CN112493051A - Grape seedling raising method for improving survival rate - Google Patents

Grape seedling raising method for improving survival rate Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112493051A
CN112493051A CN202011198520.XA CN202011198520A CN112493051A CN 112493051 A CN112493051 A CN 112493051A CN 202011198520 A CN202011198520 A CN 202011198520A CN 112493051 A CN112493051 A CN 112493051A
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seedling
grape
seedlings
survival rate
seedling raising
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顾婷婷
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Guizhou Shunshui Greening Engineering Co ltd
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Guizhou Shunshui Greening Engineering Co ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/02Cultivation of hops or vines
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • A01G24/12Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material containing soil minerals
    • A01G24/15Calcined rock, e.g. perlite, vermiculite or clay aggregates
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/28Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing peat, moss or sphagnum
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/30Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing synthetic organic compounds
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Soil Sciences (AREA)
  • Ecology (AREA)
  • Biodiversity & Conservation Biology (AREA)
  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Forests & Forestry (AREA)
  • Botany (AREA)
  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Inorganic Chemistry (AREA)
  • Mechanical Engineering (AREA)
  • Wood Science & Technology (AREA)
  • Cultivation Of Plants (AREA)

Abstract

The invention provides a grape seedling raising method for improving survival rate, which comprises the following steps: selecting a seedling mother tree and a seedling son: selecting a grape tree which is pure in nature, strong in growth, strong in yield, strong in stress resistance and disease-free and has 3-5 years as a seedling raising mother tree, and then selecting an annual and lignified robust green branch as a seedling on the seedling raising mother tree; and (3) seedling treatment: pruning the seedling, reserving 3-5 bud eyes on the branch body, reserving two to four green leaves at the top of the seedling, and then carrying out annular peeling at a position 1cm-5cm away from the main branch of the mother tree until the depth reaches the xylem part, wherein a position 1cm away from the port of the seedling is an inclined section; according to the grape seedling raising method for improving the survival rate, the selected grape seedlings are pretreated, the grape seedlings cut off are firstly subjected to seedling raising treatment after pretreatment, and the grape seedlings are subjected to nutrition supply before planting through the seedling raising matrix.

Description

Grape seedling raising method for improving survival rate
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of grape seedling culture, in particular to a grape seedling culture method for improving survival rate.
Background
The grape is one of popular fruits, has high nutritive value, can be made into grape juice, raisin and wine, and has been cultivated in China for more than 2000 years. In recent years, with the improvement of living standard of people, the social demand of grapes is increasingly enlarged, and seedlings are often low in survival rate due to unreasonable seedling raising methods in the transplanting and propagating process, so that the enthusiasm of people for developing grape industry is seriously influenced, the waste of production and planting cost is caused, the good-breed pace of grapes is delayed, and the development of grape planting industrialization is not facilitated.
The existing grape seedling raising method with the application number of CN201711042538.9 for improving the survival rate includes the steps of firstly selecting and preprocessing grape seedlings, then selecting land and preparing land, and then carrying out later management such as scientific and reasonable fertilization and irrigation, flower thinning and fruit thinning, shaping and trimming, pest control and the like, but the method does not carry out cultivation and nutrition supply treatment on the grape seedlings which are cut from a mother tree after the grape seedlings are selected, so that the selected seedlings can wither and die due to insufficient nutrition supply, the cultivation work of the next seedlings is influenced, and after the seedlings are transplanted, the seedlings are subjected to pest control treatment only through planting, the efficiency is low, and pests are easily caused to damage the seedlings.
Disclosure of Invention
The technical problem to be solved by the invention is to overcome the existing defects and provide a grape seedling raising method for improving the survival rate.
