CN111066558A - Green crisp plum planting method for improving yield and quality of fruits - Google Patents

Green crisp plum planting method for improving yield and quality of fruits Download PDF

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CN111066558A
CN111066558A CN201911377520.3A CN201911377520A CN111066558A CN 111066558 A CN111066558 A CN 111066558A CN 201911377520 A CN201911377520 A CN 201911377520A CN 111066558 A CN111066558 A CN 111066558A
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fruit
fertilizer
planting
soil
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刘然均
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Ranjunjingguolin Planting Field In Tongzi County
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Ranjunjingguolin Planting Field In Tongzi County
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Biodiversity & Conservation Biology (AREA)
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  • Forests & Forestry (AREA)
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  • Soil Sciences (AREA)
  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Wood Science & Technology (AREA)
  • Cultivation Of Plants (AREA)

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for planting green plums for improving the yield and the quality of fruits, which is characterized by comprising the following steps: the planting method comprises land preparation in selected fields, nursery stock planting, dry setting, field management, flower thinning, fruit thinning management and timely harvesting. By adopting the planting method, the green crisp plum planting base can meet the requirement of standardized planting by land selection and land preparation, sufficient nutrition can be provided for the green crisp plum planting base by daily management of intertillage weeding, fertilizer and water management, shaping pruning and pest control, the nutrient substance requirement for the growth of the green crisp plum can be met, the tree vigor can be balanced, the growth of the fruit tree can be promoted, the survival rate of the green crisp plum can be improved, the whole tree form is in a spindle shape by shaping pruning, the illumination is sufficient, the light energy utilization rate is high, the fruiting capacity can be greatly enhanced, the method is simple and convenient to operate, the fruit tree can be shaped in advance, the fruit can be fruited in advance, the high yield period can be reached, the effect is remarkable, and the method has great significance for promoting the popularization and planting.

Description

Green crisp plum planting method for improving yield and quality of fruits
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of fruit tree planting, and particularly relates to a method for planting green and crispy plums, which can improve the yield and quality of fruits.
Background
The green and crisp plum is a prunus plant of rosaceae, has small kernel, thick flesh, plump, mellow, smooth, exquisite and transparent shape, beautiful and beautiful shape and sweet taste, and is one of the popular traditional fruits. The prunus salicina has rich nutrition, is rich in nutritional ingredients such as vitamins, fruit acids and amino acids, and has a promoting effect on hemoglobin regeneration. The crisp plum can be used as fresh fruit, can be made into canned food and preserved fruit, and can be eaten all the year round. The green and crisp plums are rich in nutrition, and when being eaten in a proper amount, the plums can promote the production of body fluid, promote urination, remove liver heat and are beneficial to body health, so that the green and crisp plums are deeply loved by people.
At present, the green crisp plum fertilizer is mostly used as a base fertilizer and an additional fertilizer by virtue of an inorganic chemical fertilizer, so that organic matters in soil are reduced, the fertilizer retention and water retention performance is reduced, a large amount of nutrients applied to the soil are subjected to permeation loss, fixation or volatilization loss, heavy metal elements are accumulated to exceed the standard, chemical pesticides for preventing and treating diseases are not degraded, so that pesticide residues exceed the standard, the green crisp plum planted under the condition directly threatens the physical health of consumers, and the quality of the soil environment also causes vicious circle. In addition, the existing planting method is adopted, and the tree bodies are too many and too vigorous branches and are not beneficial to ventilation and light transmission, so that the fruit bearing rate is low, the fruit shape is not correct, the color difference of the fruits is caused, and the like. The produced fruits are small, have poor capability of resisting diseases and insect pests, are easy to soften after being matured, are difficult to store, have serious fruit drop, low yield and poor quality. In the long term, the method is not beneficial to the yield and harvest of the green and crisp plums and is not suitable for popularization and planting.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims at the defects in the prior art, provides a planting method of green crisp plums, solves the defects in the prior art, balances tree vigor through daily management, promotes the growth of fruit trees, realizes the efficient utilization of orchard land resources, improves the yield of the green crisp plums, obtains high-quality green crisp plums, further increases the economic benefit of unit land area, and particularly provides the planting method of the green crisp plums, which improves the yield and quality of fruits.
In order to solve the technical problems, the invention adopts the technical scheme that: a method for planting green and crisp plums for improving the yield and the quality of fruits comprises land preparation in selected areas, seedling field planting, drying, field management, flower thinning, fruit thinning management and timely harvesting, and specifically comprises the following steps:
(1) land selection and preparation: selecting land with the altitude of less than 1500m as a planting garden, wherein the soil layer is 40-60 cm thick, and the organic matter content is 50-60%; carrying out deep ploughing treatment on the soil, wherein the depth is 30-40 cm, adding 300-500 kg of thoroughly decomposed farmyard manure per mu during deep ploughing, standing for 15-20 days after the deep ploughing is finished, carrying out secondary deep ploughing treatment, adjusting the pH value of the soil to be 6.5-7.2 by the secondary deep ploughing treatment, and then carrying out bed preparation on the soil, so that the height of a bed is 50-60 cm, the width of the bed is 90-100 cm, a ditch is formed between beds, and the width of the ditch is 30-40 cm; adding farmyard manure and compound fertilizer on the furrows, wherein the amount of the farmyard manure is 20-40 kg per furrow, the amount of the compound fertilizer is 5-10 kg per furrow, the farmyard manure and soil are uniformly mixed, and the mixture is covered with a layer of soil with the thickness of 5-8 cm and left unused for more than 15 days for later use;
(2) planting and drying the nursery stock: planting 2-year-old seedlings on the furrow prepared in the step (1) in 3-4 months every year, selecting robust seedlings for transplanting, planting 20-30 seedlings per mu during transplanting, fixing the seedlings to be dry 0.3-0.4 m away from the ground after planting, and keeping the first bud direction below a cut between rows during fixing the seedlings to be dry; after the stem is determined, from the second bud below the cut 20 days before the bud, respectively selecting one bud from the buds facing to the row space at two sides, and carving the bud or coating the bud with the germinant at the position 0.3-0.4 cm above the selected bud so as to promote the bud to germinate; after sprouting, straightening the nursery stock by using a wood pole or a bamboo pole to ensure that the nursery stock grows vertically; when the young shoots grow to 15-20 cm, selecting and reserving two strong young shoots facing to the row space to culture as a central leader trunk; when two selected young shoots grow to be more than 60cm, pulling branches between the straight rows to enable the young shoots to incline between the rows, enabling the two young shoots to form an included angle of 25-30 degrees, and fixing the young shoots to fix the angle in an auxiliary mode;
(3) field management: the field management comprises intertillage weeding, fertilizer and water management, shaping and pruning and pest control, and the tree vigor is balanced through the field management to promote the growth of fruit trees;
A. intertillage weeding: loosening soil and weeding once every year in spring, summer and autumn after planting and fixing the seedlings until closing the seedlings, and avoiding damaging barks and tree roots as much as possible during intertillage weeding; the seedlings in the early stage are shallow and not deep; after the plants are grown, the plants are appropriately deepened, soil is kept loose and ventilated, so that root systems grow, and crowns are rapidly expanded; after weeding in autumn, hilling is carried out to prevent water and soil loss;
B. and (3) fertilizer and water management: the fertilizer and water management comprises fertilization in a seedling stage, fertilization in an adult fruiting stage and fertilization in a fruit picking later stage, and by means of staged fertilization, the tree vigor is balanced, and reasonable nutrition requirements are provided for all stages of plum tree growth;
C. shaping and trimming: the pruning comprises young tree shaping pruning and adult tree pruning, the fruit tree is pruned to be in a spindle-shaped structure through the pruning, and the cross section of a branch trunk is required to be 2/3-3/4 of the cross section of the corresponding trunk;
D. and (3) pest control: spraying 5-degree lime sulphur mixture after falling leaves and before sprouting for cleaning gardens, when the plant diseases and insect pests are serious, spraying 2000-2500 times of Bordeaux mixture for 1 time every 15 days and continuously spraying for 2-3 times, then spraying 600-800 times of mancozeb with the concentration of 80% for treatment, spraying 1 time every 10 days and continuously spraying for 2-3 times; the bactericide with the concentration of 40-45% is sprayed before and after flowering;
(4) flower thinning and fruit thinning management: the method comprises the following steps of controlling the vigorous growth of new shoots and promoting flower bud differentiation by thinning flowers and fruits, and adopting the measures of pinching, twisting tips, stroking branches, pulling branches or girdling to control the vigorous growth of the new shoots of the green and crisp plums, weakening the tree vigor, balancing the vegetative growth and the reproductive growth and promoting the flower bud differentiation; watering for 2-3 times 10-15 days before flowering every year, wherein the watering amount is 2-3 kg/plant, and spraying an organic fertilizer solution with the concentration of 0.2-0.3% to the plum trees once when the flowering early stage is reached; when the plum trees bear fruits and the fruits are in the hard pit period, the big fruits and the small fruits are distinguished obviously, the malformed fruits, the insect-infected fruits and the redundant fruits are removed, 1-2 fruits are left on the flower-shaped fruit branches and the short fruit branches, and one fruit is left on the middle fruit branch and the long fruit branch at the interval of 4-5 cm.
