CN115024150B - Cultivation method of wax Mei Qie flowers capable of being picked and cut every year - Google Patents

Cultivation method of wax Mei Qie flowers capable of being picked and cut every year Download PDF

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CN115024150B
CN115024150B CN202210811102.6A CN202210811102A CN115024150B CN 115024150 B CN115024150 B CN 115024150B CN 202210811102 A CN202210811102 A CN 202210811102A CN 115024150 B CN115024150 B CN 115024150B
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months
cutting
fertilizer
flower
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CN115024150A (en
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沈植国
丁鑫
程建明
孙萌
沈希辉
王安亭
石发良
石楠
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Henan Academy Of Forestry
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/30Grafting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • Y02P60/21Dinitrogen oxide [N2O], e.g. using aquaponics, hydroponics or efficiency measures

Abstract

The invention discloses a cultivation method of wax Mei Qie flowers which can be picked and cut every year, which mainly comprises the following steps: 4 main branches, 8 grade-2 branches and more than 16 grade-3 branches with uniform directions are finally formed by crown culture; forming 30-36 1 year-old flowers each year through bud picking and branch fixing, hormone treatment, matched water and fertilizer management and other flower branch promoting technologies; the high-quality cut-flower products of the Chimonanthus praecox are produced by adopting a cutting technology; the whole set of cultivation method also comprises the technical links of nursery selection, stock cultivation, improved variety grafting, quality grading, pest control and the like. Compared with the prior art, the cultivation method has the advantages of low cost, no branches, simplicity in cutting, convenience in packaging, stable yield, high quality, high efficiency and the like, and has extremely high popularization and application values.

Description

Cultivation method of wax Mei Qie flowers capable of being picked and cut every year
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of wax plum cultivation, in particular to a cultivation method of wax Mei Qie flowers which can be picked and cut every year.
Background
Chimonanthus praecox (L.) Link is a fallen leaf cluster shrub of Chimonanthus genus of Chimonanthaceae family, and is a special traditional flower with elegant and delicate flower and pleasant fragrance, and is endowed with flower words such as flower frost, snow, high-cleanness rigid and perseveration and rich cultural connotation due to cold winter. The wintersweet has long cultivation history and wide growth range in China, and forms main cultivation areas of the wintersweet, such as Yu, su, zhe, hu and Wan, shan, chuan, hubei and the like. The wintersweet is not only an excellent garden plant, a manufacturing material of a bonsai, but also a good cut flower material, and a wintersweet cut peanut production base with a certain scale is formed in Chongqing, chengdu, shanghai and other places in China at present, so that the cut flower product is far-sold abroad, and the market prospect is wide. However, most of the wax plums are produced by cutting and rejuvenating again every other year, and 2-year-old commodity flowers are formed (figure 1).
Related industry standards of the production of the wax plum cut peanuts are published in the technical regulations of the production of the wax plum cut peanuts (LY/T2321-2014) (figure 2), and other related documents also introduce a cultivation method of the wax Mei Qie flowers, but mainly relate to a cultivation method of 2-year-old wax Mei Qie flowers.
The 2-year-old cut-flower of the Chimonanthus praecox has the advantages of large volume, suitability for large space placement and the like, but has long cultivation period due to the existence of interval years in production, and moreover, the flower buds of the 2-year-old cut-flower of the Chimonanthus praecox are concentrated on 1-year-old small short branches of the flower branches, so that the packaging and transportation are inconvenient, and the production benefit is seriously influenced. Therefore, the invention provides a high-efficiency and stable cultivation technology for the 1-year-old wax Mei Qie flowers, which plays an important promoting role in the development of the wax Mei Xian cut flower industry.
Disclosure of Invention
The technical problem to be solved by the invention is to overcome the technical defects, and provide a cultivation method of the wax Mei Qie flowers which can be picked and cut every year.
