CN111226672B - Lycium ruthenicum seedling culture and afforestation method - Google Patents

Lycium ruthenicum seedling culture and afforestation method Download PDF

Info

Publication number
CN111226672B
CN111226672B CN202010054138.5A CN202010054138A CN111226672B CN 111226672 B CN111226672 B CN 111226672B CN 202010054138 A CN202010054138 A CN 202010054138A CN 111226672 B CN111226672 B CN 111226672B
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
branches
seedlings
lycium ruthenicum
seedling
management
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
CN202010054138.5A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Other versions
CN111226672A (en
Inventor
何彩
刘伟
曹虎
王多文
金娜
张兆铭
张军
牟德生
王鑫
郭艳兰
李强
赵连鑫
张鹏
董存元
李栋
杨作奎
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Wuwei Academy Of Forestry Sciences
Original Assignee
Wuwei Academy Of Forestry Sciences
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Wuwei Academy Of Forestry Sciences filed Critical Wuwei Academy Of Forestry Sciences
Priority to CN202010054138.5A priority Critical patent/CN111226672B/en
Publication of CN111226672A publication Critical patent/CN111226672A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN111226672B publication Critical patent/CN111226672B/en
Active legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • A01G24/12Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material containing soil minerals
    • A01G24/15Calcined rock, e.g. perlite, vermiculite or clay aggregates
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/22Improving land use; Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/40Afforestation or reforestation

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for breeding and afforesting lycium ruthenicum, which adopts KNO3Soaking seeds, firstly adopting a seedling raising substrate to sow and raise seedlings, then transplanting seedlings into mixed soil comprising the seedling raising substrate and field soil, continuing to raise seedlings, then training the seedlings for a period of time, transferring the seedlings to a field, cutting off part of branches with large fruiting quantity in the fruit maturation period, and taking the branches with large fruiting quantity as first pruning, wherein the number of the cut branches is not less than 50% of the total number of the branches; after the tree body enters the dormancy stage, beginning to prune for the second time, removing trunk dead branches and insect-pest branches during pruning, pruning partial dense branches according to the characteristics of the tree body, and finally enabling the reserved cluster branches to be in a uniform distribution state; the management method is adopted in the second year and later of permanent planting. Compared with the prior art, the invention can lead the plant branches to be in an effective updating state, relieve the tree aging, is beneficial to fruit picking and obtains better economic benefit and ecological benefit.

