CN110278822B - Method for cultivating peach trees in high-altitude areas - Google Patents

Method for cultivating peach trees in high-altitude areas Download PDF

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CN110278822B
CN110278822B CN201910687321.6A CN201910687321A CN110278822B CN 110278822 B CN110278822 B CN 110278822B CN 201910687321 A CN201910687321 A CN 201910687321A CN 110278822 B CN110278822 B CN 110278822B
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planting
peach
seedlings
altitude
fruit
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CN110278822A (en
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曾秀丽
张姗姗
李元会
红英
崔永宁
赵凡
格桑平措
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VEGETABLE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF TIBET ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY SCIENCES
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for cultivating high-quality fresh eating peaches, in particular to a method for cultivating high-quality fresh eating peaches in high-altitude areas, which comprises the steps of selecting a native stock variety with strong stress resistance, cultivating seedlings for 2-3 years according to a conventional method, and selecting robust plants with plant height of more than 0.8-1 meter and ground diameter of more than 1.5-2 cm from the native stock variety as peach transplanting seedlings; then transplanting the seedlings to high-altitude areas with the altitude of more than 3000 m for planting at the planting density of 1 m of plant spacing and 4 m of row spacing. The advantages of natural environment and location in high-altitude areas of Tibet are utilized, and high yield, high quality and special yield are realized through reasonable close planting. And the supply in different seasons makes up the market vacancy period, and the fresh fruit price is high. The economic benefit is remarkable.

Description

Method for cultivating peach trees in high-altitude areas
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of fruit tree cultivation, and particularly relates to a method for cultivating peach trees in high-altitude areas.
Background
Peach (Amygdalus persica L.), Rosaceae, genus peach. The original product is produced in China, the history of artificial cultivation is over 3000 years, and the method has the characteristics of easy flower formation, early fruiting, high and stable yield and high income.
A large part of China's territory area belongs to high-altitude areas. In high-altitude areas, the sunshine hours are more, the day-night temperature difference is large, and the light energy resources are rich. At present, the occupied amount of fruit in high altitude areas is far lower than the average level in China. With the remarkable improvement of the living standard of people in high altitude areas and the continuous change of consumption concepts, green, healthy and fresh fruits are integrated into the daily life of people, the market demand of green peaches is larger and larger, and the market potential is huge.
However, the soil texture is poor in high-altitude areas, particularly high-altitude areas of 3000 m or more. The problems of effectively and artificially cultivating high-quality peaches in high-altitude areas and obtaining good economic benefits are urgently needed to be solved.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the technical problems, the invention aims to provide a green cultivation method for high-quality fresh peaches in high-altitude areas.
The invention is realized by the following modes:
a method for cultivating peach trees in high-altitude areas, the method comprising the steps of:
(1) selecting a peach variety successfully obtained by experimental cultivation in the Tibet region, and culturing and growing seedlings of the peach variety for 2-3 years by a conventional method to serve as alternative peach seedlings;
(2) selecting big seedlings with the plant height of more than 0.8 m, preferably more than 1 m, the ground diameter of more than 1.5-2 cm, strong growth, fully lignified branch tips, developed root systems, full terminal buds, no plant diseases and insect pests and no mechanical damage from the alternative peach seedlings;
(3) and (3) transplanting and planting the peach seedlings in the step (2) at high planting density in a high-altitude area according to the planting plan time and the planting method.
In some embodiments of the present invention, the high altitude area refers to an area with an altitude of 3000 m or more, such as 3000 m or more, 3200 m or more, 3400 m or more, 3600 m or more, but generally not more than 4200 m.
In other embodiments of the present invention, the high altitude area includes low altitude area, medium altitude area and high altitude area, wherein the high altitude area with low altitude and medium altitude is preferred, and the high altitude area with low altitude and medium altitude is particularly preferred.
In the invention, the planting planning time in the step (3) refers to that the planting is carried out before the peach sprouts in spring; the planting method refers to 'three burying, two treading and one seedling lifting' and 'planting circle'.
