CN103283450B - Golden camellia bud seedling stock grafting propagation method - Google Patents

Golden camellia bud seedling stock grafting propagation method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103283450B
CN103283450B CN201310198185.7A CN201310198185A CN103283450B CN 103283450 B CN103283450 B CN 103283450B CN 201310198185 A CN201310198185 A CN 201310198185A CN 103283450 B CN103283450 B CN 103283450B
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China
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grafting
seedling
bud
liquid
stock
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CN201310198185.7A
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CN103283450A (en
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邓荫伟
梁士楚
梁瑞郑
唐绍清
刘灵
韩宗林
邓益德
吴建波
刘仁路
韩宗柏
唐森生
邓鑫洲
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广西师范大学
广西合浦德顺种养有限公司
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Abstract

The invention relates to a golden camellia bud seedling stock grafting propagation method. The golden camellia bud seedling stock grafting propagation method includes the steps of stock seedlings cultivation, nursery lands selection and soil preparation, sun shelter building, grafting, field planting, seedling management, nursery stock transplanting, nursery stock out-planting and the like. Bud seedling stocks are grafted indoors, and the golden camellia bud seedling stock grafting propagation method is simple and easy to operate, high in grafting speed, low in cost and high in benefit and is an important technique for cultivating a large number of golden camellia grafting seedlings.

Description

The propagation method of a kind of Camellia nitidissima sprout stock grafting
Technical field
The present invention relates to the propagation method of flowers, particularly the propagation method of a kind of Camellia nitidissima sprout stock grafting.
Background technology
Camellia nitidissima, belongs to Theaceae dungarunga, is one of eight the most precious Plants of China, by public affairs throughout the world, is described as " world's treasure ", " queen of tea family ", " plant giant panda ", " flowers superstar ", belongs to first-grade state protection rare plant.Camellia nitidissima is well-known in the world, and Japan once introduced a strain Camellia nitidissima with 2.5 ten thousand dollars from China, thereby causes a sensation the world, and flower bed makes a stir all over the world.Camellia nitidissima contains trace element and the Tea Polyphenols that the important health care of the kinds more than ten such as natural organic germanium, selenium, molybdenum, vanadium, zinc is worth, and the amino acid necessary to human body, tool is hypotensive, reducing blood lipid, reduction cholesterol, prevents arteriosclerosis, delay senility, improve the health-care effects such as immunologic function.
In recent years; the every strain valency of the qualified seedling 30-50 unit of Camellia nitidissima; 6.0 yuan of fresh leaf per kilogram valencys; fresh flower per kilogram valency 800-1000 unit; can 1.7 ten thousand yuan of left and right of annual value of production when planting 1 mu of Camellia nitidissima and going into operation; Camellia nitidissima is evergreen rare famous and precious seeds, plantation Camellia nitidissima to protecting ecology, the successful of beautifying the environment.As can be seen here, development Camellia nitidissima industrial economy, society, ecology " three is large " remarkable benefit.
Camellia nitidissima is mainly in area growth warm, moist, half cloudy half light, and its major part is grown under pin broad leaved forest, suitable sylvan life cultivation.Development forest economy is " short, adaptable and fast " and a kind of new way of benefiting rural area huge numbers of families, is that guiding peasant does not chop at a tree or chops at a tree less and can get rich in the same old way, saves the forest resources, protects ecological green civilian-oriented project.Guangxi is attached great importance to forest economy development, and in June, 2010, party committee of autonomous region, government held the on-the-spot meeting of whole district's forest economy development first, had put into effect a series of Huinong's policies, had promoted forest economy fast-developing; In October, 2010, Guangxi District government put into effect again < < in succession about promoting energetically the suggestion > > of forest economy development, had implemented the forest economy development policies of a series of great efforts, broad covered area.And set aside 5 hundred million of funds and support forest economy development.General office of party committee of autonomous region, Office of the People's Government dispatched a joint document and started Guangxi forest economy " ten million thousand yuan of peasants increase income " engineering in September, 2011: plan was from 2011, used for 5 years, strive for that whole district's forest economy area develops into 5,000 ten thousand mu, 50,000,000,000 yuan of annual value of production; By development forest economy, accumulative total 2,000 ten thousand self-employed tree cultivators realize people and increase income every year more than 1000 yuan.Develop so on a large scale forest economy; Camellia nitidissima has become the first-selected seeds of underwood planting; amount reproduction Camellia nitidissima nursery stock is breeding protection and developing and promote forest economy development of the rare famous and precious plant-Camellia nitidissima of development; to hill farmer, the masses increase income, and realize Guangxi new leap of rich people Qiang Gui and have great significance.
