochemical device, for example, may be coupled with the barrier layer using glue. Glue, as used in this application, extends to any material that may adhere the electrochemical device 115 to the barrier layer 107. The glue may create either a mechanical or chemical bond between the two layers. Glue may also include chemically bonding the two layers without introducing another material or layer. Glue, for example, may include but is not limited to cement glue and resin glue. The glue may be electrically conducting, semi-conducting, or insulating.
  • [0057]
    In another exemplary embodiment the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device 105 acts as a substrate for the battery. The semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device 105 is provided and the barrier layer 107 may be deposited thereon. The barrier layer 107 may also be glued to the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device 105. Once the barrier layer 107 and the substrate 105 have been prepared, the electrochemical device 115 may be deposited directly on the barrier layer 107.
  • [0058]
    In an exemplary embodiment, a LiCoO2 cathode layer is deposited on the barrier layer 107 by way of methods described above.
  • [0059]
    In yet another exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 4B, a thin film battery is provided on a flexible circuit board. Elements depicted in FIG. 4B like those above in FIG. 3A are shown having the same reference numbers. In this embodiment, a first contact 301 is coupled with bonding layer 310 with a portion of the first contact 301 extending past the bonding layer 310. The bonding layer 310 may, for example, be bonded with the cell structure 315. A flexible printed circuit board 305, such as described above, and a barrier layer 307 is placed under the battery cell structure 315. In this embodiment, the barrier layer 307 may, for example, include titanium nitride. Shown embedded within the bonding layer 310 is conductor 320. This conductor 320, for example, creates a selectively conductive bonding layer. A selectively conductive bonding layer 310 permits conduction from the cell structure 315 through the bonding layer 310 to the first contact 301 at specific points, and yet provides insulation between the first contact 301 and the barrier layer 307. The conductor 320 may be provided within the bonding layer 310 as described above. In each of these examples, the conductor 320 can provide electrical conduction between the cell structure 315 and the first contact 301 and yet provide insulation between the first contact 301 and the barrier layer 307.
  • [0060]
    The electrochemical device 315 may be coupled with the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device 305 and barrier layer 307 in a number of ways. In one embodiment, the electrochemical device, for example, may be coupled with the barrier layer using glue. Glue, as used in this application, extends to any material that may adhere the electrochemical device 315 to the barrier layer 307. The glue may create either a mechanical or chemical bond between the two layers. Glue may also include chemically bonding the two layers without introducing another material or layer. Glue, for example, may include but is not limited to cement glue and resin glue. The glue may be electrically conducting, semi-conducting, or insulating.
  • [0061]
    In another embodiment the flexible printed circuit board 305 acts as a substrate for the battery and the barrier layer 307 may be deposited thereon. The barrier layer 307 may also be glued to the flexible printed circuit board 305. Once the barrier layer 307 and the printed circuit board 305 have been prepared, the electrochemical device 315 may be deposited directly on the barrier layer 307.
  • [0062]
    While FIGS. 4A and 4B show only one conductor 120, 320, respectively, it is to be understood that exemplary embodiments also may include at least one second conductor, such as conductors 121, 321, respectively described above in connection with FIGS. 1A and 3A. Further, electrical connection between the first contact 101, 301 and the underlying semiconducting surface, conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device, or a flexible circuit board can be made by conductors 121, 321 through the bonding and/or barrier layers.
  • [0063]
    The above-discussed exemplary embodiments may also include multiple electrochemical devices stacked upon a semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating (e.g., packaging) surface of a semiconductor device.
  • [0064]
    The above-discussed exemplary embodiments may also include multiple electrochemical devices stacked upon the first electrical contact 301.
  • [0065]
    The present exemplary embodiments provide alternative schemes to encapsulate the chemically and mechanically sensitive layers of electrochemical devices, which are less expensive than prior encapsulation schemes using gold foil. The above exemplary embodiments also avoid problems of other prior schemes relating to blow out of the seals of a metal and plastic pouch encapsulating an electrochemical device resulting from temperature changes, which cause the gas within the metal and plastic pouch to expand and/or contract.
  • [0066]
    The exemplary embodiments described herein also provide a rechargeable secondary battery directly fabricated on a semiconductor device such as an integrated circuit. Such batteries provide power during times when the circuit is powered off and are quickly and easily recharged when power resumes. Critical circuitry may benefit from localized power provided by such batteries. The exemplary embodiments also provide for less expensive and more reliable encapsulating approaches, and better approaches to providing electrically conductive contacts, including encapsulation that is substantially thinner than known encapsulation methods. The exemplary embodiments also provide flexible integrated circuits and/or flexible printed circuit boards with thin film flexible batteries coupled thereon.
