CN112514728A - Planting method for mixed seeds of Aomanga and ananas sakyamuni - Google Patents

Planting method for mixed seeds of Aomanga and ananas sakyamuni Download PDF

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CN112514728A
CN112514728A CN202011460146.6A CN202011460146A CN112514728A CN 112514728 A CN112514728 A CN 112514728A CN 202011460146 A CN202011460146 A CN 202011460146A CN 112514728 A CN112514728 A CN 112514728A
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branches
fruit
mango
fruits
tree
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CN112514728B (en
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刘海刚
段元杰
孟富宣
方海东
杨玉皎
郭淑萍
金杰
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RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL ECO-AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES YUNAN ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
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RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL ECO-AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES YUNAN ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/30Grafting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants

Abstract

The invention discloses a planting method of mixed seeds of Australian mango and ananas comosus, wherein mango and ananas comosus seedlings are planted in an interlaced manner, Australian mango scions are grafted on mango seedling branches, main branches and auxiliary main branches are reserved according to round-head tree crowns, the second layer of auxiliary main branches are used as bearing branches, and the bearing branches are pruned four times per year; after the new buds of the custard apple seedlings germinate, main branches and branches are left to be integrated into an open-heart tree, and the fruit trees are pruned three times per year. According to the invention, by adjusting the anageis ananas production period, the Aohuang and the anageis ananas are mixed, the space, nutrient and water competition relationship of the annual growth period of two fruit trees is reduced, and the utilization efficiency of limited land resources is improved.

Description

Planting method for mixed seeds of Aomanga and ananas sakyamuni
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of mango and anagekya ananas planting, and particularly relates to a method for planting mixed seeds of aomon and anagekya ananas.
Background
The Aohuang is a famous mango variety in the world, is called as mango prince, is originally produced in Australia, has pink mature fruit, is flat peach-shaped, and has the weight of 500-1500 g of a single fruit and the sugar content of 18%. From late 12 months to late 2 months in the flowering period, from late 6 months to late 7 months in the maturity period, the large and small kernels have no fiber, the meat quality is fine and smooth, the sweet but not greasy, and the fruit is rich in mellowness and is widely planted in areas such as Hainan, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guangdong and the like. The Aohuang tree has strong vigor, large crown, strong branches, flourishing branches and leaves, large and dense leaves, long and strong inflorescences, fragile newly-grown branches, easy mechanical breakage and easy sagging and bending after fruiting. At present, the Aohuang has no special cultivation technical measures, the cultivation method in the same region is the same as or similar to that of other varieties, the tree shape is natural round head shape or spindle shape, the row spacing of the flat planting plants is 4m multiplied by 5 m-5 m multiplied by 5m, the yield in the high-yield period is 500-900 kg/667m2. The growth vigor of the awns is vigorous, the big branches of the fruits are crisp, the fruit setting rate is low, the yield is low compared with other varieties, the bearing branches are easy to age, the phenomenon of 'big and small years' is obvious, and high and stable yield is not easy to obtain.
The custard apple is a new variety obtained by improving custard apple hybrid seeds introduced from Holland in Taiwan to be cultivated, and the custard apple is large in fruit (the weight of a single fruit can reach 1500g at most), large in pulp juice, less in seeds, rich in nutrition, good in flavor and high in sweetness (the total sugar content reaches 20-25%), and is a main cultivated variety in Taiwan, Guangxi, Guangdong, Yunnan, Fujian, Hainan and other provinces in China at present. The row spacing of the plants in the cushaw high-yield garden is mainly 3m multiplied by 4m, and the row spacing of the plants is 3m multiplied by 5m or 3m multiplied by 6m for facilitating the mechanical cultivation and fertilization of a very small number of plants. The custard apple is grafted and propagated, and the high-yield orchard yield in high-yielding period is about 700kg/667m2The maximum can reach 900kg, and the yield of the common orchard in the high-yield period is about 300-500 kg/667m2. The sprout of the custard apple has strong germination capacity and fast growth speed, and the pruning is carried out at least 3-4 times in the annual production process, for example, 7-8 times in the annual production of a sightseeing orchard, including flower-promoting pruning and dense, weak and diseased branch thinning pruning, the pruning technical requirement is high, and the training cost for producers is highThe training difficulty is high, and the labor cost accounts for the main part of the production cost of ananas comosus through artificial pollination at night, so that the ananas comosus is difficult to realize large-scale production and the industrial development speed is low in the current situation of labor shortage in agricultural production.