Furthermore, the step of three burying and two stepping one seedling lifting refers to the step of grinding soil, flatly and uniformly burying the ground into the holes; secondly, putting the seedlings into the centers of the holes to be righted, enabling the seedlings not to nest roots, then earthing up, slightly lifting the seedlings upwards when half of the seedlings are earthed up, enabling root systems to stretch in the soil, and treading the buried soil tightly; finally, burying the rest soil until the soil is flush with the ground, and performing secondary treading; the planting circle is a planting circle with the diameter of about 1 meter built around the peach seedling, after the planting circle is watered with planting water, soil is sealed, and mulching films are covered to preserve soil moisture.
In some embodiments of the invention, the high planting density refers to a plant spacing of 1-4 meters and a row spacing of 1-4 meters. For example: the row spacing is 1 meter, and the line spacing is 4 meters; the row spacing is 2 meters, and the line spacing is 4 meters; the row spacing is 3 meters, and the row spacing is 4 meters; the plant spacing is 4 meters, the row spacing is 4 meters, preferably the plant spacing is 2 meters, and the row spacing is 4 meters; more preferably, the row spacing is 1 m and the row spacing is 4 m.
In some embodiments of the invention, the peach variety is selected from chunyan, chunmei, tomb No. 2, saffron. In some preferred embodiments of the invention, the peach variety is chunyan.
In some embodiments of the present invention, the peach variety seedling from which cultivation is initiated is selected from one of a seedling, a cutting seedling, and a tissue culture seedling.
In some embodiments of the invention, the peach seedling rootstock in step (1) is a pecan.
Further, the step (3) of fertilization management is also included after transplanting and planting.
In the invention, the mixed fertilizer of urea, diammonium phosphate and potassium sulfate is applied.
In some embodiments of the invention, the ratio of fertilizer applied in the early germination stage of the peach is 4:1:1, the ratio of fertilizer applied in the hard core stage is 4:3:1, and the ratio of fertilizer applied in the rapid growth stage of the fruit is 1:2: 4.
In some embodiments of the invention, the fertilizer is applied 3-5 times during each growth phase.
In some embodiments of the invention, the pre-emergence concentration of fertilizer is two thousandths and the fast-growing period of the fruit and the hard core period is three thousandths.
The invention has the advantages of
According to the cultivation method disclosed by the invention, the economic, social and ecological benefits of planting high-quality fresh peaches in high-altitude areas are realized, and the cultivation method has the following beneficial effects:
1. the peach produced by the method has the characteristics of large fruit, bright color, rich flavor, high content of soluble solid matters, storage and transportation resistance and the like. Aims at developing high-quality, high-grade, high-price, ecological and environment-friendly fresh peach in Tibet.
2. The cultivation method provided by the invention not only effectively solves the adverse effect of severe environment in high-altitude areas on peach planting, but also realizes high-quality yield and improves ecological environment. Meanwhile, the ripening period of the Tibet peach is 1-2 months later, so that the Tibet peach can be supplied in different seasons, and the advantages and the potential of the aftergrowth are great.
3. The high-altitude area has sufficient sunlight, dry air and little pollution, and through reasonable close planting, the yield can exceed the level of the middle-low altitude area and the quality is guaranteed in the second year of planting, thereby effectively guaranteeing the planting benefit.
4. According to the method, the soil organic matter is supplemented by utilizing the regenerative resources such as the sheep manure, the yak and sheep bone meal, the highland barley, the wheat retted stack straw and the like in the high-altitude area, local materials are used according to local conditions, the technical bottleneck that chemical fertilizers and chicken manure are used in the traditional peach planting process is overcome, the cost is reduced, and sustainable development is realized.
Detailed Description
It is to be understood that different applications of the methods disclosed herein may vary according to specific needs in the art. It is to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments of the invention only and is not intended to be limiting.
The invention provides a green cultivation method of high-quality fresh eating peaches in high altitude areas.