In order to expand the breeding of Camellia nitidissima nursery stock, Some Domestic scientific research institutions have carried out the method propagation technique researchs such as employing seed, overhead layering, cuttage, grafting in succession, as large tree is changed hat grafting, autumn branches, simple bud side grafting and sprout grafting etc., but it is unstable to exist inheritance, and survival rate is low, be difficult to cultivate nursery stock in enormous quantities, breeding not in enormous quantities is applied, field operation, and grafting speed is slow, time-consuming, cost-effective benefit is low.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is to provide the propagation method of a kind of Camellia nitidissima sprout stock grafting, and propagation method of the present invention is adopted sprout stock in grafting, and operation is simple, grafting speed is fast, cost is low, and high efficiency is the important technology of factorial seedling growth, large scale cultivating Camellia nitidissima grafting.Only property cultivation Camellia nitidissima nursery stock strain more than 70,000 (graft survival rate 95%, Seedling survival rate 85%) annually in 2012 of the present invention.
The technical scheme that the present invention solves the problems of the technologies described above is as follows: the propagation method of a kind of Camellia nitidissima sprout stock grafting, comprising:
(1) anvil seedling is cultivated
1, seed is selected: pluck ripe Camellia Vietnamensis fruit, after Exposure to Sunlight in 1-2 days, be placed on shady and cool ventilation place, take out seed after cracking of fruit;
2, seed storage and vernalization: seed adopts clean river sand to preserve and vernalization, cultivate sturdy grafting anvil seedling;
(2) nursery lot is selected and whole ground
Be chosen in have a good transport service, face south, leeward area, more than the dark 50cm of soil layer, soil pH value 5.5-6.5, in mid-November last year to late December, plough deeply 25cm, carry out mid-February next year for the second time wholely, deep-cut 20cm, apply base manure, plough deeply, then every mu is spilt that to execute concentration be 2% ferrous sulfate aqueous solution 8kg, covers plastic sheeting for farm use standby;
(3) take cool canopy
On nursery lot, set up cool canopy, the high 1.8-2.0m of frame, above covers sunshade net, and sunshade degree is 75%, and cool canopy surrounding all covers;
(4) grafting
1, grafting time: mid-April is to mid-May;
2, scion is selected and keeping: in Camellia nitidissima elite stand tree crown middle and upper part, select the full autumn growth of raw axillalry bud last year, the branch of the thick 0.25-0.30cm in footpath is done scion;
3, anvil seedling is selected and is processed: that selects the anvil seedling bud thick 0.25-0.35cm in footpath makes anvil bud, and anvil bud washes away river sand with clear water, then puts into 500 times of liquid of carbendazim of 50% and soak 10 seconds, removes filter dry, simultaneously with the moisturizing of wet towel lid anvil bud, standby;
4, grafting operation
(1) cut scion: every section of long 2.0cm of scion, fringe one leaf, every leaf cuts off 1/2,0.30cm place, flat axillalry bud upper end cuts off, lower end retains long 1.6cm, and while cutting scion, below bud, under both sides, 0.3cm place, cutter, toward 15 ° of angles of declivity, is whittled into otch 1.3cm length, 30 ° of sharp wedge shape scion;
(2) cutting stock: using anvil bud as stock, 1.50-2.50cm place cuts off stem apex above the seed of bud seedling, is completely cured in 4.0-5.0cm place, bud seed below, and then under center above seedling stem, cutter is down rived along medulla, the long 1.2-1.3cm of opening;
(3) engage: after stock opening, the wedge shape scion straight cutting of cutting is entered to opening, with the special-purpose aluminium suitcase of grafting of long 3.8cm, wide 1.0cm, prick;
(5) field planting
After grafting, plant in nursery lot in 30 minutes, by spacing in the rows 4.0cm, line-spacing 7.5cm field planting, after the complete furrow of field planting, with the clear water seedbed of drenching, when within 20-30 minute, blade loses moisture content, roof insulating is then done in the 500 times of liquid sprayings of carbendazim with 50% on seedbed;
(6) seedling management
Carry out the extermination of disease and insect pest, take off in time plastic sheeting for farm use, weeding, remove rudiment, spray medicine, execute foliage fertilizer, loosen the soil, topdress, water in time;
(7) Nursery stock transplanting
Early October, Camellia nitidissima seedling grafting survives to be taken out after the tip, transplants in nutrition cup and cultivates to early November, by the wide furrow face of 1.2m, put cup, every row is put 8, cup, the long 7.5m of every furrow, pavement 40cm, after sequencing the nutrition cup of furrow, with clear water, drench in time, after 20-30 minute, spray 500 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim, then carry out plastic sheeting for farm use shed, set up the cool canopy of sunshade degree 75%, the high 1.8-2.0m of cool canopy, the stuffy sun of cool canopy surrounding simultaneously;
Mid-February next year, plastic sheeting for farm use shed to be removed, topdressed once after 15 days in interval.
