CN110731221B - Method for branching oranges in Wo mode - Google Patents

Method for branching oranges in Wo mode Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110731221B
CN110731221B CN201910958065.XA CN201910958065A CN110731221B CN 110731221 B CN110731221 B CN 110731221B CN 201910958065 A CN201910958065 A CN 201910958065A CN 110731221 B CN110731221 B CN 110731221B
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branches
fruit
fertilizer
branch
shoots
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CN110731221A (en
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纪素峰
林添成
蓝子彬
莫限源
何峰
韦炳安
兰秋
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Guangxi Orange Agricultural Technology Co ltd
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Guangxi Orange Agricultural Technology Co ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants

Abstract

The invention provides a method for drawing citrus reticulata branches, which comprises the following steps: step 1: and (3) tree-shaped culture: step 2: branch bending operation: and step 3: managing in spring and summer: and 4, step 4: fruit preservation management: and 5: and (3) managing the autumn tips of trees in the third year: step 6: and managing trees in the fourth year. The invention brings the following effects: regulating balance of reproductive growth and vegetative growth, promoting flowering and fruiting, and reducing pericarp of fruits; the vertically grown branches are fixed transversely, the top advantages of the branches are transferred, the dormancy of non-terminal buds of the branches is broken, new buds or flower buds grow, and new branch tips or new fruit bearing branches are formed.

Description

Method for branching oranges in Wo mode
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of planting technology application. In particular to a method for branching Or citrus.
Background
There are many varieties of citrus cultivation techniques, and the main purpose is to solve the problems of yield and quality in the production process. However, the citrus has a plurality of varieties, the physiological characteristics of different citrus varieties are different, and the branch characteristics and the fruit bearing characteristics are different. The same technical measures are used on different citrus varieties, and the aim of high yield and high quality cannot be achieved. Therefore, each variety needs to be independently technically researched, if the technical key is not mastered, the production requirement cannot be met, and even the fruit tree yield and the fruit tree growth are influenced. The Wo oranges are citrus varieties with very vigorous growth, the tree forms are difficult to culture, the vegetative growth is generally stronger than reproductive growth, the fruit bearing amount of the Wo oranges is small, the fruit drop is easy to form, the yield is reduced, and the yield is easy to cause in the big year and the small year. The Or citrus can grow vigorously, and coarse peel fruits can easily appear in fruiting in the first year, so that the appearance and the quality are influenced. The conventional cultivation technology is difficult to solve the problems of output and quality of the Wo oranges, and has great influence on production benefits.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the technical problem, the invention provides a method for thinning citrus reticulata.
A method of Wo citrus branches comprising: the method comprises the following steps of tree form culture and pre-fruiting branch pulling culture fruiting mother branch: step 1: and (3) tree-shaped culture: step 2: branch bending operation: and step 3: managing in spring and summer: and 4, step 4: fruit preservation management: and 5: and (3) managing the autumn tips of trees in the third year: step 6: and managing trees in the fourth year.
Preferably, the step 1 comprises: step 1 a: and (3) breeding excellent virus-free fertile citrus grafted seedlings, transplanting the seedlings to a field, culturing thick and strong long branches as required, culturing the seedlings for two years from grafting to obtain eight high-quality shoots, and performing partial branch pulling culture on the third shoot according to requirements to enable the tree form to reach a tree form suitable for branch pulling before fruit bearing.
Wherein, the growth of oranges and tangerines branch and tip is divided into several stages of sprouting, extension, self-shearing, leaf unfolding, turning green, hardening (ageing), the tip that accomplishes the overall process is one time, and the young tip emerges the sprout again from the top after ageing, carries out new round of growth, and is constantly repeated, as long as the condition is fit for, and the tip can constantly grow repeatedly.
Step 1 b: after the Or citrus is cultivated, the Or citrus is subjected to aging promotion measures, and monopotassium phosphate is sprayed or high-potassium compound fertilizer is sprayed to promote the shoot to age quickly.
Wherein, spraying monopotassium phosphate and spraying high-potassium compound fertilizer are purchased in the market.
Preferably, the step 2 comprises:
step 2a, tree culture branch pulling operation: after the third shoot, selecting a part of vertical shoots for shoot pulling, fixing the shoots by using a shoot pulling device to form a 90-degree angle, wherein the shoot quantity reaches 7-8 times in the shoot autumn period of the pre-fruiting in the second year, the length of the shoot in the last backward pass reaches more than 50 centimeters, the thickness of the shoot reaches 3-5 millimeters, and the number of the shoots in the last pass reaches 40-70;
step 2b, pre-hanging fruit trees and pulling branches: after the autumn shoots are aged in the second year, bending the branches above the trunk to make the branches soft, wherein the bending position is 5-10 cm away from the branches and the branches of the trunk to make the branches form an angle of 90-120 degrees with the original direction, and fixing the branches through a branch puller or a rope; firstly, pulling down the branches at the lowest part, then pulling down the branches at the upper part, finally dividing the whole tree branches into two layers to three layers, wherein an obvious boundary and a space are arranged between every two layers of branches, and the phenomena of branch intersection and branch overlapping are avoided; the lowest layer is more than 40 cm away from the ground.
Step 2c, spraying a potassium dihydrogen phosphate and paclobutrazol cycocel compound agent on the top layer of the main trunk after branch pulling on the top of the whole tree after branch pulling; spraying a foliar fertilizer containing phosphorus, boron, zinc and molybdenum elements on the leaves and the whole branches of the Or citrus trees for one time after the temperature drops;
step 2d, nutrition management before branch drawing: all macroelement fertilizers are balanced fertilizers before the autumn tips in the second year, organic fertilizers are buried after the summer tips are aged and the autumn tips are aged in the first year respectively, and the fertilizers are buried after the autumn tips are aged in the second year.
