CN111149604A - Early-maturing high-yield cultivation method for passion fruit - Google Patents

Early-maturing high-yield cultivation method for passion fruit Download PDF

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CN111149604A
CN111149604A CN202010122773.2A CN202010122773A CN111149604A CN 111149604 A CN111149604 A CN 111149604A CN 202010122773 A CN202010122773 A CN 202010122773A CN 111149604 A CN111149604 A CN 111149604A
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planting
passion fruit
early
yield
plants
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CN111149604B (en
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刘智成
严良文
陈瑶瑶
刘信臻
陈缅
欧雪婷
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LONGYAN INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/10Vegetative propagation by means of cuttings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
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  • Cultivation Of Plants (AREA)

Abstract

The invention belongs to the field of passion fruit planting, and discloses a method for cultivating early-maturing and high-yield passion fruits, which comprises the following steps: carrying out temporary planting culture on passion fruit seedlings obtained by adopting single-bud in-vitro cutting seedling in a nutrition cup, planting the obtained planting plants on planting ridges in high density, after planting, trimming the plants to be 25-35 cm away from the ground, reserving 3 node buds, guiding a robust lateral vine by a rope to serve as a main bearing vine to a shed top, removing the rest lateral branches, reserving the main bearing vine, and topping when the length of the main bearing vine exceeds 350 cm; and (4) periodically fertilizing after field planting and preventing and controlling plant diseases and insect pests. The method provided by the invention can achieve the purpose of early selling the passion fruit, increase the early-stage yield and improve the commodity of the passion fruit.

Description

Early-maturing high-yield cultivation method for passion fruit
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of planting of passion fruits, and particularly relates to a method for cultivating early-maturing and high-yield passion fruits.
Background
Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis x P. edulis f. flavicarpa) belongs to the Passiflora genus of the Passifloraceae family, and is deeply favored by consumers due to its sour, sweet and delicious taste, unique flavor and rich nutrient components, so that the Passion fruit is successfully planted in many places and the planting area is increased year by year. The passion fruit can generate a large amount of lateral vines when growing normally, and the lateral vines of the main vines can blossom and bear fruits; the traditional planting density is 80-120 plants/mu, the main vines are cultured in the early stage, the vegetative growth is emphasized, the lateral vines of passion fruit are cultured in the later stage, the reproductive growth is emphasized, most of effective photosynthetic products of the passion fruit are supplied to bearing branches to grow, the production adopts methods of heat preservation seedling culture, large seedling planting, early planting and the like, but the passion fruit is difficult to appear on the market in advance, the uniformity of the early commodity fruit is poor, and the yield and commodity are not high.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to solve the defects of slow growth, flowering and late fruiting of low-temperature plant cultivation in spring when the passion fruit is cultivated by the conventional method, and provides a method for cultivating the passion fruit early and high-yield early-maturing passion fruit, which can realize early marketing of the passion fruit and increase early yield.
Specifically, the invention provides a method for cultivating passion fruit in a premature and high-yield manner, wherein the method comprises the following steps:
(1) cutting and seedling raising: carrying out cuttage seedling raising on passion fruit cuttings with the length of 8-12 cm by adopting a single bud in-vitro cuttage mode, and paying attention to shading and moisturizing management in the cuttage seedling raising process to obtain passion fruit seedlings with survival by cuttage and branch lengths of 18-22 cm;
(2) temporary planting and culturing: transferring the passion fruit seedlings obtained in the step (1) into a nutrition cup for temporary planting culture, wherein the diameter and the height of the nutrition cup are respectively and independently 25-30 cm, and after the passion fruit seedlings grow to 75-85 cm, uniformly pinching and topping to obtain fixed planting plants;
(3) planting: planting the plants obtained in the step (2) on a planting ridge with a shed frame, wherein the rising ridge height of the planting ridge is 25 to E35cm, the width of the ridge surface is 110-130 cm, the width of the furrow is 70-90 cm, the ridge surface is covered with harmless cloth, the row spacing of the plant field planting is (45-55) cm x (115-125) cm, and the planting density is 1000-1200 plants/667 m2
(4) Managing after planting: after field planting, trimming the plants to be 25-35 cm away from the ground, reserving 3 node buds, leading a robust lateral vine by using a rope to serve as a main vine for fruiting to a shed top, removing the rest lateral branches, reserving the main vine for fruiting, and topping when the length of the main vine for fruiting exceeds 350 cm; and (5) fertilizing regularly after planting and preventing and controlling plant diseases and insect pests.
