TWI408411B - 具有傳導性光吸收光罩之裝置及其製造方法 - Google Patents

具有傳導性光吸收光罩之裝置及其製造方法 Download PDF

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TWI408411B
TWI408411B TW094130885A TW94130885A TWI408411B TW I408411 B TWI408411 B TW I408411B TW 094130885 A TW094130885 A TW 094130885A TW 94130885 A TW94130885 A TW 94130885A TW I408411 B TWI408411 B TW I408411B
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conductive
device
optical
interferometric
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TW200626943A (en
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Manish Kothari
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Qualcomm Mems Technologies Inc
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B26/00Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B26/00Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating
    • G02B26/001Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating based on interference in an adjustable optical cavity
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B26/00Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating
    • G02B26/08Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light
    • G02B26/0816Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light by means of one or more reflecting elements
    • G02B26/0833Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light by means of one or more reflecting elements the reflecting element being a micromechanical device, e.g. a MEMS mirror, DMD
    • G02B26/0841Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light by means of one or more reflecting elements the reflecting element being a micromechanical device, e.g. a MEMS mirror, DMD the reflecting element being moved or deformed by electrostatic means
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49002Electrical device making
    • Y10T29/49117Conductor or circuit manufacturing

Description

具有傳導性光吸收光罩之裝置及其製造方法

本發明之技術領域係關於微機電系統(MEMS)。

微機電系統(MEMS)包括微機械元件、激勵器及電子元件。可採用沉積、蝕刻或其他蝕刻掉基板及/或所沉積材料層之某些部分或添加某些層以形成電和機電裝置之微機械加工製程製成微機械元件。一種類型之MEMS裝置被稱為干涉式調變器。干涉式調變器可包含一對導電板,其中之一或二者均可全部或部分地透明及/或為反射性,且在施加一個適當之電信號時能夠相對運動。其中一個板可包含一沉積在一基板上之穩定層,另一個板可包含一藉由一空氣間隙與該穩定層隔開之金屬隔膜。上述裝置具有廣泛之應用範圍,且在此項技術中,利用及/或修改該些類型裝置之特性、以使其效能可用於改善現有產品及製造目前尚未開發之新產品將頗為有益。

本發明之系統、方法及裝置均具有多個態樣,任一單個態樣均不能單獨決定其所期望之特性。現在,簡要說明較主要之特性,但此並不限定本發明之範圍。在考量此討論內容後,且尤其在閱讀標題為"實施方式"之部分後,人們即可理解本發明之特性如何提供優於其他顯示裝置之優點。

在某些實施例中,一種光學裝置包括一基板。該光學裝 置進一步包括一佈置於該基板上之干涉式光調變元件。該調變元件具有一響應施加至該調變元件之電壓之光學特性。該光學裝置進一步包括一佈置於該基板上並與該調變元件相間隔之導電光罩。該光罩電耦接至該調變元件以為將電壓施加至該調變元件提供一或多個電路徑。

在某些實施例中,一種方法向一顯示器之複數個干涉式光學元件提供一電信號。可藉由向該等干涉式光學元件施加一電壓來分別激勵該等干涉式光學元件。該方法包括將一導電光罩電耦接至一或多個干涉式光學元件。該方法進一步包括向該光罩施加一電壓以激活該一或多個干涉式光學元件。

在某些實施例中,一種方法製作一干涉式光學裝置。該方法包括:在一基板上形成一導電光罩。該光罩吸收光。該方法進一步包括在該基板上與該光罩相間地形成一干涉式光學組件。該干涉式光學組件具有一受驅動狀態及一未受驅動狀態。該干涉式光學組件響應於所施加之電壓而在該受驅動狀態與該未受驅動狀態之間變換。每一狀態皆具有對入射光之特徵光學響應。該方法進一步包括將該光罩電連接至該干涉式光學組件,以使該光罩之至少一部分提供一用於向該干涉式光學組件施加電壓之匯流排。

在某些實施例中,一種方法製作一光學裝置,該光學裝置包括至少一個形成於一透明基板上之主動干涉式光學組件。該方法包括識別出該基板上一將為光吸收性之區域。該識別出之區域在橫向上偏離該至少一個主動干涉式光學 組件。該方法進一步包括在製作該至少一個主動干涉式光學組件之前,在該識別出之區域上製作一導電之光吸收性光罩。該光罩連接至該主動干涉式光學組件。

在某些實施例中,一種光學裝置包括用於支撐一光學裝置之構件。該光學裝置進一步包括用於以干涉方式調變光之構件。該調變構件佈置於該支撐構件上。該調變構件具有一隨施加至該調變構件之電壓而變化之光學特性。該光學裝置進一步包括用於吸收光之構件。該吸收構件佈置於該支撐構件上並與該調變構件相間隔。該吸收構件電耦接至該調變構件以為向該調變構件施加電壓提供一或多個電路徑。

以下詳細說明係針對本發明之某些具體實施例。在本說明中,會參照附圖,在所有附圖中,使用相同之編號標識相同之部件。

在本說明書中所提及的"一個實施例"或"一實施例"意指結合該實施例所述的特定器件、結構或特徵包含於本發明至少一個實施例中。在本說明書中不同位置處出現的用語"在一實施例中"未必均指同一實施例,但亦不排斥其他實施例之單獨或替代實施例。此外,本文說明瞭可由某些實施例而非其他實施例表現出的各種特徵。同樣,本文說明瞭可能為某些實施例所要求而不為其他實施例所要求之各種要求。

人們對在高解析度行動裝置顯示器上觀看視頻資料、同 時滿足功率限制條件之願望可藉由使顯示器控制線之電阻最小化而達成。出於該等及其他原因,合意之情況係,增大信號線之電導、同時使顯示器中額外之被動或非主動光學內含件之數量最少化。本發明在一實施例中揭示一種多用途光學組件,其用作一導電光罩(例如"黑色光罩")來吸收環境光或雜散光並藉由提高反差比來改良顯示裝置之光學響應,同時亦用作一電匯流排層。在某些應用中,該導電光罩可反射一預定波長之光以表現為一不同於黑色之色彩。該導電光罩-在本文中亦簡稱為"光罩"-電耦接至顯示器上之一或多個元件,從而為向一或多個顯示元件施加電壓提供一或多個電路徑。舉例而言,視所需之組態而定,可將一或多個列電極或行電極連接至該導電光罩,以降低所連接之列電極或行電極之電阻。在一實施例中,一MEMS顯示裝置(例如一干涉式調變器陣列)包括一動態光學組件(例如一動態干涉式調變器)及一在橫向上偏離該動態光學組件之靜態光學組件(例如一靜態干涉式調變器)。該靜態光學組件用作"黑色光罩"來吸收顯示器之非主動區域中之環境光或雜散光以改良動態光學組件之光學響應,並用作該干涉式調變器陣列之列電極或行電極之電匯流排。舉例而言,非主動區域可包括MEMS顯示裝置中除對應於可移動反射層之區域以外的一或多個區域。非主動區域亦可包括顯示裝置中未用於顯示在顯示裝置上所再現之影像或資料之區域。

