CN108522121B - Simple propagation method for grafting camellia chrysantha to camellia oleifera - Google Patents

Simple propagation method for grafting camellia chrysantha to camellia oleifera Download PDF

Info

Publication number
CN108522121B
CN108522121B CN201810338406.9A CN201810338406A CN108522121B CN 108522121 B CN108522121 B CN 108522121B CN 201810338406 A CN201810338406 A CN 201810338406A CN 108522121 B CN108522121 B CN 108522121B
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
grafting
scion
stock
camellia
seeds
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
CN201810338406.9A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Other versions
CN108522121A (en
Inventor
黄展文
李春牛
卜朝阳
黄昌艳
宋倩
周锦业
李先民
李秀玲
李明娟
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Flower Research Institute Guangxi Academy Of Agricultural Sciences
Original Assignee
Flower Research Institute Guangxi Academy Of Agricultural Sciences
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Flower Research Institute Guangxi Academy Of Agricultural Sciences filed Critical Flower Research Institute Guangxi Academy Of Agricultural Sciences
Priority to CN201810338406.9A priority Critical patent/CN108522121B/en
Publication of CN108522121A publication Critical patent/CN108522121A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN108522121B publication Critical patent/CN108522121B/en
Active legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/30Grafting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N37/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom having three bonds to hetero atoms with at the most two bonds to halogen, e.g. carboxylic acids
    • A01N37/02Saturated carboxylic acids or thio analogues thereof; Derivatives thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/02Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms
    • A01N43/04Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom
    • A01N43/14Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom six-membered rings
    • A01N43/16Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom six-membered rings with oxygen as the ring hetero atom
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N61/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing substances of unknown or undetermined composition, e.g. substances characterised only by the mode of action
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N63/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing microorganisms, viruses, microbial fungi, animals or substances produced by, or obtained from microorganisms, viruses, microbial fungi or animals, e.g. enzymes or fermentates
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N65/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing material from algae, lichens, bryophyta, multi-cellular fungi or plants, or extracts thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N65/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing material from algae, lichens, bryophyta, multi-cellular fungi or plants, or extracts thereof
    • A01N65/08Magnoliopsida [dicotyledons]
    • A01N65/36Rutaceae [Rue family], e.g. lime, orange, lemon, corktree or pricklyash
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A50/00TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE in human health protection, e.g. against extreme weather
    • Y02A50/30Against vector-borne diseases, e.g. mosquito-borne, fly-borne, tick-borne or waterborne diseases whose impact is exacerbated by climate change

Abstract

The invention discloses a simple propagation technology for grafting camellia chrysantha to camellia oleifera, which comprises the following steps: cultivating a S1 stock, cultivating an S2 grafting mother tree, grafting S3 and managing after grafting S4, wherein the grafting step S3 is (1) stock treatment; (2) collecting and processing scions; (3) grafting scion and stock: cutting the scion into two incompletely opposite inclined planes which form an angle and form a wedge shape with one thicker side and one thinner side; obliquely cutting the stock into a cut which is 1.5-2 cm deep to the xylem, wherein the section of the cut is approximately 7-shaped; inserting the scion into the stock section to ensure that the cambium of the stock and the cambium of the scion are exactly aligned with each other; uniformly spraying a hormone antibacterial solution on the scion and the grafting interface until the scion leaves, branches and the grafting interface are uniformly attached with the solution; and (4) taking the special transparent grafting plastic film for fastening to complete grafting. The grafting technology of the invention has high survival rate, faster tree body forming, simple and convenient operation, low cost and high efficiency, and the grafting is not limited by seasons.

Description

Simple propagation method for grafting camellia chrysantha to camellia oleifera
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of plant grafting and seedling raising, in particular to a simple propagation method for grafting camellia chrysantha to camellia oleifera.
Background
Camellia nitidissima is a general name of the plant of Camellia nitidissima of Theaceae, is the same genus plant as Camellia japonica, Camellia oleifera, Camellia sasanqua and the like, has beautiful flower shape, and has petals from faint yellow to golden yellow, some petals are waxiness, glittering, translucent and oily, and semitransparent. The beauty of golden camellia is widely praised and appreciated by people, and is a 'treasure' in gardens. Moreover, the golden camellia has high scientific research and development and utilization values. The golden camellia contains unique yellow genes, and is a necessary germplasm resource for a horticulture chemist to culture a new yellow camellia variety; the flower of the golden camellia contains various trace elements necessary for human bodies, is used for preparing scented tea, and has high economic value. The golden camellia is a Guangxi special flower plant with high ornamental value, scientific research value and economic development value.