Further, in the step (1), the depth of the passion fruit cutting slips inserted into the seedling substrate is 5-7 cm.
Further, in the step (1), N + P in the seedling substrate for cutting seedling2O5+K2O is more than or equal to 3 percent, organic matter is more than or equal to 45 percent, and the pH value is 5.5-6.5.
Further, in the step (2), the planting substrate for temporary planting culture is a mixture of a seedling substrate and soil adopted by cutting seedling according to a mass ratio (0.5-1.5) to 1.
Further, the early-maturing high-yield cultivation method of the passion fruit further comprises the step (2) of inserting a support pole with the length of 90-110 cm into the nutrition cup for branch climbing support.
Further, the method for cultivating the passion fruit in the early maturing and high yield further comprises the step (3), wherein base fertilizers are applied when the furrows are planted and the soil is prepared, and the base fertilizers comprise 1000-2000 kg/mu of decomposed sheep manure or 800-1200 kg/mu of cattle manure, 30-40 kg/mu of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium ternary compound fertilizer and 15-25 kg/mu of calcium-phosphorus-magnesium fertilizer.
Furthermore, in the whole cultivation process, the weight ratio of the total fertilizing amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is 1 (1-2) to 1-2.
Specifically, a base fertilizer is applied when the ridge planting and land preparation are carried out. In the process of regular fertilization (top application) after field planting, according to plant growth, the N fertilizer is mainly used in the early stage, high-N water-soluble fertilizer can be applied in a top application manner, and irrigation is combined for pouring; after blooming and fruiting, the fertilizer requirement is large, and P, K fertilizer is mainly used for watering and sprinkling or hole application; and (3) topdressing is carried out every 7-10 days according to the growth condition of plants. In addition, after flowering and fruiting, extra-root topdressing is needed, a leaf fertilizer with high P, K content can be sprayed, and medium and small amount of water-soluble fertilizers such as boron, magnesium, zinc and the like are properly added to prevent the premature senility of plants.
In the process of preventing and controlling the plant diseases and insect pests, a mode of combining agricultural control, physical control, biological control and chemical control measures can be adopted to prevent thrips, fruit flies, stem rot, epidemic diseases and the like in advance. Specifically, agricultural control: the method comprises the steps of adopting paddy-upland rotation, well clearing a garden, selecting robust branches, cultivating strong seedlings, timely trimming and removing old-leaf diseased leaves, scientifically fertilizing, standardizing farming operation and the like. Physical control: 20-40 yellow insect plates (30cm multiplied by 30cm) are hung per mu to trap and kill winged insects, and silver gray mulching films can be covered under certain conditions to repel aphids. Biological control: hang fruit bat trap and kill device, 3 ~ 6 per mu. Chemical control: after planting, 200 mL/mu of 2% amino-oligosaccharin can be sprayed to enhance the disease resistance of plants.
Further, in the step (3), the distance between the shed frame and the ground is 180-220 cm.
Furthermore, the cultivation season is spring.
Further, the growth temperature after planting is controlled to be 25-30 ℃.
Further, the variety of the passion fruit is selected from Tainong I, Zixiang I, gypsophila paniculata, Fujian No. 1, Fujian No. 2, Fujian No. 3, guayun gold passion fruit or litchi passion fruit.
In the prior art, the cutting seedling raising is usually carried out by adopting a double-bud in vitro cutting mode, so that a large amount of cutting shoots are required. The invention adopts the mode of single bud in vitro cutting for seedling culture, thus saving cutting branches, reducing cutting cost and accelerating seedling propagation.
According to the method, a temporary planting culture step is additionally arranged after cutting seedling raising and before field planting, the temporary planting culture step is carried out in a nutrition cup with the diameter and height of 25-30 cm, seedlings of passion fruit can be strengthened, the obtained field planting plants are healthy and strong, and a good foundation is laid for subsequent early maturing and high yield.