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention proposes: a grape seedling raising method for improving survival rate comprises the following steps:
(1) selecting a seedling mother tree and a seedling son: selecting a grape tree which is pure in nature, strong in growth, strong in yield, strong in stress resistance and disease-free and has 3-5 years as a seedling raising mother tree, and then selecting an annual and lignified robust green branch as a seedling on the seedling raising mother tree;
(2) and (3) seedling treatment: pruning the seedling, reserving 3-5 bud eyes on the branch body, reserving two to four green leaves at the top of the seedling, and then carrying out annular peeling at a position 1cm-5cm away from the main branch of the mother tree until the depth reaches the xylem part, wherein a position 1cm away from the port of the seedling is an inclined section;
(3) seedling culture treatment: firstly, mixing humus soil, vermiculite, garden soil and pig manure according to the weight ratio of 5: 3: 2 to prepare a seedling culture substrate, and uniformly mixing the seedling culture substrate for later use; then, mixing chitosan oligosaccharide, sodium decane sulfonate and sodium p-hydroxybenzoate according to the proportion of 80: 1: 20 weight percent of the mixture is added into the seedling culture substrate, and the mixture is mixed and stirred uniformly; then 0.2% thiophanate methyl solution is uniformly sprayed on the seedling substrate for sterilization treatment, and then the seedlings are planted in the seedling substrate, so that the survival rate is improved;
(4) land selection and preparation: selecting sandy soil with thick soil layer, loose soil, convenient drainage and normal pH value as planting soil, deeply turning the surface soil layer to more than 40cm, ditching in the south to north direction, forming strip-shaped ridges with the height of 35-55cm and the width of 80-100cm, and digging strip-shaped drainage ditches with the depth of 25-35cm and the width of 40-60 cm; then, 60-80g/m of fertilizer is spread on each ridge2Covering the white lime with a black film, tightly drying for 3-5 days, removing the film, applying an organic fertilizer as a base fertilizer on the ridge, turning and harrowing the soil layer on the ridge surface again to form a ridge for field planting of seedlings, and finally arranging a vine climbing frame on the field;
(5) transplanting customization: transplanting and field planting the seedlings in the seedling base to a selected planting field, wherein the plant spacing of individual grape seedlings is set to be 1.1-1.3 m, the root planting depth is 4-6cm, watering is performed after field planting, and only one row of grape seedlings is planted on each ridge;
(6) fertilizing and irrigating: after planting for 13-17 days, applying the organic fertilizer used in the step (2) to the root of the grape nursery stock, wherein each plant is 300-300 g, irrigating human urine after applying the fertilizer, and each plant is 200-300g, and irrigating the grape nursery stock the next day so that the young seedlings can absorb the organic fertilizer more quickly;
(7) and (4) post management: applying growth fertilizer once every month, wherein the application amount is 6-8g/m2The organic is applied every two monthsFertilizing once, wherein the application amount is 400-.
As a preferred technical scheme of the invention: and 4 bud eyes of the branches of the pruned young seedlings are reserved, three green leaves are reserved at the tops of the bud eyes, and annular peeling is carried out at the positions 3cm away from the mother trees.
As a preferred technical scheme of the invention: the seedling raising substrate is formed by mixing 55 parts of humus soil, 33 parts of vermiculite, 22 parts of garden soil and 22 parts of pig manure.
As a preferred technical scheme of the invention: 160g of chitosan oligosaccharide, 2g of sodium decane sulfonate and 40g of sodium p-hydroxybenzoate are added into the seedling culture substrate.
As a preferred technical scheme of the invention: the distance between the single grape seedlings is 1.2m, and the root planting depth is 5 cm.
As a preferred technical scheme of the invention: the fertilization period is 15 days, 400g of organic fertilizer is applied to each plant, and 200g of human urine is applied to each plant.
As a preferred technical scheme of the invention: the organic fertilizer comprises the following components in parts by weight: 50 parts of decomposed poultry manure, 35 parts of plant ash, 20 parts of cassava residue, 20 parts of silkworm excrement and 10 parts of humic acid.