At present, mango and ananas comosus are planted in a single fruit tree in a one-piece mode, the mango and ananas comosus grow vigorously, new tips have strong germination capacity and large requirement on growth space, and under the condition of singly planting the ananas comosus or the ananas comosus, the number of plants in a unit area of soil is small, so that limited soil resources are not fully utilized in the current situation of short supply of cultivated land, and in addition, the economic benefit of agricultural production cannot be maximized in one year.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the problem that the prior mango and custard apple are planted in a single fruit tree piece by piece, the invention provides a mixed planting method of the custard mango and the custard apple to improve the utilization efficiency of limited land resources and realize the maximization of production benefits.
The invention is realized by the following technical scheme:
a planting method of a mixed variety of Aohuang and custard apple comprises the following steps: planting mango and custard apple seedlings in an interlaced manner, grafting a macadamia scion on a mango seedling branch, reserving a main branch and an auxiliary main branch according to a round-head crown, taking the second layer of auxiliary main branch as a bearing branch, and pruning the bearing branch four times per year; after the new buds of the custard apple seedlings germinate, main branches and branches are left to be integrated into an open-heart tree, and the fruit trees are pruned three times per year.
Furthermore, the custard apple seedlings are 2-year-old grafted nutrition bag seedlings, the mango seedlings are 1-year-old Makesu or Miscanthus sinensis seedling nutrition bag seedlings, and the planting time is 2-3 months per year.
Further, before planting, the mango and custard apple seedlings are cut off, tender tips are cut off, and cutting edges of the mango and custard apple are above the dense joints.
Further, four times of pruning of the awn bearing tree per year are specifically as follows:
before flower bud differentiation is conducted in the first pruning, dense branches, weak and dark branches, insect-disease branches, cross branches, overlapped branches and short-cut spindly branches are removed, the transmittance of tree crowns is increased, and flower bud differentiation is promoted;
after the second pruning is physiological fruit dropping, cutting off flower stalks and branches which influence the fruit development, and thinning out malformed fruits, diseased and insect-infected fruits and undersized sterile fruits;
the third pruning is that after fruit picking, the auxiliary main branches or the bearing branches are cut short in time after fruit picking, the aged branches are pruned, and partial overground branches with proper positions on the main branches are reserved for replacing the auxiliary main branches year by year;
the fourth pruning is to remove excessive density, crossover, overlap, weak yin, inverted growth and disease and pest tips after slightly aging in autumn, and retain fully developed new tips with vertical or semi-vertical growth.
Further, the tree body with the aged Aohuang branches is re-cut, renewed and rejuvenated, cut at the grafting opening after being harvested, and the stock branch group is re-cultured.
Further, the three times of pruning of the ananas comosus bearing tree per year specifically comprises the following steps of:
the first pruning is carried out after fruit picking, the big branches at the tops of the crowns are retracted to the second-level branches before new buds sprout in the first 3 months and the middle ten days, the dense branches, the diseased and insect branches and the weak branches are removed from the base, the branches are robust, and 2-4 knots are reserved and retracted.
And the second pruning is that before and after noon, 1 vertically-grown mediterranean spring tip is reserved for each secondary branch, the fully-developed spring tip is reserved for a short cut with the length of about 8-10 cm, 2-3 leaves at the top end are removed, all over-dense branches, insect-disease branches and weak branches are thinned from the base, all flowers and summer fruits are thinned, and the tree body is allowed to bear fruit once a year.