Description

Lycium ruthenicum seedling culture and afforestation method
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of plant planting and forestation, and particularly relates to a Lycium ruthenicum seedling raising and forestation method.
Background
Lycium ruthenicum Murr (Lycium ruthenicum Murr) belongs to Solanaceae (solanaceae) Lycium chinensis (Lycium chinense) perennial spine shrub tree species, is a unique wild tree species to be developed urgently in northwest desert regions of China, and is distributed in provinces such as northern Shanxi, Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Tibet and the like. The lycium ruthenicum has the oil content of 5.54 percent, contains a certain amount of fatty acid essential to human bodies, 8 kinds of amino acid essential to human bodies and a certain amount of Vc, most importantly, contains more reducing sugar and pigment, and has deep development potential. The content of pigment in the Lycium ruthenicum Murr fruit is up to 387.9 (100g)-1The pigment has strong coloring power, good stability, simple processing technique and eating habit under the conditions of different pH, different heating time and different temperature, is ideal edible natural anthocyanin which is urgently needed in China, can replace artificially synthesized azo pigment, and is widely applied to medicines and foods. The Lycium ruthenicum Murr can also be used for producing industrial natural dye, and is widely applied to the light textile industry. Therefore, the lycium ruthenicum murr fruits are further deeply processed and applied to the industries of medicines, health-care foods and beverages, and certain economic benefits can be achieved. The lycium ruthenicum murr has wide development and utilization prospects due to the rich nutritional value, the commercial value and the potential medicinal value. However, at present, the number of artificial planting is relatively small, the foundation is weak, and the manual picking is very inconvenient because of small fruits.
Meanwhile, the lycium ruthenicum murr has strong stress resistance, is a wild excellent plant integrating the functions of saline-alkali soil greening, wind prevention and sand fixation, medicine use, health care and the like, and can be used for saline-alkali soil greening and ecological environment management. In recent years, researches on lycium ruthenicum are concentrated on the aspects of artificial introduction, domestication, cultivation, afforestation technology and the like, but the researches on management technology after afforestation are few, and patent CN201710972136.2 discloses a method for quickly and efficiently performing container cutting, cultivation and afforestation on lycium ruthenicum, wherein hardwood cutting is adopted, the survival rate of field spring afforestation is 80-90%, the survival rate of autumn afforestation is 70-75%, the yield of dry fruits is 5-10 kg/mu in 2-3 years, and the later yield is up to 14 kg/mu. DB63/T1701-2018 stipulates the economic forest cultivation technical specification of Lycium ruthenicum Murr, nursery stock cuttage is adopted, trimming is carried out in the young period to form a natural semicircular tree shape, the growing period comprises dormant period trimming and growing period trimming, the dormant period trimming mainly comprises basal clearing, top trimming, chamber clearing, girdling and bottom cutting, the growing period trimming mainly carries out short cutting on a spindly branch which is relatively centered in position, a new crown is cultivated, strong branches on a main trunk are subjected to multiple short cutting, bone trunk branches are cultivated, the crown is enlarged, and a bearing branch group is formed. Gunn lotus (gunn lotus, a natural black fruit medlar forest pruning method [ J ]. academy of northwest academic 201126 (1): 95-97) discloses a natural black fruit medlar forest pruning method, which adopts a method of retaining 1, 3 and 5 clumps of clump branches (redundant clump branches and overgrown branches are all thinned, bearing branches on the clump branches are cut short, each clump branch is provided with 3-4 main side branches in staggered distribution, 3 oblique small branches are selected and retained on the main side branches, over dense bearing branches, old branches and insect-disease branches are thinned), and compared with no trimming of 7, the result shows that the yield of 5 single fresh fruits is retained and the weight of hundred fruits is highest.
37-38 degrees of north latitude, 101-103 degrees of east longitude, 1350-4872 m of altitude, 7.8 degrees of annual average temperature and 60-610 mm of precipitation in Wuwei city, Gansu province, and has a climate environment suitable for cultivation of Lycium ruthenicum. Local lycium ruthenicum is mainly distributed in a wild way, however, the lycium ruthenicum population in partial areas has a decline trend, and the protection and scientific utilization of the population have important practical significance for maintaining local ecological environment and promoting poverty removal and income increase of poverty-stricken people along sand areas. Although the lycium ruthenicum murr has strong drought resistance and salt and alkali resistance, the branches have high aging speed, and the existing afforestation method can cause premature degradation and the phenomenon of 'old trees'. Moreover, the tree form management method for afforestation is complex, high in management cost, low in efficiency and not suitable for large-scale afforestation management. According to investigation, the applicant finds that in order to solve the problem of high aging speed of lycium ruthenicum in local artificial cultivation, the adopted method for pruning the lycium ruthenicum tree form mainly comprises the steps that only one bunch of branches is reserved in a dormant period to serve as a main trunk fixed trunk, branches such as lateral branches, bearing branches and spindly branches on the main trunk are all removed, and due to the fact that roots and branches of lycium ruthenicum are high in growing capacity, new branches can grow on the main trunk in the current year in a pruning mode, the new branches can mature and bear fruits, and the new bunch of branches can also germinate. The method for afforestation is simple in tree form management, and the phenomenon of premature aging of the lycium ruthenicum can be delayed to a certain extent, but in practical application, the lycium ruthenicum cultivated artificially by the method basically deteriorates and dies within 5 years.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a lycium ruthenicum seedling and afforestation method for overcoming the defects in the prior art.