儘管將使用包含干涉式調變器之MEMS裝置來舉例說明 一實施例,然而應瞭解,本發明亦大體上涵蓋例如各種影像顯示器及光電裝置等其他具有需為光吸收性之非主動區域、但不包括干涉式調變器之光學裝置(例如LED及電漿顯示器)。根據以下說明容易看出,本發明可在任一組態用於顯示影像(無論係動態影像(例如視頻)還係靜態影像(例如靜止影像),無論係文字影像還係圖片影像)之裝置中實施。更具體而言,本發明涵蓋:本發明可在例如(但不限於)以下等眾多電子裝置中實施或與該些電子裝置相關聯:行動電話、無線裝置、個人資料助理(PDA)、手持式電腦或可攜式電腦、GPS接收器/導航器、照相機、MP3播放器、攝錄機、遊戲機、手錶、時鐘、計算器、電視監視器、平板顯示器、電腦監視器、汽車顯示器(例如里程表顯示器等)、駕駛艙控制裝置及/或顯示器、照相機景物顯示器(例如車輛之後視照相機顯示器)、電子照片、電子告示牌或標牌、投影儀、建築結構、包裝及美學結構(例如一件珠寶上之影像顯示器)。與本文所述MEMS裝置具有類似結構之MEMS裝置亦可用於非顯示應用中,例如用於電子切換裝置中。

在圖1中顯示一種包含一干涉式MEMS顯示元件之干涉式調變器顯示器實施例。在該些裝置中,像素處於亮或暗狀態。在亮("開(on)"或"打開(open)")狀態下,顯示元件將入射可見光之一大部分反射至使用者。在處於暗("斷開(off)"或"關閉(closed)")狀態下時,顯示元件幾乎不向使用者反射入射可見光。視實施例而定,可顛倒"on"及"off"狀態之光反射性質。MEMS像素可組態為主要在所選色彩下 反射,以除黑色和白色之外還可實現彩色顯示。

圖1為一等軸圖,其顯示一視覺顯示器之一系列像素中之兩個相鄰像素,其中每一像素包含一MEMS干涉式調變器。在某些實施例中,一干涉式調變器顯示器包含一由該些干涉式調變器構成之列/行陣列。每一干涉式調變器包括一對反射層,該對反射層定位成彼此相距一可變且可控之距離,以形成一至少具有一個可變尺寸之光學諧振空腔。在一實施例中,其中一個反射層可在兩個位置之間移動。在本文中稱為釋放狀態之第一位置上,該可移動層之位置距離一固定的局部反射層相對遠。在第二位置上,該可移動層之位置更近地靠近該局部反射層。根據可移動反射層之位置而定,從這兩個層反射之入射光會以相長或相消方式干涉,從而形成各像素之總體反射或非反射狀態。

圖1中所描繪之像素陣列部分包括兩個毗鄰之干涉式調變器12a和12b。在左側之干涉式調變器12a中,顯示一可移動的高度反射層14a處於一釋放位置,該釋放位置距一固定的局部反射層16a一預定距離。在右側之干涉式調變器12b中,顯示一可移動的高度反射層14b處於一受激勵位置處,該受激勵位置靠近固定的局部反射層16b。

固定層16a、16b具導電、局部透明且局部反射性,並可藉由例如在一透明基板20上沉積一或多個各自為鉻及氧化銦錫之層而製成。該等層被圖案化成平行條帶,且可形成一顯示裝置中之列電極,如將在下文中所進一步說明。可移動層14a、14b可形成為由沉積於支柱18頂部之一或多個 沉積金屬層(與列電極16a、16b正交)及一沉積於支柱18之間的中間犧牲材料構成之一系列平行條帶。在犧牲材料被蝕刻掉以後,該些可變形的金屬層與固定的金屬層藉由一規定氣隙19隔開。該些可變形層可使用一具有高度導電性及反射性之材料(例如鋁),且該些條帶可形成一顯示裝置中之行電極。

在未施加電壓時,腔19保持位於層14a、16a之間,且可變形層處於如圖1中像素12a所示之一機械鬆弛狀態。然而,在向一所選列和行施加電位差之後,在該列和行電極相交處之對應像素處形成的電容器被充電,且靜電力將該些電極拉向一起。若電壓足夠高,則可移動層發生變形,並被壓到固定層上(可在固定層上沉積一介電材料(在該圖中未示出),以防止短路,並控制分離距離),如圖1中右側之像素12b所示。無論所施加之電位差極性如何,該列均相同。由此可見,可控制反射與非反射像素狀態之列/行激勵與習知LCD及其他顯示技術中所用之列/行激勵在許多方面相似。

圖2至圖5B顯示一個在一顯示器應用中使用一干涉式調變器陣列之實例性過程及系統。圖2為一系統方塊圖,該圖顯示一可接合本發明各個態樣之電子裝置之一實施例。在該實例性實施例中,該電子裝置包括一處理器21,該處理器可為任何通用單晶片或多晶片微處理器,例如ARM、Pentium® 、Pentium II® 、Pentium III® 、Pentium IV® 、Pentium® Pro、8051、MIPS® 、Power PC® 、ALPHA® ,或任 何專用微處理器,例如數位信號處理器、微控制器或可程式化閘陣列。按照業內慣例,可將處理器21組態成執行一或多個軟體模組。除執行一個操作系統外,還可將該處理器組態成執行一或多個軟體應用程式,包括網頁瀏覽器、電話應用程式、電子郵件程式或任何其他軟體應用程式。

在一實施例中,處理器21還被組態成與一陣列控制器22通信。在一實施例中,該陣列控制器22包括向一像素陣列30提供信號之一列驅動電路24及一行驅動電路26。圖1中所示之陣列剖面圖在圖2中以線1-1示出。對於MEMS干涉式調變器,該列/行激勵協定可利用圖3所示該些裝置之滯後性質。其可能需要例如一10伏之電位差來使一可移動層自釋放狀態變形至受激勵狀態。然而,當該電壓自該值降低時,在該電壓降低回至10伏以下時,該可移動層將保持其狀態。在圖3之實例性實施例中,在電壓降低至2伏以下之前,可移動層不會完全釋放。因此,在圖3所示之實例中,存在一大約為3-7伏之電壓範圍,在該電壓範圍內存在一施加電壓窗口,在該窗口內該裝置穩定在釋放或受激勵狀態。在本文中將其稱為"滯後窗口"或"穩定窗口"。對於一具有圖3所示滯後特性之顯示陣列而言,列/行激勵協定可設計成在列選通期間,向所選通列中將被激勵之像素施加一約10伏之電壓差,並向將被釋放之像素施加一接近0伏之電壓差。在選通之後,向像素施加一約5伏之穩態電壓差,以使其保持在列選通使其所處之任何狀態。在此實例中,在被寫入 之後,每一像素均承受"穩定窗口"內一3-7伏之電位差。該特性使圖1所示之像素設計在相同之所施加電壓條件下穩定在一先前存在之激勵狀態或釋放狀態。由於干涉式調變器之每一像素,無論處於激勵狀態還係釋放狀態,實質上均係一由該固定反射層及移動反射層所構成之電容器,因此,該穩定狀態可在一滯後窗口內之電壓下得以保持而幾乎不消耗功率。若所施加之電位恒定,則基本上沒有電流流入像素。

在典型應用中,可藉由根據第一列中所期望的一組受激勵像素確定一組行電極而形成一顯示訊框。此後,將一列脈衝施加於第1列之電極,從而激勵與所確定行線對應之像素。此後,改變所確定之一組行電極使其對應於第二列中所期望的一組受激勵像素。此後,將一脈衝施加於第2列之電極,從而根據所確定之行電極來激勵第2列中之相應像素。第1列之像素不受第2列之脈衝的影響,因而保持其在第1列之脈衝期間所設定之狀態。可按順序性方式對整個系列之列重複上述步驟,以形成所述訊框。通常,藉由以某一所期望訊框數/秒之速度連續重複該過程來用新顯示資料再新及/或更新該些訊框。還有很多種用於驅動像素陣列之列及行電極以形成顯示訊框之協定為人們所熟知,且可與本發明一起使用。