As a preferred technical scheme of the invention: the growth fertilizer is applied by 7g/m each time2The growth fertilizer is an agricultural compound fertilizer.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that: according to the grape seedling raising method for improving the survival rate, the selected grape seedlings are pretreated, the grape seedlings cut off are raised after pretreatment, and the grape seedlings are supplied with nutrition before being planted through the seedling raising matrix, so that better basic preparation is made for the next planting.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all of the embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
The invention provides the following technical scheme:
the first embodiment is as follows: a grape seedling raising method for improving survival rate comprises the following steps:
(1) selecting a seedling mother tree and a seedling son: selecting a 3-year grape vine with pure nature, strong growth, strong yield performance, strong stress resistance and no diseases as a seedling raising mother tree, and then selecting an annual and lignified robust green branch as a seedling on the seedling raising mother tree;
(2) and (3) seedling treatment: pruning the seedling, reserving 3 bud eyes on the branch body, reserving two to four green leaves at the top of the seedling, and then carrying out annular peeling at a position 3cm away from the main branch of the mother tree until the depth reaches the xylem part, wherein a position 2cm away from the port of the seedling is an oblique section;
(3) seedling culture treatment: firstly, mixing humus soil, vermiculite, garden soil and pig manure according to the weight ratio of 5: 3: 2 to prepare a seedling culture substrate, and uniformly mixing the seedling culture substrate for later use; then, mixing chitosan oligosaccharide, sodium decane sulfonate and sodium p-hydroxybenzoate according to the proportion of 80: 1: 20 weight percent of the mixture is added into the seedling culture substrate, and the mixture is mixed and stirred uniformly; then 0.2% thiophanate methyl solution is uniformly sprayed on the seedling substrate for sterilization treatment, and then the seedlings are planted in the seedling substrate, so that the survival rate is improved;
(4) land selection and preparation: selecting sandy soil with thick soil layer, loose soil, convenient drainage and normal pH value as planting soil, deeply turning the surface soil layer to more than 40cm, ditching in the south to north direction, forming strip-shaped ridges with the height of 35cm and the width of 80cm, and digging strip-shaped drainage ditches with the depth of 25cm and the width of 40 cm; then, 60g/m of soil is spread on each ridge2Covering with black film, sunning for 3 days, removing film, applying organic fertilizer as base fertilizerTurning and harrowing the soil layer on the surface of the farmland again to form ridges for field planting of seedlings, and finally arranging a climbing frame on the farmland;
(5) transplanting customization: transplanting and field planting the seedlings in the seedling base to a selected planting field, wherein the plant spacing of single grape seedlings is set to be 1.1m, the root planting depth is 4cm, water is irrigated after field planting, and only one row of grape seedlings is planted on each ridge;
(6) fertilizing and irrigating: after planting for 13 days, applying 300g of the organic fertilizer used in the step (2) to the root of the grape nursery stock, irrigating human urine 200g of each grape nursery stock after applying the fertilizer, and irrigating the grape nursery stock the next day so that the seedlings can absorb the organic fertilizer quickly;
(7) and (4) post management: applying growth fertilizer once every month with the application amount of 6g/m2Applying organic fertilizer once every two months at an application rate of 400 g/plant, watering to keep the humidity of the root of the grape nursery stock at 50%, eradicating weeds on the periphery of a field, spraying pest-control pesticide on the weeds so as to prevent pests, and trimming the sprouts grown by the seedlings in a certain period, so that the sprouts grown by the seedlings and the nutrients required by the seedlings for survival are prevented from being snatched.
In the embodiment, 3 bud eyes of the branch bodies of the sub-seedlings are reserved after the branch bodies are pruned, 3 green leaves are reserved at the top of the branch bodies, annular peeling is carried out at the position 2cm away from the mother trees, and the seedling culture substrate is formed by mixing 55 parts of humus soil, 33 parts of vermiculite, 22 parts of garden soil and 22 parts of pig manure.