Trimming for the third time is carried out in combination with vegetables and fruits, the summer tips and the hollow branches at the middle and lower parts are removed from the base parts, the bearing branches are cut at the positions 2-4 cm above the fruit stalks, malformed fruits, small fruits and redundant fruits are removed, and at most 1 fruit is reserved in each fruit stalk; for the crown summer branches, dense branches, insect-disease branches and weak branches are thinned from the base.
Further, bagging the Aohan after trimming and thinning the fruits for the second time, adopting an opaque double-layer kraft paper bag, bagging one fruit, and taking the bag for coloring 15-20 days before picking; the custard apple is trimmed for the third time, and then is bagged with vegetable and fruit, and lightproof double-layer kraft paper bag is adopted to keep the fruit bright and beautiful, and one bag is used, and the bag is not taken before picking.
Furthermore, the custard apple can keep water supply in the dry and high-temperature season, and the calx and the lime are coated with lime and lime sulfur mixture for 10-11 months per year, so that sunscald and wound germ infection can be effectively relieved.
In the method, 11-12 months of Aomanga sinensis buds are differentiated, the Aomanga sinensis blooms from the first ten days of 1 month to the first 2 months of 2 months, fruits mature from the first 6 months and the middle ten days of the 6 months, the tree body is vigorous at the stage, the requirement on growth space is large, the Anomanga sinensis is in the weak period of the tree body during the period and does not compete with the Aomanga sinensis in space, the branches of the Anomanga sinensis stop growing slightly after the temperature is reduced for 10 months, the crown width is not enlarged any more, the Anomala sinensis fruits mature from 1 month to 2 months, most of old leaves fall off, and the illumination requirement of the Anomala sinensis in the flowering period can be met; the Aomanga 3-5 months in the fruit growth period needs enough growth space to meet the requirements of illumination and nutrition, the Anomania 3 months is pruned and only keeps branches below the second level, the tree body is in a polished rod state and does not compete with the Aomanga, the Anomania 4-5 months are the early and middle spring germination period of Anomania, and are also dry and hot river valley dry seasons, the Anomania branch slightly grows less under the influence of high temperature drought, and the Anomania branch does not compete with the Aomanga growth space strongly. The second pruning of the ananas comosus in the middle and late 6 months is finished, the branches enter the vigorous development period, and the short section retraction is finished after the fruits of the aomiao mango are picked, so that sufficient growth and reproduction space is provided for the ananas comosus.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1) the Aohuang and the custard apple belong to tropical fruit trees, have no major common plant diseases and insect pests, do not have the phenomenon that diseases and insects mutually host, have no obvious nutrient and water competition relationship and do not have the phenomenon of chemical sensation.
2) By utilizing the technique for adjusting the production period of ananas comosus, the annual growth period of the ananas comosus and the ananas comosus is staggered by 5-6 months, so that the competition of two fruit trees for nutrients and growth space is effectively avoided.
3) After the awn is deeply retracted, the new tips have large germination amount and strong tip drawing capability, sufficient nutrient and moisture supply is guaranteed, the tips can be drawn for 4-6 times in one year and can be drawn for 7 times at most, the tree crowns are quickly enlarged, and the autumn tips can also be normally aged, so that flower bud differentiation is completed, and high and stable yield in the next year is guaranteed.
4) The custard apple flower bud is easy to differentiate, when a new tip germinates, flowers are formed along with the germination of axillary buds, flowers grow singly or 2-6 flowers bunch among the axillary leaves of 2-4 leaves of the new tip, and bunch flowers also exist among the axillary leaves of 7-8 leaves of a part of the new tip, so that most of the new tip can bloom in spring, summer, autumn and winter, and the pruning technology is extremely difficult to master for agricultural producers and needs long training time. According to the technology, 3-4 primary branches are reserved, 2 secondary branches are reserved for each primary branch, after the saplings are shaped, when the fruiting tree is trimmed for the first time every year, except for the primary branches and the secondary branches, other branches are removed from the base, and only the robust branches with the diameter of more than 1cm need to be screened and retracted to be reserved to 2-4 nodes. Greatly reducing the difficulty of trimming technology and the training difficulty of technical workers and saving the production cost.