圖4、5A及5B顯示一用於在圖2之3x3陣列上形成一顯示訊框之可能的激勵協定。圖4顯示一組可用於具有圖3所示滯後曲線之像素之可能之列及行電壓位準。在圖4實施例 中,激勵一像素包括將相應之行設定至-Vbias ,並將相應之列設定至+△V,其可分別對應於-5伏及+5伏。釋放像素則係藉由將相應之行設定至+Vbias 並將相應之列設定至相同之+△V以在該像素兩端形成一0伏之電位差來實現。在彼等其中列電壓保持0伏之列中,像素穩定於其最初所處之狀態,而與該行係處於+Vbias 或-Vbias 無關。

圖5B為一顯示施加於圖2所示3x3陣列之一系列列及行信號之時序圖,其將形成圖5A所示之顯示佈置,其中受激勵像素為非反射性。在寫入圖5A所示的訊框之前,像素可處於任何狀態,在該實例中,所有列均處於0伏,且所有行均處於+5伏。在該些所施加電壓下,所有像素穩定於其現有受激勵狀態或釋放狀態。

在圖5A之訊框中,像素(1,1)、(1,2)、(2,2)、(3,2)及(3,3)受到激勵。為實現此一目的,在第1列之一‘線時間’期間,將第1行及第2行設定為-5伏,將第3行設定為+5伏。此不會改變任何像素之狀態,因為所有像素均保持處於3-7伏之穩定窗口內。此後,藉由一自0伏上升至5伏然後又下降回至0伏之脈衝來選通第1列。由此激勵像素(1,1)和(1,2)並釋放像素(1,3)。列中之其他像素均不受影響。為將第2列設定為所期望狀態,將第2行設定為-5伏,將第1行及第3行被設定為+5伏。此後,向第2列施加相同選通脈衝將激勵像素(2,2)並釋放像素(2,1)和(2,3)。同樣,陣列中之其他像素均不受影響。類似地,藉由將第2行和第3行設定為-5伏,並將第1行設定為+5伏對第3列進行設定。第3列選 通脈衝將第3列像素設定為圖5A所示之狀態。在寫入訊框之後,列電位為0,而行電位可保持在+5或-5伏,且此後顯示將穩定於圖5A所示之佈置。應瞭解,可對由數十或數百個列和行構成之陣列使用相同程序。還應瞭解,用於實施列和行激勵之電壓之定時、序列及位準可在上述一般原理範圍內具有很大之變化,且上述實例僅為實例性,任何激勵電壓方法均可與本發明一起使用。

按照上述原理運作之干涉式調變器之詳細結構可千變萬化。舉例而言,圖6A-6C顯示移動鏡面結構之三種不同實施例。圖6A為圖1所示實施例之剖面圖,其中在正交延伸之支柱18上沉積一金屬材料條帶14。在圖6B中,可移動反射材料14僅在角落處附裝至繫鏈32上之支柱。在圖6C中,可移動反射材料14係懸吊在一可變形層34上。由於反射材料14之結構設計及所用材料可在光學特性方面得到最佳化,且可變形層34之結構設計和所用材料可在所期望機械特性方面得到最佳化,因此該實施例具有優點。在許多公開文件中,包括例如第2004/0051929號美國公開申請案中,描述了各種不同類型干涉裝置之生產。可使用很多種人們所熟知之技術來製成上述結構,此包括一系列材料沉積、圖案化及蝕刻步驟。

圖7A-7D顯示上述兩種干涉式調變器結構之某些態樣。圖7A顯示一在一實例性實施例中一干涉式調變器50之簡化之工作原理圖。干涉式調變器50包括一基板20、一位於基板20上之光學介電層16、兩個支柱18及一連接至支柱18之 鏡14,其連接方式使其表面定向於一與介電層16之上表面平行且在橫向上對準之平面中。圖7A中顯示鏡14處於一在機械上得以釋放之第一狀態,以在例如自一觀看位置110觀看干涉式調變器時使鏡14反射入射光。光學介電層16與鏡14之間之距離經調節以僅反射一所選波長之光。在前述第5,835,255號美國專利及前述第09/966,843號美國專利申請案中詳述了選擇幾何形狀及材料之方法之詳情。在圖7A中,支柱18、鏡14及光學介電層16界定一光學空腔55。

圖7B顯示圖6A所示干涉式調變器50之一簡化之工作原理圖,其中鏡14處於一第二狀態。在圖7B中,鏡14朝光學介電層16移動,從而使光學空腔55凹下。鏡14係藉由在耦接至鏡14與光學介電層16之電極之間提供一電壓電位而移動。藉由將鏡14移動至一接觸或緊靠光學介電層16之第二狀態,會使干涉式調變器50在第二狀態中之光學性質相對在第一狀態中發生變化。干涉式調變器50在第二狀態(圖7B)中反射之光之色彩不同於干涉式調變器50在第一狀態中反射之光。在一種構造中,在第二狀態中,光之干涉方式使得在自觀看位置110觀看時,干涉式調變器表現為黑色。

圖7C及7D分別顯示一干涉式調變器60之另一實施例處於一第一"打開"狀態及一第二"關閉"狀態。與圖7A及7B所示實施例相比,干涉式調變器60之該實施例提供一增大之可用鏡尺寸。返回參見圖7B,鏡14之有些區域因彎曲入凹下之光學空腔55內而不能朝觀看位置110提供最大反射率。將圖7D所示之鏡34與圖7B所示之鏡14相比可以發現, 圖7D所示之鏡34基本上佔據對應於光學空腔66中光學介電層16之表面區域之整個區域。在圖7D所示實施例中,可使用鏡34之反射面來反射光,乃因不需要在干涉式調變器60受到激勵時使鏡彎曲入凹下之光學空腔66內。在圖7C及7D中,基板光學介電層16、兩個支柱18及基板20相對於圖7A及7B所示之干涉式調變器50保持不變。關於該結構以及該改良之結構之製作的詳細說明可見於前述第09/966,843號美國專利申請案中。

圖8A及8B顯示一顯示器中一部分之一實例,該顯示器具有可包含一導電光罩之顯示元件。圖8A及8B顯示一包含一干涉式調變器陣列之顯示器之一實例性部分。導電光罩可用於圖8A及8B所示陣列中,及用於其中適於遮蓋顯示器之某些區域以遮擋環境光並適於在顯示器中形成一電路之電並聯連接之任一類型顯示器中。圖8A顯示該陣列之複數個像素12。圖8B顯示位於干涉式調變器陣列之複數個像素上之支柱18之一實例,可對支柱18加以遮蓋以改良顯示器之光學響應。為改良顯示器之光學響應(例如反差),可能希望使自陣列之某些區域反射之光最少化。為提高受激勵像素與未受激勵像素之間之反差比,可使用黑色光罩來遮蓋干涉式調變器中任一會增強顯示器在黑色狀態中之反射之區域(例如在該結構與射入干涉式調變器之光之間佈置一光罩)。某些可加以遮蓋以對顯示器產生有利影響之區域包括但不限於:各干涉式調變器72之間之列切口(圖8A)、支柱18、連接至及/或圍繞支柱18之可移動鏡層之彎曲區域及相 鄰干涉式調變器76之可移動鏡層之間之區域(圖8A)。光罩可佈置於如下區域中:此等區域使光罩與干涉式調變器之可移動鏡相間隔,例如以使環境光可傳播至並自可移動鏡反射,但除可移動鏡以外之區域被遮蓋從而禁止自所遮蓋區域中之任何結構反射環境光。該等受到遮蓋之區域可稱作"非主動區域",乃因其為靜態,例如該等區域不包含可移動之鏡。在某些實施例中,該光罩可為導電性,以使反射光最少化並提供一或多個可用於光學元件之電路徑。在某些實施例中,光罩之佈置方式可使射入干涉式調變器之光照射於所遮蓋之區域上或可移動鏡上。在其他實施例中,則遮蓋非主動區域之至少一部分。