In the field planting process, the prior art generally adopts a mode of covering a mulching film on the surface of a furrow, and the mode of covering a non-woven fabric adopted by the invention not only can realize free penetration of water, but also can inhibit the growth of weeds, thereby being more beneficial to subsequent management.
In the process of field planting, 1000-1200 plants/667 m are adopted2This density of colonization ensures early yield improvement of the passion fruit and early marketing.
After field planting, small seedlings of the passion fruit with the length of 75-85 cm are trimmed to be 25-35 cm away from the ground, and 3 nodal buds are reserved, so that flowering and fruiting nodal positions of the passion fruit can be reduced, sufficient nutrients are supplied for fruit growth, and early-maturing and high-yield passion fruit is achieved.
In conclusion, the invention realizes the purpose of promoting the passion fruit to appear on the market early by adopting single bud in-vitro cutting seedling raising, additionally arranging a temporary planting culture step before field planting, adopting high-density planting and combining pruning regulation and control after field planting, increases the early-stage yield and improves the commodity of the passion fruit.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in detail below by way of examples.
Examples
(1) Cutting and seedling raising:
cutting the passion fruit cutting slips in vitro by adopting a single bud body, leaving half leaves, keeping the upper end flat and the lower end oblique, removing tendrils, keeping the length of the cutting slips to be 10cm, washing the cutting slips by using clear water, airing, and vertically inserting the middle of the cutting slips into a seedling substrate to be about 6cm deep. N + P in seedling substrate2O5+K2O is more than or equal to 3 percent, organic matter is more than or equal to 45 percent, and the pH value is 5.5-6.5. And (5) shading and moisturizing management is carried out, so that passion fruit seedlings which survive in a cuttage mode and have the length of new branches of 20cm are obtained.
(2) Temporary planting and culturing:
and (2) transferring the healthy passion fruit seedlings obtained in the step (1) into a nutrition cup (diameter is 28cm multiplied by height is 28cm) for temporary planting culture, mixing a seedling culture substrate and soil according to a weight ratio of 1:1, simultaneously inserting a support pole with the length of 100cm into the nutrition cup for branch climbing support, then thoroughly watering with clear water, performing conventional cultivation management, and uniformly pinching and topping after the passion fruit seedlings grow to about 80cm to obtain a planting plant.
(3) Planting:
① preparation before planting:
s1, preparing the planting bed: the height of the ridge is 30cm, the width of the ridge is 120cm, the width of the furrow is 80cm, the surface of the ridge is covered with harmless cloth, base fertilizer is applied during land preparation, and the ridge is deeply ploughed by about 30cm, so that the base fertilizer and soil are fully and uniformly mixed and then the ridge is leveled.
S2, erecting a shed frame: a conventional flat shed is erected at a position 200cm away from the ground.
② planting:
transplanting the plants obtained in the step (2) into the planting bed, wherein the row spacing is 50cm multiplied by 120cm, the plants are planted in double rows, and the planting density is 1100 plants/667 m2And then conventionally planting, cultivating and managing.
(4) Managing after planting:
① pruning, regulating, planting, pruning to 30cm, keeping 3 bud nodes, leading one strong lateral vine as main vine, removing other lateral branches, keeping the main vine, topping when the main vine is over 350cm, and maintaining sufficient light and temperature at 25-30 deg.C.
② balance nutrition, and the fertilizer is applied according to the proportion (mass ratio) of total fertilizer application amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium to 1.0: 1.5: 1.5 as the growth period of passion fruit.
S1, applying enough base fertilizer: 1500kg of decomposed sheep manure, 35kg of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium ternary compound fertilizer and 20kg of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus are applied to each mu of planting field.
S2, additional application and top dressing: after field planting, according to plant growth, the N fertilizer is mainly used in the early stage, high-N water-soluble fertilizer can be applied, and irrigation is combined for pouring; after blooming and fruiting, the fertilizer requirement is large, and P, K fertilizer is mainly used for watering and sprinkling or hole application; and (3) topdressing is carried out every 7-10 days according to the growth condition of plants.
S3, spraying a leaf fertilizer: after flowering and fruiting, extra-root topdressing is carried out, a leaf fertilizer with high P, K content can be sprayed, and medium and small amount of water-soluble fertilizers such as boron, magnesium, zinc and the like are properly added to prevent the premature senility of plants.