Example two: a grape seedling raising method for improving survival rate comprises the following steps:
(1) selecting a seedling mother tree and a seedling son: selecting a 4-year grape tree with pure nature, strong growth, strong yield performance, strong stress resistance and no diseases as a seedling raising mother tree, and then selecting an annual and lignified robust green branch as a seedling on the seedling raising mother tree;
(2) and (3) seedling treatment: pruning the seedling, keeping 4 bud eyes on the branch body, keeping two to four green leaves at the top, and then carrying out annular peeling at a position 3cm away from the main branch of the mother tree until the depth reaches the xylem part, wherein the position 3cm away from the port of the xylem part is an oblique section;
(3) seedling culture treatment: firstly, mixing humus soil, vermiculite, garden soil and pig manure according to the weight ratio of 5: 3: 2 to prepare a seedling culture substrate, and uniformly mixing the seedling culture substrate for later use; then, mixing chitosan oligosaccharide, sodium decane sulfonate and sodium p-hydroxybenzoate according to the proportion of 80: 1: 20 weight percent of the mixture is added into the seedling culture substrate, and the mixture is mixed and stirred uniformly; then 0.2% thiophanate methyl solution is uniformly sprayed on the seedling substrate for sterilization treatment, and then the seedlings are planted in the seedling substrate, so that the survival rate is improved;
(4) land selection and preparation: selecting sandy soil with thick soil layer, loose soil, convenient drainage and normal pH value as planting soil, deeply turning the surface soil layer to more than 40cm, ditching in the south to north direction, forming strip-shaped ridges with the height of 40cm and the width of 90cm, and digging strip-shaped drainage ditches with the depth of 30cm and the width of 50 cm; then 70g/m of soil is scattered on each ridge2Covering the white lime with a black film, tightly drying for 4 days, removing the film, applying an organic fertilizer as a base fertilizer on the ridge, turning and harrowing the soil layer on the ridge surface again to form a ridge for field planting of seedlings, and finally arranging a vine climbing frame on the ridge;
(5) transplanting customization: transplanting and field planting the sub-seedlings in the seedling base to a selected planting field, setting the plant spacing of single grape seedlings to be 1.2m, setting the root planting depth to be 5cm, watering thoroughly after field planting, and planting only one row of grape sub-seedlings on each ridge;
(6) fertilizing and irrigating: after 15 days of field planting, 400g of the organic fertilizer used in the step (2) is applied to the root of the grape nursery stock, human urine is irrigated after the application of the fertilizer, 250g of each grape nursery stock is irrigated the grape nursery stock the next day, and the organic fertilizer can be quickly absorbed by the young grape nursery stock;
(7) and (4) post management: applying growth fertilizer once every month with the application amount of 7g/m2Applying organic fertilizer once every two months at an application rate of 500 g/plant, watering to keep the humidity of the root of the grape nursery stock at 60%, eradicating weeds on the periphery of a field, spraying pest-control pesticide on the weeds so as to prevent pests, and trimming the sprouts grown by the seedlings in a certain period, so that the sprouts grown by the seedlings and the nutrients required by the seedlings for survival are prevented from being snatched.
In the embodiment, 160g of chitosan oligosaccharide, 2g of sodium decane sulfonate, 40g of sodium p-hydroxybenzoate, 1.2m of spacing between single grape seedlings and 5cm of root planting depth are added into the seedling culture substrate.
Example three: a grape seedling raising method for improving survival rate comprises the following steps:
(1) selecting a seedling mother tree and a seedling son: selecting a 5-year grape vine with pure seed character, strong growth, high yield, strong stress resistance and no diseases as a seedling raising mother tree, and then selecting an annual and lignified robust green branch as a seedling on the seedling raising mother tree;
(2) and (3) seedling treatment: pruning the seedling, keeping 5 bud eyes on the branch body, keeping two to four green leaves at the top, and then carrying out annular peeling at a position 5cm away from the main branch of the mother tree until the depth reaches the xylem part, wherein a position 4cm away from the port of the xylem part is an oblique section;
(3) seedling culture treatment: firstly, mixing humus soil, vermiculite, garden soil and pig manure according to the weight ratio of 5: 3: 2 to prepare a seedling culture substrate, and uniformly mixing the seedling culture substrate for later use; then, mixing chitosan oligosaccharide, sodium decane sulfonate and sodium p-hydroxybenzoate according to the proportion of 80: 1: 20 weight percent of the mixture is added into the seedling culture substrate, and the mixture is mixed and stirred uniformly; then 0.2% thiophanate methyl solution is uniformly sprayed on the seedling substrate for sterilization treatment, and then the seedlings are planted in the seedling substrate, so that the survival rate is improved;