顯示元件可響應於驅動信號之速度可相依於用於將驅動信號載送至顯示元件之控制線(例如列電極及行電極)之電阻及電容。由於人們希望在大的顯示器上觀看視頻並希望具有高解析度顯示器,因而需要使控制線之電阻最小化。出於該等原因,合意之情況係,增大信號線之電導、同時使顯示器中額外之被動光學內含件之數量最小化。一種降低電阻之方法係為控制線提供一或多個電並聯連接。可提供一雙用途光罩來增大反差比並同時用作驅動信號匯流排層。舉例而言,在一實施例中,可使用導電光罩為一顯示元件陣列(例如干涉式調變器)中之一或多個列電極或行電極形成一電並聯連接。應瞭解,該等電並聯連接可按多種方式設計,此視顯示元件之應用及類型而定。

圖9顯示一根據一實施例之顯示器100之簡化表示形式之 剖面圖。該顯示器包含兩個光學組件,在該實施例中,該兩個光學組件係干涉式調變器104。如上文所述,干涉式調變器裝置104包含一反射膜結構,在沿箭頭106所示之方向朝一基板202驅動可移動之主動區域時,該等反射膜會產生所需之光學響應。在第5,835,255號美國專利中已說明瞭干涉式調變器裝置104之大體運作。在圖9中,參考編號108表示干涉式調變器104之非主動區域。通常,希望非主動區域108為光吸收性區域或者起一黑色光罩之作用,以在觀看者自一由觀看箭頭110所示之方向觀看顯示器100時,不會因非主動區域108反射環境光而使干涉式調變器裝置104所產生之光學響應降格。在其他實施例中,可能希望使用一不同於黑色之帶色彩光罩(例如綠色、紅色、藍色、黃色等)來遮蓋非主動區域108。為從光罩獲得其他功能,光罩可包含一種或多種可連接至顯示器100中之電路並全部或部分地用於提供一條或多條電匯流排之導電材料。

一種用於非主動區域108之光罩可由選擇成具有可吸收或衰減光之光學響應之材料製成。用於製成光罩之一種或多種材料為導電性材料。根據本發明之實施例,可將每一非主動區域108之光罩製成為一薄膜疊層。舉例而言,在一實施例中,該薄膜疊層可包含一夾於兩個反光之鉻層之間之非光吸收性介電層,此將在下文中予以更全面說明。在其他實施例中,非主動區域108可包含單層可衰減或吸收光之有機或無機材料、及一層例如鉻或鋁等導電材料。

圖10顯示一根據本發明一實施例之干涉式調變器裝置 200之一剖面。干涉式調變器裝置200包括一主動組件,該主動組件包括一電極反射層204、一氧化物層206、一氣隙208及一設置於一基板202上之機械薄膜210。本文中所述用語"設置於一基板上"係一廣義用語,其表示所提及之結構、層、光學裝置、干涉式調變器、雙穩裝置、電極、薄膜疊層、支柱、電極、光罩或其他所提及之形體位於一基板上,並可接觸但未必必需接觸該基板,除非予以明示。機械薄膜210由支柱212支撐於定位上。在使用中,將機械薄膜210驅動至接觸氧化物層206,以在自箭頭110所示之方向觀看時產生所需之光學響應。

可使用一導電光罩來遮蓋支柱212、干涉式調變器200中上面形成有支柱212之區域、及其他不屬於干涉式調變器之主動組件之一部分之區域(例如由所圈劃之區域230指示之區域),以防止或減少自該等區域發生之光反射,否則,自該等區域發生之光反射會干擾主動干涉式調變器組件之所需光學響應。根據一實施例,該光罩可製成為一包含至少一個導電薄膜之薄膜疊層,該導電薄膜經選擇以使該疊層之光學性質呈光吸收性及導電性。根據一實施例,該光罩可於形成干涉式調變器之主動光學組件之前形成於基板202上。干涉式調變器200之支柱212可執行數種功能。首先,支柱212用作可移動機械薄膜210之機械支柱。其次,若支柱212包含導電材料,則支柱212可為導電光罩提供一電連接。例如,當一支柱212連接至一導電層222時,支柱212及導電層222可提供一或多個用於向可移動機械薄膜 210施加電壓之導電路徑,此將在下面之圖17-18及20-22中加以顯示。

如圖10所示,干涉式調變器200包括一包含一薄膜疊層之導電光罩。在一實施例中,該光罩包括一第一反射性鉻層218、一氧化物中間層220及一第二反射性鉻層222。亦可使用其他導電材料來形成光罩。舉例而言,在另一實施例中,該光罩包括一薄膜疊層,該薄膜疊層包含一鉻層218、一氧化物中間層220(例如SiO2 )及一鋁層222。干涉式調變器200包括另一介於氧化物中間層220與電極反射層204之間之氧化物層226。該光罩之一或多個導電層可連接至干涉式調變器200之其他組件,以提供一電匯流排。舉例而言,該光罩可連接至一或多個行電極或列電極。在一實施例中,鉻層222藉由包含導電材料之通路224連接至電極反射層204。在導電光罩構造中所需使用以使導電光罩用作電匯流排之連接線可視具體應用而定。在某些實施例中,電極反射層204包含位於不同位置上之電隔離體228(例如間隙或非導電性材料),以對干涉式調變器之各導電部分(例如電極反射層204或支柱212)實施電隔離並將光罩適當地構造成表現出所需之匯流排功能。

下文將參照圖11-17來揭示一製作導電光罩之實施例。圖11為一剖面圖,其顯示可包含於一具有導電光罩402之MEMS裝置(例如圖1所示之MEMS裝置)中之各種層。在圖11中僅顯示MEMS裝置中包含導電光罩402之一部分,MEMS裝置之其餘部分由虛線方框203表示。圖中顯示由虛線圓圈 表示之導電光罩402製作於一基板202上。光罩402包含三個薄膜層:包括一第一反射層218、一氧化物層220及一第二反射層222。第一反射層218及第二反射層222可包含既具有反射性又具有導電性之材料,例如鉻、鋁或銀。對於某些實施例,可將導電光罩402構造為一靜態干涉式調變器,該靜態干涉式調變器之構造方式使反射光最少化,例如顯示黑色。在其他實施例中,可將導電光罩402構造為一反射所選色彩之光之靜態干涉式調變器。構成導電光罩402之薄膜可係在製作干涉式調變器組件中所用之相同之薄膜,由此使得可使用相同之沉積參數來製作光罩與干涉式調變器組件。導電光罩402可在圍繞顯示裝置對電信號實施選路時提供更大之靈活性,並藉由為信號提供電並聯連接而有助於使向干涉式調變器提供信號之電路之電阻最小化。