③ comprehensive prevention and control of diseases and insect pests
Agricultural control, physical control, biological control and chemical control are combined to prevent thrips, fruit flies, stem rot, epidemic diseases and the like in advance.
S1, agricultural control: the method comprises the steps of adopting paddy-upland rotation, well clearing a garden, selecting robust branches, cultivating strong seedlings, timely trimming and removing old-leaf diseased leaves, scientifically fertilizing, standardizing farming operation and the like.
S2, physical prevention and treatment: 30 yellow insect plates (30cm multiplied by 30cm) are hung per mu for trapping and killing winged insects, and silver gray mulching films can be covered under certain conditions for repelling aphids.
S3, biological control: 5 fruit fly trapping and killing devices are hung per mu.
S4, chemical prevention: after planting, 200 ml/mu of 2% amino-oligosaccharin can be sprayed to enhance the disease resistance of plants.
Effect verification:
planting passion fruit according to the embodiment, cutting and raising seedlings of the passion fruit in 26 th of 9 th of 2017, heeling in 3 rd of 12 th of 2017, planting and culturing in 3 rd of 25 th of 3 th of 2018, planting for 3 mu of 3 th of 2018, harvesting in 15 th of 6 th of 2018, collecting total yield 4622.4kg within 120d from the beginning of harvesting, average yield per mu of 1540.80kg, full and well-proportioned fruits, good glossiness and commodity rate of 96.25%; cutting and seedling for 5 days in 10 months in 2018, heeling in 3 days in 1 month and 3 months in 2019, field planting for 3 mu in 28 days in 3 months in 2019, harvesting from 26 days in 6 months in 2019, collecting from the beginning within 120 days to obtain 4531.5kg of total yield, the average yield per mu is 1510.50kg, the fruits are full and well-rounded, the glossiness is good, and the commodity rate reaches 98.25%.
The influence of different planting densities on the early acre yield of the passion fruit is shown in table 1, the acre yield of the passion fruit in the years of 2018 and 2019 within 120d from the beginning of harvesting is increased, the planting density is 1100 strains/acre, and compared with the control of 120 strains/acre, the early yield is increased by 820.43 percent and 774.13 percent respectively; the cultivation density is 1100 plants/mu initial harvest period 8 days earlier than that of the control 120 plants/mu. Therefore, the early-stage yield can be increased by adopting the density of 1100 plants/mu for field planting, and the passion fruit can be promoted to appear on the market.
The influence of whether plants are trimmed to about 30cm away from the ground or not during trimming regulation after planting is shown in table 2, the yield per mu in 120d of the passion fruit fruits in 2018 and 2019 is increased by 25.51% and 20.45% in the early stage respectively in the trimming after planting and compared with the non-trimming control, the flowering-beginning stage positions of the passion fruit after planting and the flowering-beginning stage positions of the passion fruit after planting are respectively the 4 th stage position and the 9 th stage position, and the harvesting-beginning stage of the trimming after planting is 5d earlier than the non-trimming control. Therefore, after field planting, the seedlings of the passion fruit are trimmed to be 25-35 cm away from the ground, and 3 nodal buds are reserved, so that flowering and fruiting nodal positions of the passion fruit can be reduced, sufficient nutrients are supplied for fruit growth, the purpose of bringing the passion fruit to the market early is achieved, early-stage yield is increased, and fruit commodity is improved.