5) Adopting the prior art, the Aohan mango is singly planted, and every 333.5m2Planting 13-17 plants, and achieving a high yield of 250-450 kg in a high-yield period; single planted custard apple, per 333.5m2Planting 28 plants, wherein the yield of the common orchard in the high-yield period is 150-250 kg; by adopting the technology, the two land are combined into one land with equal area, and each 667m of land is2Respectively planting 37 plants of the Australian mango and the custard, wherein the output of the Australian mango is 900-1100 kg in the high-yield period, and the output of the custard is 600-900 kg.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions of the present invention will be described clearly and completely with reference to specific embodiments of the present invention, and it should be understood that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all of the embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
The solar-thermal resources in tropical and subtropical regions are rich, the solar-thermal resources have the inherent advantages of agricultural development, the development range is continuously expanded along with the enhancement of the agricultural development of the hot regions in recent decades, and the land resources of the hot regions are extremely precious, so how to achieve the purposeThe method improves the utilization efficiency of limited land resources and maximizes the production benefit, and is a necessary way for the development of modern agriculture in future. Adopting the prior art, the Aohan mango is singly planted, and every 333.5m2Planting 13-17 plants, and achieving a high yield of 250-450 kg in a high-yield period; single planted custard apple, per 333.5m2Planting 28 plants, and achieving a high yield of 150-250 kg in the productive period; by adopting the technology of the invention, the two are combined into one land with equal area, and each 667m of land is2Respectively planting 37 plants of the Australian mango and the custard, wherein the output of the Australian mango is 900-1100 kg in the high-yield period, and the output of the custard is 600-900 kg. The method specifically comprises the following steps:
1 selection of Environment
Selecting flat land suitable for tropical and subtropical regions or gentle slope land below 5 degrees, wherein the annual average temperature is 20-28 ℃, and the annual average rainfall is 400-2000 mm.
2 planting technique
2.1 selection of fields
The mango and the custard apple are listed as five fruits in the world, are suitable for being planted in tropical and subtropical regions, and are suitable for sandy loam, gravelly loam and red loam which have good drainage and have the pH value of 5.5-6.5.
2.2 soil preparation and planting planning
Removing weeds, sundries, stones and the like which hinder cultivation in a garden, thoroughly and deeply turning for 0.8-1.0 m, harrowing soil blocks and leveling the land after insolation for one month, determining a downwind direction (generally a north-south direction) as a planting row direction, calibrating according to a 3m x 3m plant row spacing, digging planting holes with the length, the width and the depth of 0.8m x 0.6m respectively, separately stacking surface soil and bottom soil during hole digging, returning the soil in the previous month, returning the surface soil to a lower layer for 20cm, fully and uniformly mixing 20kg of farmyard manure, 2kg of calcium superphosphate and 0.5kg of soil, returning the bottom soil to an upper layer, filling the mixture to a position 10-20 cm higher than the ground, and performing field planting after a soil tray sinks for about 30 d.
2.3 permanent planting
The custard apple seedlings are grafted with the 2-year-old nutrition bag seedlings, the mango seedlings are planted with 1-year-old Makesu or Miscanthus sinensis seedling nutrition bag seedlings, the planting time is 2-3 months per year, and the mangoes and the custard apple are planted in an interlaced mode (the custard apple is planted in odd rows, the mango is planted in even rows, or the mango is planted in odd rows and the custard apple is planted in even rows).
2.3.1 permanent planting of Aomang stock
Before field planting, cutting off the top of the seedling, cutting off tender tips, keeping the height of the seedling at 40-50 cm, fully and uniformly mixing surface soil of a planting hole and middle-layer soil, removing a seedling bag, digging a small hole for planting, and covering the surface soil on a nutrition bag by 5-8 cm to the standard of the planting depth.
2.3.2 Annona squamosa planting
Before field planting, cutting off the top of the seedling, cutting off tender tips, keeping the height of the seedling at 40-50 cm, removing 4-6 leaves with tender and fat tops, fully mixing surface soil of a planting hole and middle-layer soil, removing a nutrition bag, digging a small hole for planting, and taking the planting depth as the standard of the distance between a grafting opening and the ground at 3-5 cm.