(5) Harvesting in due time: picking in hard ripe period is preferred, namely picking when the bottom color of the peel changes from green to yellow and the taste is crisp and sweet.
Further, the method for planting the green and crispy plums for improving the yield and the quality of the fruits, disclosed by the invention, comprises the following steps of (3) in the field management process, wherein the fertilizer is applied at the seedling stage, the fertilizer is applied at the adult fruiting stage and the fertilizer is applied at the later fruit picking stage:
(1) fertilizing in a seedling stage: in the seedling stage, the principle of frequent application and thin application is mastered, the planted seedling land is mixed by straw and sawdust according to the weight ratio of 1:2 to obtain a mixture, the mixture is covered, the covering thickness is 8-12 cm, a layer of soil is further covered on the surface of the mixture, the soil thickness is 3-5 cm, after 30-40 days, the fertilizer is applied by means of furrow application, the depth of a furrow is 15-20 cm during fertilizer application, after the furrow is filled with farmyard manure, water filling treatment is carried out, the water filling amount is 1-2 kg/plant, and after the water filling is finished, the farmyard manure is covered by soil for 10-20 cm; when the cultivation management is carried out to the second year, when plum trees sprout to 7 months, after intertillage weeding, fertilizer application treatment is carried out by using clear excrement water or biogas slurry, during fertilizer application, the clear excrement water or biogas slurry is applied under the plum tree tray, and then 3-5 cm of clear excrement water or biogas slurry is covered by soil; since the plum trees enter the initial fruit period in the third year and a large amount of fruits are hung in the fourth year, base fertilizer is applied once in 8-9 months in the third year after planting, annular ditches with the width of 40-50 cm and the depth of 30-40 cm are excavated outwards at the water dripping line of a tree tray, each plant is applied to the ditches by 20-30 kg of decomposed farmyard manure, the application amount is determined according to the tree vigor and the plant yield, and finally, the ditches are covered with soil for covering;
(2) fertilization in adult fruiting period: applying early spring fertilizer in the early stage of flower bud germination, and applying fertilizer in the late month of 2 months to the early ten days of 3 months, wherein the fertilizer application amount is that 0.5-1 kg or 15-20 kg of quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer is applied to each plant, and the N: P: K =15:15: 15; after flower falling, when the fruit grows to be as large as soybean and the kernel begins to harden, applying stable fruit fertilizer, and applying additional fertilizer from the first ten days of 4 months to the last ten days of 4 months, wherein the fertilizing amount is 0.5-1 kg of quick-acting nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer applied to each plant, and N in the stable fruit fertilizer is P: K =15:5: 25; applying fruit strengthening fertilizer in the fruit sclerotization stage: in the middle ten days of 5 months to the last 6 months, the fertilizing amount is 0.8-1.2 kg of quick-acting nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer applied to each plant, and N: P: K =10:10:20 in the application of the strong fruit fertilizer;
(3) fertilizing at the later stage of fruit picking: deep ploughing the plum trees, and applying organic fertilizer in combination to increase humus and other nutrient substances in soil, improve soil fertility and reduce plant diseases and insect pests and weed harm; deeply turning to excavate an annular trench along a water dripping line of a tree crown, wherein the width is 40-50 cm, and the depth is preferably 50-60 cm; when deep ploughing, stacking the surface soil and the core soil separately, and applying the straw, the green manure and the decomposed farmyard manure into the trench in a layering earthing sequence of firstly surface soil and then core soil; in addition, the main lateral roots of more than 1 cm should be protected as far as possible during deep ploughing, otherwise growth will be affected; and when deep turning is carried out, the deep turning is carried out at intervals of 2-3 years according to the growth condition of the plum trees.
Further, the method for planting green and crispy plums for improving the yield and quality of fruits, disclosed by the invention, wherein in the field management process in the step (3), the trimming of the whole young trees and the trimming of the adult trees specifically comprise the following steps:
(1) trimming the saplings: and (3) shaping and trimming after planting: thinning out other branches except for the central leading trunk, which are sent out from the trunk after field planting, starting from the position 65cm higher than the ground, cutting buds or smearing germinants at intervals of 2-3 buds on the central leading trunk at a position 0.2-0.3 cm above the buds, and culturing the buds into main branches; in summer of the next year, 3-4 branches with full growth and development are selected and reserved on the main branches and cultivated into auxiliary main branches; then, discharging lateral branches on the auxiliary main branches, and if the directions and angles of the branches are unreasonable, correcting by adopting a branch pulling method; properly cutting off each main branch according to the growth condition of each main branch, and cutting off 1/4-1/3 of the full length to facilitate forming lateral branches; pruning in spring of the third year, selecting 1 angle from branches formed after the main branches are cut short to open, taking the strong branches as extension branches of the main branches, cutting short, cutting off about 1/2 of the whole branches, selecting 1-2 branches growing outwards from the rest branches as side branches, and cutting short about 1/3; keeping small branches below 5cm on the main branch as much as possible, culturing into short fruit branches or bouquet-shaped fruit branches, and cutting the middle and long fruit branches appropriately; after 3 years of trimming and shaping, the tree becomes a fusiform tree structure body with hollow outer circle, opened crown, ventilation and light transmission, short trunk and low crown;
(2) pruning of adult trees: after the plum trees enter the bearing period, the plum trees usually affect the growth due to excessive flowering and fruiting and affect the bearing due to excessive growth to form the phenomenon of fruiting with different sizes, therefore, the pruning of the adult trees mainly aims at maintaining strong tree vigor and culturing more bearing branches, combines flower thinning and fruit thinning, adjusts the stable relation between the growth and the bearing, shapes and prunes, can enlarge the crowns after thinning and pruning, ensures that the branches and the tips are clear, ventilates and transmits light in the inner chambers of the crowns, takes short and strong young tips to culture bearing branch groups, updates the aged bearing mother branches, mainly aims at pruning and balancing the tree vigor, the trunk of the vigorous trees is pruned or flattened by slight shearing, long placing, much remaining, opening base angles and waist angles, the weak trees relax weak trees by short shearing, repeated shearing, weak branch removing and strong branch remaining, the top of the trunk is pruned or flattened when the height of the trees exceeds 4 meters, and finally the upper bearing is formed to be short, the slender fruiting branches at the lower part are in a suspended spindle-shaped tree shape.