The purpose of the invention is realized by the following technical scheme:
a Lycium ruthenicum seedling and afforestation method comprises the following steps:
s1, pretreatment: taking lycium ruthenicum seeds, and adopting KNO with the mass volume concentration of 0.75-1.25%3Soaking the solution for 1-3 min for later use;
s2, seedling culture: firstly, seeding and raising seedlings by adopting a seedling raising matrix, transplanting the seedlings into mixed soil comprising the seedling raising matrix and field soil after 15-20 days, continuing raising the seedlings for 15-20 days, and then hardening the seedlings for 50-70 days;
s3, transplanting and field planting: transplanting and planting the seedlings to a field after hardening, performing daily field management, and performing no treatment on the tree shape of the fruits before the fruits are ripe;
s4, tree form management: in the current year of field planting, part of branches with large fruiting quantity are cut off in the fruit mature period, and the cut branches with large fruiting quantity are not less than 50% of the total number of branches and serve as first pruning; after the tree body enters the dormancy stage, beginning to prune for the second time, removing dry and dead branches and insect pest branches during pruning, pruning partial dense clumps and branches according to the characteristics of the tree body, and finally enabling the remaining clumps and branches to be in a uniform distribution state; the management method of the step is adopted in the second year and later of permanent planting.
Preferably, the seedling raising substrate in the step S2 is nutrient soil containing perlite, the mass ratio of the perlite to the nutrient soil is 1 (2-4), and the mass ratio of the seedling raising substrate in the mixed soil to the field soil is 1 (0.8-1.2).
Preferably, the seedling culture is started in 1 last month and the transplanting is performed in 4 middle months in steps S2 to S3.
Preferably, a ditching and hole opening mode is adopted during transplanting in the step S3, and the specification is as follows: groove width × groove depth: 80X 20cm, points: 40X 40 cm.
Preferably, the step S2 is: seedling in a sunlight greenhouse starting in the first ten days of 1 month, filling seedling substrates into seedling culture hole trays, watering thoroughly, sowing again every other day, dibbling 4-5 seeds treated in the step S1 in each hole by adopting a dibbling method, wherein the dibbling depth is 0.5cm, uniformly covering nutrient soil by 1cm, covering a mulching film after spraying and watering, preserving heat and moisture, then performing daily management, periodically heating the sunlight greenhouse, and watering; transplanting the seedlings into a nutrition pot after 15-20 days of seedling cultivation, wherein the ratio of seedling cultivation matrix to field soil in the nutrition pot is 1:1, transplanting for 15-20 days, and then transferring into an arch shed for hardening seedlings for 50-70 days.
Preferably, the daily field management of the step S3 includes moisture management, top dressing management, pest control and weeding management.
Preferably, the total number of branches in step S4 does not include branches with a length of less than 5 cm.
Preferably, the included angle between two adjacent twigs remained in the second pruning in step S4 is not less than 10 degrees.
The Lycium ruthenicum seedling and forestation method is applied to Lycium ruthenicum seedling and forestation.
Compared with the prior art, the invention adopts lycium ruthenicum seeds for seedling culture and KNO3Treating seeds with the solution, raising seedlings with a substrate to improve the rate of emergence, and hardening the seedlingsThe transplanting survival rate of the field is improved, the branches with large fruiting quantity are cut off during pruning, the number of the cut branches is not less than 50% of the total number of the branches, and withered and pest-infected branches are removed in the dormancy stage, so that the plant branches can be in an effective updating state, the tree body aging is relieved, the fruit picking is facilitated, and better economic benefit and ecological benefit are obtained.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of tree pruning in Experimental example 3.4 under treatment 1;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of tree pruning in Experimental example 3.4 under treatment 2;
fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of processing 4 tree pruning under experimental example 3.4.
Detailed description of the preferred embodiments
The invention provides a Lycium ruthenicum seedling and forestation method, which comprises the following steps:
s1, pretreatment: taking lycium ruthenicum seeds, and using KNO with the mass volume concentration of 0.75-1.25%3Soaking the solution for 1-3 min for later use; experiments prove that the potassium nitrate treatment can promote the germination of the lycium ruthenicum seeds, the germination rate is obviously improved, and the treatment time can be obviously shortened;
s2, seedling culture: firstly, seeding and raising seedlings by adopting a seedling raising matrix, transplanting the seedlings into mixed soil comprising the seedling raising matrix and field soil after 15-20 days, improving the transplanting survival rate of the seedlings, continuing raising the seedlings for 15-20 days, and then training the seedlings for 50-70 days to adapt to a field environment;
s3, transplanting and field planting: transplanting and planting the seedlings to a field after hardening, and performing daily field management; the method comprises the steps of watering, fertilizing, pest control, weeding and the like, and the tree form of the fruit is not treated before the fruit is mature;
s4, afforestation management: in the current year of field planting, part of branches with large fruiting quantity are cut off in the fruit mature period, the cut branches with large fruiting quantity is not less than 50% of the total number of branches, and the cut branches are used as first pruning; after the tree body enters the dormancy stage, beginning to prune for the second time, removing trunk dead branches and insect-pest branches during pruning, pruning partial dense branches according to the characteristics of the tree body, and finally enabling the reserved cluster branches to be in a uniform distribution state; main lateral branches, fruiting branches, bare branches and other branches on the fasciculate branches are not trimmed any more; the management method of the step is adopted in the second year and later of permanent planting. The total number of the branches is the total number of all the branches on all the fascicular branches, wherein the fruit branches and the vegetative branches with the length less than 5cm are not included.