Preferably, the step 3 comprises the following steps:
step 3a, spraying a phosphorus-boron-zinc leaf fertilizer once before spring shoots sprout, and spraying a balanced water-soluble fertilizer and a medium element water-soluble fertilizer on roots;
step 3b, spraying a high-nitrogen foliar fertilizer, an alginic acid foliar fertilizer and a phosphorus-boron-zinc foliar fertilizer on leaf surfaces after spring shoots germinate; spraying a balanced water-soluble fertilizer on the roots;
step 3c, spraying monopotassium phosphate when spring tips grow, and using monopotassium phosphate in combination with fruit retention measures;
step 3d, controlling the length of the tip of the summer before ten days in the middle of 6 months, and inhibiting the growth of the early tip of the summer by measures such as manual erasing, nutrition regulation and control, tip killing by a medicament and the like; and (3) removing a part of buds growing on the uppermost branch in the early summer shoots according to the density degree, and reserving one or two buds growing at the position nearest to the bent position.
Preferably, the step 4 comprises: and 4a, performing fruit preservation management in spring shoots and in the bud emergence period of the flowering phase, performing nutrition regulation, and inhibiting or weakening the vegetative growth by combining manual control measures to ensure the vegetative condition of reproductive growth. And (3) spraying a balanced water-soluble fertilizer on roots after flower buds germinate, and increasing and decreasing the fertilizer according to the rainwater condition, wherein the water-soluble fertilizer is used for rainwater. A part of spring shoots growing vigorously without flower buds can be cut off in a proper amount. Abnormal flowers and weak flower branches can also be cut off properly.
And 4b, in the early flowering period, according to weather conditions, using the medicine to prevent the occurrence of gray mold, and simultaneously preparing the medicine for fruit preservation.
Step 4c, in the flourishing stage, artificial flower shaking is carried out when the flower withering is started, and when the flower withering is finished, gibberellin 10-20ppm, cytokinin 9000 with the mass concentration of 2% 11000 times, brassin 9000 with the mass concentration of 0.01% 11000 times, boron 1000 with the mass concentration of 30% 1200 times, balanced leaf fertilizer 500 times 800 times and amino acid leaf fertilizer 800 times are used for carrying out medicine and nutrition and fruit protection;
and 4d, 10-20ppm of gibberellic acid, 1200 times of 1000-fold brassin mass concentration, calcium-magnesium leaf fertilizer and alginic acid leaf fertilizer are used for 8-12 days at the initial stage of the first physiological fruit drop. Carrying out secondary medicine fruit retention;
step 4e, performing girdling and fruit retention after spring shoots are completely aged and before summer shoots germinate, performing girdling operation by using a girdling knife, and performing girdling on the main trunk branches at a position 20 cm above the ground, wherein the girdling depth is the cutting depth of phloem without damaging xylem; spraying water and fertilizer to the roots in ten days before and after girdling, and supplementing nutrients from the leaf surfaces if the nutrients need to be supplemented; and 4f, controlling the summer shoots to prevent fruit dropping: before the summer shoots germinate, spraying 400 times of paclobutrazol cycocel with the mass concentration of 30% and 400 times of monopotassium phosphate 300-;
step 4g, putting the summer shoots, and properly trimming the summer shoots to ensure that the summer shoots are transparent and have enough growth space;
and 4h, normally managing after the summer is slightly aged.
Preferably, step 5 a: in the third year, the first fruit tree hanging can sprout autumn tips after being aged in summer, the summer tips need to be cut before the autumn tips sprout, more side buds emerge, the proper direction is selected after emerging, the autumn tips with proper thickness are left, and other surplus autumn tips are wiped off; and performing normal water and fertilizer management in the growth period of the autumn tips, and spraying potassium dihydrogen phosphate after the autumn tips are self-sheared to promote aging.
And step 5 b: spraying a balanced water-soluble fertilizer on the roots, and self-shearing and then using a high-potassium water-soluble fertilizer;
and step 5 c: and after the autumn is slightly aged, branch tips on the top branches are pulled and fixed by ropes or bent branch clamps to form a new branch pulling layer.
Preferably, the step 6 comprises the following steps:
step 6 a: after the branch pulling layering is carried out, cutting off ineffective branches such as over-dense branches, diseased branches, fruit bearing branches in the last year without fruit in this year, over-long branches and the like by pruning, and leaving effective branches for bearing fruit or serving as fruit bearing branches and fruit bearing branches in the next year;
step 6 b: the later management can be realized by taking main branches cultured in the first three years as framework supports of the whole tree and taking other subsidiary branches as fruit bearing alternate branches.
Preferably, in the step 2c, 300 times of 400 times of monopotassium phosphate and 300 times of 400 times of the paclobutrazol cycocel compound agent with the mass concentration of 30% (wherein the mass concentration of the paclobutrazol is 4%, and the mass concentration of the cycocel is 26%) are sprayed on the trunk after the uppermost layer of branches are pulled.
Preferably, in the step 4c, artificial flower shaking is performed when the flower withering starts, and the product of flower withering is subjected to drug and nutrient preservation by using gibberellin 10-20ppm, cytokinin 9000 with the mass concentration of 2% 11000 times, brassin 9000 with the mass concentration of 0.01% 11000 times, boron with the mass concentration of 30% 1000 times 1200 times, balanced foliar fertilizer 500 times 800 times and amino acid foliar fertilizer 800 times.
Preferably, in the step 4e, gibberellic acid 10-20ppm, brassin with the mass concentration of 0.0015% and the mass concentration of 1000-1200 times, calcium-magnesium leaf fertilizer and alginic acid leaf fertilizer are used in 5-7 days at the initial stage of the first physiological fruit drop.
Preferably, in the step 4g, the top spraying is carried out by using 300-fold and 400-fold of paclobutrazol cycocel and 300-fold and potassium dihydrogen phosphate with the mass concentration of 30% before the summer shoots germinate.
The invention brings the following effects:
1. regulating balance of reproductive growth and vegetative growth, promoting flowering and fruiting, and reducing pericarp of fruits;
2. the vertically grown branches are fixed transversely, the top advantages of the branches are transferred, the dormancy of non-terminal buds of the branches is broken, new buds or flower buds grow, and new branch tips or new fruit bearing branches are formed.
3. The nutrition of the upright branches is balanced, and the fruit bearing parts are dispersed, so that the fruits are not crowded at the tops of the branch tips.
4. The main flower bud differentiation that can promote increases the flower volume, can also make the tree form of dominant texture, provides the support for the fruit, reduces the work that the fruit was tied up in the later stage propping, increases space utilization, promotes the growth of interior hall fruit, increases output.