The high-altitude area in the invention refers to an area with an altitude of more than 3000 m, such as an area with an altitude of more than 3000 m, an area with an altitude of more than 3200 m, an area with an altitude of more than 3400 m, an area with an altitude of more than 3600 m or higher, but generally the area does not exceed an altitude of 4200 m.
In the invention, the high altitude area comprises a low latitude area, a middle latitude area and a high altitude area, wherein the high altitude area with the low latitude and the middle latitude is preferred, and the high altitude area with the low latitude is particularly preferred.
The peach variety used for breeding the seedling in the invention can be any variety with commercial market planting value. For example, but not limited to, Chunyan, Mick No. 2, Shahong 4 high quality peach varieties. The peach variety which can be used is preferably a peach variety having strong cold resistance, such as Chunyan.
The peach variety seedling to be initially cultivated may be any one of seedling, cutting seedling and tissue culture seedling, which is not limited in the present invention.
The method comprises the following steps of cultivating and growing seedlings of peach varieties according to a conventional method, wherein the plant height can reach more than 0.8-1 m and the ground diameter can reach 1.5-2 cm after 2-3 years of cultivation and growth, and selecting robust plants which are robust in growth, developed in root systems, plump in terminal buds, free of diseases and insect pests and mechanical damage as peach seedlings;
the incubation time before transplantation may be 2-3 years, e.g. 2 or 3 years, preferably 3 years.
The peach planting in the high-altitude area is based on the conventional method, has special improvement points according to the climatic conditions and the standing conditions of the high-altitude area, and is described in detail as follows.
The strong seedlings are selected to stand the severe environment of air drying, wind big and cold in high altitude areas, the height of the plants is more than 0.8-1 meter, the ground diameter is 1.5-2 cm, and 2-3 years old strong plants which are strong in growth, developed in root systems, full in terminal buds, free of diseases and insect pests and mechanical damage are selected as the peach seedlings. The transplanting time of the peach seedlings is from 3 to 4 ten days.
The planting method is to dig big holes for planting, and the size of the planting holes is 0.8 meter long, 0.8 meter wide and 0.8 meter high.
In high-altitude areas, due to dry air, sufficient sunlight and high wind power, the planting density can be higher than that of a low-altitude traditional planting area, such as: the row spacing is 1 meter and the row spacing is 4 meters; the row spacing is 2 meters, and the line spacing is 4 meters; the row spacing is 3 meters, and the row spacing is 4 meters; the plant spacing is 4 meters, the row spacing is 4 meters, preferably the plant spacing is 2 meters, and the row spacing is 4 meters; more preferably, the row spacing is 1 m and the row spacing is 4 m.
According to the growth characteristics of peaches, attention should be paid to fertilizer and water management, and the invention carries out top dressing 3 times per year. Urea before germination (middle and last 3 months): diammonium phosphate: the ratio of potassium sulfate is 4:1:1, urea in hard nucleus stage (5 middle of the month): diammonium phosphate: the ratio of potassium sulfate is 4:3:1, the fruit grows rapidly (6 middle of the month-7 middle of the month) urea: diammonium phosphate: the ratio of potassium sulfate is 1:2: 4.
In high-altitude areas, due to the dry air and the high wind power, the evaporation is rapid, so that peach plants grow robustly, and for example, but not limited to, mulching films, gardening cloths, tending and planting frames, inter-row grasses and other mulching materials which are easily available in high-altitude areas and cover the soil of the planted fields can be used, so that the effects of soil heat preservation, moisture preservation and weed control are achieved. Selecting ryegrass in young orchard. Selecting mixed seeds of white clover and bluegrass in mature orchard
The diseases and insect pests in the high-altitude areas are few, but any diseases and insect pests which damage trunks, branches, fruits and the like of the peaches, such as fruit borers, peach red-neck longicorn and the like, have adverse effects on the growth of the peaches, and cause reduction in yield or damage to peach gardens, so that necessary disease and insect pest control is required at all. The plant protection policy of 'prevention is mainly performed and the prevention is more important than treatment' is fully implemented. Comprehensive measures including but not limited to black light trapping and killing, trunk bark scraping in winter or early spring, trunk lime coating, iron wire trapping and killing and the like can be adopted for control.