2.3.3 post-planting management
After field planting, making a round flat tree tray with the radius of 0.8-1.0 m, irrigating by using a burette technology, immediately watering root fixing water thoroughly after planting, and then, replanting once every 3d, wherein the watering amount is not too much, the watering frequency and the watering amount are determined according to the climate condition after the sprout of the seedling is germinated on the basis of the humidity of the tree tray, and the soil is kept moist.
2.4 Fertilizer and Water management
2.4.1 Aohan
2.4.1.1 fertilization
A: the fertilizer for young trees is mainly nitrogen fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer, and is applied as basic fertilizer by properly matching potassium fertilizer, calcium superphosphate, farmyard manure and the like, and the additional fertilizer is mainly nitrogen fertilizer. After planting, the shoots are extracted for 1-2 times, top dressing is started, top dressing is performed for 3, 5, 7 and 9 months respectively, the principle of top dressing is a small amount of times, compound fertilizer is applied for 9 months, organic fertilizer is applied in 6-8 months in combination with green pressing and hole expanding, and the fertilizer is farmyard manure, organic fertilizer, soil miscellaneous fertilizer, oil cake and the like. The fertilizer consumption is doubled in the next year.
B: the fertilizer for the fruit trees is mainly nitrogen fertilizer and potassium fertilizer, the dosage of potassium is not less than nitrogen, and the fertilizer is matched with phosphorus fertilizer, calcium fertilizer and magnesium fertilizer, and four times of fertilizer application are carried out.
Flower forcing fertilizer: applying 250g of urea, potassium sulfate and compound fertilizer to each plant for 10-11 months, so that the crown is enlarged and the fertilizing amount is correspondingly increased;
withering the flowers and fertilizer: applying the trace element water-soluble fertilizer for 1 time after the flowers withering;
fruit strengthening fertilizer: after the flowers are withered for about 30 days, the fruit is rapidly prolonged, and also in the spring shoot emergence period of young fruiting trees, nitrogen and potassium water-soluble fertilizers are applied for 1-2 times;
and (4) post-fruit fertilizer: and (3) immediately applying heavy fertilizer after picking fruits, applying 15kg of organic fertilizer and 1kg of balanced compound fertilizer to each plant, applying quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer before harvesting fruits in the harvest year, and applying the organic fertilizer and the balanced fertilizer after 1-2 months.
2.4.1.2 moisture management
Watering once about 15 days after the survival of the field planting. Watering the fruiting tree for 1-2 times before germination and flowering, watering at the flowering period according to the condition of soil water shortage, watering once every 7-10 d, increasing the watering amount at the young fruit growth period after flower withering, and watering once every 5-7 d to ensure flowering, normal growth and development of young fruits and young shoot sprouting; during the rainy season, the accumulated water in the orchard is timely drained, so that the root system can grow conveniently and the harm of diseases and insects can be reduced.
2.4.2 Ananas Sakyamuni
2.4.2.1 fertilization
A: 5kg of organic fertilizer, 300g of urea, 200g of calcium superphosphate and 200g of compound fertilizer are applied to 1-2-year-old young trees each year. Wherein the organic fertilizer, the calcium superphosphate and the compound fertilizer are applied at one time after spring cutting, and the urea is applied by a burette after the young sprout is aged for 4 months, 6 months and 9 months respectively to promote the growth of tree vigor and the formation of crown.
B: the fertilizer requirement of the custard apple bearing tree is large, the dosage is determined according to the tree age, tree vigor and fruiting condition, and 15kg of organic fertilizer, 300g of urea, 500g of calcium superphosphate, 1000g of compound fertilizer and 100g of trace element fertilizer are applied to 3-4-year-old trees in a year. Wherein, the organic fertilizer, the calcium superphosphate and the compound fertilizer are applied at one time before and after the spring pruning, and the urea and the trace element fertilizer are respectively applied after the 2 nd pruning and the drip tube at the fruit expanding period.