5. The reasonable tree shape is cultured, the fruits are hung in a three-dimensional mode, ventilation and light transmission are achieved, the fruits are hung in an inner cavity, the growth of lateral buds is promoted, the phenomenon that the fruits are multiple in buds and few in buds is avoided, and the coloring of the fruits is increased.
6. After the cultivation in summer, the sunshine of the fruits at the lower part can be shielded, and the occurrence of the sunfruits is greatly reduced.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of tree cultivation and branch bending operation according to the present invention;
fig. 2 shows the tree shape of the first year tree according to the present invention. Cultivating the required tree shape.
Fig. 3-4 illustrate the late branch pulling operation in late autumn maturity.
FIGS. 5 to 7 show the spring tip culture and fruit retention management.
FIG. 8 shows the branch pulling effect: balanced nutrition and balanced fruit positions.
FIG. 9 shows the key to the cultivation of strong skeletons in spring tips at the kink.
Fig. 10 shows a manner of fixing the trunk by the branch clamp.
Detailed Description
Preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described in further detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings:
example 1
Citrus reiliana branch pulling method
Tree cultivation:
a. the excellent virus-free Wo orange grafting plant seedling is bred, the stock is sour orange or fragrant orange, the grafting port affinity is good, and the disease such as ulcer is avoided. And transplanting the seedlings to a field, carrying out normal water and fertilizer management and disease and insect management, cultivating needed robust long branches by excellent water and fertilizer and disease and insect management measures, cultivating the seedlings for two years from grafting to achieve eight times of high-quality shoots, and carrying out partial branch pulling cultivation on the third shoots as required to enable the tree form to achieve a tree form suitable for branch pulling before fruit bearing.
b. After the hybrid oranges are cultivated for two years, the hybrid oranges are subjected to aging promotion measures before the hybrid oranges are aged in the autumn of the next year, monopotassium phosphate is sprayed or a high-potassium compound fertilizer is sprayed, and branch aging is promoted to be aged quickly.
Branch bending operation:
a. and (3) carrying out tree culture and branch pulling operation: after the third shoot pruning, part of the upright branches are selected for branch pulling, the branch pulling device is used for fixing the branches to form a 90-degree angle, the growth angle of the upright branches passing through the strong branches is changed, and the purposes of expanding the crown and improving the canopy tree shape are achieved. The trees with even naturally grown branches and the required crown size can be achieved without pulling branches at the stage. The cultivated tree form requires that main branches and secondary branches are distinct, about 20 centimeters exist after each branch is trimmed, the branch tip amount reaches 7-8 times in the autumn tip period of pre-fruiting in the second year, the branch tip length reaches more than 50 centimeters in the last reciprocal time, 60 centimeters is the optimum branch length, the branch thickness reaches 3-5 millimeters, and the number of the branches in the last time reaches 40-70. The height of the plant is about 1.6 m, and the crown is about 1.2 m.
b. Pre-hanging fruit trees and pulling branches:
after the autumn shoots are aged in the next year, the branches above the trunk are bent to be soft, the bent positions are about 5-10 cm away from the branches and the branches of the trunk, the bent positions are more favorable for being changed, the positions above the bending points are changed in direction, the branches and the original direction form an angle of 90-120 degrees, the wooden parts of the branches which are too thick need to be bent to slightly break, but the phloem is not damaged, and the branches are fixed through a branch puller or a rope. Firstly, pulling down the branches at the lowest part, then pulling down the branches at the upper part, finally dividing the whole tree branches into two layers to three layers, wherein an obvious boundary and a space are arranged between every two layers of branches, and the phenomena of branch intersection and branch overlapping are avoided. The lowest layer is more than 40 cm away from the ground.
c. 400 times of potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 400 times of 30% of paclobutrazol cycocel compound agent (the mass concentration of paclobutrazol is 4% and the mass concentration of cycocel is 26%) are sprayed on the trunk of the whole tree after the branch is pulled for 5 days or so, the potassium dihydrogen phosphate and the paclobutrazol cycocel compound agent are continuously sprayed twice and are sprayed twice at intervals, and the temperature needs to be properly increased once in the southwestern area. Before the temperature is reduced to 12 ℃, the leaf fertilizer containing phosphorus, boron, zinc and molybdenum elements is sprayed on the whole leaves and branches of the citrus.
Thirdly, nutrition management before branch pulling:
a. all macroelement fertilizers are balanced fertilizers before autumn shoots in the second year, one macroelement fertilizer is 500 g in the first year, the fertilizer contains 5 kg/plant of microbial organic fertilizer, and one macroelement fertilizer is 1500 g in the second year, and the fertilizer contains 15 kg/plant of microbial organic fertilizer. Medium trace elements 100 g/year. Mainly cultivate the length of each shoot to reach the required length. Burying organic fertilizer once after the summer tip is aged and the autumn tip is aged in the first year, and burying fertilizer once after the autumn tip is aged in the second year.
b. The leaf surface nutrition mainly uses medium trace elements, and the aim of efficiently supplementing the medium trace elements is fulfilled. Amino acid and alginic acid organic foliar fertilizer are properly used, and the organic foliar fertilizer is used once after one time, so that the growth of leaves and branches is promoted.
Managing in spring and summer:
before spring shoots sprout, a phosphorus-boron-zinc leaf fertilizer is sprayed once, 50g of balanced water-soluble fertilizer is sprayed on roots per plant, and 50g of medium element water-soluble fertilizer per plant. Two times continuously, and ten days are separated.
After spring shoots germinate, leaf surfaces are sprayed with high-nitrogen leaf fertilizers, alginic acid leaf fertilizers and phosphorus, boron and zinc leaf fertilizers. And spraying balanced water soluble fertilizer 50g per plant on roots.
Spraying 300 times of potassium dihydrogen phosphate 400 times when the spring grows to 2 cm, continuously three times at 5 days intervals, and using the potassium dihydrogen phosphate by combining fruit protection measures.
The length of the tip of the summer before the middle 6 th month is controlled, and the growth of the early tip of the summer is inhibited by measures such as manual erasing, nutrition regulation and control, tip killing by a medicament and the like until the middle 6 th month. And (3) removing a part of buds growing on the uppermost branch in the early summer shoots according to the density degree, and reserving one or two buds growing at the position nearest to the bent position.