During the growth period of the peach, shaping and pruning are also carried out, so that the strong growth of the peach plant is facilitated, and the flowering and fruiting are better. The time for shaping and trimming is not particularly limited, and trimming can be performed in time according to actual needs. According to the characteristics of peach growth in high-altitude areas, in the cultivation method which cannot be invented, pruning is performed about twice a year, and the first pruning mainly grabs three thinning, namely 'thinning flower buds, thinning flower flowers and thinning fruits', in the growth period (from middle ten days in 6 months to last ten days in 7 months). Finishing flower thinning and fruit thinning within 1 month: after the inflorescence is separated, flower thinning starts 1 week, 1 inflorescence in the shape of 20-25 cm is reserved, only central flowers and 1 flower side flowers are reserved for the reserved inflorescence, and the rest flowers are all thinned. Thinning fruits 10 days after blooming, reserving 1 fruit at a distance of 20-25 cm, reserving 1 large fruit at a distance of 25 cm, reserving one small fruit at a distance of 20 cm, reserving a proper number of strong branches, reserving a few weak branches, reserving a large inner cavity, reserving a few or no periphery, selecting fruits with regular shapes and medium-length fruit branches and fruits with downward fruit stalks as main fruits when reserving the fruits, and removing irregular shapes, worm fruits and top fruits. The second pruning is carried out in the dormancy period (from 10 late ten days to 11 early months), and diseased residual branches, excessive dense branches and weak small branches are pruned.
According to the cultivation method disclosed by the invention, the economic, social and ecological benefits of planting high-quality fresh peaches in high-altitude areas are realized, and the cultivation method has the following beneficial effects:
1. the peach produced by the method has the characteristics of large fruit, bright color, rich flavor, high content of soluble solid matters, storage and transportation resistance and the like. Aims at developing high-quality, high-grade, high-price, ecological and environment-friendly fresh peach in Tibet.
2. The cultivation method provided by the invention not only effectively solves the adverse effect of severe environment in high-altitude areas on peach planting, but also realizes high-quality yield and improves ecological environment. Meanwhile, the ripening period of the Tibet peach is 1-2 months later, so that the Tibet peach can be supplied in different seasons, and the advantages and the potential of the aftergrowth are huge.
3. The high-altitude area has sufficient sunlight, dry air and little pollution, and through reasonable close planting, the yield can exceed the level of the middle-low altitude area and the quality is guaranteed in the second year of planting, thereby effectively guaranteeing the planting benefit.
4. According to the method, the soil organic matter is supplemented by utilizing the regenerative resources such as the sheep manure, the yak and sheep bone meal, the highland barley, the wheat retted stack straw and the like in the high-altitude area, local materials are used according to local conditions, the technical bottleneck that chemical fertilizers and chicken manure are used in the traditional peach planting process is overcome, the cost is reduced, and sustainable development is realized.
In order to make the technical problems, technical solutions and advantageous effects solved by the present invention more apparent, the present invention is further described in detail below with reference to the following embodiments.
Examples
The following examples are used herein to demonstrate preferred embodiments of the invention. It will be appreciated by those of skill in the art that the techniques disclosed in the examples which follow represent techniques discovered by the inventor to function in the invention, and thus can be considered to constitute preferred modes for its practice. Those of skill in the art should, in light of the present disclosure, appreciate that many changes can be made in the specific embodiments which are disclosed and still obtain a like or similar result without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention.
Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs and the disclosures and references cited herein and the materials to which they refer are incorporated by reference.
Those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain using no more than routine experimentation, many equivalents to the specific embodiments of the invention described herein. Such equivalents are intended to be encompassed by the following claims.
The experimental procedures in the following examples are conventional unless otherwise specified. The instruments used in the following examples are, unless otherwise specified, laboratory-standard instruments; the test materials used in the following examples were purchased from a conventional biochemical reagent store unless otherwise specified.