  • [0067]
    Although the above examples describe a conductive material provided in an opening in the bonding layer, such as the slit, it should be appreciated that electrical contact between the battery cell structure 115, 315 and first electrical contact 101, 301 may be provided by a number of other ways. For example, embedding a conductive powder within an adhesive forming the bonding layer 110, 310 may provide electrical conduction between the cell structure 115, 315 and the first contact 101, 301. For example, a conductive powder such as a metallic powder (e.g., nickel powder) can be embedded in an adhesive bonding layer 110, 310 at one or more selected areas within an adhesive bonding layer 110, 310 and between the contact 101, 301 and the battery cell structure 115, 315. Those skilled in the art will appreciate other conductive materials that may be provided for the selective conduction, such as conductive balls, slugs, wiring mesh etc. selectively provided within an adhesive. The ways to achieve electrical conduction between the battery cell structure 115, 315 and the first contact 101, 301 and yet provide insulation between the contacts and battery cell structure, should not be considered as limited to the examples explained herein.
  • [0068]
    The same holds true for the electrical contact between the battery cell structure 115, 315 and the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device 105 or the flexible printed circuit board 305. The same also holds true for the electrical contact between the first contact 101, 301 and the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device 105 or the flexible printed circuit board 305.
  • [0069]
    Additionally, it should be appreciated that the electrochemical device may comprise a discrete device (e.g., fully packaged with its own substrate and own encapsulation) on a semiconductor surface, a conducting or insulating surface of a semiconductor device or a flexible printed circuit board. For example, prior to its integration onto the semiconducting surface or a conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device or into or onto a flexible printed circuit board, the electrochemical device may be fabricated as a discrete device, and then integrated as a whole together with its substrate and its encapsulation.
  • [0070]
    The embodiments described above are exemplary only. One skilled in the art may recognize variations from the embodiments specifically described here, which are intended to be within the scope of this disclosure. As such, the invention is limited only by the following claims. Thus, it is intended that the present invention cover the modifications of this invention provided they come within the scope of the appended claims and their equivalents.

Claims (71)

  1. 1. An integrated circuit including a battery, comprising:
    a first electrical contact;
    a bonding layer coupled with said first electrical contact and comprising at least one embedded conductor;
    at least one battery cell structure in selective electrical contact with said first electrical contact via said at least one embedded conductor; and
    a semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device;
    wherein said bonding layer and said at least one battery cell structure are sandwiched between said first contact layer and said semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device.
  2. 2. The integrated circuit of claim 1, further comprising said first electrical contact in selective electrical contact with the semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device via at least one embedded conductor.
  3. 3. The integrated circuit of claim 1, wherein said first electrical contact further comprises an encapsulate metal.
  4. 4. The integrated circuit of claim 1, wherein said semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device acts as an encapsulate of said at least one battery cell structure.
  5. 5. The integrated circuit of claim 1, wherein said bonding layer comprises a material selected from the group comprising an adhesive material, an insulating material, plastic, glass, Kevlar®, reinforcement materials, and fiberglass.
  6. 6. The integrated circuit of claim 1, wherein said embedded conductor is selected from the group consisting of a tab, a wire, metal strip, a metal ribbon multiple wires, multiple metal strips, multiple metal ribbons, a wire mesh, perforated metal, a metal coating applied to the adhesive layer, and a disk.
  7. 7. The integrated circuit of claim 1, wherein said conductor is woven within said bonding layer.
  8. 8. The integrated circuit of claim 7, wherein said bonding layer comprises a slit within which said embedded conductor is woven.
  9. 9. The integrated circuit of claim 1, wherein said first contact comprises a material selected from the group consisting of gold, platinum, stainless steel, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zirconium, aluminum, indium, nickel, copper, silver, carbon, bronze, brass, beryllium, and oxides, nitrides, carbides and alloys thereof.
  10. 10. The integrated circuit of claim 1, wherein said battery cell structure comprises at least:
    an anode,
    an electrolyte; and
    a cathode.
  11. 11. The integrated circuit of claim 10, wherein said cathode is annealed.
  12. 12. The integrated circuit of claim 10 wherein said cathode is crystallized.
  13. 13. The integrated circuit of claim 1, wherein the first contact acts as a positive terminal of said battery cell structure.
  14. 14. The integrated circuit of claim 1, wherein the first contact acts as a negative terminal of said battery cell structure.
  15. 15. The integrated circuit of claim 1, further comprising a barrier layer between said battery cell structure and said semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device.
  16. 16. The integrated circuit of claim 1, wherein said first contact comprises a metal foil.
  17. 17. The integrated circuit of claim 1, further comprising a plurality of battery cell structures stacked one upon another with at least one metal foil encapsulating each battery cell structure.
  18. 18. The integrated circuit of claim 1, wherein portions of said first contact are coated with an insulating material.