The existing shaping and trimming method, such as the existing semi-circular tree trimming method and the method of only reserving one main trunk in Wuwei city, generally degrades within 3 years and dies after 5 years; the analysis reason is that the existing lycium ruthenicum shaping and pruning generally comprises two aspects: firstly, redundant root tillering seedlings (cluster branches) are trimmed, only one or a small number of trunks are reserved, secondly, bearing branches on the trunks are reserved, especially bearing branches in the current year are trimmed off by bare branches and the like, Lycium ruthenicum Murr ageing speed is high, and partial branches can be withered and die in the current year, so that artificially reserved branches are not always all survived, if the bearing branches are few, the artificially reserved branches can be all degenerated and die, moreover, the regeneration capacity of the root branches of Lycium ruthenicum Murr is strong, the root tillering seedlings are frequently removed, certain influence is exerted on the roots, the ageing of the reserved trunks can be accelerated, and therefore, the economic benefit and the ecological benefit can not be guaranteed. However, if the wild lycium ruthenicum murr is not trimmed completely like the wild lycium ruthenicum murr, the grown branches are dense and overlapped, and the illumination and ventilation are poor, so that the growth is influenced to a certain extent while the fruiting is greatly influenced. On the basis, the pruning method removes branches with large fruiting quantity, withered branches and insect-resistant branches on root tillering seedlings (clump branches), basically does not prune the root tillering seedlings (clump branches), follows the characteristics of growth characteristics of lycium ruthenicum branches, short fruit stems, thin peel and fragile berries, preserves healthy and high-quality branches as much as possible, even if part of the branches age and die in the next year, the amount of the remaining clump branches is large and most of the clump branches are healthy branches, so that even if the branches degenerate, the added lycium ruthenicum has a small part of root tillering regeneration capacity, the defect can be timely supplemented, the aging of lycium ruthenicum trees is delayed, the branches with large fruiting quantity are pruned, the picking is very beneficial, and the economic income can be increased. The tree form management method is simple and suitable for large-scale artificial afforestation of the lycium ruthenicum.
Preferably, in the step S2, the seedling raising matrix can be nutrient soil containing perlite, the mass ratio of the perlite to the nutrient soil is 1 (2-4), and the mass ratio of the seedling raising matrix in the mixed soil to the field soil is 1: 1.
Preferably, seedling raising is started in the first 1 th of month in steps S2 to S3, transplanting is performed in the middle 4 th of month, and the survival rate of spring transplanting is higher than that of autumn transplanting.
Preferably, the transplanting in the step S3 adopts a conventional ditching and hole opening method, and the specifications are as follows: groove width × groove depth: 80X 20cm, points: 40X 40 cm.
Preferably, the seedling raising and training can be carried out in a sunlight greenhouse or an arched shed, and the step S2 can specifically adopt the following method: seedling in a sunlight greenhouse is started in the first ten days of 1 month, seedling raising substrates (the mass ratio of perlite to nutrient soil is 1:3) are filled into seedling raising hole trays, water is poured thoroughly, sowing is carried out every other day, 4-5 seeds treated in the step S1 are sowed in each hole by adopting a dibbling method, the dibbling depth is 0.5cm, nutrient soil is uniformly covered by 1cm, a mulching film is covered after watering is carried out, heat preservation and moisture preservation are carried out, then daily management is carried out, the temperature of the sunlight greenhouse is raised regularly, and watering is carried out; and transplanting the seedlings into a nutrition pot after 20 days of seedling culture, wherein the ratio of seedling culture medium to field soil in the nutrition pot is 1:1, transplanting for 15 days, and then transferring into an arch shed for hardening the seedlings for 60 days.
As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, step S3 daily field management includes moisture management, top dressing management, pest control, and weed control management. In order to avoid the interference of predatory picking, grazing and the like, the management can be carried out by adopting a seal-breeding measure.
Preferably, during the second pruning, the included angle between the two adjacent branches is not less than 10 degrees and less than 10 degrees, and the adjacent branches are closer to each other to influence the growth of each other.
The method for breeding and afforesting the lycium ruthenicum murr is particularly suitable for breeding and afforesting the lycium ruthenicum murr in wareway, Gansu province.
Examples of the experiments
1. Location and time of experiment
The test is carried out in the wine grape engineering center of the scientific research institute of forestry, Wuwei City, Gansu province. The test field is located at 102 degrees and 42 degrees of east longitude, 38 degrees and 02 degrees of north latitude, the altitude is 1632m, the annual average rainfall is 160mm, the annual average evaporation capacity is 2020mm, the average air temperature is 7.8 ℃, the frost-free period is 150d, the sunshine duration is 2873.4h, the test field belongs to temperate continental arid climate, and the soil is sandy loam.
The test is completed in 2014, and the field afforestation test is completed in 2015-2018.
2. Test materials
Collecting fresh berries of wild lycium ruthenicum in Qingtu lake of Wuwei civil service county, air drying, separating seeds from pulp, naturally drying, and storing at 4 deg.C for use.
3. Test method
3.1 thousand Keli weight and germination Rate determination
Before the test, the seeds are soaked in cold water, inferior seeds floating on the water surface are removed, water bottom seeds are selected to be dried, and full, healthy lycium ruthenicum seeds without diseases and insect pests are screened out again by naked eyes to carry out the subsequent test.
And (3) determining the thousand seed weight: the weight of 1 thousand lycium ruthenicum seeds was determined and 3 replicates were set.