Grafting is a common means for the vegetative propagation of golden camellia, the current golden camellia grafting mode mainly comprises bud stock grafting, cleft grafting, bark pulling grafting, inarching and the like, the means are various, and different grafting methods have some defects, for example, the bud stock grafting takes tender embryos as stocks, is suitable for large-scale production of golden camellia grafting seedlings, but is limited by the size and season of the stocks, and has slow effect after grafting; larger stocks can be grafted by cleft grafting and bark-pulling grafting, but the stocks are cut off in advance, so that the stocks are large in wound, the stocks are easy to die, the number of grafted buds is small, the tree body is slow to form, bagging is needed for moisturizing and shading, and the cost is increased invisibly; the approach method is complex in operation and low in efficiency. In the grafting process, the improper mould prevention and fungus prevention are easy to infect mould, so that the grafting port is mildewed, and the grafting is not easy to survive.
The novel golden camellia grafting method has certain significance for improving the defects of the current grafting method, enriching the golden camellia breeding method, reducing the cost and improving the breeding efficiency.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention overcomes the technical problems that the rootstock grafting of the bud seedling is easily limited by the size and season of the rootstock, the effect is slow after grafting, the rootstock is cut off in advance by cleft grafting and skin-drawing grafting methods, the wound is large, the rootstock is easy to die, the number of buds capable of being grafted is small, the tree body is slow in forming, the bagging, moisture preservation and shade shading are needed, the cost is high, the operation is complex, the grafted port is easy to mildew, and the like, and provides the simple method for propagating the golden camellia, which is simple in operation, low in cost and high in propagation efficiency.
In order to realize the purpose of the invention, the following technical scheme is adopted:
the simple propagation method for grafting camellia chrysantha onto camellia oleifera includes cultivation of S1 rootstocks, cultivation of S2 grafting mother trees, S3 grafting and management after S4 grafting, wherein the S3 grafting comprises the following steps:
(1) treating the rootstock: selecting a stock which grows well and has no disease or insect pest, reserving a few branches and leaves at the trunk and the top, completely cutting off the rest lateral branches, and wiping the trunk part with a clean towel;
(2) collecting and processing scions: selecting semi-lignified branches positioned at the middle upper part of the periphery of a crown and from half a year to an annual year, and cutting off the branches at a position 8-12 cm away from the top; the branches are robust, the bud eyes are full, the internode length is moderate, and no plant diseases or insect pests exist; cutting off each branch at a position 1.5-2 cm below the axillary bud and at a position 0.3-0.5 cm above the axillary bud, and reserving 1/2-1/3 leaves to form a leaf-bud scion; completely soaking the scions in 500-1000 times of 25% carbendazim wettable powder for 3-5 min for disinfection, and fishing out and draining off water for later use;
(3) grafting scion and stock:
a. scion cutting: holding the knife to make the knife edge and the scion form an angle of 20-25 degrees, cutting an inclined plane with the length of 1-1.5 cm from a position 0.3-0.5 cm below the axillary buds of the scion, turning the other side of the scion strip, and cutting the inclined plane by the same method; the two inclined planes are not completely opposite and form an angle, and a wedge shape with one thicker side and one thinner side is formed; the bevel is required to be formed once when being cut, and the bevel is smooth and flat without fluffing;
b. cutting the rootstock: selecting a smooth part on the main trunk of the stock, holding a knife to enable the knife edge to form an angle of 10-15 degrees with the tree body, downwards beveling to form a cut which is 1.5-2 cm deep to the xylem, transversely cutting the upper part of the cut at a position of 0.2-0.5 cm by using the knife, and removing the upper part; the cut section is approximately in a 7 shape, one side of the cut section can be uncovered to cut into the scion, and the cut is required to be smooth and flat without fluffing;
c. grafting: inserting the scion into the cut surface of the stock, wherein the thin side of the scion is positioned at the inner side of the stock, and the scion is inserted until the other side of the scion is aligned with the bark of the stock, and at the moment, the cambiums of the stock and the scion are also exactly aligned with each other;
d. hormone and bacteriostasis treatment, namely preparing a hormone bacteriostasis solution in advance, and uniformly spraying the hormone bacteriostasis solution on the scions and the grafting openings until the solution is uniformly adhered to the scion leaves, branches and the grafting openings; the hormone bacteriostatic solution contains the following components in concentration: 0.28g/L of IBA and 10-50 g/L of bacteriostatic agent;
e. taking a special transparent grafting plastic film, winding the joint part of the stock and the scion for several circles to fix the scion and the stock, then unfolding the film to wind upwards, covering the bud and the leaf of the scion for a circle, and fastening the grafting film at the upper part to finish grafting of one scion; 4-5 scions can be grafted on the same stock, and the distance between the lowest scion on the stock and the ground is not less than 15 cm.