(8) outplanting
More than seedling height reaches 45cm, the Camellia nitidissima nutrition cup grafting of the thick 0.4-0.5cm in footpath, is out the qualified seedling in garden.
On the basis of technique scheme, the present invention can also do following improvement.
Further, nursery lot select with whole ground in, described in to apply base manure be that every mu of nursery lot is executed compound potassium sulfate fertilizer (solid particulate) 30kg and superphosphate 50kg, the specification of described compound potassium sulfate fertilizer is: 15%(N), 15%(P 2o 5), 15%(K 2o).
Further, in seedling management, described spray medicine refers to spray seedbed with 500 times of liquid of 70% thiophanate methyl or 500 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim or 800 times of liquid of 75% tpn comprehensively, interval 7-10 days 1 time, connect and to spray 5-6 time, the medicament of each use can not one species, should exchange use, the described foliage fertilizer of executing refers within 3-4 days, spray foliage fertilizer 1 time after each spray medicine, and [ specification is the compound potassium sulfate fertilizer liquid that described foliage fertilizer is 0.7%: 15%(N), 15%(P 2o 5), 15%(K 2o) ], a kind of in the mixed liquor of green fragrant prestige No. 2 800 times of liquid, 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.2% boron fertilizers;
Further, in Nursery stock transplanting, described nutrition cup specification: high 16cm, diameter 15cm, Nutrition Soil adopts the loose sand loam of subacidity of pH value 5.5-6.5, joins 15% pig manure becoming thoroughly decomposed in Nutrition Soil.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
The inventive method is adopted sprout stock in grafting, the grafting well developed root system of cultivation, and growth is fast, graft seedling growth survival rate is high, outplanting rate is high, can large-scale breeding nursery stock, and operation is simple, grafting speed is fast, cost is low, and high efficiency is cost-saving, economical, societal benefits are remarkable, are the important technologies of factorial seedling growth, large scale cultivating Camellia nitidissima grafting.Only property cultivation Camellia nitidissima nursery stock strain more than 70,000 (graft survival rate 95%, Seedling survival rate 85%) annually in 2012 of the present invention.
Sprout stock described in the present invention refers to the not yet lignified bud that Camellia Vietnamensis seed sends, the long 5.0~8.0cm of bud, the long 4~8cm of root;
Grafting described in the present invention refers to simple bud cleft grafting.
Embodiment
Below principle of the present invention and feature are described, example, only for explaining the present invention, is not intended to limit scope of the present invention.
Below the concrete operation step of propagation method of the present invention is described in detail:
(1) anvil seedling is cultivated
1, seed is selected
In the oil tea picking time of early November, select the Camellia Vietnamensis of fully ripe (having the fruit of 5%-8% to ftracture in the tree) to plant.After tea fruit is adopted back, after Exposure to Sunlight in 1-2 days, regain indoor spreading at shady and cool ventilation place, after cracking of fruit, take out seed, select the seed of full greatly, the per kilogram 450-500 grain of grain.
2, seed storage and vernalization
After seed takes out, adopt clean river sand to preserve and vernalization, at indoor or outdoors, adopt mixed clay brick to be built into furrow, furrow face width 1.2m, pavement 40cm, the seed storage furrow of high 35cm, river sand requires clean, without other foreign material, and with 800 times of liquid disinfectants of carbendazim of 50%, first at the thick river sand of furrow heelpiece one deck 12cm, uniform broadcasting one deck seed on river sand (can not be overlapping between seed and seed), then the river sand that lid layer 3.0cm is thick broadcasts sowing one deck seed again, the last thick river sand of lid layer 12cm again, compacting, the humidity of river sand is controlled at hand and pinches agglomerating, loose one's grip loose.If adopt outdoor storage, must above storage furrow, take cool canopy, the high 1.8-2.0m of cool canopy, sunshade degree 75%, covers one deck plastic sheeting for farm use simultaneously and prevents that rainwater from drenching on furrow face, and prevent the plague of rats.15 days seed storage phases, checked once, as occurred, river sand is too dry, suitably trickle moisturizing.
Mid or late Febuary, temperature goes back up to 16 ℃ when above, adopts the drench river sand of storage furrow furrow face of 1000 times of liquid of carbendazim of 50%, keeps subsequently river sand moistening, makes seed germination, cultivates sturdy grafting anvil seedling.