And (3) determination of germination percentage: design 2 treatments, treatment 1: selecting 1% KNO3Treating the lycium ruthenicum seeds for 1min by using the solution, and treating the lycium ruthenicum seeds for 2: soaking in warm water at 40 deg.C for 5 hr; each treatment was repeated 3 times, each for 100 seeds, and placed in a petri dish with filter paper and humidified at room temperature.
3.2 Pre-sowing seed treatment
With 1% KNO3And (4) treating the screened lycium ruthenicum seeds for 1min by using the solution for later use.
3.3 seedling and transplanting
Seedling in a sunlight greenhouse from 1-month-first ten days in 2014, filling nutrient soil with perlite as a seedling substrate (the mass ratio of the perlite to the nutrient soil is 1:3), filling the seedling substrate into a seedling culture hole tray, watering thoroughly, sowing every other day, dibbling 4-5 seeds treated in each hole by adopting a dibbling method, dibbling the seeds to a depth of 0.5cm, uniformly covering the nutrient soil by 1cm, spraying water, covering a mulching film, and preserving heat and moisture. And then, carrying out daily management, heating the sunlight greenhouse regularly, and watering. In order to ensure the survival rate of transplanted seedlings, the seedlings are transplanted into a nutrition pot (the ratio of the matrix in the nutrition pot to the field soil is 1:1) after 20 days of seedling cultivation, the seedlings are transplanted into an arched shed for hardening the seedlings for 60 days after 15 days of transplantation, and the seedlings are transplanted into a field in 4 th of 2014. Adopting a ditching and hole opening mode during transplanting, and having the specification: groove width × groove depth: 80X 20cm, points: 40X 40 cm.
3.3 field management
Firstly, the water and fertilizer management is that the test focuses on the tree management during the afforestation of the lycium ruthenicum, so that the watering times are reduced as far as possible during the test, and the fertilizer is not applied, so that the tree management mode is close to the tree management mode during the afforestation as far as possible. Transplanting the Lycium ruthenicum seedlings to a field, completely watering the seedlings with first water, and then watering the seedlings once a month, wherein the watering amount is not too much each time, and the root of the seedlings is required to be completely watered; secondly, preventing and treating the diseases and insect pests by adopting lime sulphur to prevent the diseases and insect pests, and preventing and treating the diseases and insect pests by adopting high-efficiency and low-toxicity pesticide such as carbendazim, mancozeb, thiophanate-methyl and the like in an alternative way in 6-8 months at the peak period of the diseases and insect pests; thirdly, intertillage weeding is carried out, the weeds are not suitable to grow excessively in the current year of planting, and the weeds around the seedlings are removed manually in time so as to avoid influencing the growth vigor of the plants.
3.4 Tree pruning
The Lycium ruthenicum Murr is planted in the same year, fruiting can be realized, trees with healthy growth and consistent size are selected for pruning treatment,
treatment 1: in 2014 winter, as shown in fig. 1, 1 strongly growing bush branch is selected as a main rod 1, a fixed rod at 40cm is used as the main rod, the main rod is bound to a fixed rod pile 2 of 1m, and all the rest branches are removed (the rest bush branches, branches such as oblique branches, fruiting branches and bare branches on the main rod are completely removed);
treatment 2 and treatment 3: in winter 2014, as shown in fig. 2, treating 2 and selecting 3 robust clumps, treating 3 and selecting 5 robust clumps, fixing the stems at 40cm positions respectively, removing all the rest branches (the rest clumps, all branches such as oblique branches, fruiting branches and bare branches on the main stem and the like are removed), and uniformly binding the clumps which are remained after treatment on an iron wire frame 4 (similar to an upper frame of a grape) fixed by a cement pile which is prepared in advance;
and (4) treatment: when fruits are ripe in 2014 (6-8 months), cutting off branches with large fruiting quantity when the lycium ruthenicum murr is collected, wherein the cut branches are not less than 50% of the total branches and serve as first trimming; only aged dry branches and branches with diseases and pests are removed in winter 2014, then partial dense branches are trimmed according to tree features, finally, the remaining clumped branches are in a uniform distribution state, the included angle between the two remaining adjacent clumped branches is not less than 10 degrees, and branches such as main lateral branches, oblique branches and bare branches on the clumped branches are not trimmed any more; as shown in FIG. 3, when the fruit is mature, 9 clumps 5 are provided, the fruiting branches 6 with large fruiting quantity are cut off, if the whole fruiting quantity of a certain clump is large, all the clumps can be cut off (through a cutting opening 7) for saving time, and the dense clumps 8 are also cut off. The management method of the step is adopted in the second year and later of field planting;
adopting daily field management including water fertilizer, pest control, weeding and the like in 2015 and 2016, and repeating the operation of 2014 by the pruning method; the CK control group without any pruning is taken as a control, all treatments and the control are divided into 3 repeats, each repeat is 5, and the branch preservation rate is calculated (the preservation rate is the number of the cluster branches left at the beginning of the year/the number of all the cluster branches at the bottom of the year is multiplied by 100%) (the number of the cluster branches left at the beginning of the year: the number of the cluster branches left after the test pruning treatment, such as 1 × 3 × 5 to 15 in the treatment 1, and the number of all the cluster branches at the bottom of the year: the number of all the cluster branches at the fruit maturity of 8 months, such as 15 cluster branches left at the beginning of the treatment 1, the number of all the cluster branches at the fruit maturity, and the number of all the cluster branches before the first pruning at the fruit maturity of 8 months in the treatment 4).
4. Test results
4.1 thousand seed weight and germination percentage of test seeds
The plump seeds of the lycium ruthenicum can be known by measuring the thousand seed weight of the lycium ruthenicum seeds, and further experiments can be carried out. The germination percentage determination result shows that 1 percent KNO3The germination rate after solution treatment is higher than that after warm water treatment, so 1% KNO is selected3The solution treated lycium ruthenicum seeds were used for the seedling test (table 1).