In S3 grafting, the Gaozhou camellia oleifera seeds are adopted as the rootstock seeds in the rootstock, the Gaozhou camellia oleifera seeds are sown, and the rootstock is cultivated until the seedling height is 80-100 cm and the trunk diameter is 0.8-1 cm.
The cultivation of the S1 rootstock comprises the following steps:
a. selecting a nursery land: selecting slightly acidic loam or sandy loam with convenient traffic, mild topography, loose and fertile soil, good irrigation and drainage;
b. seedbed arrangement: leveling a seedling raising land block, dividing ridges into ridges, forming a drainage ditch with the width of 1.0-1.5 m, the width between the ridges of 25-35 cm, and the depth of 15 cm; a shade shed with the height of 1.8-2.5 m is built on the seedling land, and the shade degree of the shade shed is 70% -85%;
c. selecting rootstock seeds: selecting big, full, mildew-free and insect-free Gaozhou camellia seeds as stock seeds; harvesting the camellia oleifera fruits in the middle and last ten days of 11 months each year, placing the harvested fruits in a ventilating shade place, naturally drying and cracking the fruits for about two weeks, peeling off peels and taking out seeds;
d. seed treatment: soaking the sterilized seeds for 5-10 min by adopting a potassium permanganate solution with the mass percentage of 0.3-0.5%, fishing out the submerged seeds, cleaning the seeds with clear water, ventilating and airing, and cutting off the phenomenon of insolation and dehydration;
e. accelerating germination of seeds: preparing a sand pool with the width of 1.0-1.5 m and the height of 12-18 cm, storing the sand pool in sand for accelerating germination, spreading the dried seeds on the sand pool, covering sand with the thickness of 3-5 cm on the sand pool, covering a film after water is permeated, and keeping the humidity at 80% -85%; sowing when the seeds germinate and the radicles grow to 0.5-1 cm;
f. sowing: sowing is carried out in a sowing ditch with the depth of 8-10 cm on the seedbed, the row spacing of the sowing ditch is 20-30 cm, and the planting distance in the sowing ditch is 18-25 cm; when sowing, the radicles of the seeds are downward, the seeds are evenly covered with soil with the thickness of 2-3 cm after sowing, and water is drenched to keep the soil moist;
g. seedling stage management:
during the germination period of the seeds, attention needs to be paid to keeping the soil moist, and the poor growth and development of seedlings caused by drought and water shortage are prevented;
after seedlings enter a leaf expanding period, 0.1% compound fertilizer is sprayed for 1-2 times per month, and if diseases exist, 500-1000 times of 25% carbendazim wettable powder can be sprayed every 7-10 days and continuously sprayed for 3 times;
spraying 10% 4000-fold imidacloprid solution and 2% 1000-fold abamectin solution every 10-15 days in the young tip growth period for 3 times continuously;
when the height of the camellia oleifera is more than 80 and the trunk diameter is more than 0.8cm, the camellia oleifera can be used as a rootstock for grafting.
The cultivation step of the S2 grafting mother tree is as follows:
a. building a cutting garden, namely selecting plots of loose soil or sandy loam with mild terrain, loose soil, rich soil, no pollution and slight acidity, digging planting pits according to the row spacing of 3m × 3m and the depth of 0.8-1 m, backfilling surface soil, uniformly mixing deep soil and farmyard manure according to the mass ratio of 2:1 for later use, building a shading net with shading degree of 70-85% above the cutting garden, and mixing the farmyard manure with rotten stable manure;
b. planting the mother tree: selecting golden camellia plants which have good growth vigor for more than five years, no plant diseases and insect pests and pure varieties as golden camellia mother trees for providing scions; vertically loading the mother tree and soil balls into planting pits, backfilling with prepared soil, and watering to fix roots; the time for planting the mother tree is 9-11 months every year;
c. managing the mother tree: spraying a compound fertilizer water solution with the mass concentration of 0.1% for 1-2 times per month after transplanting for one month; loosening the soil and weeding the mother trees after picking the spikes, applying 0.5kg of organic fertilizer and 0.5kg of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer per mu, and simultaneously spraying growth hormone for 1-2 times; for plants with too much flowers and fruits, flowers and flower buds can be thinned according to the growth condition of the tree body, and the supply of new nutrients is ensured.