(2) nursery lot is selected and whole ground
Camellia nitidissima nursery lot should be chosen in and have a good transport service, face south, leeward area, and more than requiring the dark 50cm of soil layer, it is fertile that the soil is porous, and soil is subacidity, and pH value is at 5.5-6.5.After nursery lot is chosen, in mid-November last year to late December, plough deeply 25cm, make the soil weathering of passing the winter.Carry out whole ground for the second time mid-February next year, deep-cut 20cm, break up the clods, by furrow face width 1.2m, the wide 40cm of pavement, high 18cm, play furrow, apply base manure simultaneously, execute compound potassium sulfate fertilizer (solid particulate) [ specification is: 15%(N), 15%(P for every mu 2o 5), 15%(K 2o) ] 30kg and superphosphate 50kg, plough deeply, and base manure and soil are fully mixed thoroughly, and then every mu is spilt that to execute concentration be 2% ferrous sulfate aqueous solution 8kg, covers plastic sheeting for farm use standby.
(3) take cool canopy
Grafting, cultivate garden and set up cool canopy on the ground, use concrete-pile built, the high 1.8-2.0m of frame, above covers sunshade net, sunshade degree 75%, and cool canopy surrounding all covers, and windproof and sunlight enters.
(4) grafting
1, grafting time
Mid-April is to mid-May.
2, scion is selected and keeping
In Camellia nitidissima elite stand tree crown middle and upper part, select the full autumn growth of raw axillalry bud last year, the branch of the thick 0.25-0.30cm in footpath is done scion, and scion is complete for well to gather at that time grafting at that time, and the scion of adopting is back placed on indoor, the moisturizing of spraying water, be finished the same day.
3, anvil seedling is selected and is processed
Mid-April the anvil seedling 5.0-8.0cm that germinateed, that selects the thick 0.25-0.35cm in bud footpath makes anvil bud, must be careful while taking out anvil bud from husky bed, prevent from damaging anvil bud or seed shedding, after taking-up, with clear water, wash away river sand, then put into 500 times of liquid of carbendazim of 50% and soak 10 seconds, remove filter dry, simultaneously with the moisturizing of wet towel lid anvil bud, standby.
4, grafting operation
(1) cut scion: every section of long 2.0cm of scion, fringe one leaf, every leaf cuts off 1/2,0.30cm place, flat axillalry bud upper end cuts off, lower end retains long 1.6cm, and while cutting scion, below bud, under both sides, 0.30cm place, cutter, toward 15 ° of angles of declivity, is whittled into long incision 1.2-1.3cm, 30 ° of sharp wedge shape scion.
(2) cutting stock: using anvil bud as stock, 1.5-2.5cm place cuts off stem apex above the seed of bud seedling, is completely cured in 4.0-5.0cm place, bud seed below, and then under center above seedling stem, cutter is down rived along medulla, the long 1.2-1.3cm of opening.
(3) engage: after stock opening, the wedge shape scion straight cutting of cutting is entered to opening and maybe the scion of cutting is built to moisturizing with wet towel, in 40 minutes, grafting is complete.The formation layer of scion during grafting fringe will be aimed at the formation layer of stock, then with the special-purpose aluminium suitcase of grafting of long 3.8cm, wide 1.0cm, pricks, and when wrapping, will clutch scion and the stock being plugged, and prevents loosening dislocation, reduces graft survival rate.
(5) field planting
After seedling grafting, with wet towel, cover moisturizing, in 30 minutes, plant in whole good nursery lot.Before planting, standby nursery lot hoe pine is flattened, drench soil, by spacing in the rows 4.0cm, line-spacing 7.5cm field planting, during field planting according to its seeding row spacing, use diameter 1.2cm, the bamboo spike of long 20cm burrows, the dark 5.0-6.0cm in hole, then grafting root is inserted in hole, care should be used to while planting seedlings, handle with care, prevent that grafting interface from becoming flexible and seed shedding, during planting stock, the seed of stock bud buries in the lump together with nursery stock, the interface of grafting should be exposed at native face top, while planting compacting soil, make seedling root and soil close contact, after the complete furrow of field planting immediately with the clean clear water seedbed of drenching, when within 20-30 minute, blade loses moisture content, 500 times of liquid sprayings of carbendazim with 50%.Then on seedbed, do roof insulating, according to seedbed width, adopt bamboo chip to do and encircle, each sagitta 60.0cm, arch and the spacing 70cm encircleing, the long 7.5m in every furrow seedbed, the plastic sheeting for farm use of white printing opacity on slotting arch bonnet, with the plastic sheeting for farm use surrounding of the real shed of soil pressure, heat and moisture preserving.
(6) seedling management
1, disease control
After grafting field planting, interval 2-3 days observation nurseries, during observation, should not open plastic sheeting for farm use, as find disease, when emergent, take measures, open plastic sheeting for farm use and spray 800 times of liquid of thiophanate methyl of 70% or 800 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim or 1000 times of liquid of 75% tpn or 1000 times of liquid of 80% mancozeb (each medicament using can not one species, should exchange uses), cover immediately plastic sheeting for farm use after spraying medicine.