Further, in the planting method of prunus humilis bunge for improving the yield and quality of fruits, the bactericide in the pest control process in the step (3) of field management consists of copper sulfate pentahydrate, zinc sulfate, quicklime, a plant extracting solution and an auxiliary agent, and the raw materials in percentage by mass are as follows: 3-7% of copper sulfate pentahydrate, 5-10% of zinc sulfate, 20-25% of quick lime, 40-50% of plant extract and 15-20% of auxiliary agent; the plant extracting solution is obtained by mixing tobacco straws and celastrus angulatus according to the mass ratio of 1:1 and then extracting with water, and the auxiliary agent is starch; the preparation method of the bactericide comprises the steps of mixing tobacco straws and celastrus angulatus, adding water, boiling, extracting for three times, combining extracting solutions obtained by three times, filtering to obtain plant extracting solutions, dissolving copper sulfate pentahydrate and zinc sulfate into the extracting solutions respectively to obtain mixed solutions, adding quicklime and an auxiliary agent into the mixed solutions, heating, mixing and stirring for 10-15 minutes, stirring into a paste, and cooling to obtain the bactericide.
Compared with the prior art, the method for planting the green and crispy plums for improving the yield and the quality of the fruits has the beneficial effect that the fruit trees can enter a high-yield period in advance through a tree vigor balancing technology. The concrete aspects are as follows:
(1) the method comprises the steps of selecting land and preparing soil for a tree garden for planting the green and crisp plum, providing nutrition for planting the green and crisp plum, and performing field planting, drying, flower thinning and fruit thinning treatment on nursery stocks, so that a foundation is laid for obtaining the green and crisp plum with plump and mellow, beautiful shape and sweet taste.
(2) By carrying out fertilizer and water management and pest control treatment on the green crisp plum trees, the normal and robust growth of the green crisp plums in a general environment is promoted, the survival rate of the green crisp plums is improved, the green crisp plums can effectively absorb nutrient substances, the nutrient substance requirement for the growth of the green crisp plums is met, and the quality of the green crisp plums is greatly improved; the normal growth of the green and crisp plums is ensured, so that the green and crisp plums have good growth vigor, strong fruits and low disease incidence, and are full and mellow and sweet in taste. In addition, the bactericide is sprayed before and after blooming, so that the flower-pot is green and pollution-free, and has no toxicity or harm to people and livestock; the method has the advantages of simple and convenient application, high utilization rate of the medicine, and capability of saving a large amount of manual application cost and medicament cost. Meanwhile, the medicine also has higher prevention and treatment rate and longer drug effect time. Therefore, the influence of plant diseases and insect pests on the yield of the prunus humilis can be reduced, the quality and the yield of the prunus humilis are improved, and the economic income of growers is increased.
(3) Through shaping and pruning, the whole tree form is in a spindle shape, the illumination is sufficient, the utilization rate of light energy is high, the sunlight can be ensured to be seen on the central trunk, and the illumination condition of the inner bore of the crown is excellent; the fruit trees enter the high-yield period 2-3 years earlier than other tree forms, the fruiting capacity is strong, fruiting branches can be directly remained on small main branches, fruiting branch groups are not remained, the sizes of fruits inside and outside the crowns are consistent, the fruit quality is consistent, and the high-quality fruit rate is extremely high.
(4) According to the method, the nutrient content of the green and crispy plum is combined, reasonable nutrient element collocation is carried out in the fertilizing step of the green and crispy plum, the fertilizer is reasonably applied, meanwhile, the pest and disease damage prevention and control are carried out on the green and crispy plum base at regular intervals, so that the green and crispy plum grows in a good environment for a long time, the quality of the growth environment of the green and crispy plum is improved, the yield and the quality of the green and crispy plum are further improved, the further development of the green and crispy plum industry is promoted, and the green and crispy plum planting industry is further promoted.
In conclusion, by adopting the planting method provided by the invention, the green crisp plum planting base can meet the requirement of standardized planting by land selection and land preparation, sufficient nutrition can be provided for the green crisp plum planting base by carrying out intertillage weeding, fertilizer and water management, shaping and pruning and daily management of pest control on the green crisp plum, the requirement of the green crisp plum on the growth nutrient substance can be met, the tree vigor can be balanced, the growth of the fruit tree can be promoted, the survival rate of the green crisp plum can be improved, the whole tree form is in a spindle-shaped state by shaping and pruning, the illumination is sufficient, the light energy utilization rate is high, the fruiting capacity can be greatly enhanced, the operation is simple and convenient, the fruit tree can be shaped in advance, the fruit can be fruited in advance, the high yield can be reached in advance, the effect is prominent, and the popularization and planting of the.
Detailed Description
In order to more fully explain the practice of the invention, the invention is further described with reference to the following specific examples. The examples are given solely for the purpose of illustration and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention.