Wherein the step of managing after grafting of S4 is as follows:
a. water content management: controlling the water spraying amount after grafting to prevent excessive water from retting roots;
b. uncovering the film: when the scion starts to germinate, if the bud can not burst the film, a hole is slightly opened by the toothpick, so that the bud can smoothly extend;
c. unbinding: after the new buds germinate and the grafting openings heal, the grafting film can be removed;
d. cutting off the top: and (3) sprouting scion buds, and cutting off the top branches and leaves of the rootstock by using a branch shear after 3-4 new leaves appear.
The bacteriostatic agent comprises the following raw materials in parts by mass: 50-60 parts of shaddock peel pectin zymolyte, 5-10 parts of alginate, 10-17 parts of pyroligneous, 0.15-0.2 part of formic acid and 1-5 parts of nisin.
Wherein, in the shaddock peel pectin zymolyte, the mass percentage content of oligomer with the relative molecular weight of 20000-30000 is 60-65%.
Wherein, the wood vinegar is prepared by the following method: adding litchi seeds, pepper, nutmeg and bamboo into a dry distillation kettle according to the mass ratio of 5:3:1:10, heating to 250-300 ℃, preserving heat for 3-5 hours, and collecting pyroligneous liquor.
The invention adopts shaddock peel pectin zymolyte and is prepared by the following method: after the shaddock peel is pulped, 0.5mol/L hydrochloric acid is adopted to adjust the pH value of the pulp to 1.5, the pulp is heated to 85 ℃ and then is kept warm for 2 hours, then gauze is used for filtering, the temperature is reduced to 45 ℃, aluminum sulfate is added, then concentrated ammonia water is used for adjusting the pH value of the solution to 5.2, and then centrifugal precipitation is carried out, wherein the mass ratio is as follows: ethanol: water: hydrochloric acid 7: 2: and (l) replacing metal ions such as ammonium, aluminum and the like in the precipitate by using the solution until the grey black color in the precipitate disappears, centrifugally separating the precipitate, and washing the precipitate for multiple times by using ethanol to obtain the pectin extract. Adding a pectin extract into the pectin extract according to a mass ratio of 4: 6: 10, carrying out enzymolysis on the enzyme compound of pectin methylesterase, pectin lyase and polygalacturonase at 30 ℃ for 50-60 min to obtain the shaddock peel pectin zymolyte adopted by the invention.
The grafting technology can also be applied to crown-changing grafting of a big tree, the grafting is carried out according to the simple propagation method of the camellia chrysantha, but the grafting is different from the camellia chrysantha grafting technology, the stock of the crown-changing technology of the big tree is not required to be cultivated, the branch is directly cut into the shape required by grafting in the crown of the big tree, then the scion grafting is carried out on the branch of the big tree, the cultivation method of the grafting parent tree and the cultivation after the grafting are the same as the simple propagation method of the camellia chrysantha.
In the cultivation of the oil tea tree rootstock, the 10 percent imidacloprid and 2 percent abamectin are adopted to effectively prevent and control insect pests such as lesser leafhopper, aphid and the like.
According to the technical scheme, after the mother tree is transplanted for one month, compound fertilizer with the mass concentration of 0.1% is sprayed for 1-2 times every month, soil and weed are loosened and removed from the mother tree after scion picking, organic fertilizer and calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer are applied, growth hormone is sprayed for 1-2 times, nutrients can be accumulated for the next new growth, and new germination is promoted. The mother tree management technology provides sufficient nitrogen fertilizer for the mother tree and the scion has good growth vigor.