2, take off plastic sheeting for farm use, weeding, remove and sprout, spray medicine, foliage fertilizer
Field planting 45 days, the interface of grafting heals, and there is part nursery stock to take out young sprout, stock rudiment is many, now should select the cloudy day or at dusk plastic sheeting for farm use shed two ends be opened, making the cross-ventilation in seedbed, after 3-4 days, removing plastic sheeting for farm use, eliminate the weeds on seedbed, with little scissors, along the rudiment base portion of grafting survival strain, wipe out rudiment simultaneously.Then with 500 times of liquid of thiophanate methyl of 70% or 500 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim or 800 times of liquid of 75% tpn, spray seedbed comprehensively, interval 7-10 days 1 time, connect and spray 5-6 time, each medicament using can not one species, should exchange use, after each spray medicine, within 3-4 days, spray foliage fertilizer 1 time, foliage fertilizer can with 0.7% compound potassium sulfate fertilizer liquid specification is: 15%(N), 15%(P2O5), 15%(K2O), No. 2 800 times of liquid of green fragrant prestige or 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+0.2% boron fertilizer liquid.
3, loosen the soil, topdress
After field planting 60-70 days, grafting survives completely, and there is major part to start to take out the tip, need to supplement nutrient, loosen the soil, weeding, except enriching liquid manure after sprouting, liquid manure adopt 0.5-1.0% compound potassium sulfate fertilizer specification is: 15%(N), 15%(P2O5), 15%(K2O) liquid, interval 10-15 days 1 time, along with seedling age increases and strengthens fertilizing amount.If fertilizer application period in the rainy day, can spread fertilizer over the fields graininess compound potassium sulfate fertilizer specification is: 15%(N), 15%(P2O5), 15%(K2O), every mu of 10kg, must be noted that during broadcast application, graininess fertilizer is not sprinkled upon on blade and the tender tip, in order to avoid cause fertilizer damage.Best fertilizing method is, spreads granular fertilizer and with bamboo bar, takes off moving vane afterwards and make granular fertilizer fall within ground, then slightly loosens the soil.
4, drought resisting
The 8-10 month, south is in hot-dry season, and at this moment the phase is the seedling growth busy season, needs moisture more, as prolonged drought, answers interval 2-3 days trickle 1 time, keeps seedbed moistening, promotes seedling growth.
(7) Nursery stock transplanting
Camellia nitidissima seedling grafting survives to be taken out after the tip, must transplant in nutrition cup and cultivate, and its nutrition cup specification is: high 16cm, and diameter 15cm, Nutrition Soil adopts the loose sand loam of subacidity of pH value 5.5-6.5, joins 15% pig manure becoming thoroughly decomposed in Nutrition Soil.
1, transplanting time, method
Early October, nursery stock stopped growing to early November, and this period can be by nursery stock transplantation with soil in standby nutrition cup.Transplant after nutrition cup, by the wide furrow face of 1.2m, put cup, every row is put 8, cup, the long 7.5m of every furrow, pavement 40cm, drenches with clear water after sequencing the nutrition cup of furrow, in time after 20-30 minute blade is slightly dry, spray 500 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim, then carry out immediately plastic sheeting for farm use shed, tight envelope is incubated, moisturizing, sets up the cool canopy of sunshade degree 75% simultaneously, the high 1.8-2.0m of cool canopy, the stuffy sun of cool canopy surrounding.After transplanting, should often observe, trickle moisturizing, causes harm as ill worm, adopts immediately Related Drug medicament to prevent and treat.
2, except cool canopy, insulation plastic sheeting for farm use
Mid-February next year, temperature gos up, and seedling root has grown white radicula, and has part nursery stock to start to take out young sprout, plastic sheeting for farm use shed can be removed, and progressively opens shading screen simultaneously, increases illumination, makes nursery stock enter normal growth.
3, fertilising, drought resisting
Topdressed once after 15 days in interval, the 3-7 month is the seedling growth phase, and fine day adopts liquid manure to execute, rainy day is spread fertilizer over the fields granular fertilizer, fertilizer type take compound potassium sulfate fertilizer specification as: 15%(N), 15%(P2O5), 15%(K2O) as main, can not use urea and carbon ammonium, in order to avoid cause nursery stock fertilizer damage.At the 8-10 dry season month, interval 2-3 days trickle 1 time, keep the ground moistening in nutrition cup.
4, take cool canopy
Camellia nitidissima nursery stock, Seedling Stage still needs suitable concealment, if run into strong sun, tans by the sun and will suppress seedling growth, and mid-May, south was in high temperature and drought, except strengthening, trickle, should setting up cool canopy to shade, the high 1.8-2.0m of cool canopy, sunshade degree 65% to mid-September.