TABLE 1 influence of different planting densities on early acre yield of passion fruit
Figure BDA0002393493200000051
Table 2 influence of pruning regulation after planting on early acre yield of passion fruit
Figure BDA0002393493200000052
Although embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described above, it is understood that the above embodiments are exemplary and should not be construed as limiting the present invention, and that variations, modifications, substitutions and alterations can be made in the above embodiments by those of ordinary skill in the art without departing from the principle and spirit of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. The early-maturing high-yield cultivation method for the passion fruit is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
(1) cutting and seedling raising: carrying out cuttage seedling raising on passion fruit cuttings with the length of 8-12 cm by adopting a single bud in-vitro cuttage mode, and paying attention to shading and moisturizing management in the cuttage seedling raising process to obtain passion fruit seedlings with survival by cuttage and branch lengths of 18-22 cm;
(2) temporary planting and culturing: transferring the passion fruit seedlings obtained in the step (1) into a nutrition cup for temporary planting culture, wherein the diameter and the height of the nutrition cup are respectively and independently 25-30 cm, and after the passion fruit seedlings grow to 75-85 cm, uniformly pinching and topping to obtain fixed planting plants;
(3) planting: planting the plants obtained in the step (2) on the planting furrows with the shed frames, wherein the rising height of the planting furrows is 25-35 cm, the width of the ridge surface is 110-130 cm, the width of the furrow is 70-90 cm, the ridge surface is covered with harmless cloth, the row planting distance of the plants for planting is (45-55) cm x (115-125) cm, and the planting density is 1000-1200 plants/667 m2
(4) Managing after planting: after field planting, trimming the plants to be 25-35 cm away from the ground, reserving 3 node buds, leading a robust lateral vine by using a rope to serve as a main vine for fruiting to a shed top, removing the rest lateral branches, reserving the main vine for fruiting, and topping when the length of the main vine for fruiting exceeds 350 cm; and (5) fertilizing regularly after planting and preventing and controlling plant diseases and insect pests.
2. The early-maturing high-yield cultivation method of the passion fruit as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step (1), the inserting depth of the passion fruit cutting spike into the seedling substrate is 5-7 cm.
3. The early-maturing high-yield cultivation method of passion fruit according to claim 2, characterized in that in the step (1), N + P in seedling culture medium for seedling culture by cutting is adopted2O5+K2O is more than or equal to 3 percent, organic matter is more than or equal to 45 percent, and the pH value is 5.5-6.5.
4. The early-maturing high-yield cultivation method of the passion fruit according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that in the step (2), the planting substrate for temporary planting cultivation is a mixture of a seedling substrate and soil adopted for cutting seedling cultivation according to a mass ratio of (0.5-1.5): 1.
5. The early-maturing high-yield cultivation method of the passion fruit according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized by further comprising the step (2) of inserting a support pole with the length of 90-110 cm into the nutrition cup for branch climbing support.
6. The early-maturing high-yield cultivation method of passion fruit according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized by further comprising the step (3), wherein base fertilizer is applied when the furrows are planted and the land is prepared, and the base fertilizer comprises 1000-2000 kg/mu of decomposed sheep manure or 800-1200 kg/mu of cattle manure, 30-40 kg/mu of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium ternary compound fertilizer and 15-25 kg/mu of calcium-phosphorus-magnesium fertilizer.
7. The method for cultivating passion fruit in a premature and high-yield manner according to claim 6, wherein the weight ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the total fertilizer application amount is 1 (1-2) to 1-2 in the whole cultivation process.
8. The early-maturing high-yield cultivation method of the passion fruit according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein in the step (3), the distance between the shed and the ground is 180-220 cm.
9. The early-maturing high-yield cultivation method of the passion fruit according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the cultivation season is spring; and controlling the growth temperature after planting to be 25-30 ℃.
10. The early-maturing high-yield cultivation method of the passion fruit according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the variety of the passion fruit is selected from Tainong I, Zixiang I, gypsophila paniculata, Fujian No. 1, Fujian No. 2, Fujian No. 3, guayun gold passion fruit or litchi passion fruit.
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CN112790062A (en) * 2021-02-26 2021-05-14 中国热带农业科学院海口实验站 Multi-stage pruning method for passion fruit seedlings
CN114568222A (en) * 2022-02-25 2022-06-03 龙岩市农业科学研究所 Cultivation method for fruiting passion fruit with multiple main vines

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112056161A (en) * 2020-09-18 2020-12-11 福建省农业科学院果树研究所 Precise control type stable yield cultivation method for passion flower and passion fruit
CN112352636A (en) * 2020-11-03 2021-02-12 贵州省山地资源研究所 High-density planting method for passion fruit in karst mountain region
CN112790062A (en) * 2021-02-26 2021-05-14 中国热带农业科学院海口实验站 Multi-stage pruning method for passion fruit seedlings
CN112790062B (en) * 2021-02-26 2022-03-29 中国热带农业科学院海口实验站 Multi-stage pruning method for passion fruit seedlings
CN114568222A (en) * 2022-02-25 2022-06-03 龙岩市农业科学研究所 Cultivation method for fruiting passion fruit with multiple main vines

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