According to the method, the camellia nitidissima is cultivated to serve as a grafting stock, the common city-preventing camellia nitidissima is cultivated to serve as a scion stock tree, and the camellia nitidissima scion is grafted to the camellia nitidissima by adopting a simple and rapid grafting mode, so that the camellia nitidissima forming nursery stock is rapidly obtained. The invention utilizes the characteristics of strong germination capacity, strong sprouting, fast growth, growth speed in seedling stage compared with the growth speed of common camellia oleifera and the like of seeds of camellia oleifera in Gaozhou to cultivate seedlings as stocks. The camellia chrysantha seedling culture medium has good compatibility with camellia chrysantha, high survival rate, quick and strong sprouting, developed root system, quick growth after transplanting and contribution to quickly forming crowns. The simple and rapid grafting method adopted by the invention has the advantages that the golden camellia grafting is not limited by seasons, the grafting efficiency is high, the cost is low, the grafted tree body is quickly formed, the normal maintenance is carried out for 1-2 years after grafting, and the golden camellia grafted seedlings with the plant height of 80-100 cm, the crown width of 40-60 cm, good tree shape and large flowering quantity can be formed.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
(1) the survival rate is high, and the tree body is formed more quickly. The method for grafting takes the camellia oleifera as the stock, the grafting process is not top-cut, the damage to the stock is small, the stock is easy to recover, the grafting survival rate is high, and the method for cleft grafting and the like needs to cut off and split the stock, has large damage to the tree body, is not easy to heal during grafting, has low survival rate, and greatly improves the grafting survival rate compared with the prior art; the scion disclosed by the invention is better attached to the stock, wound healing and scion germination are facilitated, and the survival rate can reach more than 90%.
(2) According to the invention, the camellia oleifera with the rootstocks higher than 80cm and the trunk diameter larger than 0.8cm is used, each camellia oleifera rootstock can be connected with a plurality of scions, and the tree body can be quickly shaped after healing. The grafting methods of bud seedling stock grafting, cleft grafting and the like have slow forming. By using the method for grafting, the scion can germinate after about 2 months, the tree body can be quickly formed after grafting healing, the grafting can be formed in the current year, and the tree can bloom in the second year, so that the grafting forming time is greatly shortened.
(2) Simple operation, low cost and high efficiency. In the existing grafting technology, bagging and moisturizing are needed, the technical requirement of the grafting process is high, the operation is complicated, and the method saves time and labor due to the fact that bagging and shading links are omitted, reduces the cost and is high in efficiency; the operation is simple, one person can complete the process quickly, and more than 1000 buds can be received by a skilled worker every day.
(3) The grafting method can be used for large-scale production of camellia nitidissima grafted seedlings and can also be used for crown-changing grafting of big trees.
(4) The grafting survival rate has a great relationship with the shapes and angles of the scion and the stock, and even if the scion and the stock are tightly combined in grafting at different angles and shapes, the circulation of plant tissue fluid between the scion and the stock can be influenced, the loss of the plant tissue fluid is influenced, and the grafting survival rate is further influenced. In the grafting of the scion and the rootstock, the shape and the angle of the cut scion and the cut rootstock are suitable, the scion and the rootstock are tightly combined, the healing degree is high, and the survival rate is high compared with grafting technologies such as a flat grafting method, a cleft grafting method, an approach grafting method and the like.
(5) The invention is not limited by seasons, but the methods of rootstock grafting and cleft grafting of the bud seedlings in the prior art are greatly influenced by temperature, are not beneficial to survival at the temperature higher than 30 ℃ or lower than 15 ℃, can be used for grafting as long as suitable scions and rootstocks exist all the year round, and are not limited by seasons.