現在將參照圖12-17來說明在製造導電光罩402及MEMS裝置中之各個階段。

圖12為在製造一具有導電光罩之MEMS裝置中之一階段之剖面圖,其顯示一第一反射性光罩層218沉積於一基板202上。根據一實施例,在一其中製備基板202之初始預備步驟(例如清洗)之後,藉由將一第一反射性光罩層218濺射塗覆至基板202上來沉積第一反射性光罩層218。在一實例性實施例中,第一反射性光罩層218之厚度可約為60埃。

圖13為在製造具有導電光罩之MEMS裝置中之一階段之剖面圖,其顯示圖12所示之第一反射性光罩層218之某些部分被移除。對於該製作而言,在如圖12所示沉積第一反射 性光罩層218之後,使用習知技術將第一反射性光罩層218圖案化及顯影,以留下鉻的兩個或多個部分或露出部分,此可作為一用作光罩之薄膜疊層之基底層。

圖14為在製造具有導電光罩之MEMS裝置中之一階段之剖面圖,其顯示在圖13所示實施例上製成之其他層。如圖14所示,在基板202上沉積一覆蓋第一反射性光罩層218之氧化物層220。在一實施例中,氧化物層220之深度約為300至800埃。該層可藉由將SiO2 濺射塗覆至圖14所示實施例上來塗覆。氧化物層220之厚度可相依於光罩所需之色彩(例如黑色)狀態之品質,其亦可相依於光罩所需之色彩。

在氧化物層220上沉積一第二反射層222,並將第二反射層222圖案化及顯影,以形成對應於第一反射層218之各部分,從而形成一包含一薄膜疊層之導電光罩。然後,在第二反射層222上沉積一氧化物層226。如圖14及15所示,可在氧化物層226中形成通路224,以便可將第二反射層222連接至一支柱212,如圖16所示。可在沉積於氧化物層226上之電極反射層204中形成電隔離體228。電極反射層204通常約為60埃厚,其確切厚度相依於最終顯示器所需之亮度:該層愈薄,所製成之顯示器即愈亮。根據所需之構造及導電光罩之應用,電極(例如電極反射層204)之各部分可藉由在電極反射層204中形成一或多個隔離體228來實施電隔離。

此後,分別將氧化物層206及犧牲層209濺射塗覆至電極反射層204上。根據一實施例,氧化物層206可包含氧化矽 並可厚約300至800埃。根據一實施例,犧牲層209可包含鉬並可通常厚約0.2至1.2微米。

圖15為在製造一具有導電光罩之MEMS裝置中之一階段之剖面圖,其顯示實施一圖案化及蝕刻步驟來形成支柱凹槽。根據該實施例,實施圖案化及一蝕刻步驟來形成穿過氧化物層226延伸至通路224及第二反射層222之凹槽。可在氧化物層226中形成通路224,以使第二反射層222可連接至一支柱212(在圖16中顯示)。根據一實施例,為在導電光罩之第二反射層222與MEMS裝置之另一部分(例如圖17中所示之機械薄膜210)之間形成電連接,支柱212可穿過通路224延伸至第二反射層222。在另一實施例中,在氧化物層226中形成通路224並使用一連接至支柱之導電材料來填充通路224。

圖16為在製造一具有導電光罩之MEMS裝置中之一階段之剖面圖,其顯示在圖15所示凹槽中形成支柱212。支柱212提供一用於支撐可移動機械薄膜210(圖17)之結構,其可藉由如下方式形成於凹槽中:在薄膜疊層上旋塗一負性光阻劑材料,然後藉由一適當之光罩將其曝光並顯影而形成支柱212。在該實施例中,導電隔離體228使支柱212與電極反射層204相隔離。在支柱212包含導電材料時,可使用此種隔離體228將支柱212與電極反射層204相隔離。

圖17為在製造一具有導電光罩之MEMS裝置中之一階段之剖面圖,其顯示在圖16所示實施例上沉積一機械薄膜210。機械薄膜210係藉由濺射塗覆至犧牲層209上沉積而 成。此後,移除犧牲層209,從而留下一氣隙208。在一實施例中,機械薄膜210包含一種鋁合金。在移除犧牲層209後,形成一氣隙208,當干涉式調變器受到激勵時,機械薄膜210即經由該氣隙208移動。

圖17亦顯示第二反射層222、支柱212與機械薄膜210之間之電連接之一實施例。此處,導電光罩包含一介電疊層,該介電疊層包含第一反射層218、氧化物層220及第二反射層222,第二反射層222可遮蓋與主動區域相間隔之非主動區域(例如支柱212)。在某些實施例中,導電光罩可包含鉻、銀、鋁或一介電疊層,以使一種或多種用於形成光罩之材料能夠導電。

在該實施例中,光罩係不可移動(例如靜態)之干涉式元件,其經構造以引起光之干涉以使其反射很少量之光並表現為黑色。該光學層可由ITO/Cr、ITO/Mo、ITO/Ti、Cr、Mo、Ti或其他具有類似性質之材料製成。介電層通常由SiO2 或其他介電材料形成,反射體通常由鋁、鉻或其他金屬材料形成。

藉由將光罩製成為包含導電材料並藉由使用經適當佈置的與所需列電極及/或行電極之連接線,可使用該光罩來減小該列電極及/或行電極之電阻。例如,若在一包含複數個干涉式調變器之陣列中使用一構造成始終顯示黑色之導電光罩,則該導電光罩亦可用作一導電層來降低在該陣列中用於向排成列及/行之顯示元件載送信號之列電極及/或行電極之電阻。在該實施例中,在介電層226中形成有通路, 以提供一用於支柱212之凹槽並使其可連接至作為導電光罩之一部分之第二反射層222。應瞭解,亦存在許多其他可能的利用導電光罩之實施例。在某些其中光罩包含一第一導電層218及一第二導電層222之實施例中,兩個導電層皆可用作一電匯流排。在某些實施例中,兩個導電層可用作同一電匯流排之一部分。在其他實施例中,該等導電層分別用作相獨立之電匯流排之一部分。

圖18-22顯示在一干涉式調變器中為一電極提供電並聯連接之導電光罩之各種實例性實施例。該等實施例可使用與上文針對圖17所示實施例所述之類似技術來製作。圖18-22中所示之導電光罩構造成不可移動之干涉式元件,其為向調變元件施加電壓提供一或多個電並聯連接。圖18為一MEMS裝置之剖面圖,其顯示一導電光罩之一實施例,其中在光罩之兩個層與一可移動之機械薄膜之間形成一電並聯連接。在圖18中,光罩包含第一反射層218及第二反射層222。該光罩形成一至機械薄膜210(其為干涉式調變器中其中一個電極之一部分)之電並聯連接,如畫斜線之區域所示。第一反射層218藉由連接器229電連接至第二反射層222。支柱212由一種導電材料(例如本文所述之其中一種導電材料)製成,並連接至第二反射層222。電隔離體228使支柱212與電極反射層204電隔離。支柱212連接至可移動之機械薄膜210,以使第一反射層218與第二反射層222形成一與機械薄膜210之電並聯連接。

圖19為一MEMS裝置之剖面圖,其顯示一導電光罩之一 實施例,其中在光罩之兩個導電層與不可移動之電極層204之間形成一電並聯連接。第一反射層218與第二反射層222形成一至電極反射層204之電並聯連接,如畫斜線之區域所示。第一反射層218藉由連接器231電連接至第二反射層222,電連接器231亦將第一反射層218與第二反射層222連接至電極反射層204。電連接器228使支柱212與電極反射層204電隔離。