Fruit preservation management:
the fruit preservation management is needed in spring shoots and bud emergence period of the flowering phase, firstly, nutrition regulation is carried out, and then, the measures of manual control are combined to inhibit or weaken the vegetative growth, so that the vegetative condition of reproductive growth is ensured. After flower buds germinate, 50 g/plant of balanced water-soluble fertilizer is applied to roots in a spraying mode, and the amount of the water-soluble fertilizer is increased or decreased appropriately according to the rainwater condition, and the amount of the water-soluble fertilizer is 25 g/plant when the rainwater is too much. A part of spring shoots growing vigorously without flower buds can be cut off in a proper amount. Abnormal flowers and weak flower branches can also be cut off properly.
In the early flowering period, according to the weather condition, the medicine is used for preventing the occurrence of gray mold, and meanwhile, the medicine is prepared for fruit preservation.
In the full-bloom stage, artificial flower shaking is carried out when the flower withering is started, and the eight-component flower withering is carried out by 10-20ppm of gibberellin, 11000 times of cytokinin 9000-.
Calcium, magnesium, boron and alginic acid foliar fertilizer are supplemented for about 12 days.
10-20ppm of gibberellic acid, 1200 times of brassin with the mass concentration of 0.0015% and 1000 times of gibberellic acid, calcium-magnesium leaf fertilizer and alginic acid leaf fertilizer are used in 5-7 days in the initial stage of the first physiological fruit drop. And carrying out secondary medicine fruit preservation.
After spring shoots are completely aged, performing girdling and fruit protection before summer shoots germinate, performing girdling operation by using a girdling knife, and performing girdling on the main stem branches at a position 20 cm above the ground, wherein the girdling depth is to cut off phloem without damaging xylem. Spraying water and fertilizer to the roots in ten days before and after girdling, and supplementing nutrients from the leaf surfaces if needed.
Controlling summer shoots to prevent fruit dropping: after the spring shoots are aged, the spring shoots germinate quickly, and the top of the spring shoots is sprayed with paclobutrazol cycocel with the mass concentration of 30% by 400 times and potassium dihydrogen phosphate by 400 times to inhibit the germination of the spring shoots. Two consecutive times. The interval is 10 days. And in rainy days, early summer top germination is controlled by combining artificial top trimming until the young fruits are enlarged and the fruit stalks are lignified in the middle 6 th of the month, so that the nutrition competitive advantage is basically and stably formed.
When the summer shoots are put away, the germination of the summer shoots can not be controlled any more within 20 days (properly advanced or delayed according to different climatic regions) after 6 months, and the prevention work of preventing the plant diseases and insect pests of the summer shoots is started until the summer shoots are completely aged. The summer shoots are properly trimmed and are transparent to have enough growth space.
Can be normally managed after being aged in summer.
Sixthly, managing the autumn branches of the trees in the third year:
the first time of the third year, the fruit trees will sprout the autumn tips after the summer is aged, the summer tips need to be cut before the autumn sprouts, more side buds emerge, the selection direction is suitable after emerging, the autumn tips with suitable thickness are left, other surplus ones are wiped off, and the autumn tips on the summer tips are generally left with 2-3 branches, and the number of the autumn tips can be properly increased and decreased according to the space size. Normal water and fertilizer management is carried out in the growth period of the autumn tips, and 300 times of monopotassium phosphate plus 400 times is sprayed after the autumn tips are self-sheared to promote aging.
150 g of balanced water soluble fertilizer is sprayed on roots per plant, and 50g of high-potassium water soluble fertilizer is sprayed on roots per plant after self-shearing. Cultivating strong autumn tips, wherein the length of the autumn tips is about 60 cm.
And (3) after the autumn is slightly aged, before the temperature is reduced to 5 ℃, branch tips on the top branches are pulled and fixed by ropes or bent branch clamps to form a new branch pulling layer.
And (4) tree management in the fourth year:
after 3-4 layers of branch pulling and layering are carried out, the tree height is about 1.8 m, the ideal tree shape height is achieved, new branch pulling and branch pulling preparation work is not needed in the fourth year, invalid branches such as over-dense branches, diseased branches, fruit bearing branches in the last year without fruits in the current year, over-long branches and the like are cut off through pruning, and effective branches are left for bearing fruits or are used as fruit cultivation branches and fruit bearing branches in the next year.
The later management can be realized by taking main branches cultured in the first three years as framework supports of the whole tree and taking other subsidiary branches as fruit bearing alternate branches.
Example 2
Branch drawing of Or big tree
Pre-hanging fruit trees and pulling branches:
after the autumn shoots are aged in the next year, the branches above the trunk are bent to be soft, the bent positions are about 5-10 cm away from the branches and the branches of the trunk, the bent positions are more favorable for being changed, the positions above the bending points are changed in direction, the branches and the original direction form an angle of 90-120 degrees, the wooden parts of the branches which are too thick need to be bent to slightly break, but the phloem is not damaged, and the branches are fixed through a branch puller or a rope. Firstly, pulling down the branches at the lowest part, then pulling down the branches at the upper part, finally dividing the whole tree branches into two layers to three layers, wherein an obvious boundary and a space are arranged between every two layers of branches, and the phenomena of branch intersection and branch overlapping are avoided. The lowest layer is more than 40 cm away from the ground.
About 5 days after branch pulling, 400 times of potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 400 times of 300 times of paclobutrazol cycocel compound agent with the mass concentration of 30% (wherein the mass concentration of paclobutrazol is 4%, and the mass concentration of cycocel is 26%) are sprayed on the trunk after the uppermost layer of branches pulling, the two times are continuously performed, the interval is one week, and the temperature needs to be properly increased once in the southwestern area. Before the temperature is reduced to 12 ℃, the leaf fertilizer containing phosphorus, boron, zinc and molybdenum elements is sprayed on the whole leaves and branches of the citrus.