(6) The grafting port is susceptible to bacteria and mould in the grafting process, so that the rootstock and the scion are mildewed, and the grafting survival rate is greatly reduced. The moulds causing the mildew of the rootstock and the scion mainly comprise trichoderma, penicillium, aspergillus, mucor and the like. In the bacteriostatic agent, the shaddock peel pectin zymolyte has certain gelatinization and emulsification effects, is mainly oligomer, has certain bacteriostatic action on escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus tartus and aspergillus niger, has a certain bacteriostatic action on aspergillus, and is small in bacteriostatic range. The shaddock peel pectin zymolyte can be matched with wood vinegar, nisin and formic acid to improve the antibacterial effect. The wood vinegar liquid contains a small amount of auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, ethylene, organic acid, rare metal elements such as potassium, sodium, magnesium, iron, manganese, calcium, chromium, zinc and the like, and organic micromolecules such as organic acid, phenols, ketones, alcohols, esters and the like. The pyroligneous can promote the division of plant cells to promote the growth of plants and provide trace elements for the plants, wherein small organic molecules can also inhibit the growth of mould, but the pyroligneous has low acidity, when the content of the pyroligneous in a hormone antibacterial solution is too high, the acid-base imbalance of plant tissue fluid can be influenced, the nutrition imbalance of the plant cell tissue fluid is caused, the circulation of the plant tissue fluid between scion and stock is not facilitated, the survival rate is reduced, and when the content of the pyroligneous is too low, the bacteriostatic effect on trichoderma and penicillium is poor. The nisin can effectively inhibit the growth and the propagation of a plurality of gram-positive bacteria, such as lactobacillus, leuconostoc, pediococcus, staphylococcus, listeria and the like; but the solubility of the compound in water is low, the inhibition effect on bacteria is poor, and when the compound is matched with wood vinegar and formic acid, the solubility of nisin can be greatly improved, and the antibacterial effect is improved. Alginate is common thickening agent, emulsifier, stabilizer, adhesive and sizing agent, and is matched with oligomer in pectin zymolyte to improve the stability of the bacteriostatic agent, form a bacteriostatic film at a grafting opening and have good bacteriostatic effect.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be further described with reference to examples and tests.
Example 1
Grafting is carried out in summer, and the daily temperature is 30-36 ℃;
the simple propagation method for grafting camellia chrysantha to camellia sinensis in the embodiment comprises the following steps:
cultivation of S1 rootstock:
a. selecting a nursery land: selecting slightly acidic loam or sandy loam with convenient traffic, mild topography, loose and fertile soil, good irrigation and drainage;
b. seedbed arrangement: leveling seedling raising land blocks, dividing the land blocks into ridges, forming a drainage ditch with the width of 1.5m, the width of 25cm between the ridges and the depth of 15cm between the ridges; a shade shed with the height of 2.5m is built on the seedling land, and the shade degree of the shade shed is 70 percent;
c. selecting rootstock seeds: selecting big, full, mildew-free and insect-free Gaozhou camellia seeds as stock seeds; harvesting the camellia oleifera fruits in the middle and last ten days of 11 months each year, placing the harvested fruits in a ventilating shade place, naturally drying and cracking the fruits for about two weeks, peeling off peels and taking out seeds;
d. seed treatment: soaking and disinfecting seeds for 5min by adopting a potassium permanganate solution with the mass percentage of 0.5 percent, fishing out the submerged seeds, cleaning the seeds with clear water, ventilating and drying the seeds, and recording the insolation and dehydration;
e. accelerating germination of seeds: preparing a sand pool with the width of 1.5m and the height of 12cm, storing the sand pool in sand for accelerating germination, spreading the dried seeds on the sand pool, wherein the seeds cannot be placed too densely to avoid mutual stacking, covering the sand pool with the thickness of 5cm, covering a thin film after water is thoroughly sprayed, and keeping the humidity at 80%; sowing when the seeds germinate and the radicles grow to 1 cm;
f. sowing: sowing is carried out by arranging sowing trenches with the depth of 8cm on the seedbed, the row spacing of the sowing trenches is 30cm, and the plant spacing in the sowing trenches is 18 cm; when sowing, the radicles of the seeds are downward, the soil with the thickness of 3cm is evenly covered after sowing, and water is drenched to keep the soil moist;
g. seedling stage management:
during the germination period of the seeds, attention needs to be paid to keeping the soil moist, and the poor growth and development of seedlings caused by drought and water shortage are prevented;
after seedlings enter a leaf expanding period, 0.1 percent compound fertilizer is sprayed for 1 time per month, and if diseases exist, 25 percent carbendazim wettable powder is sprayed for 500 times every 10 days and is continuously sprayed for 3 times;
in the young growth period, 10% imidacloprid is diluted by 4000 times of liquid every 15 days, 2% abamectin is diluted by 1000 times and then mixed and sprayed, and the liquid is continuously sprayed for 3 times;
when the camellia oleifera grows to 80cm high and the trunk diameter is 1cm, the camellia oleifera can be used as a stock for grafting.