2.4.2.2 moisture management
The ananas comosa has shallow root system, and new root is fleshy and has late cork formation, so that the ananas comosa is not afraid of waterlogging. In addition to keeping soil moist during flowering and pollination, water is sprayed to the tree crown from 4 pm to 5 pm during flower filling, so that air humidity is increased, flower development is facilitated, and pollination seat rate is improved. Watering is carried out in time before and after germination until flowering, young sprout growth and young fruit expansion, rapid expansion, fruit picking and dormancy, and the watering amount is based on the soil thoroughly wetting the main root distribution layer.
2.5 pruning
2.5.1 Aohan
2.5.1.1 saplings
After the new buds of the stock seedlings germinate, selecting and reserving 3-4 robust branches with similar growth potential in different directions for grafting, and cutting off redundant branches. And when the branch grows to 1.5-2.0 cm in 7-8 months in the next year, grafting the Miscanthus sinensis scion at a position 10-15 cm above the bifurcation by adopting a cleft grafting method, selecting semi-mature robust upright branches of the current year as the scion, keeping 5-7 bud eyes of each scion, and taking down or cutting off a plastic film after the grafting wound heals and grows firmly.
After the scions survive and germinate, 3-4 new tips with vigorous growth and moderate positions are selected and reserved as main branches of each scion, and the crossed tips, the over-dense tips and the weak tips are removed. Pinching when the main branches sprout for three times to promote the branches, selecting and reserving 3 branches with similar growth potential as auxiliary main branches, cutting off the top when the auxiliary main branches grow to 40-50 cm, and reserving 3 auxiliary main branches on the second layer as mother branches for fruiting in the first year of production. The strong branch of the bare-grown plant is suitable for being cut short to promote branching so as to keep the dependency of the branch, the erect branch, the crossed branch or the overlapped branch is cut off, and the inflorescence is cut off after the blossom is faded off for the main branch of the next year of grafting. Three years after the parental stocks are fixedly planted, 50-60 fruiting mother branches which grow vigorously but do not grow excessively can be cultured, and the dwarf and well-illuminated round-head tree crowns are formed.
2.5.1.2 fruit bearing trees
Pruning the fruiter trees for four times, wherein the first time is to remove dense branches, weak and dark branches, insect-disease branches, cross branches, overlapped branches and short overgrown branches before flower bud differentiation, so that the transmittance of tree crowns is increased, and the flower bud differentiation is promoted. And after physiological fruit dropping, cutting off pedicels and branches which influence fruit development, thinning malformed fruits, diseased and insect-infected fruits and undersized sterile fruits, and reserving 1-2 normally-developed fruits for one cluster of fruits. And thirdly, after fruit picking, timely cutting back the first layer of auxiliary main branches and the second layer of auxiliary main branches or the bearing branches to a position 0.9-1.0 cm away from the main branches of the trunk, cutting off aged branches, cutting back and keeping part of overgrown branches at proper positions on the main branches for replacing the first layer of auxiliary main branches and the second layer of auxiliary main branches year by year, wherein after the cutting back, the height of the tree body is kept about 1.5m, and the width of the crown is 1.5-1.8 m. And after the third truncation retraction, the new tips germinate more, the fourth pruning is carried out after the first time of slightly aging, over-dense, crossed, overlapped, weak yin, inverted long and sick and insect tips are removed, and 80-90 new tips which are uniformly distributed and fully developed and vertically or semi-vertically grow are reserved for each plant.
The trees with branches aged after fruiting for more than 10 years can be re-cut, renewed and rejuvenated, cut at the grafting openings after harvesting, re-culture the rootstock branch groups, correspondingly cut the root systems, promote new roots, re-graft in the next 7-8 months, and can be put into production after 1.5 years.