(4) land selection and preparation: selecting sandy soil with thick soil layer, loose soil, convenient drainage and normal pH value as planting soil, deeply turning the surface soil layer to more than 40cm, ditching in the south to north direction, forming strip-shaped furrows with the height of 55cm and the width of 100cm, and digging strip-shaped drainage ditches with the depth of 35cm and the width of 60 cm; then spreading 80g/m on each ridge2Covering the white lime with a black film, tightly drying for 5 days, removing the film, applying an organic fertilizer as a base fertilizer on the ridge, turning and harrowing the soil layer on the ridge surface again to form a ridge for field planting of seedlings, and finally arranging a vine climbing frame on the ridge;
(5) transplanting customization: transplanting and field planting the seedlings in the seedling base to a selected planting field, setting the plant spacing of single grape seedlings at 1.3m and the root planting depth at 6cm, watering thoroughly after field planting, and planting only one row of grape seedlings on each ridge;
(6) fertilizing and irrigating: after 15 days of field planting, 400g of the organic fertilizer used in the step (2) is applied to the root of the grape nursery stock, human urine is irrigated after the application of the fertilizer, 200g of each grape nursery stock is irrigated the grape nursery stock the next day, and the organic fertilizer can be quickly absorbed by the young grape nursery stock;
(7) and (4) post management: applying growth fertilizer once every month with the application amount of 7g/m2Applying an organic fertilizer once every two months at an application rate of 600 g/plant, watering to keep the humidity of the root of the grape nursery stock at 70%, eradicating weeds on the periphery of a field, spraying insect pest removing pesticide on the weeds so as to prevent insect pests, and trimming the new buds growing out of the seedlings in a certain period, so that the new buds growing out of the seedlings and the seedlings are prevented from snatching into the nutrition required by the survival of the seedlings.
In the embodiment, the fertilization period is 15 days, 400g of organic fertilizer is applied to each plant, 200g of human urine is applied to each plant, and 7g/m of growth fertilizer is applied to each growth fertilizer2The growth fertilizer is an agricultural compound fertilizer.
Example four: a grape seedling raising method for improving survival rate comprises the following steps:
(1) selecting a seedling mother tree and a seedling son: selecting a 5-year grape vine with pure seed character, strong growth, high yield, strong stress resistance and no diseases as a seedling raising mother tree, and then selecting an annual and lignified robust green branch as a seedling on the seedling raising mother tree;
(2) and (3) seedling treatment: pruning the seedling, keeping 5 bud eyes on the branch body, keeping 5 green leaves on the top of the seedling, and then carrying out annular peeling at a position 5cm away from the main branch of the mother tree until the depth reaches the xylem part, wherein a position 4cm away from the port of the xylem part is an oblique section;
(3) seedling culture treatment: firstly, mixing humus soil, vermiculite, garden soil and pig manure according to the weight ratio of 5: 3: 2 to prepare a seedling culture substrate, and uniformly mixing the seedling culture substrate for later use; then, mixing chitosan oligosaccharide, sodium decane sulfonate and sodium p-hydroxybenzoate according to the proportion of 80: 1: 20 weight percent of the mixture is added into the seedling culture substrate, and the mixture is mixed and stirred uniformly; then 0.2% thiophanate methyl solution is uniformly sprayed on the seedling substrate for sterilization treatment, and then the seedlings are planted in the seedling substrate, so that the survival rate is improved;
(4) soil selecting machineGround: selecting sandy soil with thick soil layer, loose soil, convenient drainage and normal pH value as planting soil, deeply turning the surface soil layer to more than 40cm, ditching in the south to north direction, forming strip-shaped furrows with the height of 55cm and the width of 100cm, and digging strip-shaped drainage ditches with the depth of 35cm and the width of 60 cm; then spreading 80g/m on each ridge2Covering the white lime with a black film, tightly drying for 5 days, removing the film, applying an organic fertilizer as a base fertilizer on the ridge, turning and harrowing the soil layer on the ridge surface again to form a ridge for field planting of seedlings, and finally arranging a vine climbing frame on the ridge;
(5) transplanting customization: transplanting and field planting the seedlings in the seedling base to a selected planting field, setting the plant spacing of single grape seedlings at 1.3m and the root planting depth at 6cm, watering thoroughly after field planting, and planting only one row of grape seedlings on each ridge;
(6) fertilizing and irrigating: after field planting is carried out for 17 days, 500g of the organic fertilizer used in the step (2) is applied to the root of the grape nursery stock, human urine is irrigated after the application of the organic fertilizer, 300g of each grape nursery stock is irrigated the next day, and the organic fertilizer can be quickly absorbed by the seedlings;
(7) and (4) post management: applying growth fertilizer once every month with the application amount of 8g/m2Applying an organic fertilizer once every two months at an application rate of 600 g/plant, watering to keep the humidity of the root of the grape nursery stock at 70%, eradicating weeds on the periphery of a field, spraying insect pest removing pesticide on the weeds so as to prevent insect pests, and trimming the new buds growing out of the seedlings in a certain period, so that the new buds growing out of the seedlings and the seedlings are prevented from snatching into the nutrition required by the survival of the seedlings.