In order to solve the technical problems, the technical scheme provided by the invention is as follows: a method for cultivating a year-round cut wax Mei Qie flower, comprising the steps of:
1) Comprises the cultivation of crown type, shaping and trimming: after the scion survives, the scion is topped in time to promote the branches to be cut off, 20-30 cm is reserved when the germination length of the scion is about 40-50 cm, the scion is used as a 2-stage branch for culturing after the germination of the scion at the top 1, 30-40 cm is reserved when about 50-60 cm is reserved, 40-50 cm is reserved when about 60-70 cm is reserved for 3-stage branches, 4 main branches, 8 2-stage branches and crowns of more than 16 3-stage branches with uniform directions are finally cultured,
the branches extracted and developed on the 3-level branches are generally not cut into short sections any more and are taken as cut flowers each year; during the chopping, the direction of the bud under the cutting opening is distributed on two sides; the whole cultivation process is to remove basal sprouts and redundant sprouting branches affecting crowns in time;
2) Flower branches promote: comprises bud picking, branch fixing, hormone treatment and water and fertilizer management,
the bud picking and branch fixing:
at the beginning of 3 months, according to the conditions of cutting flowers in winter or early spring, pruning to ensure that each branch keeps 1-2 pairs of buds, removing thin and weak branches in the crown of the tree, and over-closing the branches, and according to tree forms and tree vigor, keeping 30-36 branches for culturing flowering branches; during the growing period, the sprouts are removed in time;
the hormone treatment:
after fixing branches in the middle and upper 4 months, 1000ppm paclobutrazol is sprayed to inhibit internode elongation and promote the strong branches;
and (3) water and fertilizer management: applying a branch extracting fertilizer in the middle ten days of 3 months, wherein the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer is 20-25 kg/667 square meter; applying flower bud fertilizer in middle and late 5 months, and applying 20-25 kg/667 square meter of phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer; applying flower bud expanding fertilizer in middle and late 8 months, and applying 20-25 kg/667 square meters of Shi Lin potassium compound fertilizer or 0.2-0.3% of monopotassium phosphate to leaf surfaces; applying 1000-1500 kg/667 square meters of thoroughly decomposed organic fertilizer in combination with deep ploughing in autumn from the last 10 months to the last 11 months; timely watering after each fertilization, combining soil moisture content at ordinary times, watering timely, and taking care of drainage in rainy season;
3) Collecting and cutting
According to the characteristics of different wax plums, more than 75% of flower buds of the flower branches are expanded like soybeans, the colors turn yellow, 25% of the flower buds are about to open, when the flower buds are in the later stage of the yellow bud period, the flower branches are cut off, and 1-2 pairs of buds are reserved at the lower part of the cut opening of the tree body.
Further, the method also comprises the following steps of:
1) And (3) garden selection: the nursery conditions are preferably selected, and the nursery is preferably flat in land, leeward and sunny, deep in soil layer, rich in soil, good in irrigation and drainage, and soil in loam or sandy loam;
2) Stock cultivation: comprises seed collection, land preparation, seed treatment, seeding time and method, post-seeding management and seedling management
The sowing time and method are as follows: the soil moisture content is guaranteed to be better before sowing in the late spring 3 months and summer 6-7 months; drill sowing, wherein the row spacing is 25-30 cm, the ditch depth is about 3cm, the soil is covered by 2-3 cm, and the sowing quantity is 15-20 kg/667 square meter; mulching films are covered in spring sowing;