圖20為一MEMS裝置之剖面圖,其顯示一導電光罩之一實施例,其中在光罩之一第一反射層218與可移動之機械薄膜210之間形成一電並聯連接。光罩之第一反射層218藉由貫穿支柱212之導電連接器234電連接至機械薄膜210。連接器234藉由由不導電材料形成之電隔離體232與支柱212及光罩之第二反射層222相隔離。電隔離體228使支柱212與電極反射層204相隔離。在其中支柱212並非由導電材料形成之實施例中,可不必使用電隔離體232及電隔離體228來使支柱212與周圍之導電材料電隔離。在該實施例中,僅第一反射層218形成一至機械薄膜210之電並聯連接。

圖21為一MEMS裝置之剖面圖,其顯示一導電光罩之一實施例,其中在光罩之一第一反射層218、一第二反射層222與一可移動之機械薄膜210之間形成一電並聯連接。該實施例類似於圖21所示實施例,只是第一反射層218藉由電連接器238連接至第二反射層222。第一反射層218及第二反射層222藉由電連接器236電連接至機械薄膜210,從而在導電光罩之兩個層與機械薄膜210之間形成一電並聯連接。在該實 施例中,支柱212並非由導電材料形成,因而將不必使用隔離體232(儘管為清楚起見仍在圖中加以顯示)使支柱212與周圍之導電材料電隔離。

圖22為一MEMS裝置之剖面圖,其顯示一導電光罩之一實施例,其中在光罩之一第一反射層218與電極層204之間形成一電並聯連接,如畫斜線之區域所示。在光罩之一第二反射層222與一可移動之機械薄膜210之間形成另一電並聯連接,如畫交叉陰影線之區域所示。在圖22中,藉由經由電連接器240將光罩之第一反射層218電連接至電極層204而形成第一電並聯連接。電隔離體228使電極層204與導電支柱212相隔離。電隔離體233使電連接器240與光罩之第二反射層222相隔離。藉由將光罩之第二反射層222連接至與機械薄膜210相連之支柱212而形成第二電並聯連接。

圖23A及23B為顯示一顯示裝置2040之一實施例之系統方塊圖。顯示裝置2040可為(例如)一蜂巢式電話或行動電話。然而,顯示裝置2040之相同組件或其稍微變異之型式亦闡釋不同類型之顯示裝置,例如電視或可攜式媒體播放器。

顯示裝置2040包括一外殼2041、一顯示器2030、一天線2043、一揚聲器2045、一輸入裝置2048及一麥克風2046。外殼2041通常由業內技術人員所習知之各種製造製程中之任何一種製成,包括注射成型及真空成形。另外,外殼2041可由多種材料中之任何一種製成,包括但不限於塑膠、金屬、玻璃、橡膠及陶瓷,或其一組合。在一實施例中,外 殼2041包括可更換部分(未示出),該等可更換部分可與其它具有不同色彩或包含不同標誌、影像或符號之可更換部分互換。

實例性顯示裝置2040之顯示器2030可為許多種顯示器中之任何一種,包括如本文中所述之雙穩顯示器。在其他實施例中,如熟習此項技術之技術人員所習知,顯示器2030包括一平板顯示器,例如如上所述之電漿顯示器、EL、OLED、STN LCD或TFT LCD,或一非平板顯示器,例如CRT或其他顯像管裝置。然而,為闡釋本發明之目的,顯示器2030包括一如上所述的干涉式調變器顯示器。

在圖23B中示意性地顯示實例性顯示裝置2040之一實施例之組件。所示實例性顯示裝置2040包括一外殼2041且可包括其他至少部分地封閉在外殼2041內之組件。例如,在一實施例中,實例性顯示裝置2040包括一網路介面2027,網路介面2027包括一耦接至一收發器2047之天線2043。收發器2047連接至與調節硬體2052相連之處理器2021。調節硬體2052可構造成調節一信號(例如,濾波一信號)。調節硬體2052連接至一揚聲器2045及一麥克風2046。處理器2021亦連接至一輸入裝置2048及一驅動器控制器2029。驅動器控制器2029耦接至一訊框緩衝器2028及陣列驅動器2022,陣列驅動器2022又耦接至一顯示陣列2030。一電源2050根據該特定實例性顯示裝置2040之設計要求向所有組件提供電力。

網路介面2027包括天線2043及收發器2047,以使實例性 顯示裝置2040可藉由網路與一或多個裝置通信。在一實施例中,網路介面2027還可具有某些處理功能,以降低對處理器2021之要求。天線2043為業內技術人員習知之任何一種用於發射和接收信號之天線。在一實施例中,該天線根據IEEE 802.11標準(包括IEEE 802.11(a),(b),或(g))來發射及接收RF信號。在另一實施例中,該天線根據藍芽(BLUETOOTH)標準來發射及接收RF信號。倘若為蜂巢式電話,則該天線被設計成接收CDMA、GSM、AMPS或其他用於在無線行動電話網路中進行通信之習知信號。收發器2047預處理自天線2043接收之信號,以使該些信號可由處理器2021接收及進一步處理。收發器2047還處理自處理器2021接收之信號,以便可自實例性顯示裝置2040藉由天線2043發射該些信號。

在一替代實施例中,收發器2047可由一接收器替代。在另一替代實施例中,網路介面2027可由一可儲存或產生擬發送至處理器2021之影像資料之影像源替代。例如,該影像源可為一數位音影光碟(DVD)或一包含影像資料之硬碟驅動器、或一產生影像資料之軟體模組。

處理器2021通常控制實例性顯示裝置2040之整體運作。處理器2021自網路介面2027或一影像源接收資料,例如經壓縮之影像資料,並將該資料處理成原始影像資料或一種易於處理成原始影像資料之格式。此後,處理器2021將經處理之資料發送至驅動器控制器2029或訊框緩衝器2028進行儲存。原始資料通常係指識別一影像內每一位置處影像 特徵之資訊。例如,該些影像特徵可包括色彩、飽和度及灰度階。

在一實施例中,處理器2021包括一微處理器、CPU或邏輯單元,以控制實例性顯示裝置2040之運作。調節硬體2052通常包括用於向揚聲器2045發送信號及自麥克風2046接收信號之放大器及濾波器。調節硬體2052可為實例性顯示裝置2040內之分立組件,或者可併入處理器2021或其他組件內。

驅動器控制器2029直接自處理器2021或自訊框緩衝器2028接收由處理器2021產生之原始影像資料,並將原始影像資料適當地重新格式化,以高速傳輸至陣列驅動器2022。具體而言,驅動器控制器2029將原始影像資料重新格式化為一具有一光柵樣格式之資料流,以使其具有一適用於掃描整個顯示陣列2030之時間次序。此後,驅動器控制器2029將經格式化之資訊發送至陣列驅動器2022。儘管一驅動器控制器2029(例如一LCD控制器)通常作為一獨立之積體電路(IC)與系統處理器2021相關聯,但該些控制器可以諸多方式來實施。其可作為硬體嵌入處理器2021中、作為軟體嵌入處理器2021中、或與陣列驅動器2022一起完全整合在硬體內。

通常,陣列驅動器2022自驅動器控制器2029接收經格式化之資訊並將視頻資料重新格式化為一組平行波形,該組平行波形每秒多次地施加至來自顯示器之x-y像素矩陣之數百且有時數千條引線上。