Example 1:
a method for planting green and crisp plums for improving the yield and the quality of fruits comprises land preparation in selected areas, seedling field planting, drying, field management, flower thinning, fruit thinning management and timely harvesting, and specifically comprises the following steps:
(1) land selection and preparation: selecting a land with an altitude of less than 1200m as a plantation land, wherein the soil layer is 40-50 cm thick, and the organic matter content is 50-60%; carrying out deep ploughing treatment on the soil, wherein the depth is 30-35 cm, adding 300-400 kg of thoroughly decomposed farmyard manure per mu during deep ploughing, standing for 15-18 days after the deep ploughing is finished, carrying out secondary deep ploughing treatment, adjusting the pH value of the soil to be 6.5-7.0 by the secondary deep ploughing treatment, and then carrying out bed preparation on the soil, so that the height of a bed is 50-55 cm, the width of the bed is 90cm, a ditch is formed between beds, and the width of the ditch is 30-35 cm; adding farmyard manure and compound fertilizer on the furrows, wherein the amount of the farmyard manure is 20-30 kg per furrow, the amount of the compound fertilizer is 5-8 kg per furrow, the farmyard manure and soil are uniformly mixed, and the mixture is covered with a layer of soil with the thickness of 5-7 cm and left unused for more than 15 days for later use;
(2) planting and drying the nursery stock: planting 2-year-old seedlings on the furrow prepared in the step (1) in 3-4 months every year, selecting robust seedlings for transplanting, planting 20-25 seedlings per mu during transplanting, fixing the seedlings to be dry 0.3-0.4 m away from the ground after planting, and keeping the first bud direction below a cut between rows during fixing the seedlings to be dry; after the stem is determined, from the second bud below the cut 20 days before the bud, respectively selecting one bud from the buds facing to the row space at two sides, and carving the bud or coating the bud with the germinant at the position 0.3-0.4 cm above the selected bud so as to promote the bud to germinate; after sprouting, straightening the nursery stock by using a wood pole or a bamboo pole to ensure that the nursery stock grows vertically; when the young shoots grow to 15-18 cm, selecting and reserving two strong young shoots facing to the row space to culture as a central leader trunk; when two selected young shoots grow to be more than 60cm, pulling branches between the straight rows to enable the young shoots to incline between the rows, enabling the two young shoots to form an included angle of 25-30 degrees, and fixing the young shoots to fix the angle in an auxiliary mode;
(3) field management: the field management comprises intertillage weeding, fertilizer and water management, shaping and pruning and pest control, and the tree vigor is balanced through the field management to promote the growth of fruit trees;
A. intertillage weeding: loosening soil and weeding once every year in spring, summer and autumn after planting and fixing the seedlings until closing the seedlings, and avoiding damaging barks and tree roots as much as possible during intertillage weeding; the seedlings in the early stage are shallow and not deep; after the plants are grown, the plants are appropriately deepened, soil is kept loose and ventilated, so that root systems grow, and crowns are rapidly expanded; after weeding in autumn, hilling is carried out to prevent water and soil loss;
B. and (3) fertilizer and water management: the fertilizer and water management comprises fertilization in a seedling stage, fertilization in an adult fruiting stage and fertilization in a fruit picking later stage, and by means of staged fertilization, the tree vigor is balanced, and reasonable nutrition requirements are provided for all stages of plum tree growth; wherein the fertilization at the seedling stage, the fertilization at the fruiting stage of the adults and the fertilization at the later stage of fruit picking specifically comprise the following steps:
fertilizing in a seedling stage: in the seedling stage, the principle of frequent application and thin application is mastered, the planted seedling land is mixed by straw and sawdust according to the weight ratio of 1:2 to obtain a mixture, the mixture is covered, the covering thickness is 8-10 cm, a layer of soil is further covered on the surface of the mixture, the soil thickness is 3-4 cm, after 30-35 days, the fertilizer is applied by means of furrow application, the depth of a furrow is 15-18 cm during fertilizer application, after the furrow is filled with farmyard manure, water filling treatment is carried out, the water filling amount is 1-1.5 kg/plant, and after the water filling is finished, the farmyard manure is covered by soil for 10-15 cm; when the cultivation management is carried out to the second year, when plum trees sprout to 7 months, after intertillage weeding, fertilizer application treatment is carried out by using clear excrement water or biogas slurry, during fertilizer application, the clear excrement water or biogas slurry is applied under the plum tree tray, and then 3-4 cm of clear excrement water or biogas slurry is covered by soil; since the plum trees enter the initial fruit period in the third year and a large amount of fruits are hung in the fourth year, base fertilizer is applied once in 8-9 months in the third year after planting, annular ditches with the width of 40-45 cm and the depth of 30-35 cm are excavated outwards at the water dripping line of a tree tray, each plant is applied to the ditches by using 20-25 kg of decomposed farmyard manure, the application amount is determined according to the tree vigor and the plant yield, and finally, the ditches are covered with soil for covering;
fertilization in adult fruiting period: applying early spring fertilizer in the early stage of flower bud germination, and applying fertilizer in the late month of 2 months to the early ten days of 3 months, wherein the fertilizer application amount is that 0.5-0.8 kg or 15-18 kg of quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer is applied to each plant, and the N in the early spring fertilizer is P: K =15:15: 15; after flower falling, when the fruit grows to be as large as soybean and the kernel begins to harden, applying stable fruit fertilizer, and applying additional fertilizer from the first ten days of 4 months to the last ten days of 4 months, wherein the fertilizing amount is 0.5-0.8 kg of quick-acting nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer applied to each plant, and N in the stable fruit fertilizer is P: K =15:5: 25; applying fruit strengthening fertilizer in the fruit sclerotization stage: in the middle ten days of 5 months to the last 6 months, the fertilizing amount is 0.8-1.0 kg of quick-acting nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer applied to each plant, and N: P: K =10:10:20 in the application of the strong fruit fertilizer;
fertilizing at the later stage of fruit picking: deep ploughing the plum trees, and applying organic fertilizer in combination to increase humus and other nutrient substances in soil, improve soil fertility and reduce plant diseases and insect pests and weed harm; deeply turning to excavate an annular trench along a water dripping line of a tree crown, wherein the width is 40-45 cm, and the depth is preferably 50-55 cm; when deep ploughing, stacking the surface soil and the core soil separately, and applying the straw, the green manure and the decomposed farmyard manure into the trench in a layering earthing sequence of firstly surface soil and then core soil; in addition, the main lateral roots of more than 1 cm should be protected as far as possible during deep ploughing, otherwise growth will be affected; when turning deeply, the operation is carried out at intervals of 2 years.
C. Shaping and trimming: the pruning comprises young tree shaping pruning and adult tree pruning, the fruit tree is pruned to be in a spindle-shaped structure through the pruning, and the cross section of a branch trunk is required to be 2/3-3/4 of the cross section of the corresponding trunk; the trimming of the whole saplings and the adult trees specifically comprises the following steps:
trimming the saplings: and (3) shaping and trimming after planting: thinning out other branches except the central leading trunk, which are sent out from the trunk after field planting, starting from the position 65cm higher than the ground, cutting buds or smearing shoot-forming elements at intervals of 2 buds on the central leading trunk at a position 0.2-0.3 cm above the buds to promote the buds to germinate and cultivate the buds into main branches; in summer of the next year, 3 branches with full growth and development are selected and reserved on the main branches and cultivated into auxiliary main branches; then, discharging lateral branches on the auxiliary main branches, and if the directions and angles of the branches are unreasonable, correcting by adopting a branch pulling method; properly cutting off each main branch according to the growth condition of each main branch, and cutting off 1/4-1/3 of the full length to facilitate forming lateral branches; pruning in spring of the third year, respectively selecting 1 angle from branches formed after the main branches are cut short, opening the branches, taking the strong branches as extension branches of the main branches, cutting short, cutting off about 1/2 of the whole branches, respectively selecting 1 outward-growing branch from the rest branches as a side branch, and cutting short about 1/3; keeping small branches below 5cm on the main branch as much as possible, culturing into short fruit branches or bouquet-shaped fruit branches, and cutting the middle and long fruit branches appropriately; after 3 years of trimming and shaping, the tree becomes a fusiform tree structure body with hollow outer circle, opened crown, ventilation and light transmission, short trunk and low crown;
pruning of adult trees: after the plum trees enter the bearing period, the plum trees usually affect the growth due to excessive flowering and fruiting and affect the bearing due to excessive growth to form the phenomenon of fruiting with different sizes, therefore, the pruning of the adult trees mainly aims at maintaining strong tree vigor and culturing more bearing branches, combines flower thinning and fruit thinning, adjusts the stable relation between the growth and the bearing, shapes and prunes, can enlarge the crowns after thinning and pruning, ensures that the branches and the tips are clear, ventilates and transmits light in the inner chambers of the crowns, takes short and strong young tips to culture bearing branch groups, updates the aged bearing mother branches, mainly aims at pruning and balancing the tree vigor, the trunk of the vigorous trees is pruned or flattened by slight shearing, long placing, much remaining, opening base angles and waist angles, the weak trees relax weak trees by short shearing, repeated shearing, weak branch removing and strong branch remaining, the top of the trunk is pruned or flattened when the height of the trees exceeds 4 meters, and finally the upper bearing is formed to be short, the slender fruiting branches at the lower part are in a suspended spindle-shaped tree shape.