Nutrient management before branch pulling:
a. all macroelement fertilizers are balanced fertilizers before autumn shoots in the second year, one macroelement fertilizer is 500 g in the first year, the fertilizer contains 5 kg/plant of microbial organic fertilizer, and one macroelement fertilizer is 1500 g in the second year, and the fertilizer contains 15 kg/plant of microbial organic fertilizer. Medium trace elements 100 g/year. Mainly cultivate the length of each shoot to reach the required length. Burying organic fertilizer once after the summer tip is aged and the autumn tip is aged in the first year, and burying fertilizer once after the autumn tip is aged in the second year.
b. The leaf surface nutrition mainly uses medium trace elements, and the aim of efficiently supplementing the medium trace elements is fulfilled. Amino acid and alginic acid organic foliar fertilizer are properly used, and the organic foliar fertilizer is used once after one time, so that the growth of leaves and branches is promoted.
Managing in spring and summer:
before spring shoots sprout, a phosphorus-boron-zinc leaf fertilizer is sprayed once, 50g of balanced water-soluble fertilizer is sprayed on roots per plant, and 50g of medium element water-soluble fertilizer per plant. Two times continuously, and ten days are separated.
After spring shoots germinate, leaf surfaces are sprayed with high-nitrogen leaf fertilizers, alginic acid leaf fertilizers and phosphorus, boron and zinc leaf fertilizers. And spraying balanced water soluble fertilizer 50g per plant on roots.
Spraying 300 times of potassium dihydrogen phosphate 400 times when the spring grows to 2 cm, continuously three times at 5 days intervals, and using the potassium dihydrogen phosphate by combining fruit protection measures.
The length of the tip of the summer before the middle 6 th month is controlled, and the growth of the early tip of the summer is inhibited by measures such as manual erasing, nutrition regulation and control, tip killing by a medicament and the like until the middle 6 th month. And (3) removing a part of buds growing on the uppermost branch in the early summer shoots according to the density degree, and reserving one or two buds growing at the position nearest to the bent position.
Fruit preservation management:
the fruit preservation management is needed in spring shoots and bud emergence period of the flowering phase, firstly, nutrition regulation is carried out, and then, the measures of manual control are combined to inhibit or weaken the vegetative growth, so that the vegetative condition of reproductive growth is ensured. After flower buds germinate, 50 g/plant of balanced water-soluble fertilizer is applied to roots in a spraying mode, and the amount of the water-soluble fertilizer is increased or decreased appropriately according to the rainwater condition, and the amount of the water-soluble fertilizer is 25 g/plant when the rainwater is too much. A part of spring shoots growing vigorously without flower buds can be cut off in a proper amount. Abnormal flowers and weak flower branches can also be cut off properly.
In the early flowering period, according to the weather condition, the medicine is used for preventing the occurrence of gray mold, and meanwhile, the medicine is prepared for fruit preservation.
In the full-bloom stage, artificial flower shaking is carried out when the flower withering is started, and the eight-component flower withering is carried out by 10-20ppm of gibberellin, 11000 times of cytokinin 9000-.
Calcium, magnesium, boron and alginic acid foliar fertilizer are supplemented for about 12 days.
10-20ppm of gibberellic acid, 1200 times of brassin with the mass concentration of 0.0015% and 1000 times of gibberellic acid, calcium-magnesium leaf fertilizer and alginic acid leaf fertilizer are used in 5-7 days in the initial stage of the first physiological fruit drop. And carrying out secondary medicine fruit preservation.
After spring shoots are completely aged, performing girdling and fruit protection before summer shoots germinate, performing girdling operation by using a girdling knife, and performing girdling on the main stem branches at a position 20 cm above the ground, wherein the girdling depth is to cut off phloem without damaging xylem. Spraying water and fertilizer to the roots in ten days before and after girdling, and supplementing nutrients from the leaf surfaces if needed.
Controlling summer shoots to prevent fruit dropping: after the spring shoots are aged, the spring shoots germinate quickly, and the top of the spring shoots is sprayed with paclobutrazol cycocel with the mass concentration of 30% by 400 times and potassium dihydrogen phosphate by 400 times to inhibit the germination of the spring shoots. Two consecutive times. The interval is 10 days. And in rainy days, early summer top germination is controlled by combining artificial top trimming until the young fruits are enlarged and the fruit stalks are lignified in the middle 6 th of the month, so that the nutrition competitive advantage is basically and stably formed.
When the summer shoots are put away, the germination of the summer shoots can not be controlled any more within 20 days (properly advanced or delayed according to different climatic regions) after 6 months, and the prevention work of preventing the plant diseases and insect pests of the summer shoots is started until the summer shoots are completely aged. The summer shoots are properly trimmed and are transparent to have enough growth space.
Can be normally managed after being aged in summer.
And (3) managing the autumn tips of trees in the third year:
a. the first time of the third year, the fruit trees will sprout the autumn tips after the summer is aged, the summer tips need to be cut before the autumn sprouts, more side buds emerge, the selection direction is suitable after emerging, the autumn tips with suitable thickness are left, other surplus ones are wiped off, and the autumn tips on the summer tips are generally left with 2-3 branches, and the number of the autumn tips can be properly increased and decreased according to the space size. Normal water and fertilizer management is carried out in the growth period of the autumn tips, and 300 times of monopotassium phosphate plus 400 times is sprayed after the autumn tips are self-sheared to promote aging.
b. 150 g of balanced water soluble fertilizer is sprayed on roots per plant, and 50g of high-potassium water soluble fertilizer is sprayed on roots per plant after self-shearing. Cultivating strong autumn tips, wherein the length of the autumn tips is about 60 cm.
c. And (3) after the autumn is slightly aged, before the temperature is reduced to 5 ℃, branch tips on the top branches are pulled and fixed by ropes or bent branch clamps to form a new branch pulling layer.
Sixthly, tree management in the fourth year:
after 3-4 layers of branch pulling and layering are carried out, the tree height is about 1.8 m, the ideal tree shape height is achieved, new branch pulling and branch pulling preparation work is not needed in the fourth year, invalid branches such as over-dense branches, diseased branches, fruit bearing branches in the last year without fruits in the current year, over-long branches and the like are cut off through pruning, and effective branches are left for bearing fruits or are used as fruit cultivation branches and fruit bearing branches in the next year.
The later management can be realized by taking main branches cultured in the first three years as framework supports of the whole tree and taking other subsidiary branches as fruit bearing alternate branches.