  19. 19. The integrated circuit of claim 1, wherein said battery cell structure further comprising a substrate sandwiched between said battery cell structure and said first electrical contact.
  20. 20. The integrated circuit of claim 1, further comprising an encapsulate sandwiched between said bonding layer and said first electrical contact.
  21. 21. An integrated circuit including a battery, comprising:
    a semiconducting device having a surface;
    a bonding layer coupled with said surface of said semiconductor device, said bonding layer comprising at least one embedded conductor;
    at least one battery cell structure in selective electrical contact with said surface of a semiconductor device via said at least one embedded conductor; and
    a first electrical contact;
    wherein said bonding layer and said at least one battery cell structure are sandwiched between said surface of said semiconductor device and said first contact layer.
  22. 22. The integrated circuit device of claim 21, wherein said surface of said semiconducting device is selected from a semiconducting surface, a conductive surface and an insulating packaging surface.
  23. 23. The integrated circuit of claim 21, further comprising said surface of said semiconductor device in selective electrical contact with said first electrical contact via said at least one embedded conductor.
  24. 24. The integrated circuit of claim 21, further comprising a barrier layer between said battery cell structure and said first electrical contact.
  25. 25. The integrated circuit of claim 21, wherein said battery cell structure further comprising a substrate sandwiched between said battery cell structure and said first electrical contact.
  26. 26. The integrated circuit of claim 21, further comprising an encapsulate sandwiched between said bonding layer and said surface of said semiconductor device.
  27. 27. A method of manufacturing a battery on a semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device comprising:
    creating a selectively conductive bonding layer;
    coupling said bonding layer with a first contact layer;
    coupling a first side of a battery cell structure with a semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device; and
    coupling a second side of said battery cell structure with said bonding layer.
  28. 28. The method of claim 27, wherein said step of coupling a first side of a battery cell structure with a semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device comprises gluing a first side of a battery cell structure with a semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device.
  29. 29. The method of claim 27, further comprising depositing a cathode on said semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating packaging surface of a semiconductor device.
  30. 30. The method of claim 29, further comprising crystallizing said cathode with a laser.
  31. 31. The method of claim 29, further comprising annealing said cathode via rapid thermal anneal.
  32. 32. A method of manufacturing a battery on a first electrical contact comprising:
    creating a selectively conductive bonding layer;
    coupling said bonding layer with a surface of a semiconductor device;
    coupling a first side of a battery cell structure with a first electrical contact; and
    coupling a second side of said battery cell structure with said bonding layer.
  33. 33. The method of claim 32, further comprising selecting the surface of the semiconductor device from a group of a semiconducting surface, a conductive surface and an insulating surface.
  34. 34. The method of claim 32, wherein said step of coupling a first side of a battery cell structure with a first electrical contact comprises gluing a first side of a battery cell structure with a first electrical contact.
  35. 35. The method of claim 32, further comprising fabricating a substrate that is sandwiched between said first side of the battery cell structure and first electrical contact.
  36. 36. The method of claim 32, further comprising fabricating an encapsulate that is sandwiched between said bonding layer and said semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device.
  37. 37. A battery on a flexible printed circuit board, comprising:
    a first electrical contact;
    a bonding layer coupled with said first electrical contact and comprising at least one embedded conductor;
    at least one battery cell structure in selective electrical contact with said first electrical contact via said at least one embedded conductor; and
    a flexible printed circuit board;
    wherein said bonding layer and said at least one battery cell structure are sandwiched between said first contact layer and said flexible printed circuit board.
  38. 38. The battery on flexible printed circuit board of claim 37, further comprising said first electrical contact in selective electrical contact with the flexible printed circuit board via at least one embedded conductor.
  39. 39. The battery on a flexible printed circuit board of claim 37, wherein said flexible printed circuit board is selected from the group consisting of multiple circuit board layers with and without traces, single sided printed circuit board, double sided printed circuit board, and a semi-rigid printed circuit board.
  40. 40. The battery on a flexible printed circuit board of claim 37, wherein said flexible printed circuit board comprises a polyimide film.
  41. 41. The battery on a flexible printed circuit board of claim 37, wherein said first electrical contact further comprises an encapsulate metal.
  42. 42. The battery on a flexible printed circuit board of claim 37, wherein said bonding layer comprises a material selected from the group comprising an adhesive material, an insulating material, plastic, glass, Kevlar®, reinforcement materials, and fiberglass.
  43. 43. The battery on a flexible printed circuit board of claim 37, wherein said conductor is selected from the group consisting of a tab, a wire, metal strip, a metal ribbon multiple wires, multiple metal strips, multiple metal ribbons, a wire mesh, perforated metal, a metal coating applied to the adhesive layer, and a disk.