D. And (3) pest control: spraying 5-degree lime sulphur mixture after falling leaves and before sprouting for cleaning gardens, when the plant diseases and insect pests are serious, spraying 2000-time Bordeaux mixture for 1 time every 15 days and 2 times continuously, then spraying 80% mancozeb 600-time mixture for 1 time every 10 days and 2 times continuously; the bactericide with the concentration of 40 percent is sprayed before and after flowering; the bactericide consists of blue vitriol, zinc sulfate, quicklime, plant extract and an auxiliary agent, and the mass percent of the raw materials is as follows: 3% of blue vitriol, 5% of zinc sulfate, 22% of quicklime, 50% of plant extract and 20% of auxiliary agent; the plant extracting solution is obtained by mixing tobacco straws and celastrus angulatus according to the mass ratio of 1:1 and then extracting with water, and the auxiliary agent is starch; the preparation method of the bactericide comprises the steps of mixing tobacco straws and celastrus angulatus, adding water, boiling, extracting for three times, combining extracting solutions obtained by three times, filtering to obtain plant extracting solutions, dissolving copper sulfate pentahydrate and zinc sulfate into the extracting solutions respectively to obtain mixed solutions, adding quicklime and an auxiliary agent into the mixed solutions, heating, mixing and stirring for 10-15 minutes, stirring into a paste, and cooling to obtain the bactericide.
(4) Flower thinning and fruit thinning management: the method comprises the following steps of controlling the vigorous growth of new shoots and promoting flower bud differentiation by thinning flowers and fruits, and adopting the measures of pinching, twisting tips, stroking branches, pulling branches or girdling to control the vigorous growth of the new shoots of the green and crisp plums, weakening the tree vigor, balancing the vegetative growth and the reproductive growth and promoting the flower bud differentiation; watering 3 times 10-15 days before flowering every year, wherein the watering amount is 2-2.5 kg/plant, and spraying an organic fertilizer solution with the concentration of 0.2% to the plum trees when the flowering early stage; when the plum trees bear fruits and the fruits are in the hard pit period, the big fruits and the small fruits are distinguished obviously, the malformed fruits, the insect-infected fruits and the redundant fruits are removed, 1-2 fruits are left on the flower-shaped fruit branches and the short fruit branches, and one fruit is left on the middle fruit branch and the long fruit branch at the interval of 4-5 cm.
(5) Harvesting in due time: picking in hard ripe period is preferred, namely picking when the bottom color of the peel changes from green to yellow and the taste is crisp and sweet.
Example 2:
a method for planting green and crisp plums for improving the yield and the quality of fruits comprises land preparation in selected areas, seedling field planting, drying, field management, flower thinning, fruit thinning management and timely harvesting, and specifically comprises the following steps:
(1) land selection and preparation: selecting a land with an altitude of 1200-1500 m as a plantation land, wherein the soil layer is 50-60 cm thick, and the organic matter content is 55-60%; carrying out deep ploughing treatment on the soil, wherein the depth is 35-40 cm, adding 400-500 kg of thoroughly decomposed farmyard manure per mu during deep ploughing, standing for 18-20 days after the deep ploughing is finished, carrying out secondary deep ploughing treatment, adjusting the pH value of the soil to be 6.8-7.2 through the secondary deep ploughing treatment, and then carrying out bed preparation on the soil, so that the height of a bed is 55-60 cm, the width of the bed is 100cm, a ditch is formed between beds, and the width of the ditch is 35-40 cm; adding farmyard manure and compound fertilizer on the furrows, wherein the amount of the farmyard manure is 30-40 kg per furrow, the amount of the compound fertilizer is 7-10 kg per furrow, the farmyard manure and soil are uniformly mixed, and the mixture is covered with a layer of soil with the thickness of 6-8 cm and left unused for more than 15 days for later use;
(2) planting and drying the nursery stock: planting 2-year-old seedlings on the furrow prepared in the step (1) in 3-4 months every year, selecting robust seedlings for transplanting, planting 25-30 seedlings per mu during transplanting, fixing the seedlings to be dry 0.3-0.4 m away from the ground after planting, and keeping the first bud direction below a cut between rows during fixing the seedlings to be dry; after the stem is determined, from the second bud below the cut 20 days before the bud, respectively selecting one bud from the buds facing to the row space at two sides, and carving the bud or coating the bud with the germinant at the position 0.3-0.4 cm above the selected bud so as to promote the bud to germinate; after sprouting, straightening the nursery stock by using a wood pole or a bamboo pole to ensure that the nursery stock grows vertically; when the young shoots grow to 15-20 cm, selecting and reserving two strong young shoots facing to the row space to culture as a central leader trunk; when two selected young shoots grow to be more than 60cm, pulling branches between the straight rows to enable the young shoots to incline between the rows, enabling the two young shoots to form an included angle of 25-30 degrees, and fixing the young shoots to fix the angle in an auxiliary mode;
(3) field management: the field management comprises intertillage weeding, fertilizer and water management, shaping and pruning and pest control, and the tree vigor is balanced through the field management to promote the growth of fruit trees;
A. intertillage weeding: loosening soil and weeding once every year in spring, summer and autumn after planting and fixing the seedlings until closing the seedlings, and avoiding damaging barks and tree roots as much as possible during intertillage weeding; the seedlings in the early stage are shallow and not deep; after the plants are grown, the plants are appropriately deepened, soil is kept loose and ventilated, so that root systems grow, and crowns are rapidly expanded; after weeding in autumn, hilling is carried out to prevent water and soil loss;
B. and (3) fertilizer and water management: the fertilizer and water management comprises fertilization in a seedling stage, fertilization in an adult fruiting stage and fertilization in a fruit picking later stage, and by means of staged fertilization, the tree vigor is balanced, and reasonable nutrition requirements are provided for all stages of plum tree growth; the fertilizer application in the seedling stage, the adult fruiting stage and the later fruit picking stage specifically comprises the following steps:
fertilizing in a seedling stage: in the seedling stage, the principle of frequent application and thin application is mastered, the planted seedling land is mixed by straw and sawdust according to the weight ratio of 1:2 to obtain a mixture, the mixture is covered, the covering thickness is 10-12 cm, a layer of soil is covered on the surface of the mixture, the thickness of the soil is 4-5 cm, after 35-40 days, the mixture is subjected to fertilization treatment in a ditch application mode, the depth of a ditch is 18-20 cm during fertilization, after the ditch is filled with farmyard manure, water filling treatment is carried out, the water filling amount is 1.5-2 kg/plant, and after the water filling is finished, the farmyard manure is covered by soil for 15-20 cm; when the cultivation management is carried out to the second year, when plum trees sprout to 7 months, after intertillage weeding, fertilizer application treatment is carried out by using clear excrement water or biogas slurry, during fertilizer application, the clear excrement water or biogas slurry is applied under the plum tree tray, and then 4-5 cm of clear excrement water or biogas slurry is covered by soil; since the plum trees enter the initial fruit period in the third year and a large amount of fruits are hung in the fourth year, base fertilizer is applied once in 8-9 months in the third year after planting, annular ditches with the width of 45-50 cm and the depth of 35-40 cm are excavated outwards at the water dripping line of a tree tray, decomposed farmyard manure is applied to each plant by 25-30 kg, the application amount is determined according to the tree vigor and the plant yield, and the plants are covered with soil and covered;