S2 cultivation of the grafting mother tree:
a. building a cutting garden, namely selecting plots of loose soil or sandy loam with mild terrain, loose soil, fertile soil, no pollution and slight acidity, digging planting pits according to the line spacing of 3m × 3m and the depth of 0.8m, backfilling surface soil, uniformly mixing deep soil and farmyard manure according to the mass ratio of 2:1 for later use, building a shading net with shading degree of 70-85% above the cutting garden, and mixing the farmyard manure with humus soil and rotten stable manure;
b. planting the mother tree: selecting golden camellia plants which have good growth vigor for more than five years, no plant diseases and insect pests and pure varieties as golden camellia mother trees for providing scions; vertically loading the mother tree and soil balls into planting pits, backfilling with prepared soil, and watering to fix roots; the time for planting the mother tree is 9-11 months every year;
c. managing the mother tree: spraying compound fertilizer water solution with mass concentration of 0.1% for 2 times per month after transplanting for one month; loosening soil and weeding for the mother trees after picking the spikes, applying 0.5kg of organic fertilizer and 0.5kg of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer per mu, and simultaneously spraying growth hormone for 1 time; for plants with too much flowers and fruits, flowers and flower buds can be thinned according to the growth condition of the tree body, and the supply of new nutrients is ensured.
S3 grafting:
(1) treating the rootstock: selecting a stock which grows well and has no disease or insect pest, reserving a few branches and leaves at the trunk and the top, completely cutting off the rest lateral branches, and wiping the trunk part with a clean towel;
(2) collecting and processing scions: selecting semi-lignified branches positioned at the middle upper part of the periphery of a crown and from half a year to an year, and cutting the branches 12cm away from the top; the branches are robust, the bud eyes are full, the internode length is moderate, and no plant diseases or insect pests exist; cutting off each branch at a position 1.5cm below the axillary bud and at a position 0.5cm above the axillary bud, and reserving 1/2 leaves to form a leaf-bud scion; completely soaking the scion in 1000 times of 25% carbendazim wettable powder for 3min for disinfection, taking out and draining water for later use;
(3) grafting scion and stock:
a. scion cutting: holding the knife to make the knife edge and the scion form an angle of 20 degrees, cutting an inclined plane with the length of 1cm from a position 0.5cm below the axillary bud of the scion, turning the other side of the scion strip, and cutting the inclined plane by the same method; the two inclined planes are not completely opposite and form an angle, and a wedge shape with one thicker side and one thinner side is formed; the bevel is required to be formed once when being cut, and the bevel is smooth and flat without fluffing;
b. cutting the rootstock: selecting a smooth part on the trunk of the stock, holding a knife to enable the knife edge to form an angle of 15 degrees with the tree body, downwards beveling to form a cut which is 1.5cm deep to the xylem, transversely cutting the upper part of the cut at a position of 0.5cm by using the knife, and removing the upper part; the cut section is approximately in a 7 shape, one side of the cut section can be uncovered to cut into the scion, and the cut is required to be smooth and flat without fluffing;
c. grafting: inserting the scion into the cut surface of the stock, wherein the thin side of the scion is positioned at the inner side of the stock, and the scion is inserted until the other side of the scion is aligned with the bark of the stock, and at the moment, the cambiums of the stock and the scion are also exactly aligned with each other;
d. hormone and bacteriostasis treatment, namely preparing a hormone bacteriostasis solution in advance, and uniformly spraying the hormone bacteriostasis solution on the scions and the grafting openings until the solution is uniformly adhered to the scion leaves, branches and the grafting openings; the hormone bacteriostatic solution contains the following components in concentration: IBA0.28g/L and bacteriostatic agent 50 g/L; the bacteriostatic agent consists of the following raw materials in parts by mass: the preparation method comprises the following steps of 50 parts of shaddock peel pectin zymolyte, 10 parts of alginate, 10 parts of pyroligneous liquor, 0.2 part of formic acid and 1 part of nisin, wherein in the shaddock peel pectin zymolyte, the mass percentage content of oligomer with the relative molecular weight of 20000-30000 is 65%, and the pyroligneous liquor is prepared by the following method: adding lychee seeds, pepper, nutmeg and bamboo into a dry distillation kettle according to the mass ratio of 5:3:1:10, heating to 250 ℃, preserving heat for 5 hours, and collecting pyroligneous liquor.
e. Taking a special transparent grafting plastic film, winding the joint part of the stock and the scion for several circles to fix the scion and the stock, then unfolding the film to wind upwards, covering the bud and the leaf of the scion for a circle, and fastening the grafting film at the upper part to finish grafting of one scion; wherein, 4 scions can be grafted on the same stock, and the distance between the lowest scion on the stock and the ground is 15 cm.
S4 management after grafting:
a. water content management: controlling the