  44. 44. The battery on a flexible printed circuit board of claim 37, wherein said conductor is woven within said bonding layer.
  45. 45. The battery on a flexible printed circuit board of claim 37, wherein said bonding layer comprises a slit within which said embedded conductor is woven.
  46. 46. The battery on a flexible printed circuit board of claim 37, wherein said first contact comprises a material selected from the group consisting of gold, platinum, stainless steel, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zirconium, aluminum, indium, nickel, copper, silver, carbon, bronze, brass, beryllium, and oxides, nitrides, carbides and alloys thereof.
  47. 47. The battery on a flexible printed circuit board of claim 37, wherein said battery cell structure comprises at least:
    an anode,
    an electrolyte; and
    a cathode.
  48. 48. The battery on a flexible printed circuit board of claim 47, wherein said cathode is annealed.
  49. 49. The battery on a flexible printed circuit board of claim 47, wherein said cathode is crystallized.
  50. 50. The battery on a flexible printed circuit board of claim 37, further comprising a barrier layer between said battery cell structure and said semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device.
  51. 51. The battery on a flexible printed circuit board of claim 37, wherein said first contact comprises a metal foil.
  52. 52. The battery on a flexible printed circuit board of claim 37, further comprising a plurality of battery cell structures stacked one upon another with at least one metal foil encapsulating each battery cell structure.
  53. 53. The battery on a flexible printed circuit board of claim 37, wherein portions of said first contact are coated with an insulating material.
  54. 54. A battery on a flexible printed circuit board, comprising:
    a flexible printed circuit board;
    a bonding layer coupled with said flexible printed circuit board and comprising at least one embedded conductor;
    at least one battery cell structure in selective electrical contact with said flexible printed circuit board via said at least one embedded conductor; and
    a first electrical contact;
    wherein said bonding layer and said at least one battery cell structure are sandwiched between said flexible printed circuit board and said first contact layer.
  55. 55. The battery on a flexible printed circuit board of claim 54, including said flexible printed circuit board in selective electrical contact with first electrical contact via at least one embedded conductor.
  56. 56. The battery on a flexible printed circuit board of claim 54, further comprising a barrier layer between said battery cell structure and said first electrical contact.
  57. 57. The battery on a flexible printed circuit board of claim 54, wherein said battery cell structure further comprises a substrate sandwiched between said battery cell structure and said first electrical contact.
  58. 58. The battery on a flexible printed circuit board of claim 54, further comprising an encapsulate sandwiched between said bonding layer and said flexible printed circuit board.
  59. 59. A method of manufacturing a battery on a flexible printed circuit board comprising:
    creating a selectively conductive bonding layer;
    coupling said bonding layer with a first contact layer;
    coupling a first side of a battery cell structure with a flexible printed circuit board; and
    coupling a second side of said battery cell structure with said bonding layer.
  60. 60. The method of claim 59, wherein said step of coupling a first side of a battery cell structure with a flexible printed circuit board comprises gluing a first side of a battery cell structure with a flexible printed circuit board.
  61. 61. The method of claim 59, further comprising depositing a cathode on said flexible printed circuit board.
  62. 62. The method of claim 61, further comprising crystallizing said cathode with a laser.
  63. 63. The method of claim 61, further comprising annealing said cathode via rapid thermal anneal.
  64. 64. A method of manufacturing a battery on flexible printed circuit board comprising:
    creating a selectively conductive bonding layer;
    coupling said bonding layer with a flexible printed circuit board;
    coupling a first side of a battery cell structure with a first electrical contact; and
    coupling a second side of said battery cell structure with said bonding layer.
  65. 65. The method of claim 64, wherein said step of coupling a first side of a battery cell structure with a first electrical contact comprises gluing a first side of a battery cell structure with a first electrical contact.
  66. 66. The method of claim 64, further comprising fabricating a substrate that is sandwiched between said first side of the battery cell structure and said first electrical contact.
  67. 67. The method of claim 64, further comprising fabricating an encapsulate that is sandwiched between said bonding layer and said semiconducting surface or the conductive or insulating surface of a semiconductor device.
  68. 68. An apparatus an comprising integrated circuit including a battery, said integrated circuit including a battery selected from the integrated circuits including a battery of claims 1 and 21.
  69. 69. The apparatus of claim 68, wherein said apparatus is selected from a computer, cell phone, calculator, appliance, memory device, camera, smart card, identification tag, and computer peripheral hardware.
  70. 70. An apparatus comprising a battery on flexible printed circuit board, said battery on flexible printed circuit board selected from the batteries on flexible printed circuit boards of claims 37, and 54.
  71. 71. The apparatus of claim 70, wherein said apparatus is selected from a computer, cell phone, calculator, appliance, memory device, camera, smart card, identification tag, and computer peripheral hardware.
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