Example 3
Changing tree form of Or
Pre-hanging fruit trees and pulling branches:
after the autumn shoots are aged in the next year, the branches above the trunk are bent to be soft, the bent positions are about 5-10 cm away from the branches and the branches of the trunk, the bent positions are more favorable for being changed, the positions above the bending points are changed in direction, the branches and the original direction form an angle of 90-120 degrees, the wooden parts of the branches which are too thick need to be bent to slightly break, but the phloem is not damaged, and the branches are fixed through a branch puller or a rope. Firstly, pulling down the branches at the lowest part, then pulling down the branches at the upper part, finally dividing the whole tree branches into two layers to three layers, wherein an obvious boundary and a space are arranged between every two layers of branches, and the phenomena of branch intersection and branch overlapping are avoided. The lowest layer is more than 40 cm away from the ground.
About 5 days after branch pulling, 400 times of potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 400 times of 300 times of paclobutrazol cycocel compound agent with the mass concentration of 30% (wherein the mass concentration of paclobutrazol is 4%, and the mass concentration of cycocel is 26%) are sprayed on the trunk after the uppermost layer of branches pulling, the two times are continuously performed, the interval is one week, and the temperature needs to be properly increased once in the southwestern area. Before the temperature is reduced to 12 ℃, the leaf fertilizer containing phosphorus, boron, zinc and molybdenum elements is sprayed on the whole leaves and branches of the citrus.
Nutrition management before branch pulling:
a. all macroelement fertilizers are balanced fertilizers before autumn shoots in the second year, one macroelement fertilizer is 500 g in the first year, the fertilizer contains 5 kg/plant of microbial organic fertilizer, and one macroelement fertilizer is 1500 g in the second year, and the fertilizer contains 15 kg/plant of microbial organic fertilizer. Medium trace elements 100 g/year. Mainly cultivate the length of each shoot to reach the required length. Burying organic fertilizer once after the summer tip is aged and the autumn tip is aged in the first year, and burying fertilizer once after the autumn tip is aged in the second year.
b. The leaf surface nutrition mainly uses medium trace elements, and the aim of efficiently supplementing the medium trace elements is fulfilled. Amino acid and alginic acid organic foliar fertilizer are properly used, and the organic foliar fertilizer is used once after one time, so that the growth of leaves and branches is promoted.
Managing in spring and summer:
before spring shoots sprout, a phosphorus-boron-zinc leaf fertilizer is sprayed once, 50g of balanced water-soluble fertilizer is sprayed on roots per plant, and 50g of medium element water-soluble fertilizer per plant. Two times continuously, and ten days are separated.
After spring shoots germinate, leaf surfaces are sprayed with high-nitrogen leaf fertilizers, alginic acid leaf fertilizers and phosphorus, boron and zinc leaf fertilizers. And spraying balanced water soluble fertilizer 50g per plant on roots.
Spraying 300 times of potassium dihydrogen phosphate 400 times when the spring grows to 2 cm, continuously three times at 5 days intervals, and using the potassium dihydrogen phosphate by combining fruit protection measures.
The length of the tip of the summer before the middle 6 th month is controlled, and the growth of the early tip of the summer is inhibited by measures such as manual erasing, nutrition regulation and control, tip killing by a medicament and the like until the middle 6 th month. And (3) removing a part of buds growing on the uppermost branch in the early summer shoots according to the density degree, and reserving one or two buds growing at the position nearest to the bent position.
Fruit preservation management:
the fruit preservation management is needed in spring shoots and bud emergence period of the flowering phase, firstly, nutrition regulation is carried out, and then, the measures of manual control are combined to inhibit or weaken the vegetative growth, so that the vegetative condition of reproductive growth is ensured. After flower buds germinate, 50 g/plant of balanced water-soluble fertilizer is applied to roots in a spraying mode, and the amount of the water-soluble fertilizer is increased or decreased appropriately according to the rainwater condition, and the amount of the water-soluble fertilizer is 25 g/plant when the rainwater is too much. A part of spring shoots growing vigorously without flower buds can be cut off in a proper amount. Abnormal flowers and weak flower branches can also be cut off properly.
In the early flowering period, according to the weather condition, the medicine is used for preventing the occurrence of gray mold, and meanwhile, the medicine is prepared for fruit preservation.
In the full-bloom stage, artificial flower shaking is carried out when the flower withering is started, and the eight-component flower withering is carried out by 10-20ppm of gibberellin, 11000 times of cytokinin 9000-.
Calcium, magnesium, boron and alginic acid foliar fertilizer are supplemented for about 12 days.
10-20ppm of gibberellic acid, 1200 times of brassin with the mass concentration of 0.0015% and 1000 times of gibberellic acid, calcium-magnesium leaf fertilizer and alginic acid leaf fertilizer are used in 5-7 days in the initial stage of the first physiological fruit drop. And carrying out secondary medicine fruit preservation.
After spring shoots are completely aged, performing girdling and fruit protection before summer shoots germinate, performing girdling operation by using a girdling knife, and performing girdling on the main stem branches at a position 20 cm above the ground, wherein the girdling depth is to cut off phloem without damaging xylem. Spraying water and fertilizer to the roots in ten days before and after girdling, and supplementing nutrients from the leaf surfaces if needed.
Controlling summer shoots to prevent fruit dropping: after the spring shoots are aged, the spring shoots germinate quickly, and the top of the spring shoots is sprayed with paclobutrazol cycocel with the mass concentration of 30% by 400 times and potassium dihydrogen phosphate by 400 times to inhibit the germination of the spring shoots. Two consecutive times. The interval is 10 days. And in rainy days, early summer top germination is controlled by combining artificial top trimming until the young fruits are enlarged and the fruit stalks are lignified in the middle 6 th of the month, so that the nutrition competitive advantage is basically and stably formed.
When the summer shoots are put away, the germination of the summer shoots can not be controlled any more within 20 days (properly advanced or delayed according to different climatic regions) after 6 months, and the prevention work of preventing the plant diseases and insect pests of the summer shoots is started until the summer shoots are completely aged. The summer shoots are properly trimmed and are transparent to have enough growth space.
Can be normally managed after being aged in summer.