post-broadcast management: 10d to 15d after spring sowing, 7d to 10d after summer sowing can germinate and emerge; before the seedling height is 10cm, spray irrigation is adopted, thinning is carried out when the seedling height is 10 cm-15 cm, excessive dense seedlings and weak seedlings are pulled out, and the plant spacing is kept at 10 cm-15 cm;
seedling management:
watering the seedlings in the growing period according to soil moisture content in time, paying attention to drainage and waterlogging prevention in rainy seasons, and timely intertillage, weeding and soil moisture conservation; topdressing for 3-4 times each year, and applying the fertilizer to the plant leaves for preventing the plant leaves from being sprayed; 2-3 times of urea is applied in the middle and upper 5 months to 7 months in the middle and upper ten days, 15 kg-20 kg/667 square meters each time; applying phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer 1 time for 20 kg-25 kg/667 square meter in the middle ten days of 8 months; watering in time after fertilization;
3) Fine variety grafting: comprises stock field planting, variety selection and grafting
Before germination in early spring, selecting the wintersweet seedlings with the height of more than 100cm and the ground diameter of more than 3.0cm, and transplanting the wintersweet seedlings to a field; the plant row spacing is generally 1.5 multiplied by 2.5m, and the hole specification is 40 multiplied by 40cm; applying base fertilizer to planting holes, applying 3 kg-5 kg of fully decomposed organic fertilizer to each hole, and uniformly mixing 150 kg-200 kg of compound fertilizer with planting soil; soil is preferably taken during transplanting, the transplanting is carried out along with the transplanting, the planting depth is 2-3 cm deeper than the original soil mark, and water is thoroughly poured after the planting; selecting fine varieties of wintersweet with long branches easy to flower, and carrying out wax sealing treatment on collected scions;
grafting: cutting off the stock at the position of about 0.8m of the dry height by adopting a cutting-off method in the middle and upper 3 months of spring; obliquely cutting an inclined section at a position 0.5cm below the cross section edge of the stock, wherein the cross section length is about 1/4 of the diameter of the stock, and carrying a xylem straight cutting knife downwards on the inclined section, and the length is about 4 cm; the length of the scion is about 8cm, the lower part is cut into an asymmetric wedge shape, the cutting surface slightly exposes xylem, and 2 pairs of buds are reserved; inserting cutting slips into the incision of the stock, paying attention to alignment of cambium layers, and then binding firmly by using grafting strips; typically 2 scions are grafted to a stock.
Further, step 1) further comprises climate condition selection; the annual average temperature is about 14-24 ℃, the lowest air temperature is higher than-15 ℃, and the annual precipitation is preferably 600-1300 ml.
Further, the seed collection in step 2):
harvesting when the cermets fruit support turns brown for 6-7 months, taking out seeds (clenbuterol), drying in the shade after seed cleaning, putting into a breathable storage bag, and storing in a shade and dry place;
the land preparation:
the ploughing depth is more than 25cm, and 1000-1500 kg/667 square meters of decomposed organic fertilizer and 30-50 kg/667 square meters of compound fertilizer are applied; simultaneously, the ferrous sulfate is applied to 25-30 kg/667 square meters; after the land is leveled, making furrows in the north-south direction, wherein the width of the furrow is 2m;
the seed treatment:
after spring sowing seeds are selected by water, the seeds are soaked in clear water for 48 to 72 hours, and water is changed for 1 to 2 times during the period; the seeds which are picked and sowed in summer can be directly sowed after water selection.
Further, the step 3) further includes post-management: timely watering according to soil moisture content, checking survival condition 1-2 weeks after grafting, and timely wiping off sprouts on the stock, and paying attention to timely grafting; and removing the plastic strips bound at the joint after the grafting opening is completely healed.