(8) outplanting
Through the cultivation of 2 years, more than seedling height reaches 45cm, the Camellia nitidissima nutrition cup grafting of thick (the above 1.0cm of the grafting mouth place diameter) 0.4-0.5cm in footpath, was out the qualified seedling in garden, can confess garden afforestation seedling.
Embodiment 1
Below that present inventor applies this propagation method and in April, 2012-2013, cultivates the example of the Camellia nitidissima of strain more than 70,000 nursery stock year April.
(1) anvil seedling is cultivated
The Camellia Vietnamensis that in early November, 2011 selects to have the fruit of 5%-8% to ftracture is in the tree planted, and after Exposure to Sunlight in 2 days, regains indoor spreading at shady and cool ventilation place, takes out seed after cracking of fruit, selects cultivating seeds anvil seedling full greatly, per kilogram 450-500 grain.At the mixed clay brick of indoor employing, be built into seed storage furrow, furrow face width 1.2m, pavement 40cm, high 35cm, and with 800 times of liquid disinfectants of carbendazim of 50%, first at the thick river sand of furrow heelpiece one deck 12cm, uniform broadcasting one deck seed on river sand, then the river sand that lid layer 3.0cm is thick broadcasts sowing one deck seed again, last lid layer 12cm is thick again river sand, compacting.Mid or late Febuary, temperature goes back up to 16 ℃ when above, adopts the drench river sand of storage furrow furrow face of 1000 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim, keeps river sand moistening, makes seed germination, cultivates sturdy grafting anvil seedling.
(2) nursery lot is selected and whole ground
More than the dark 50cm of Camellia nitidissima nursery lot soil layer, it is fertile that the soil is porous, soil pH value is ploughed deeply 25cm at 5.5-6.5 in mid-November, 2011 to late December, carry out in mid-February, 2012 for the second time wholely, deep-cut 20cm, break up the clods, press furrow face width 1.2m, the wide 40cm of pavement, high 18cm plays furrow, executing compound potassium sulfate fertilizer (solid particulate) specification for every mu is: 15%(N), 15%(P2O5), 15%(K2O) ] 30kg and superphosphate 50kg, plough deeply, base manure and soil are fully mixed thoroughly, then every mu is spilt that to execute concentration be 2% ferrous sulfate aqueous solution 8kg, cover plastic sheeting for farm use standby.
(3) take cool canopy
Grafting, cultivate garden and set up cool canopy on the ground, use concrete-pile built, the high 2.0m of frame, above covers sunshade net, sunshade degree 75%, and cool canopy surrounding all covers.
(4) grafting
In mid-April, 2012 is to grafting mid-May, in Camellia nitidissima elite stand tree crown middle and upper part, select the full autumn growth of raw axillalry bud last year, the branch of the thick 0.25-0.30cm in footpath is done scion, every section of long 2.0cm of scion, one fringe one leaf, every leaf cuts off 1/2, and 0.30cm place, flat axillalry bud upper end cuts off, and lower end retains long 1.6cm, while cutting scion, below bud, under both sides, 0.30cm place, cutter, toward 15 ° of angles of declivity, is whittled into otch 1.3cm length, 30 ° of sharp wedge shape scion.
That selects the thick 0.25-0.35cm in bud footpath in mid-April, 2012 makes anvil bud, anvil bud washes away river sand with clear water, putting into 500 times of liquid of carbendazim of 50% soaks 10 seconds again, remove filter dry, using anvil bud as stock, and above the seed of bud seedling, 1.50-2.50cm place cuts off stem apex, is completely cured in 4.0-5.0cm place, bud seed below, then under center above seedling stem, cutter is down rived along medulla, the long 1.2-1.3cm of opening.
The wedge shape scion straight cutting of cutting is entered to stock opening, with the special-purpose aluminium suitcase of grafting of long 3.8cm, wide 1.0cm, prick.
(5) field planting
After seedling grafting, in 30 minutes, plant in whole good nursery lot.By spacing in the rows 4.0cm, line-spacing 7.5cm field planting, during field planting according to its seeding row spacing, with the bamboo spike of diameter 1.2cm, long 20cm, burrow, the dark 5.0-6.0cm in hole, then grafting root is inserted in hole, while plant compacting soil, after the complete furrow of field planting with the clean clear water seedbed of drenching, when within 20-30 minute, blade loses moisture content, the 500 times of liquid sprayings of carbendazim with 50%.Then on seedbed, do roof insulating, adopt bamboo chip to do and encircle, each sagitta 60.0cm, arch and the spacing 70.0cm encircleing, the long 7.5m in every furrow seedbed, the plastic sheeting for farm use of white printing opacity on slotting arch bonnet, with the plastic sheeting for farm use surrounding of the real shed of soil pressure, heat and moisture preserving.