fertilization in adult fruiting period: applying early spring fertilizer in the early stage of flower bud germination, and applying fertilizer in the late month of 2 months to the early ten days of 3 months, wherein the fertilizer application amount is that 0.8-1 kg or 18-20 kg of quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer is applied to each plant, and the N: P: K =15:15: 15; after flower falling, when the fruit grows to be as large as soybean and the kernel begins to harden, applying stable fruit fertilizer, and applying additional fertilizer from the first ten days of 4 months to the last ten days of 4 months, wherein the fertilizing amount is 0.8-1 kg of quick-acting nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer applied to each plant, and N in the stable fruit fertilizer is P: K =15:5: 25; applying fruit strengthening fertilizer in the fruit sclerotization stage: in the middle ten days of 5 months to the last 6 months, the fertilizing amount is 1.0-1.2 kg of quick-acting nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer applied to each plant, and N: P: K =10:10:20 in the application of the strong fruit fertilizer;
(3) fertilizing at the later stage of fruit picking: deep ploughing the plum trees, and applying organic fertilizer in combination to increase humus and other nutrient substances in soil, improve soil fertility and reduce plant diseases and insect pests and weed harm; deeply turning to excavate an annular trench along a water dripping line of a tree crown, wherein the width is 45-50 cm, and the depth is preferably 55-60 cm; when deep ploughing, stacking the surface soil and the core soil separately, and applying the straw, the green manure and the decomposed farmyard manure into the trench in a layering earthing sequence of firstly surface soil and then core soil; in addition, the main lateral roots of more than 1 cm should be protected as far as possible during deep ploughing, otherwise growth will be affected; when turning deeply, the operation is carried out at intervals of 3 years.
C. Shaping and trimming: the pruning comprises young tree shaping pruning and adult tree pruning, the fruit tree is pruned to be in a spindle-shaped structure through the pruning, and the cross section of a branch trunk is required to be 2/3-3/4 of the cross section of the corresponding trunk; the trimming of the whole saplings and the adult trees specifically comprises the following steps:
trimming the saplings: and (3) shaping and trimming after planting: thinning out other branches except the central leading trunk, which are sent out from the trunk after field planting, starting from the position 65cm higher than the ground, cutting buds or smearing shoot-forming elements at intervals of 3 buds on the central leading trunk at a position 0.2-0.3 cm above the buds to promote the buds to germinate and cultivate the buds into main branches; in summer of the next year, 4 branches with full growth and development are selected and reserved on the main branches and cultivated into auxiliary main branches; then, discharging lateral branches on the auxiliary main branches, and if the directions and angles of the branches are unreasonable, correcting by adopting a branch pulling method; properly cutting off each main branch according to the growth condition of each main branch, and cutting off 1/4-1/3 of the full length to facilitate forming lateral branches; pruning in spring of the third year, respectively selecting 1 angle from branches formed after the main branches are cut short, opening the branches, taking the strong branches as extension branches of the main branches, cutting short, cutting off about 1/2 of the whole branches, respectively selecting 2 branches growing outwards from the rest branches as lateral branches, and cutting short about 1/3; keeping small branches below 5cm on the main branch as much as possible, culturing into short fruit branches or bouquet-shaped fruit branches, and cutting the middle and long fruit branches appropriately; after 3 years of trimming and shaping, the tree becomes a fusiform tree structure body with hollow outer circle, opened crown, ventilation and light transmission, short trunk and low crown;
pruning of adult trees: after the plum trees enter the bearing period, the plum trees usually affect the growth due to excessive flowering and fruiting and affect the bearing due to excessive growth to form the phenomenon of fruiting with different sizes, therefore, the pruning of the adult trees mainly aims at maintaining strong tree vigor and culturing more bearing branches, combines flower thinning and fruit thinning, adjusts the stable relation between the growth and the bearing, shapes and prunes, can enlarge the crowns after thinning and pruning, ensures that the branches and the tips are clear, ventilates and transmits light in the inner chambers of the crowns, takes short and strong young tips to culture bearing branch groups, updates the aged bearing mother branches, mainly aims at pruning and balancing the tree vigor, the trunk of the vigorous trees is pruned or flattened by slight shearing, long placing, much remaining, opening base angles and waist angles, the weak trees relax weak trees by short shearing, repeated shearing, weak branch removing and strong branch remaining, the top of the trunk is pruned or flattened when the height of the trees exceeds 4 meters, and finally the upper bearing is formed to be short, the slender fruiting branches at the lower part are in a suspended spindle-shaped tree shape.
D. And (3) pest control: spraying 5-degree lime sulphur mixture after falling leaves and before sprouting for cleaning gardens, when the plant diseases and insect pests are serious, spraying 2500-time Bordeaux mixture for 1 time every 15 days and 3 times continuously, then spraying 80% mancozeb 800-time mixture for 1 time every 10 days and 3 times continuously; the bactericide with the concentration of 45 percent is sprayed before and after flowering; the bactericide consists of blue vitriol, zinc sulfate, quicklime, plant extract and an auxiliary agent, and the mass percent of the raw materials is as follows: copper sulfate pentahydrate 7%, zinc sulfate 10%, quicklime 25%, plant extract 43% and auxiliary agent 15%; the plant extracting solution is obtained by mixing tobacco straws and celastrus angulatus according to the mass ratio of 1:1 and then extracting with water, and the auxiliary agent is starch; the preparation method of the bactericide comprises the steps of mixing tobacco straws and celastrus angulatus, adding water, boiling, extracting for three times, combining extracting solutions obtained by three times, filtering to obtain plant extracting solutions, dissolving copper sulfate pentahydrate and zinc sulfate into the extracting solutions respectively to obtain mixed solutions, adding quicklime and an auxiliary agent into the mixed solutions, heating, mixing and stirring for 10-15 minutes, stirring into a paste, and cooling to obtain the bactericide.
(4) Flower thinning and fruit thinning management: the method comprises the following steps of controlling the vigorous growth of new shoots and promoting flower bud differentiation by thinning flowers and fruits, and adopting the measures of pinching, twisting tips, stroking branches, pulling branches or girdling to control the vigorous growth of the new shoots of the green and crisp plums, weakening the tree vigor, balancing the vegetative growth and the reproductive growth and promoting the flower bud differentiation; watering 3 times 10-15 days before flowering every year, wherein the watering amount is 2.5-3 kg/plant, and spraying an organic fertilizer solution with the concentration of 0.3% to the plum trees when the flowering early stage; when the plum trees bear fruits and the fruits are in the hard pit period, the big fruits and the small fruits are distinguished obviously, the malformed fruits, the insect-infected fruits and the redundant fruits are removed, 1-2 fruits are left on the flower-shaped fruit branches and the short fruit branches, and one fruit is left on the middle fruit branch and the long fruit branch at the interval of 4-5 cm.