TABLE 1 seed germination percentage and thousand Kernel weight
Figure GDA0003109986470000091
4.2 emergence rate and survival rate of transplantation
And (4) counting the emergence rate 15d after the lycium ruthenicum seeds are dibbled, wherein the result shows that the average emergence rate is 78%. Transplanting the lycium ruthenicum seedlings into a nutrition pot from an aperture disk, wherein the transplanting survival rate is 95%, and the survival rate of transplanting the lycium ruthenicum seedlings into a field by a small arched shed is 93%.
4.3 Tree pruning
According to the observation result of the experiment for controlling the number of pruning branches of lycium ruthenicum, the remaining cluster branches of the lycium ruthenicum at the beginning of each treatment are not completely preserved, part of the cluster branches die, and new cluster branches germinate, as shown in table 2, the preservation rate of single branch pruning is 57% at the lowest in the first statistics of 8 months in 2015, and the treatment rate 4 is 175% at the highest; CK is 133 percent in the second time, but branches remained at the beginning of the year are partially aged and dead at the end of the year when the branch preservation rate is counted by treatment 4 and CK. The second statistics of 2016, month 8, show that treatment 1 to treatment 3 have reduced numbers of branches compared to the current year of pruning, but treatment 4 and CK have increased compared to the current year of pruning. In 2019, 1-3 treated lycium ruthenicum dies basically, 4 treated lycium ruthenicum grows well, the number of fasciculate branches is increased gradually, part of the fasciculate branches germinated in the current year planted in 2014 do not die, only newly germinated fasciculate branches in a CK control group are reserved, all the fasciculate branches germinated in the current year and two or three following years planted in 2014 die, the result quantity of the CK control group is very low and is obviously lower than that of the 4 treated lycium ruthenicum. Therefore, the aging speed of the lycium ruthenicum can be proved to be high, even newly germinated fasciculus can die, only a small amount of fasciculus is reserved, the extinction of the lycium ruthenicum can be easily caused, the lycium ruthenicum is not trimmed, the service life of the fasciculus is obviously shorter than that of the 4 method for properly trimming the lycium ruthenicum, the economic benefit is worse, the ageing and death of the fasciculus can be delayed by properly trimming the lycium ruthenicum by adopting the 4 method for processing the lycium ruthenicum, the continuous germination of the fasciculus can be guaranteed, the quantity of the fasciculus is gradually increased, and the ecological benefit and the economic benefit are both achieved.
TABLE 2 The branch preservation Rate after pruning Lycium ruthenicum
Figure GDA0003109986470000101
4.4. Conclusion
During the seedling raising of the lycium ruthenicum seeds, 1 percent KNO is adopted3The solution can improve the germination rate of seeds and shorten the seed treatment time. According to the lycium ruthenicum forestation management test result, the lycium ruthenicum branches are high in aging speed, the aging phenomenon can occur on some branches within 2-3 years, the aging symptoms can be presented on some branches with large fruiting quantity in the same year, the regeneration capacity of the branches at the roots of the lycium ruthenicum is high, root bad seedlings are frequently removed, certain influence is exerted on the roots, and the aging of the reserved trunks can be accelerated. In the afforestation, the ecological benefit is firstly considered, the branch growth amount and the crown width are main measurement indexes, so that the storage rate of the cluster branches in the tree management modes from 1 to 3 is low, the ecological benefit is poor, and the method is not suitable for being used in the management of wild lycium ruthenicum and artificial afforestation trees. Although CK can ensure certain ecological benefit of Lycium ruthenicum Murr, economic benefit is poor, and treatment 4 is used for managing wild Lycium ruthenicum Murr and artificial afforestation technology, so that management cost is low, operation is simple and convenient, economic benefit and ecological benefit coexist, significance is achieved in ecological poverty alleviation in desert regions, plant branches are in an effective updating state for ensuring ecological benefit, and cut fruit branches can not be lower than 50% of the total number of branches.
In conclusion, 1% KNO can be adopted when the Lycium ruthenicum Murr seeds are used for raising seedlings3The solution is used for treating seeds, and the substrate is selected for seedling raising, so that the emergence rate can be improved; the seedling raising stage of the plug tray and the nutrition pot is preferably carried out in a sunlight greenhouse or a shed; transplanting the seedlings after hole-plate seedling culture into a nutrition pot for hardening the seedlings can improve the transplanting survival rate of the field; when the wild lycium ruthenicum and the lycium ruthenicum are subjected to artificial afforestation tending management, a sealing and breeding measure can be adopted firstly, so that the human interference of predatory picking, grazing and the like is avoided, and the economic and ecological benefits are reduced; in the seal breeding area, branches with large fruiting quantity are cut off from the part close to the ground in the picking period of the lycium ruthenicum, the cut branches cannot be lower than 50% of the total number of the branches, and dry and withered branches are removed in the spring of the next year, so that the plant branches can be in an effective updating state, and the tree aging is relieved.
While preferred embodiments of the present invention have been described, additional variations and modifications in those embodiments may occur to those skilled in the art once they learn of the basic inventive concepts. Therefore, it is intended that the appended claims be interpreted as including preferred embodiments and all such alterations and modifications as fall within the scope of the invention. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made in the present invention without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Thus, if such modifications and variations of the present invention fall within the scope of the claims of the present invention and their equivalents, the present invention is also intended to include such modifications and variations.