2.5.2 Ananas Sakyamuni
2.5.2.1 sapling
After the sprouts of the seedlings germinate, 3-4 primary branches are selected and reserved in different directions, redundant branches are cut off, if the primary branches have large growth difference or are distributed at improper angles, the branches are strengthened and weakened through methods such as branch pulling and branch hanging, so that the primary branches basically have the same growth, and an angle of 50-70 degrees is kept between the primary branches and the main trunk. Pinching when the primary branches grow to 60-80 cm, after the leaves at the tips of the branches are aged, pinching 3-4 leaves at the middle and upper parts of each main branch to promote the remaining of 2 uniformly distributed secondary branches, pinching when the secondary branches grow to 30-40 cm, keeping the height of a crown to be 1.5m, and shaping into an open-core tree to finish the shaping of the saplings.
2.5.1.2 fruit bearing trees
Pruning the fruiting tree mainly comprises 3 times, wherein the pruning is carried out after the fruit is harvested every year for the first time, the big branches at the top of the crown are retracted to the second-level branches before new buds sprout in the first 3 months and the middle ten days, the dense branches, the diseased and insect branches and the weak branches with the diameter of less than 1cm are thinned from the base, the robust branches with the diameter of more than 1cm are reserved, and 2-4 nodes are retracted. And (3) carrying out secondary pruning in combination with the adjustment of the production period, wherein the time is before and after noon, 1 vertically-grown mediterranean spring tip is reserved on each secondary branch, the fully-developed spring tip is reserved about 8-10 cm long for cutting, 2-3 leaves at the top end are removed, all over-dense branches, insect-disease branches and weak branches are removed from the base part, all flowers and summer fruits are removed, and the tree body is allowed to bear fruit once a year. Combining vegetables and fruits for the third time, after pollination for about 70 days, uniformly removing the summer tips and the hollow branches at the middle and lower parts of the fruits with the longitudinal diameter of 3-4 cm from the base part, cutting the bearing branches at the position 2-4 cm above the fruit stalks, removing malformed fruits, small fruits and redundant fruits, and keeping 1 fruit at most in each fruit stalk; for the crown summer branches, dense branches, insect-disease branches and weak branches are thinned from the base. After the vegetables and fruits are pruned, 50-60 fruits with standard and uniformly distributed fruit types are reserved for each plant, and 70-80 vertical or semi-vertical growing summer tips with uniform distribution and full development are reserved for tree crowns.
2.6 pollination
After the second pruning of the custard apple, the new tip starts to bloom after about 1 month, artificial pollination is carried out at 18: 00-22: 00 in the evening, pollen is directly taken from the flower with the anther naturally cracked by a soft brush pen, and the pollen is immediately given to the stigma of the slightly-opened or semi-opened flower.
2.7 fruit bag
And (3) bagging the Aohan after trimming and thinning the fruits for the second time, adopting a light-tight double-layer kraft paper bag, bagging one fruit, and taking the bag for coloring 15-20 days before picking. The custard apple is trimmed for the third time, and then is bagged with vegetable and fruit, and lightproof double-layer kraft paper bag is adopted to keep the fruit bright and beautiful, and one bag is used, and the bag is not taken before picking.
2.8 major diseases and pests and methods of prevention and treatment
2.8.1 Aohan
Powdery mildew: spraying sulfur, thiophanate methyl, triadimefon, lime sulfur, etc. during the bud drawing and the excess of the melastoma;
gummosis, termites: after the rainy season is finished, the quicklime, the lime sulfur and the dimethoate are coated to be dry, and the coating height is 1 m;
and (3) citrus fruit fly: covering the fruit with bags for trapping and killing;
lateral line tail noctuid: cleaning garden after picking and pruning, and spraying abamectin, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate and the like in the shoot germination period and inflorescence bud drawing period;
mango gall midge, leaf-cutting weevil, flat-beak leafhopper and longicorn: spraying abamectin, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate and the like for 3-4 times in summer and autumn germination periods of 6-9 months;
aphids: spraying imidacloprid in the germination period of young shoots in dry seasons;
locust: spraying chlorpyrifos and dimethoate for 3-4 months;
pelagia guianensis: cleaning garden after picking fruit and pruning, and spraying new agricultural weedicide on the whole plant and ground.