在一實施例中,驅動器控制器2029、陣列驅動器2022及顯示陣列2030適用於本文所述之任何類型之顯示器。例如,在一實施例中,驅動器控制器2029為一習用顯示控制器或一雙穩顯示控制器(例如一干涉式調變器控制器)。在另一實施例中,陣列驅動器2022為一習用驅動器或一雙穩顯示驅動器(例如一干涉式調變器顯示器)。在一實施例中,一驅動器控制器2029與陣列驅動器2022整合在一起。這種實施例在例如蜂巢式電話、手錶及其他小面積顯示器等高度整合之系統中很常見。在又一實施例中,顯示陣列2030為一典型之顯示陣列或一雙穩顯示陣列(例如一包含一干涉式調變器陣列之顯示器)。

輸入裝置2048允許使用者控制實例性顯示裝置2040之運行。在一實施例中,輸入裝置2048包括一小鍵台(例如一QWERTY鍵盤或一電話小鍵台)、一按鈕、一開關、一觸控螢幕、一壓敏或熱敏薄膜。在一實施例中,麥克風2046為實例性顯示裝置2040之一輸入裝置。在使用麥克風2046向裝置輸入資料時,可由使用者提供語音命令來控制實例性顯示裝置2040之運作。

電源2050可包括眾多種能量儲存裝置,此在所屬技術領域中眾所周知。例如,在一實施例中,電源2050係一可再充電之蓄電池,例如一鎳-鎘蓄電池或鋰離子蓄電池。在另一實施例中,電源2050為一可再生能源、電容器或太陽能電池,包括一塑膠太陽能電池及太陽能電池塗料。在另一實施例中,電源2050經構造以自牆壁上之插座接收電力。

在某些實施方案中,如上所述,控制可程式化性駐存於一可位於電子顯示系統中多個位置內之驅動器控制器中。在某些情況下,控制可程式化性駐存於陣列驅動器2022中。熟習此項技術者將知,可在任意數量之硬體及/或軟體組件中及在不同之組態中實施上述最佳化。

儘管上述"具體實施方式"顯示、闡釋及指出了適用於各種實施例之本發明新穎特徵,然而應瞭解,所屬領域之技術人員可在形式及細節上對所示裝置或製程做出各種省略、替代及改變,此並不背離本發明之精神。本發明之範疇係由隨附申請專利範圍而非由上文說明來指示。所有屬於申請專利範圍之等價意義及範圍內之修改均擬涵蓋於申請專利範圍之範疇內。

12‧‧‧干涉式調變器

12a‧‧‧干涉式調變器

12b‧‧‧干涉式調變器

14‧‧‧金屬材料條帶

14a‧‧‧可移動的高度反射層

14b‧‧‧可移動的高度反射層

16a‧‧‧固定的局部反射層

16b‧‧‧固定的局部反射層

18‧‧‧支柱

19‧‧‧氣隙

20‧‧‧基板

21‧‧‧處理器

22‧‧‧陣列控制器

24‧‧‧列驅動電路

26‧‧‧行驅動電路

32‧‧‧繫鏈

34‧‧‧可變形層

50‧‧‧干涉式調變器

55‧‧‧光學空腔

60‧‧‧干涉式調變器

72‧‧‧干涉式調變器

76‧‧‧干涉式調變器

100‧‧‧顯示器

104‧‧‧干涉式調變器

106‧‧‧箭頭

108‧‧‧非主動區域

110‧‧‧箭頭

200‧‧‧干涉式調變器裝置

202‧‧‧基板

203‧‧‧虛線方框

204‧‧‧電極反射層

206‧‧‧氧化物層

208‧‧‧氣隙

209‧‧‧犧牲層

210‧‧‧機械薄膜

212‧‧‧支柱

218‧‧‧第一反射性鉻層

220‧‧‧氧化物中間層

222‧‧‧第二反射性鉻層

224‧‧‧通路

226‧‧‧氧化物層

228‧‧‧電隔離體

229‧‧‧連接器

230‧‧‧所圈劃之區域

231‧‧‧連接器

232‧‧‧電隔離體

234‧‧‧連接器

236‧‧‧連接器

238‧‧‧電連接器

240‧‧‧電連接器

402‧‧‧導電光罩

2021‧‧‧處理器

2022‧‧‧陣列驅動器

2027‧‧‧網路介面

2028‧‧‧訊框緩衝器

2029‧‧‧驅動控制器

2030‧‧‧顯示陣列

2040‧‧‧實例性顯示裝置

2041‧‧‧外殼

2043‧‧‧天線

2045‧‧‧揚聲器

2046‧‧‧麥克風

2047‧‧‧收發器

2048‧‧‧輸入裝置

2050‧‧‧電源

2052‧‧‧調節硬體

圖1為一等軸圖,其顯示一干涉式調變器顯示器之一實施例之一部分,其中一第一干涉式調變器之一可移動反射層處於一釋放位置且一第二干涉式調變器之一可移動反射層處於一受激勵位置。

圖2為一系統方塊圖,其顯示一包含一3x3干涉式調變器顯示器之電子裝置之一實施例。

圖3為圖1所示干涉式調變器之一實例性實施例之可移動鏡面位置與所施加電壓之關係圖。

圖4為一組可用於驅動干涉式調變器顯示器之列和行電壓之示意圖。

圖5A顯示在圖2所示之3x3干涉式調變器顯示器中的一個 實例性顯示資料訊框。

圖5B顯示可用於寫入圖5A所示訊框之列信號及行信號的一個實例性時序圖。

圖6A為一圖1所示裝置之剖面圖。

圖6B為一干涉式調變器之一替代實施例之一剖面圖。

圖6C為一干涉式調變器之另一替代實施例之一剖面圖。

圖7A為一第一實例性干涉式調變器處於一第一狀態之側視剖視立面圖。

圖7B為圖7A所示干涉式調變器處於一第二狀態之側視剖視立面圖。

圖7C為第二實例性干涉式調變器處於一第一狀態之側視剖視立面圖。

圖7D為圖7C所示干涉式調變器處於一第二狀態之側視剖視立面圖。

圖8A為一干涉式調變器陣列之一部分之俯視圖,其顯示包含於複數個像素中之含非主動區域之結構。

圖8B為一干涉式調變器陣列之一部分之俯視剖面圖,其顯示包含於複數個像素中之含非主動區域之結構。

圖9顯示一穿過一根據本發明一實施例具有一光罩或光吸收性區域之MEMS裝置之剖面圖。

圖10顯示一根據本發明另一實施例具有一光罩或光吸收性區域之MEMS裝置之另一實施例之剖面圖;圖11為一剖面圖,其顯示在一具有導電光罩之MEMS裝置中可包含之各種層; 圖12為在製造一具有導電光罩之MEMS裝置中之一階段之剖面圖,其顯示一反射性鉻層沉積於一基板上。