(5) Harvesting in due time: picking in hard ripe period is preferred, namely picking when the bottom color of the peel changes from green to yellow and the taste is crisp and sweet.
Compared with the traditional planting method, the planting method of the invention can lead the planting base of the green crisp plum to meet the requirement of standardized planting by selecting land and preparing land, by carrying out daily management of intertillage weeding, fertilizer and water management, shaping and pruning and pest control on the green and crisp plums, can provide sufficient nutrition for planting, meet the nutrient requirement of growth, balance tree vigor, promote growth of fruit trees, can improve the survival rate of the green crisp plums, leads the whole tree form to be in a spindle shape by shaping and pruning, the illumination is sufficient, the utilization rate of the light energy is high, the fruiting capacity can be greatly enhanced, the operation is simple and convenient, can lead the fruit trees to be shaped and fruit in advance and enter the high-yield period in advance, and enter the high-yield period 2-3 years earlier than other tree forms, the fruit bearing rate is high, the fruits are large, the quality is good, about 60-80 kg of plum trees can be picked averagely, and the method has great significance for promoting the popularization and planting of the green and crisp plums.
The above-mentioned embodiments only express the specific embodiments of the present invention, and the description thereof is more specific and detailed, but not construed as limiting the scope of the present invention. It should be noted that, for a person skilled in the art, several variations and modifications can be made without departing from the inventive concept, which falls within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. A method for planting green crisp plums for improving the yield and the quality of fruits is characterized by comprising the following steps: the planting method comprises the steps of land preparation in selected areas, nursery stock planting, dry setting, field management, flower thinning, fruit thinning management and timely harvesting, and specifically comprises the following steps:
(1) land selection and preparation: selecting land with the altitude of less than 1500m as a planting garden, wherein the soil layer is 40-60 cm thick, and the organic matter content is 50-60%; carrying out deep ploughing treatment on the soil, wherein the depth is 30-40 cm, adding 300-500 kg of thoroughly decomposed farmyard manure per mu during deep ploughing, standing for 15-20 days after the deep ploughing is finished, carrying out secondary deep ploughing treatment, adjusting the pH value of the soil to be 6.5-7.2 by the secondary deep ploughing treatment, and then carrying out bed preparation on the soil, so that the height of a bed is 50-60 cm, the width of the bed is 90-100 cm, a ditch is formed between beds, and the width of the ditch is 30-40 cm; adding farmyard manure and compound fertilizer on the furrows, wherein the amount of the farmyard manure is 20-40 kg per furrow, the amount of the compound fertilizer is 5-10 kg per furrow, the farmyard manure and soil are uniformly mixed, and the mixture is covered with a layer of soil with the thickness of 5-8 cm and left unused for more than 15 days for later use;
(2) planting and drying the nursery stock: planting 2-year-old seedlings on the furrow prepared in the step (1) in 3-4 months every year, selecting robust seedlings for transplanting, planting 20-30 seedlings per mu during transplanting, fixing the seedlings to be dry 0.3-0.4 m away from the ground after planting, and keeping the first bud direction below a cut between rows during fixing the seedlings to be dry; after the stem is determined, from the second bud below the cut 20 days before the bud, respectively selecting one bud from the buds facing to the row space at two sides, and carving the bud or coating the bud with the germinant at the position 0.3-0.4 cm above the selected bud so as to promote the bud to germinate; after sprouting, straightening the nursery stock by using a wood pole or a bamboo pole to ensure that the nursery stock grows vertically; when the young shoots grow to 15-20 cm, selecting and reserving two strong young shoots facing to the row space to culture as a central leader trunk; when two selected young shoots grow to be more than 60cm, pulling branches between the straight rows to enable the young shoots to incline between the rows, enabling the two young shoots to form an included angle of 25-30 degrees, and fixing the young shoots to fix the angle in an auxiliary mode;
(3) field management: the field management comprises intertillage weeding, fertilizer and water management, shaping and pruning and pest control, and the tree vigor is balanced through the field management to promote the growth of fruit trees;
A. intertillage weeding: loosening soil and weeding once every year in spring, summer and autumn after planting and fixing the seedlings until closing the seedlings, and avoiding damaging barks and tree roots as much as possible during intertillage weeding; the seedlings in the early stage are shallow and not deep; after the plants are grown, the plants are appropriately deepened, soil is kept loose and ventilated, so that root systems grow, and crowns are rapidly expanded; after weeding in autumn, hilling is carried out to prevent water and soil loss;
B. and (3) fertilizer and water management: the fertilizer and water management comprises fertilization in a seedling stage, fertilization in an adult fruiting stage and fertilization in a fruit picking later stage, and by means of staged fertilization, the tree vigor is balanced, and reasonable nutrition requirements are provided for all stages of plum tree growth;
C. shaping and trimming: the pruning comprises young tree shaping pruning and adult tree pruning, the fruit tree is pruned to be in a spindle-shaped structure through the pruning, and the cross section of a branch trunk is required to be 2/3-3/4 of the cross section of the corresponding trunk;
D. and (3) pest control: spraying 5-degree lime sulphur mixture after falling leaves and before sprouting for cleaning gardens, when the plant diseases and insect pests are serious, spraying 2000-2500 times of Bordeaux mixture for 1 time every 15 days and continuously spraying for 2-3 times, then spraying 600-800 times of mancozeb with the concentration of 80% for treatment, spraying 1 time every 10 days and continuously spraying for 2-3 times; the bactericide with the concentration of 40-45% is sprayed before and after flowering;
(4) flower thinning and fruit thinning management: the method comprises the following steps of controlling the vigorous growth of new shoots and promoting flower bud differentiation by thinning flowers and fruits, and adopting the measures of pinching, twisting tips, stroking branches, pulling branches or girdling to control the vigorous growth of the new shoots of the green and crisp plums, weakening the tree vigor, balancing the vegetative growth and the reproductive growth and promoting the flower bud differentiation; watering for 2-3 times 10-15 days before flowering every year, wherein the watering amount is 2-3 kg/plant, and spraying an organic fertilizer solution with the concentration of 0.2-0.3% to the plum trees once when the flowering early stage is reached; when the plum trees bear fruits and the fruits are in the hard pit period, the big fruits and the small fruits are distinguished obviously, the malformed fruits, the insect-infected fruits and the redundant fruits are removed, 1-2 fruits are left on the flower-shaped fruit branches and the short fruit branches, and one fruit is left on the middle fruit branch and the long fruit branch at the interval of 4-5 cm.
(5) Harvesting in due time: picking in hard ripe period is preferred, namely picking when the bottom color of the peel changes from green to yellow and the taste is crisp and sweet.