2.8.1 Ananas Sakyamuni
Sun burning: in winter and spring, the growth of custard apple consumes a large amount of tree nutrients and water, and the bark of the sunny side of the trunk is easy to dehydrate and crack under the sun of burning sun. In a dry high-temperature season, water supply is kept, quicklime and lime are coated with lime and lime sulfur mixture 10-11 months per year, and sunscald and wound pathogen infection can be effectively reduced.
White mealybugs: after the first and third pruning, the garden is cleared, and the new agricultural weedicide is sprayed on the whole plant and the ground.
Although embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that changes, modifications, substitutions and alterations can be made in these embodiments without departing from the principles and spirit of the invention, the scope of which is defined in the appended claims and their equivalents.

Claims (6)

1. A planting method of mixed seeds of Australian mango and anageis is characterized in that mango and anageis seedlings are planted in an interlaced mode, Australian mango scions are grafted on mango seedling branches, main branches and auxiliary main branches are reserved according to round-head tree crowns, the second layer of auxiliary main branches serve as bearing branches, and the bearing branches are pruned four times per year; after the new buds of the custard apple seedlings germinate, main branches and branches are left to be integrated into an open-heart tree, and the fruit trees are pruned three times per year.
2. The planting method of the mixed seeds of Aohuang and ananas comosus according to claim 1, wherein the seedlings of ananas comosus are grafted with the nutrition bag seedlings in 2 years, the seedlings of mango are planted with the nutrition bag seedlings of 1 year Makesu or Michelia oleracea, and the planting time is 2-3 months per year.
3. The planting method of the mixed seeds of Aohuang and custard apple according to claim 2, wherein before planting, the mango and custard apple seedlings are cut off, tender tips are cut off, the height of the seedlings is kept between 40cm and 50cm, and the cut of the mango is above the dense section.
4. The method for planting the miscanthus australis and custard apple hybrid according to claim 1, wherein the four pruning operations of the miscanthus australis bearing tree per year are as follows:
before flower bud differentiation is conducted in the first pruning, dense branches, weak and dark branches, insect-disease branches, cross branches, overlapped branches and short-cut spindly branches are removed, the transmittance of tree crowns is increased, and flower bud differentiation is promoted;
after the second pruning is physiological fruit dropping, cutting off flower stalks and branches which influence the fruit development, and thinning out malformed fruits, diseased and insect-infected fruits and undersized sterile fruits;
the third pruning is that after fruit picking, the auxiliary main branches or the bearing branches are cut short in time after fruit picking, the aged branches are pruned, and partial overground branches with proper positions on the main branches are reserved for replacing the auxiliary main branches year by year;
the fourth pruning is to remove excessive density, crossover, overlap, weak yin, inverted growth and disease and pest tips after slightly aging in autumn, and retain fully developed new tips with vertical or semi-vertical growth.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein the Mucuna sinensis and custard apple hybrid is re-cut, rejuvenated, cut at the grafting site after harvesting, and re-cultured with the stock.
6. The planting method of the mixture of Aohuang and Shaoxing tree in claim 1, wherein the Sakyamuni tree is pruned three times per year by the following steps:
the first pruning is carried out after fruit picking, the big branches at the tops of the crowns are retracted to the second-level branches before new buds sprout in the first 3 months and the middle ten days, the dense branches, the diseased and insect branches and the weak branches are removed from the base, the branches are robust, and 2-4 knots are reserved and retracted.
And the second pruning is that before and after noon, 1 vertically-grown mediterranean spring tip is reserved for each secondary branch, the fully-developed spring tip is reserved for a short cut with the length of about 8-10 cm, 2-3 leaves at the top end are removed, all over-dense branches, insect-disease branches and weak branches are thinned from the base, all flowers and summer fruits are thinned, and the tree body is allowed to bear fruit once a year.
Trimming for the third time is carried out in combination with vegetables and fruits, the summer tips and the hollow branches at the middle and lower parts are removed from the base parts, the bearing branches are cut at the positions 2-4 cm above the fruit stalks, malformed fruits, small fruits and redundant fruits are removed, and at most 1 fruit is reserved in each fruit stalk; for the crown summer branches, dense branches, insect-disease branches and weak branches are thinned from the base.
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