Managing the autumn tips of trees in the third year:
the first time of the third year, the fruit trees will sprout the autumn tips after the summer is aged, the summer tips need to be cut before the autumn sprouts, more side buds emerge, the selection direction is suitable after emerging, the autumn tips with suitable thickness are left, other surplus ones are wiped off, and the autumn tips on the summer tips are generally left with 2-3 branches, and the number of the autumn tips can be properly increased and decreased according to the space size. Normal water and fertilizer management is carried out in the growth period of the autumn tips, and 300 times of monopotassium phosphate plus 400 times is sprayed after the autumn tips are self-sheared to promote aging.
150 g of balanced water soluble fertilizer is sprayed on roots per plant, and 50g of high-potassium water soluble fertilizer is sprayed on roots per plant after self-shearing. Cultivating strong autumn tips, wherein the length of the autumn tips is about 60 cm.
And (3) after the autumn is slightly aged, before the temperature is reduced to 5 ℃, branch tips on the top branches are pulled and fixed by ropes or bent branch clamps to form a new branch pulling layer.
Sixthly, tree management in the fourth year:
after 3-4 layers of branch pulling and layering are carried out, the tree height is about 1.8 m, the ideal tree shape height is achieved, new branch pulling and branch pulling preparation work is not needed in the fourth year, invalid branches such as over-dense branches, diseased branches, fruit bearing branches in the last year without fruits in the current year, over-long branches and the like are cut off through pruning, and effective branches are left for bearing fruits or are used as fruit cultivation branches and fruit bearing branches in the next year.
The later management can be realized by taking main branches cultured in the first three years as framework supports of the whole tree and taking other subsidiary branches as fruit bearing alternate branches.
Example 4
The purpose of the test is as follows:
by comparing the fruit bearing quantity and quality of the branch pulling fruit trees with the fruit bearing quantity and quality of the fruit trees without branch pulling, the cost and benefit generated by branch pulling are analyzed, so that the implementation and popularization of the branch pulling technology are guided, and a new direction is provided for the planting of the Or.
The test principle is as follows:
selecting 100 trees in the third year with basically consistent tree shape size, carrying out the same nutrition and bud control treatment after branch pulling in 11 months, observing and recording the flowering branch ratio of the branch pulling and non-branch pulling trees, the number of flowers and flowers of each leaf bud, the length of the flower bud, the final fruit protection number, the number of fruits with thick peel, the number of fruits with sun burn in 7, 8 and 9 months and the like in spring, and obtaining the effects and influences of the branch pulling and the non-branch pulling on the aspects of flower promotion, fruit protection, rough peel prevention, sun burn prevention and the like through comparative analysis.
Test treatments, as shown in table 1:
serial number Treatment of Number of
1 Branch pulling 50
2 Non-branch pulling routine pruning management 50
TABLE 1
Post-treatment of branch pulling:
300 times of paclobutrazol cycocel and 400 times of monopotassium phosphate, and is used once in 15 days, and the two times are continued until the temperature is completely reduced to below 13 ℃. 10-13-36 g of the high-potassium water-soluble fertilizer for root drenching, 3000 times of potassium fulvate, and root drenching for 15 days once for four times continuously. And in the month of January, normal water and fertilizer management is carried out once in 20 days, and the compound fertilizer mainly contains high potassium. 100 g of balance fertilizer, 50g of medium trace elements and 3000 times of potassium fulvate are sprayed before beginning spring in late February, and the two steps are carried out continuously twice. After sprouting, 100 g/plant of balanced fertilizer, 50 g/plant of trace elements and 500 times of humic acid are continuously sprayed, and the spraying is carried out once in 15 days.
Test subjects and materials:
100 plants were entered into the third-year wok tree, 50 plants were used for branch pulling, and 50 plants were used for control. Plant protection medicine and fertilizer.
Test methods and observations:
1. and counting the flowering quantity and quality of the branch-pulling trees and the branch-pulling trees from the initial flowering period to the full flowering period. Counting the number of flowering branches, the number of flower buds of each branch and the number of flower plants of each leaf bud. And counting the abnormal flower number according to the flower quality.
2. Counting the number of young fruits after the flowers are withered, and counting the number of final fruits after the fruits are stabilized. And counting the number of sunscald fruits in 9 months, and calculating the final yield at the end of the year.
The results and analysis are shown in tables 2 and 3:
TABLE 2 statistics of flower volume, flower quality and yield of branch fruit trees
TABLE 3 statistics of flower volume, flower quality and yield of branch fruit trees
According to statistical analysis, the number of flowering branches after branch pulling is 10 percent more than that of flowering branches of non-branch pulling trees on average, the flower quantity of the branches is 2 times more, the flower number of each leaf bud is also two times more, and each leaf bud of the non-branch pulling trees basically only blooms one flower. The abnormal flower number of the non-branch-drawing trees is increased by 2 times, the yield is reduced by 20 percent, the number of the sun fruits is increased by 3 times, and the number of the thick-skinned fruits is increased by 3 times. In general, the branch pulling can greatly improve the yield and the fruit quality.
The foregoing is a more detailed description of the invention in connection with specific preferred embodiments and it is not intended that the invention be limited to these specific details. For those skilled in the art to which the invention pertains, several simple deductions or substitutions can be made without departing from the spirit of the invention, and all shall be considered as belonging to the protection scope of the invention.