(6) seedling management
After grafting field planting, interval 2-3 days observation nurseries, prevent damage by disease and insect.After field planting 45 days, select the cloudy day or at dusk plastic sheeting for farm use shed two ends opened, after 3-4 days, removing plastic sheeting for farm use, eliminating the weeds on seedbed, with little scissors, along the rudiment base portion of grafting survival strain, wiping out rudiment simultaneously.Then with 500 times of liquid of thiophanate methyl of 70% or 800 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim or 1000 times of liquid of 75% tpn or 1000 times of liquid of 80% mancozeb, spray seedbed comprehensively, interval 7-10 days 1 time, connect and spray 5-6 time, each medicament using can not one species, should exchange use, after each spray medicine, within 3-4 days, spray foliage fertilizer 1 time, foliage fertilizer can with 0.7% compound potassium sulfate fertilizer specification is: 15%(N), 15%(P2O5), 15%(K2O) liquid or No. 2 800 times of liquid of green fragrant prestige or 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+0.2% boron fertilizer liquid.
After field planting 60-70 days, loosen the soil, weeding, except enriching liquid manure after sprouting, liquid manure adopt 0.5-1.0% compound potassium sulfate fertilizer specification is: 15%(N), 15%(P2O5), 15%(K2O) liquid, interval 10-15 days 1 time, along with seedling age increases and strengthens fertilizing amount.
The 8-10 month in 2012, water in time, keep seedbed moistening, promote seedling growth.
(7) Nursery stock transplanting
In early October, 2012 is to early November, by nursery stock transplantation with soil in standby nutrition cup.Nutrition cup specification is: high 16cm, and diameter 15cm, Nutrition Soil adopts the loose sand loam of subacidity of pH value 5.5-6.5, joins 15% pig manure becoming thoroughly decomposed in Nutrition Soil.Transplant after nutrition cup, by the wide furrow face of 1.2m, put cup, every row is put 8, cup, the long 7.5m of every furrow, pavement 40cm, after sequencing the nutrition cup of furrow, with clear water, drench in time, after 20-30 minute blade is slightly dry, spray 500 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim, carry out plastic sheeting for farm use shed, set up the cool canopy of sunshade degree 75%, the high 2.0m of cool canopy, the stuffy sun of cool canopy surrounding simultaneously.
In mid-February, 2013, plastic sheeting for farm use shed is removed, progressively open shading screen simultaneously, increase illumination, make nursery stock enter normal growth.
Topdressed once after 15 days in interval, the 3-7 month in 2013 is the seedling growth phase, and fine day adopts liquid manure to execute, and the rainy day is spread fertilizer over the fields granular fertilizer, fertilizer type take compound potassium sulfate fertilizer specification as: 15%(N), 15%(P 2o 5), 15%(K 2o) ] be main.At the 8-10 dry season month, interval 2-3 days trickle 1 time, keep the ground moistening in nutrition cup.
To mid-September, strengthen trickle in mid-May, 2013, sets up cool canopy to shade, the high 2.0m of cool canopy, sunshade degree 65%.
(8) outplanting
Through the cultivation of 2 years, more than seedling height reaches 45cm, the Camellia nitidissima nutrition cup grafting of thick (the above 1.0cm of the grafting mouth place diameter) 0.4-0.5cm in footpath, was out the qualified seedling in garden, can confess garden afforestation seedling.
Wherein, the graft survival rate 95% of the present embodiment, Seedling survival rate 85%.