2. The planting method of prunus humilis Bunge for improving the yield and quality of fruits as claimed in claim 1, wherein: in the field management process of the step (3), the fertilization at the seedling stage, the fertilization at the adult fruiting stage and the fertilization at the later fruit picking stage specifically comprise the following steps:
(1) fertilizing in a seedling stage: in the seedling stage, the principle of frequent application and thin application is mastered, the planted seedling land is mixed by straw and sawdust according to the weight ratio of 1:2 to obtain a mixture, the mixture is covered, the covering thickness is 8-12 cm, a layer of soil is further covered on the surface of the mixture, the soil thickness is 3-5 cm, after 30-40 days, the fertilizer is applied by means of furrow application, the depth of a furrow is 15-20 cm during fertilizer application, after the furrow is filled with farmyard manure, water filling treatment is carried out, the water filling amount is 1-2 kg/plant, and after the water filling is finished, the farmyard manure is covered by soil for 10-20 cm; when the cultivation management is carried out to the second year, when plum trees sprout to 7 months, after intertillage weeding, fertilizer application treatment is carried out by using clear excrement water or biogas slurry, during fertilizer application, the clear excrement water or biogas slurry is applied under the plum tree tray, and then 3-5 cm of clear excrement water or biogas slurry is covered by soil; since the plum trees enter the initial fruit period in the third year and a large amount of fruits are hung in the fourth year, base fertilizer is applied once in 8-9 months in the third year after planting, annular ditches with the width of 40-50 cm and the depth of 30-40 cm are excavated outwards at the water dripping line of a tree tray, each plant is applied to the ditches by 20-30 kg of decomposed farmyard manure, the application amount is determined according to the tree vigor and the plant yield, and finally, the ditches are covered with soil for covering;
(2) fertilization in adult fruiting period: applying early spring fertilizer in the early stage of flower bud germination, and applying fertilizer in the late month of 2 months to the early ten days of 3 months, wherein the fertilizer application amount is that 0.5-1 kg or 15-20 kg of quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer is applied to each plant, and the N: P: K =15:15: 15; after flower falling, when the fruit grows to be as large as soybean and the kernel begins to harden, applying stable fruit fertilizer, and applying additional fertilizer from the first ten days of 4 months to the last ten days of 4 months, wherein the fertilizing amount is 0.5-1 kg of quick-acting nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer applied to each plant, and N in the stable fruit fertilizer is P: K =15:5: 25; applying fruit strengthening fertilizer in the fruit sclerotization stage: in the middle ten days of 5 months to the last 6 months, the fertilizing amount is 0.8-1.2 kg of quick-acting nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer applied to each plant, and N: P: K =10:10:20 in the application of the strong fruit fertilizer;
(3) fertilizing at the later stage of fruit picking: deep ploughing the plum trees, and applying organic fertilizer in combination to increase humus and other nutrient substances in soil, improve soil fertility and reduce plant diseases and insect pests and weed harm; deeply turning to excavate an annular trench along a water dripping line of a tree crown, wherein the width is 40-50 cm, and the depth is preferably 50-60 cm; when deep ploughing, stacking the surface soil and the core soil separately, and applying the straw, the green manure and the decomposed farmyard manure into the trench in a layering earthing sequence of firstly surface soil and then core soil; in addition, the main lateral roots of more than 1 cm should be protected as far as possible during deep ploughing, otherwise growth will be affected; and when deep turning is carried out, the deep turning is carried out at intervals of 2-3 years according to the growth condition of the plum trees.
3. The planting method of prunus humilis Bunge for improving the yield and quality of fruits as claimed in claim 1, wherein: in the field management process in the step (3), the trimming of the whole saplings and the adult trees specifically comprises the following steps:
(1) trimming the saplings: and (3) shaping and trimming after planting: thinning out other branches except for the central leading trunk, which are sent out from the trunk after field planting, starting from the position 65cm higher than the ground, cutting buds or smearing germinants at intervals of 2-3 buds on the central leading trunk at a position 0.2-0.3 cm above the buds, and culturing the buds into main branches; in summer of the next year, 3-4 branches with full growth and development are selected and reserved on the main branches and cultivated into auxiliary main branches; then, discharging lateral branches on the auxiliary main branches, and if the directions and angles of the branches are unreasonable, correcting by adopting a branch pulling method; properly cutting off each main branch according to the growth condition of each main branch, and cutting off 1/4-1/3 of the full length to facilitate forming lateral branches; pruning in spring of the third year, selecting 1 angle from branches formed after the main branches are cut short to open, taking the strong branches as extension branches of the main branches, cutting short, cutting off about 1/2 of the whole branches, selecting 1-2 branches growing outwards from the rest branches as side branches, and cutting short about 1/3; keeping small branches below 5cm on the main branch as much as possible, culturing into short fruit branches or bouquet-shaped fruit branches, and cutting the middle and long fruit branches appropriately; after 3 years of trimming and shaping, the tree becomes a fusiform tree structure body with hollow outer circle, opened crown, ventilation and light transmission, short trunk and low crown;
(2) pruning of adult trees: after the plum trees enter the bearing period, the plum trees usually affect the growth due to excessive flowering and fruiting and affect the bearing due to excessive growth to form the phenomenon of fruiting with different sizes, therefore, the pruning of the adult trees mainly aims at maintaining strong tree vigor and culturing more bearing branches, combines flower thinning and fruit thinning, adjusts the stable relation between the growth and the bearing, shapes and prunes, can enlarge the crowns after thinning and pruning, ensures that the branches and the tips are clear, ventilates and transmits light in the inner chambers of the crowns, takes short and strong young tips to culture bearing branch groups, updates the aged bearing mother branches, mainly aims at pruning and balancing the tree vigor, the trunk of the vigorous trees is pruned or flattened by slight shearing, long placing, much remaining, opening base angles and waist angles, the weak trees relax weak trees by short shearing, repeated shearing, weak branch removing and strong branch remaining, the top of the trunk is pruned or flattened when the height of the trees exceeds 4 meters, and finally the upper bearing is formed to be short, the slender fruiting branches at the lower part are in a suspended spindle-shaped tree shape.
4. The planting method of prunus humilis Bunge for improving the yield and quality of fruits as claimed in claim 1, wherein: in the field management process in the step (3), the bactericide in the pest control process consists of copper sulfate pentahydrate, zinc sulfate, quicklime, plant extract and an auxiliary agent, and the mass percentages of the raw materials are as follows: 3-7% of copper sulfate pentahydrate, 5-10% of zinc sulfate, 20-25% of quick lime, 40-50% of plant extract and 15-20% of auxiliary agent; the plant extracting solution is obtained by mixing tobacco straws and celastrus angulatus according to the mass ratio of 1:1 and then extracting with water, and the auxiliary agent is starch; the preparation method of the bactericide comprises the steps of mixing tobacco straws and celastrus angulatus, adding water, boiling, extracting for three times, combining extracting solutions obtained by three times, filtering to obtain plant extracting solutions, dissolving copper sulfate pentahydrate and zinc sulfate into the extracting solutions respectively to obtain mixed solutions, adding quicklime and an auxiliary agent into the mixed solutions, heating, mixing and stirring for 10-15 minutes, stirring into a paste, and cooling to obtain the bactericide.
CN201911377520.3A 2019-12-27 2019-12-27 Green crisp plum planting method for improving yield and quality of fruits Pending CN111066558A (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111699904A (en) * 2020-07-06 2020-09-25 安顺市农业科学院 Planting method of bee sugar plums

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111699904A (en) * 2020-07-06 2020-09-25 安顺市农业科学院 Planting method of bee sugar plums

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