In the embodiment, the organic fertilizer comprises the following components in parts by weight: 50 parts of decomposed poultry manure, 35 parts of plant ash, 20 parts of cassava residue, 20 parts of silkworm excrement and 10 parts of humic acid.
The survival rate and yield of the grape seedlings planted in the above examples 1-4 were recorded as follows:
the first embodiment is as follows: the survival rate (%) of the nursery stock is 99.0, and the yield (kg/mu) is 1836;
example two: the survival rate (%) of the nursery stock is 99.4, and the yield (kg/mu) is 1850;
example three: the survival rate (%) of the nursery stock is 100.0, and the yield (kg/mu) is 1880;
example four: the survival rate (%) of the nursery stock is 99.5, and the yield (kg/mu) is 1859;
traditional planting: the survival rate (%) of the nursery stock is 85.0, and the yield (kg/mu) is 1357.
The invention has the advantages that: according to the grape seedling raising method for improving the survival rate, the selected grape seedlings are pretreated, the grape seedlings cut off are firstly subjected to seedling raising treatment after pretreatment, the grape seedlings are supplied with nutrition before being planted through the seedling raising matrix, the seedling raising and planting cost is low, the investment is low, after the seedlings are transplanted and fixed, the seedlings grow rapidly, diseases are avoided, the survival rate is high, the grape survival rate is 80-90% in the traditional seedling raising method, remarkable social benefit, economic benefit and ecological benefit are achieved, and the development of grape planting industrialization is facilitated.
Although embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that changes, modifications, substitutions and alterations can be made in these embodiments without departing from the principles and spirit of the invention, the scope of which is defined in the appended claims and their equivalents.

Claims (8)

1. A grape seedling raising method for improving survival rate is characterized by comprising the following steps: the method comprises the following steps:
(1) selecting a seedling mother tree and a seedling son: selecting a grape tree which is pure in nature, strong in growth, strong in yield, strong in stress resistance and disease-free and has 3-5 years as a seedling raising mother tree, and then selecting an annual and lignified robust green branch as a seedling on the seedling raising mother tree;
(2) and (3) seedling treatment: pruning the seedling, reserving 3-5 bud eyes on the branch body, reserving two to four green leaves at the top of the seedling, and then carrying out annular peeling at a position 1cm-5cm away from the main branch of the mother tree until the depth reaches the xylem part, wherein a position 1cm away from the port of the seedling is an inclined section;
(3) seedling culture treatment: firstly, mixing humus soil, vermiculite, garden soil and pig manure according to the weight ratio of 5: 3: 2 to prepare a seedling culture substrate, and uniformly mixing the seedling culture substrate for later use; then, mixing chitosan oligosaccharide, sodium decane sulfonate and sodium p-hydroxybenzoate according to the proportion of 80: 1: 20 weight percent of the mixture is added into the seedling culture substrate, and the mixture is mixed and stirred uniformly; then 0.2% thiophanate methyl solution is uniformly sprayed on the seedling substrate for sterilization treatment, and then the seedlings are planted in the seedling substrate, so that the survival rate is improved;
(4) land selection and preparation: selecting sandy soil with thick soil layer, loose soil, convenient drainage and normal pH value as planting soil, deeply turning the surface soil layer to more than 40cm, ditching in the south to north direction, forming strip-shaped ridges with the height of 35-55cm and the width of 80-100cm, and digging strip-shaped drainage ditches with the depth of 25-35cm and the width of 40-60 cm; then, 60-80g/m of fertilizer is spread on each ridge2Covering the white lime with a black film, tightly drying for 3-5 days, removing the film, applying an organic fertilizer as a base fertilizer on the ridge, turning and harrowing the soil layer on the ridge surface again to form a ridge for field planting of seedlings, and finally arranging a vine climbing frame on the field;