The foregoing is only preferred embodiment of the present invention, in order to limit the present invention, within the spirit and principles in the present invention not all, any modification of doing, be equal to replacement, improvement etc., within all should being included in protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (5)

1. a propagation method for Camellia nitidissima sprout stock grafting, is characterized in that, comprising:
(1) anvil seedling is cultivated
1, seed is selected: pluck ripe Camellia Vietnamensis fruit, after Exposure to Sunlight in 1-2 days, be placed on
Shady and cool ventilation place, takes out seed after cracking of fruit
2, seed storage and vernalization: seed adopts clean river sand to preserve and vernalization, cultivate sturdy grafting anvil seedling;
(2) nursery lot is selected and whole ground
Be chosen in have a good transport service, face south, leeward area, more than the dark 50cm of soil layer, soil pH value 5.5-6.5, in mid-November last year to late December, plough deeply 25cm, carry out mid-February next year for the second time wholely, deep-cut 20cm, apply base manure, plough deeply, then every mu is spilt that to execute concentration be 2% ferrous sulfate aqueous solution 8kg, covers plastic sheeting for farm use standby;
(3) take cool canopy
On nursery lot, set up cool canopy, the high 1.8-2.0m of frame, above covers sunshade net, and sunshade degree is 75%, and cool canopy surrounding all covers;
(4) grafting
1, grafting time: mid-April is to mid-May;
2, scion is selected and keeping: in Camellia nitidissima elite stand tree crown middle and upper part, select the full autumn growth of raw axillalry bud last year, the branch of the thick 0.25-0.30cm in footpath is done scion;
3, anvil seedling is selected and is processed: that selects the anvil seedling bud thick 0.25-0.35cm in footpath makes anvil bud, and anvil bud washes away river sand with clear water, then puts into 500 times of liquid of carbendazim of 50% and soak 10 seconds, removes filter dry, simultaneously with the moisturizing of wet towel lid anvil bud, standby;
4, grafting operation
(1) cut scion: every section of long 2.0cm of scion, fringe one leaf, every leaf cuts off 1/2,0.30cm place, flat axillalry bud upper end cuts off, lower end retains long 1.6cm, and while cutting scion, below bud, under both sides, 0.30cm place, cutter, toward 15 ° of angles of declivity, is whittled into otch 1.30cm length, 30 ° of sharp wedge shape scion;
(2) cutting stock: using anvil bud as stock, 1.50-2.50cm place cuts off stem apex above the seed of bud seedling, is completely cured in 4.0-5.0cm place, bud seed below, and then under center above seedling stem, cutter is down rived along medulla, the long 1.2-1.3cm of opening;
(3) engage: after stock opening, the wedge shape scion straight cutting of cutting is entered to opening, with the special-purpose aluminium suitcase of grafting of long 3.8cm, wide 1.0cm, prick;
(5) field planting
After grafting, plant in nursery lot in 30 minutes, by spacing in the rows 4.0cm, line-spacing 7.5cm field planting, after the complete furrow of field planting, with the clear water seedbed of drenching, when within 20-30 minute, blade loses moisture content, roof insulating is then done in the 500 times of liquid sprayings of carbendazim with 50% on seedbed;
(6) seedling management
Carry out the extermination of disease and insect pest, take off in time plastic sheeting for farm use, weeding, remove rudiment, spray medicine, execute foliage fertilizer, loosen the soil, topdress, water in time;
(7) Nursery stock transplanting
Early October, Camellia nitidissima seedling grafting survives to be taken out after the tip, transplants in nutrition cup and cultivates to early November, by the wide furrow face of 1.2m, put cup, every row is put 8, cup, the long 7.5m of every furrow, pavement 40cm, after sequencing the nutrition cup of furrow, with clear water, drench in time, after 20-30 minute, spray 500 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim, then carry out plastic sheeting for farm use shed, set up the cool canopy of sunshade degree 75%, the high 1.8-2.0m of cool canopy, the stuffy sun of cool canopy surrounding simultaneously;
Mid-February next year, plastic sheeting for farm use shed to be removed, topdressed once after 15 days in interval;
(8) outplanting
More than seedling height reaches 45cm, the Camellia nitidissima nutrition cup grafting of the thick 0.4-0.5cm in footpath, is out the qualified seedling in garden.
2. propagation method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, nursery lot select with whole ground in, described in to apply base manure be that every mu of nursery lot is executed solid particulate compound potassium sulfate fertilizer 30kg and superphosphate 50kg, the specification of described compound potassium sulfate fertilizer is: N, 15% P containing 15% 2o 5, 15% K 2o.
3. propagation method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, in seedling management, described spray medicine refers to spray seedbed with 500 times of liquid of 70% thiophanate methyl or 500 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim or 800 times of liquid of 75% tpn comprehensively, interval 7-10 days 1 time, connect and spray 5-6 time, each medicament using can not one species, should exchange use, the described foliage fertilizer of executing refers within 3-4 days, spray foliage fertilizer 1 time after each spray medicine, a kind of in the mixed liquor of the compound potassium sulfate fertilizer liquid that described foliage fertilizer is 0.7%, green fragrant prestige No. 2 800 times of liquid, 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.2% boron fertilizers.
4. propagation method according to claim 3, is characterized in that, the specification of described 0.7% compound potassium sulfate fertilizer liquid is: N, 15% P containing 15% 2o 5, 15% K 2o.
5. propagation method according to claim 1, is characterized in that, in Nursery stock transplanting, and described nutrition cup specification: high 16.0cm, diameter 15.0cm, Nutrition Soil adopts the loose sand loam of subacidity of pH value 5.5-6.5, joins 15% pig manure becoming thoroughly decomposed in Nutrition Soil.
CN201310198185.7A 2013-05-24 2013-05-24 Golden camellia bud seedling stock grafting propagation method CN103283450B (en)

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