Claims (9)

1. A Lycium ruthenicum seedling and forestation method is characterized by comprising the following steps:
s1, pretreatment: taking lycium ruthenicum seeds, and adopting KNO with the mass volume concentration of 0.75-1.25%3Soaking the solution for 1-3 min for later use;
s2, seedling culture: firstly, seeding and raising seedlings by adopting a seedling raising matrix, transplanting the seedlings into mixed soil comprising the seedling raising matrix and field soil after 15-20 days, continuing raising the seedlings for 15-20 days, and then hardening the seedlings for 50-70 days;
s3, transplanting and field planting: transplanting and planting the seedlings to a field after hardening, performing daily field management, and performing no treatment on the tree shape of the fruits before the fruits are ripe;
s4, tree form management: in the current year of field planting, part of branches with large fruiting quantity are cut off in the fruit mature period, and the cut branches with large fruiting quantity are not less than 50% of the total number of branches and serve as first pruning; after the tree body enters the dormancy stage, beginning to prune for the second time, removing dry and dead branches and insect pest branches during pruning, pruning partial dense clumps and branches according to the characteristics of the tree body, and finally enabling the remaining clumps and branches to be in a uniform distribution state; the management method of the step is adopted in the second year and later of permanent planting.
2. The method for growing seedlings and foresting Lycium ruthenicum Murr of claim 1,
and S2, the seedling raising matrix is nutrient soil containing perlite, the mass ratio of the perlite to the nutrient soil is 1 (2-4), and the mass ratio of the seedling raising matrix to the field soil in the mixed soil is 1 (0.8-1.2).
3. The method for growing seedlings and foresting Lycium ruthenicum Murr of claim 1,
in the steps S2-S3, seedling raising is started in the first 1 th month, and transplanting is performed in the middle 4 th month.
4. The method for growing seedlings and foresting Lycium ruthenicum Murr of claim 1,
and when transplanting in the step S3, adopting a ditching and hole opening mode, wherein the specification is as follows: groove width × groove depth: 80X 20cm, points: 40X 40 cm.
5. The method for growing seedlings and foresting Lycium ruthenicum Murr of claim 1,
the step S2 is: seedling in a sunlight greenhouse starting in the first ten days of 1 month, filling seedling substrates into seedling culture hole trays, watering thoroughly, sowing again every other day, dibbling 4-5 seeds treated in the step S1 in each hole by adopting a dibbling method, wherein the dibbling depth is 0.5cm, uniformly covering nutrient soil by 1cm, covering a mulching film after spraying and watering, preserving heat and moisture, then performing daily management, periodically heating the sunlight greenhouse, and watering; transplanting the seedlings into a nutrition pot after 15-20 days of seedling cultivation, wherein the ratio of seedling cultivation matrix to field soil in the nutrition pot is 1:1, transplanting for 15-20 days, and then transferring into an arch shed for hardening seedlings for 50-70 days.
6. The method for growing seedlings and foresting Lycium ruthenicum Murr of claim 1,
and S3, performing daily field management including moisture management, topdressing management, pest control and weeding management.
7. The method for growing seedlings and foresting Lycium ruthenicum Murr of claim 1,
the total number of branches in the step S4 does not include the number of branches with the length less than 5 cm.
8. The method for growing seedlings and foresting Lycium ruthenicum Murr of claim 1,
in the second trimming in step S4, the included angle between two adjacent twigs is not less than 10 degrees.
9. The method for cultivating seedlings and forestation of Lycium ruthenicum as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 8, which is applied to the cultivation and forestation of Lycium ruthenicum.
CN202010054138.5A 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 Lycium ruthenicum seedling culture and afforestation method Active CN111226672B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN202010054138.5A CN111226672B (en) 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 Lycium ruthenicum seedling culture and afforestation method