Claims (7)

1. The method for carrying out citrus reticulata branch thinning is characterized by comprising the following steps: step 1: and (3) tree-shaped culture: step 2: branch bending operation: and step 3: managing in spring and summer: and 4, step 4: fruit preservation management: and 5: and (3) managing the autumn tips of trees in the third year: step 6: managing trees in the fourth year;
the step 1 comprises the following steps: step 1 a: selecting and breeding excellent virus-free fertile citrus grafted seedlings, culturing thick and strong long branches after transplanting the seedlings to a field, culturing the seedlings for two years from grafting to obtain eight high-quality shoots, and performing partial branch pulling culture on the third shoot according to the requirement to enable the tree form to reach a tree form suitable for branch pulling before fruit bearing;
step 1 b: after cultivating the Or citrus, carrying out aging promotion measures on the Or citrus, and spraying monopotassium phosphate or spraying high-potassium compound fertilizer or water-soluble fertilizer;
the step 2 comprises the following steps:
step 2a, tree culture branch pulling operation: after the third shoot, selecting a part of upright shoots for shoot pulling, fixing the upright shoots by using a shoot pulling device to form a 90-degree angle, wherein the shoot quantity reaches 7-8 times in the autumn shoot period of pre-fruiting in the second year, the length of the shoot reaches more than 50 centimeters in the last shoot, the thickness of the shoot reaches 3-5 millimeters, and the number of the shoots reaches 40-70 in the last shoot;
step 2b, pre-hanging fruit trees and pulling branches: after the autumn tips are aged in the second year, bending the branches above the trunk to make the branches soft, wherein the bending position is 5-10 cm away from the branches and the branches of the trunk, so that the branches form an angle of 90-120 degrees with the original direction, and the branches are fixed by a branch puller or a rope;
step 2c, spraying a potassium dihydrogen phosphate and paclobutrazol cycocel compound agent on the top layer of the main trunk after branch pulling on the top of the whole tree after branch pulling, and spraying a foliar fertilizer containing phosphorus, boron, zinc and molybdenum elements once on citrus leaves and the whole branches after the temperature drops;
step 2d, nutrition management before branch drawing: all macroelement fertilizers are balanced fertilizers before the autumn tips in the second year, organic fertilizers and calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizers are used as base fertilizers for planting new seedlings, the organic fertilizers are buried once after the summer tips are aged and the autumn tips are aged in the first year, and the organic fertilizers are buried once after the autumn tips are aged in the second year.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein said step 3 comprises the steps of:
step 3a, spraying a phosphorus-boron-zinc leaf fertilizer once before spring shoots sprout, and spraying a balanced water-soluble fertilizer and a medium-trace element water-soluble fertilizer on roots;
step 3b, spraying a high-nitrogen foliar fertilizer, an alginic acid foliar fertilizer and a phosphorus-boron-zinc foliar fertilizer on leaf surfaces after spring shoots germinate; spraying a balanced water-soluble fertilizer on the roots;
step 3c, spraying monopotassium phosphate when spring tips grow, and using monopotassium phosphate in combination with fruit retention measures;
step 3d, controlling the length of the tip of the summer before ten days in the middle of 6 months, and inhibiting the growth of the early tip of the summer through manual erasing, nutrition regulation and control and tip killing measures by a medicament; and (3) removing a part of buds growing on the uppermost branch in the early summer shoots according to the density degree, and reserving one or two buds growing at the position nearest to the bent position.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein step 4 comprises: step 4a, performing fruit preservation management in spring shoots and in the bud emergence period of the flowering phase, performing nutrition regulation, and inhibiting or weakening the vegetative growth by combining manual control measures to ensure the vegetative condition of reproductive growth;
spraying a balanced water-soluble fertilizer on roots after flower buds germinate, and increasing or decreasing the fertilizer appropriately according to the rainwater condition, wherein if more rainwater exists, the water-soluble fertilizer is reduced by half;
cutting off a part of spring shoots which grow vigorously and do not have flower buds;
abnormal flowers and weak flower branches can be properly cut off;
step 4b, in the early flowering period, according to weather conditions, medication is used for preventing the occurrence of gray mold, and meanwhile, medicaments are prepared for fruit preservation;
step 4c, in the full bloom stage, artificial flower shaking is carried out when the flower withering is started, and when the flower withering is finished, gibberellin 10-20ppm, 2% cytokinin 9000-;
step 4d, 10-20ppm of gibberellic acid, 0.0015% of brassin, 1200 times of 1000-fold organic fertilizer, calcium-magnesium leaf fertilizer and alginic acid leaf fertilizer are used for 5-7 days at the initial stage of the first physiological fruit drop;
carrying out secondary medicine fruit retention;
step 4e, performing girdling and fruit retention after spring shoots are completely aged and before summer shoots germinate, performing girdling operation by using a girdling knife, and performing girdling on the main trunk branches at a position 20 cm above the ground, wherein the girdling depth is the cutting depth of phloem without damaging xylem; spraying water and fertilizer to the roots in ten days before and after girdling, and supplementing nutrients from the leaf surfaces if the nutrients need to be supplemented;
and 4f, controlling early summer shoots to prevent fruit drop: spraying the top of the young plants with 30 percent paclobutrazol cycocel of 400 times and potassium dihydrogen phosphate of 300 times before sprouting to inhibit sprouting of the young plants;
step 4g, putting late summer shoots, and properly trimming the summer shoots to ensure that the summer shoots are transparent and have enough growth space;
and 4h, normally managing after the summer is slightly aged.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein step 5 a: the method comprises the following steps that in the third year, after a fruit tree is hung for the first time and is aged in summer, autumn tips can germinate, at the moment, before the autumn tips germinate, the summer tips need to be cut, more lateral buds emerge, the selection direction is suitable after emergence, the autumn tips with suitable thickness are left, and other surplus autumn tips are wiped off;
and step 5 b: spraying a balanced water-soluble fertilizer on the roots, and self-shearing and then using a high-potassium water-soluble fertilizer;
and step 5 c: and after the autumn is slightly aged, branch tips on the top branches are pulled and fixed by ropes or bent branch clamps to form a new branch pulling layer.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein said step 6 comprises the steps of:
step 6 a: after the branch pulling layering is carried out, the dense branches, diseased branches and the branches which have no fruit in the year are pruned, the branches which have no fruit in the year in the last year are pruned, and the effective branches are left for bearing fruit or are used as fruit-bearing branches and fruit-bearing branches in the next year;
step 6 b: the later management can be realized by taking main branches cultured in the first three years as framework supports of the whole tree and taking other subsidiary branches as fruit bearing alternate branches.
6. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step 2c, the trunk of the uppermost layer after branch pulling is sprayed with 300 times of monopotassium phosphate and 400 times of paclobutrazol cycocel compound agent with the mass concentration of 30%.
7. The method as claimed in claim 3, wherein in the step 4g, the top spraying is carried out by using 300-400 times of paclobutrazol cycocel and 400 times of monopotassium phosphate with the mass concentration of 30% before the shoot germinates.
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