(5) transplanting customization: transplanting and field planting the seedlings in the seedling base to a selected planting field, wherein the plant spacing of individual grape seedlings is set to be 1.1-1.3 m, the root planting depth is 4-6cm, watering is performed after field planting, and only one row of grape seedlings is planted on each ridge;
(6) fertilizing and irrigating: after planting for 13-17 days, applying the organic fertilizer used in the step (2) to the root of the grape nursery stock, wherein each plant is 300-300 g, irrigating human urine after applying the fertilizer, and each plant is 200-300g, and irrigating the grape nursery stock the next day so that the young seedlings can absorb the organic fertilizer more quickly;
(7) and (4) post management: applying growth fertilizer once every month, wherein the application amount is 6-8g/m2The organic fertilizer is applied once every two months at the application rate of 400-600 g/plant, the humidity of the root of the grape seedling is kept at 50-70% by watering, the weeds around the field are eradicated, insect pest removing pesticide is sprayed on the weeds, so that insect pest prevention is carried out on the weeds, and the new buds growing from the seedlings are trimmed in a certain period, so that the new buds growing from the seedlings and the nutrition required for the survival of the seedlings by robbing the seedlings for themselves are avoided.
2. A grape seedling raising method capable of improving survival rate according to claim 1, wherein the number of the bud eyes of the branch body of the pruned young grape is 4, three green leaves are left on the top of the branch body, and the branch body is annularly peeled at a position 3cm away from the mother tree.
3. A grape seedling raising method capable of improving survival rate according to claim 1, wherein 55 parts of humus soil, 33 parts of vermiculite, 22 parts of garden soil and 22 parts of pig manure are mixed in the seedling raising substrate.
4. A grape seedling raising method for improving survival rate according to claim 3, wherein 160g of chitosan oligosaccharide, 2g of sodium decane sulfonate and 40g of sodium p-hydroxybenzoate are added into the seedling raising substrate.
5. A grape seedling method capable of improving survival rate as claimed in claim 1, wherein the distance between the individual grape seedlings is 1.2m, and the depth of the planted root is 5 cm.
6. A grape seedling growing method capable of improving survival rate as claimed in claim 1, wherein the fertilization period is 15 days, 400g of organic fertilizer is applied to each plant, and 200g of human urine is applied to each plant.
7. A grape seedling raising method capable of improving survival rate according to claim 1, wherein the organic fertilizer comprises the following components in parts by weight: 50 parts of decomposed poultry manure, 35 parts of plant ash, 20 parts of cassava residue, 20 parts of silkworm excrement and 10 parts of humic acid.
8. Grape seedling method for improving survival rate according to claim 1, characterized in that the growth fertilizer is applied 7g/m each time2The growth fertilizer is an agricultural compound fertilizer.
CN202011198520.XA 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 Grape seedling raising method for improving survival rate Pending CN112493051A (en)

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CN107135885A (en) * 2017-06-07 2017-09-08 合肥申沃园艺有限公司 A kind of method for culturing seedlings for improving plant percent
CN107548876A (en) * 2017-10-13 2018-01-09 和县常久农业发展有限公司 A kind of efficient implantation methods of grape
CN107736181A (en) * 2017-10-30 2018-02-27 金寨县绿丰园葡萄种植专业合作社 A kind of grape method for culturing seedlings for improving survival rate
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CN107135885A (en) * 2017-06-07 2017-09-08 合肥申沃园艺有限公司 A kind of method for culturing seedlings for improving plant percent
CN107548876A (en) * 2017-10-13 2018-01-09 和县常久农业发展有限公司 A kind of efficient implantation methods of grape
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CN115299264A (en) * 2022-09-02 2022-11-08 福建农林大学 Application and method of n-decane in promotion of growth of China fir
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