Example planting of Chunyan variety of peaches in high altitude areas
The high-altitude area is Lasa, and cultivation and planting of the variety peach in Chunyan is carried out, which comprises the following steps:
1. breeding seedlings, namely breeding the peach seedlings of the Chunyan variety in Lasa, Tibet at the altitude of about 3650 m by a conventional method for at least 2 years;
2. selecting robust plants, selecting robust plants from the variety of more than 2 years old in spring and gorgeous, with the height of more than 0.8-1 m and the ground diameter of 1.5-2 cm, and selecting the robust plants which are robust in growth, developed in root system, plump in terminal buds, free of diseases, insect pests and mechanical damage as peach seedlings.
3. Preparing before transplanting, namely in Lasa in Tibet, the altitude is about 3650 m, in the previous two months, composting sheep manure, yak + sheep bone meal and highland barley + wheat straw is used in a selected planting field, the compost is turned into soil by a rooter, and the planting field is irrigated with big water to ensure that the depth of water penetration soil reaches more than 80 cm. After two months, the holes are dug according to the length of the holes of 0.8 meter, the depth of 0.8 meter, the plant spacing of 1 meter and the row spacing of 4 meters.
4. Transplanting and planting, namely transplanting and planting selected strong seedlings in spring beauty at the middle position of the hole with the planting density of about 167 plants/mu according to the row spacing of 1 meter and the row spacing of 4 meters in late 3-month ten days.
5. Covering with soil, transplanting, and planting with degradable gardening ground cloth or black non-woven cloth, and reserving 2 m of grass such as green manure and forage grass between rows.
6. And (4) water management, namely immediately watering thoroughly after transplanting and field planting, and ensuring the water requirement of peach plant growth every 10-15 days by the soil humidity of the peach tree disc. Irrigating for 3-5 times before germination, after blooming, during sclerotic period, during fruit rapid growth period, and before soil freezing. Especially, enough water is poured before germination, so that the infiltration depth of the irrigation water reaches about 60 cm. The hard core period is sensitive to moisture, and the soil is kept moist. The fruit growing period is determined by rainfall condition, and drought and water shortage can be performed for 1 time by gentle irrigation 2-3 weeks before picking.
7. And (4) shaping and trimming, wherein trimming is carried out twice every year. The first pruning is mainly to grab three thinning lines from the middle 6 th month to the last 7 th month, namely to thin flower buds, thin flowers and thin fruits. Flower thinning and fruit thinning are completed within 1 month: after the inflorescence is separated, flower thinning starts 1 week, 1 inflorescence in the shape of 20-25 cm is reserved, only central flowers and 1 flower side flowers are reserved for the reserved inflorescence, and the rest flowers are all thinned. Thinning fruits 10 days after blooming, reserving 1 fruit at a distance of 20-25 cm, reserving 1 large fruit at a distance of 25 cm, reserving one small fruit at a distance of 20 cm, reserving a proper number of strong branches, reserving a few weak branches, reserving a large inner cavity, reserving a few or no periphery, selecting fruits with regular shapes and medium-long branches and fruits with downward fruit stalks as main fruits when reserving fruits, and removing fruits with irregular shapes, worm fruits and top fruits. The second pruning is carried out in the dormancy period (from 10 late ten days to 11 early months), and diseased residual branches, excessive dense branches and weak small branches are pruned.
8. The pest control method comprises the steps of utilizing green methods of scraping tree barks, manually removing larva worms, hanging sugar and vinegar tanks, using solar insecticidal lamps, coating lime emulsion on tree trunks and the like to control pests.
9. Planting according to the method. The peach enters the initial fruit stage two years later, and the fruit mature period is 8-10 months.
The results of the planting according to the above example are shown in table 1. According to calculation, peach planting is carried out according to the steps, peach seedling stage cultivation is carried out, management and land cost is about 15000 yuan/mu, annual output is about 2500 kilograms/mu, purchase price is about 50 yuan/kilogram, and output value is about 62500 yuan/mu.