圖13為在製造一具有導電光罩之MEMS裝置中之一階段之剖面圖,其顯示圖12所示之反射性鉻層之某些部分已被移除。

圖14為在製造一具有導電光罩之MEMS裝置中之一階段之剖面圖,其顯示向圖13所示實施例塗覆其他層。

圖15為在製造一具有導電光罩之MEMS裝置中之一階段之剖面圖,其顯示實施一圖案化及蝕刻步驟以形成用於支柱之凹槽。

圖16為在製造一具有導電光罩之MEMS裝置中之一階段之剖面圖,其顯示在圖15所示凹槽中形成支柱。

圖17為在製造一具有導電光罩之MEMS裝置中之一階段之剖面圖,其顯示在圖16所示實施例上沉積一金屬薄膜並移除一犧牲層以形成一氣隙之結果。

圖18為一MEMS裝置之剖面圖,其顯示一導電光罩之一實施例,其中在光罩之兩個層與一可移動之機械薄膜之間形成一電並聯連接。

圖19為一MEMS裝置之剖面圖,其顯示一導電光罩之一實施例,其中在光罩之兩個層與一不可移動之電極層之間形成一電並聯連接。

圖20為一MEMS裝置之剖面圖,其顯示一導電光罩之一實施例,其中在光罩之一第一反射層與一可移動之機械薄膜之間形成一電並聯連接。

圖21為一MEMS裝置之剖面圖,其顯示一導電光罩之一實施例,其中在光罩之一第一及第二反射層與一可移動之機械薄膜之間形成一電並聯連接。

圖22為一MEMS裝置之剖面圖,其顯示一導電光罩之一實施例,其中在光罩之一第一反射層與一不可移動之電極層之間形成一電並聯連接、在光罩之一第二反射層與一可移動之機械薄膜之間形成另一電並聯連接。

圖23A及23B為系統方塊圖,其顯示一包含複數個干涉式調變器之視覺顯示裝置之一實施例。

16‧‧‧光學介電層

18‧‧‧支柱

20‧‧‧基板

34‧‧‧鏡

60‧‧‧干涉式調變器

110‧‧‧觀看位置

Claims (38)

  1. 一種光學裝置,其包括:一基板;一佈置於該基板上之干涉式光調變元件,該干涉式光調變元件具有一響應一施加至該干涉式光調變元件之電壓之光學特性;及一佈置於該基板上並與該干涉式光調變元件相間隔之導電光罩,該導電光罩電耦接至該干涉式光調變元件以為將電壓施加至該干涉式光調變元件提供一或多個電路徑。
  2. 如請求項1之裝置,其中該導電光罩經構造以顯現黑色。
  3. 如請求項1之裝置,其中該導電光罩經構造以顯現一除黑色以外之可見之色彩。
  4. 如請求項1之裝置,其進一步包括一電耦接至該導電光罩以形成一電並聯連接之行電極。
  5. 如請求項1之裝置,其進一步包括一電耦接至該導電光罩以形成一電並聯連接之列電極。
  6. 如請求項1之裝置,其中該導電光罩包括一薄膜疊層。
  7. 如請求項6之裝置,其中該薄膜疊層包括一第一反射層及一第二反射層。
  8. 如請求項7之裝置,其中該第一反射層電連接至一第一電極且該第二反射層電連接至一第二電極。
  9. 如請求項7之裝置,其中該第一反射層與該第二反射層電連接至一相同的電極。
  10. 如請求項1之裝置,其中該導電光罩藉由一或多個通路電耦接至該干涉式光調變元件。
  11. 如請求項1之裝置,其進一步包括:一處理器,其與該干涉式光調變元件及該導電光罩中之至少一個電相通,該處理器經組態以處理影像資料;及一與該處理器電相通之訊框緩衝器。
  12. 如請求項11之裝置,其進一步包括一驅動電路,該驅動電路經組態以向該干涉式光調變元件及該導電光罩中之至少一個發送至少一個信號。
  13. 如請求項12之裝置,其進一步包括一控制器,該控制器經組態以向該驅動電路發送該影像資料之至少一部分。
  14. 如請求項11之裝置,其進一步包括一影像源模組,該影像源模組經組態以向該處理器發送該影像資料。
  15. 如請求項14之裝置,其中該影像源模組包括一接收器、收發器及發射器中之至少一個。
  16. 如請求項11之裝置,其進一步包括一輸入裝置,該輸入裝置經組態以接收輸入資料並將該輸入資料傳送至該處理器。
  17. 一種向一顯示器之複數個干涉式光學元件提供一電信號之方法,可藉由向該等干涉式光學元件施加一電壓來分別激勵該複數個干涉式光學元件,該方法包括:將一導電光罩電耦接至該複數個干涉式光學元件中之一或多者;及向該光罩施加一電壓以激活該一或多個干涉式光學元 件。
  18. 如請求項17之方法,其中該導電光罩包括一薄膜疊層。
  19. 如請求項18之方法,其中該薄膜疊層包括一導電反射層,該電壓施加至該導電反射層以激活該一或多個干涉式光學元件。
  20. 如請求項17之方法,其中該導電光罩包括一或多個干涉式元件。
  21. 如請求項17之方法,其中該導電光罩係光吸收性。
  22. 一種製作一干涉式光學裝置之方法,該方法包括:在一基板上形成一導電光罩,其中該導電光罩吸收光;在該基板上與該導電光罩相間地形成一干涉式光學組件,其中該干涉式光學組件具有一受驅動狀態及一未受驅動狀態,該干涉式光學組件響應於一所施加之電壓而在該受驅動狀態與該未受驅動狀態之間變換,每一狀態皆具有一對入射光之特徵光學響應;及將該導電光罩電連接至該干涉式光學組件,以使該導電光罩之至少一部分提供一用於向該干涉式光學組件施加該電壓之匯流排。
  23. 如請求項22之方法,其中該導電光罩包括一或多個干涉式元件。
  24. 如請求項22之方法,其中該導電光罩包括一薄膜疊層。
  25. 如請求項24之方法,其中該薄膜疊層包括一夾於兩個反光材料之間之非光吸收性介電材料。
  26. 如請求項25之方法,其中該等反光材料中之一或多者包 含銀、鋁或鉻。
  27. 一種藉由如請求項22之方法形成之干涉式光學裝置。
  28. 一種製作一光學裝置之方法,該光學裝置包括至少一個形成於一透明基板上之主動干涉式光學組件,該方法包括:識別出該透明基板上的一將為光吸收性之區域,其中該識別出的區域在橫向上偏離該至少一個主動干涉式光學組件;及在製作該至少一個主動干涉式光學組件之前,在該識別出的區域上製作一導電之光吸收性光罩,其中該導電光罩連接至該主動干涉式光學組件。
  29. 如請求項28之方法,其中該干涉式光學組件包括一像素,該光吸收性區域為一與該像素交界之區域。
  30. 如請求項28之方法,其中該製作該至少一個主動干涉式光學組件包括在該基板上沉積一第一反光層、在該第一反光層上沉積一非光吸收性介電層、及在該非光吸收性介電層上沉積一第二反光層,其中該第一或第二反光層中之一或多個為導電性。
  31. 如請求項30之方法,其中該第一及第二反光層包含金屬材料。
  32. 如請求項30之方法,其中該非光吸收性介電層包含一氧化物層。
  33. 如請求項28之方法,其中該光吸收性光罩包括一或多個干涉式元件。
  34. 一種藉由如請求項28之方法形成之光學裝置。
  35. 一種光學裝置,其包括:用於支撐一光學裝置之構件;用於以干涉方式調變光之構件,該調變構件佈置於該支撐構件上,該調變構件具有一隨一施加至該調變構件之電壓而變化之光學特性;及用於吸收光之構件,該吸收構件佈置於該支撐構件上並與該調變構件相間隔,該吸收構件電耦接至該調變構件以為向該調變構件施加電壓提供一或多個電路徑。
  36. 如請求項35之光學裝置,其中該支撐構件包括一基板。
  37. 如請求項35之光學裝置,其中該調變構件包括一干涉式調變器。
  38. 如請求項35之光學裝置,其中該吸收構件包括一導電光罩。
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