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN202010054138.5A CN111226672B (en) 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 Lycium ruthenicum seedling culture and afforestation method

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN111226672A CN111226672A (en) 2020-06-05
CN111226672B true CN111226672B (en) 2021-07-30

Family

ID=70862798

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN202010054138.5A Active CN111226672B (en) 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 Lycium ruthenicum seedling culture and afforestation method

Country Status (1)

Country Link
CN (1) CN111226672B (en)

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101176407A (en) * 2007-04-14 2008-05-14 冯立田 Artificial cultivation technique for black fruit medlar in alkaline land
RU2011132178A (en) * 2011-07-29 2013-02-10 Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Кубанский государственный аграрный университет" METHOD FOR FORMING AND CUTTING GRAPE BUSHES
CN106718571A (en) * 2016-12-17 2017-05-31 李树园 Lycium ruthenicum implantation methods
CN107371984A (en) * 2017-09-07 2017-11-24 辽宁药食同源农业发展有限公司 The method for transplanting of lycium ruthenicum
CN107896768A (en) * 2017-10-30 2018-04-13 惠州市汇富盈科技有限公司 A kind of implantation methods of the red matrimony vine of high yield

Family Cites Families (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
UA68667U (en) * 2011-08-01 2012-04-10 Институт Орошаемого Садоводства Имени М.Ф. Сидоренко Наан Method for pruning bushy crown of sweet-cherry trees
CN103503683A (en) * 2013-10-09 2014-01-15 薛军 Method for cultivating seedlings of purebred lycium ruthenicum with high survival rate
CN103999722B (en) * 2014-05-08 2016-03-02 中宁县沃杞农业科技有限公司 A kind of mushroom-shaped matrimony vine tree and shaping and trimming method thereof

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101176407A (en) * 2007-04-14 2008-05-14 冯立田 Artificial cultivation technique for black fruit medlar in alkaline land
RU2011132178A (en) * 2011-07-29 2013-02-10 Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Кубанский государственный аграрный университет" METHOD FOR FORMING AND CUTTING GRAPE BUSHES
CN106718571A (en) * 2016-12-17 2017-05-31 李树园 Lycium ruthenicum implantation methods
CN107371984A (en) * 2017-09-07 2017-11-24 辽宁药食同源农业发展有限公司 The method for transplanting of lycium ruthenicum
CN107896768A (en) * 2017-10-30 2018-04-13 惠州市汇富盈科技有限公司 A kind of implantation methods of the red matrimony vine of high yield

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CN111226672A (en) 2020-06-05

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CN105557425B (en) A kind of method of Chinese chestnut skeleton branch baldness with multiple spot grafting bearing basal shoot
CN103703974A (en) Method for cultivating sweet potatoes
CN105684739A (en) Cultivating method for grafting carya cathayensis with carya hunanensis as rootstock
CN110313341B (en) Macadamia nut container large seedling cultivation method
CN106613659B (en) Grafting cultivation method of euonymus plant golden beetle
CN110278822B (en) Method for cultivating peach trees in high-altitude areas
CN103070070A (en) Cultivation method of seedless roxburgh roses
CN110050598B (en) Seedling growing method for improving grafting survival rate of Phoebe bournei
CN116058281B (en) Method for rapid propagation of polygonum mongolicum tissue
CN109526432B (en) Sweet cherry seedling raising and garden building method in high-altitude cold areas
CN113973673B (en) Method for propagating amorphophallus bulbifer seedlings
CN111226672B (en) Lycium ruthenicum seedling culture and afforestation method
CN114258825A (en) Cultivation method for improving quality and yield of cistanche seeds
CN110313371B (en) Method for cultivating plateau coronarium
CN114009296A (en) Cultivation method of Korean lily
CN113331013A (en) Method for sowing and forcing cultivation of pine needle lily
CN108617396B (en) A kind of drought and sand area vinery cultural method can be improved yield
CN107135818B (en) High-pile budding method for Kangding magnolia
CN111616040A (en) Method for cultivating papaya seedlings by using plug trays
CN110754305A (en) High-yield pitaya planting method
CN106613689B (en) Method for rapidly breeding paeonia suffruticosa
CN110881326A (en) Grafting method for improving cold resistance and drought resistance of hybrid hazel
CN110367017A (en) A kind of seed selection breeding method of white peach
CN112544366B (en) Cultivation method of passion fruit seedlings
CN115024150B (en) Cultivation method of wax Mei Qie flowers capable of being picked and cut every year

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
PB01 Publication
PB01 Publication
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination
GR01 Patent grant
GR01 Patent grant