TABLE 1 planting results
As can be seen from Table 1, the peach is planted in the high-altitude area, the higher yield is realized through reasonable close planting, and higher economic, social and ecological benefits are brought through the neutral market and the high price of fresh fruits.
All documents referred to herein are incorporated by reference into this application as if each were individually incorporated by reference. Furthermore, it should be understood that various changes and modifications of the present invention can be made by those skilled in the art after reading the above teachings of the present invention, and these equivalents also fall within the scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims.

Claims (4)

1. A method for cultivating peach trees in high-altitude areas is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) selecting a peach variety successfully cultivated in a Tibet test, cultivating and growing seedlings of the peach variety for 2-3 years according to a conventional method to serve as alternative peach seedlings, wherein stock of the peach seedlings is a walnut, the walnut seeds are required to be seeds collected in the current year or the previous year, the seeds are full and have no empty grains, and sand-preservation treatment is carried out before sowing;
(2) selecting big seedlings with the plant height of more than 0.8 m and the ground diameter of more than 1.5-2 cm from the alternative peach seedlings, and selecting the big seedlings which are strong in growth, fully lignified in branch tips, developed in root systems, plump in terminal buds, free of diseases, insect pests and mechanical damage;
(3) transplanting and planting the peach seedlings in the step (2) in a high-altitude area with the average altitude of more than 3000 m and no more than 4200 m according to a planting plan time and a planting method with high planting density, further performing fertilization management after transplanting and planting, applying a fertilizer, namely urea, diammonium phosphate and potassium sulfate mixed fertilizer, wherein the proportion of the fertilizer applied in the early stage of peach germination is 4:1:1, the proportion of the fertilizer applied in the hard core stage is 4:3:1, the proportion of the fertilizer applied in the rapid fruit growth stage is 1:2:4, and the fertilizer is applied for 3-5 times in each growth stage, the planting plan time refers to planting before peach germination in spring, and the planting method refers to 'three-burying two-step-on-one-lifting seedlings' and 'planting circles'; the high planting density refers to the planting distance of 1 meter and the row distance of 4 meters;
(4) the shaping and trimming method comprises the following steps: pruning is carried out twice a year; the first pruning is carried out from the middle 6 th to the last 7 th of the growing period, and three thinning, namely flower bud thinning, flower thinning and fruit thinning, are carried out: finishing flower thinning and fruit thinning within 1 month, beginning flower thinning 1 week after inflorescences are separated, leaving 1 inflorescence in a shape of 20-25 cm, leaving only central flowers and 1 flower side flowers for the remained inflorescences, and completely thinning the rest; thinning fruits 10 days after blooming, reserving 1 fruit at a distance of 20-25 cm, reserving 1 large fruit at a distance of 25 cm, reserving 1 small fruit at a distance of 20 cm, selecting fruits with regular shapes and medium-long fruit branches and fruit stalks downward as main fruits when reserving fruits, and removing irregular shapes, worm fruits and top fruits; and the second pruning is carried out from 10 late months to 11 early months of the dormancy period, and diseased residual branches, excessive dense branches and weak small branches are pruned.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein said peach variety is selected from chunyan, chunmei, tomb No. 2, safranin.
3. The method of claim 2, wherein the "three burying and two treading one seedling raising" means that soil is ground, flatly and uniformly buried in the hole in the first step; secondly, putting the seedlings into the centers of the holes to be righted, enabling the seedlings not to nest roots, then earthing up, slightly lifting the seedlings upwards when half of the seedlings are earthed up, enabling root systems to stretch in the soil, and treading the buried soil tightly; finally, burying the rest soil until the soil is flush with the ground, and performing secondary treading; the planting circle is a planting circle with the diameter of 1 meter built around the peach seedling, after the planting circle is watered with planting water, soil is sealed, and mulching films are covered to preserve soil moisture.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein the pre-emergence fertilizer concentration is two thousandths and the fast-growing and stoning fertilizer concentration is three thousandths.
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