Further, the method also comprises the steps of preventing and controlling main diseases of the wax plumes by diseases and insect pests, including leaf spot, black spot, brown spot and anthracnose; the insect pest mainly comprises pear net bugs, leaf rollers and Japanese caterpillar; the prevention and the control are carried out according to the principle of prevention and control; removing branches and leaves of nursery diseases and insects during weeding in combination, and intensively destroying to reduce pathogen and infection sources;
disease control
Leaf spot disease: spraying 1000 times of 50% carbendazim wettable powder or 1000 times of 75% chlorothalonil wettable powder for 1 time in 7-10 days and continuously spraying 3-4 times during the onset;
melasma disease: spraying 1000 times of 75% chlorothalonil wettable powder or 1000 times of 50% carbendazim wettable powder for 1 time in 10-15 days, and continuously spraying for 4-5 times;
brown spot disease: spraying 1:160 Barduo liquid, or 1000 times liquid of 50% carbendazim wettable powder, or 1000 times liquid of 75% chlorothalonil wettable powder; spraying for 1 time in 15-20 days, and continuously spraying for 3-4 times;
the anthracnose is sprayed with 500 times of 50% of thiram wettable powder or 800 times of 65% of ambam wettable powder for 1 time in 10-15 days and 3-4 times continuously;
pest control
Pear net bug: can be controlled by 2500 times of 20% chrysanthemum emulsifiable concentrate or 1500 times of 29% net She Baoru oil;
leaf roller moth: spraying 2000 times of 20% chrysanthemum emulsifiable concentrate or 1200 times of 50% phoxim emulsifiable concentrate for preventing and controlling the damage of larvae;
japanese Gecko: when nymphs hatch, 50% cartap emulsifiable concentrate 1500 times liquid is sprayed for preventing and controlling.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the advantages that: the invention discloses a cultivation method of wax Mei Qie flowers which can be cut every year, which is specially used for cutting 1 year old wax Mei Qie flowers and has the advantages of simple cutting, convenient packaging, stable yield, high quality, high efficiency and the like. Compared with the prior art, the cultivation method has the advantages of simple process and low cost; the branches are strong, straight, free of branches, large in body quantity, suitable for large-scale space placement and the like, and the cultivated branches are high in quality, high in growth speed, good in economic benefit and the like, so that the method is worthy of further popularization.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of 2 year old cut flowers (branches) of Chimonanthus praecox.
FIG. 2 is a diagram showing the cultivation of whole annual flowers at 7 months in the cultivation method of the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a close-up view of an entire annual flowering branch of 7 months of the cultivation method of the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a diagram showing the cultivation of whole annual flowering branches of 10 months in the cultivation method of the present invention.
FIG. 5 shows the growth of whole annual flower buds at 10 months of the cultivation method of the present invention.
FIG. 6 is a drawing showing the method of the present invention immediately before harvesting and cutting the winter 1 year old wax plum blossom branches.
FIG. 7 is a second drawing of the cultivation method of the present invention immediately before harvesting and cutting of the winter 1 year old wax plum blossom branches.
Detailed Description
Specific embodiments of the present invention will be further described below with reference to the accompanying drawings.
A method for cultivating a year-round cut wax Mei Qie flower, comprising the steps of:
1 garden selection
Climate conditions
The annual average temperature is about 14-24 ℃, the lowest air temperature is higher than-15 ℃, and the annual precipitation is preferably 600-1300 ml.
Garden conditions
The land is preferably flat, the sun is oriented in the lee, the soil layer is deep, the soil is fertile, the drainage and irrigation are good, and the soil texture is preferably a nursery land of loam or sandy loam.
2 stock cultivation
Seed harvesting
Harvesting when the cermets fruit support turns brown for 6-7 months, taking out seeds (clenbuterol), drying in the shade after seed cleaning, putting into a breathable storage bag, and storing in a cool and dry place.
Land preparation
The ploughing depth is more than 25cm, and 1000-1500 kg/667 square meters of decomposed organic fertilizer and 30-50 kg/667 square meters of compound fertilizer are applied. Simultaneously, the ferrous sulfate is applied in an amount of 25-30 kg/667 square meters. After the land is leveled, furrows are made in the north-south direction, and the width of the furrows is 2m.
Seed treatment
After spring sowing seeds are selected by water, the seeds are soaked in clear water for 48 to 72 hours, and water is changed for 1 to 2 times during the period; the seeds which are picked and sowed in summer can be directly sowed after water selection.
Sowing time and method
The soil moisture content of the soil is guaranteed to be better before sowing in the late spring 3 months and summer 6-7 months. Drill sowing, line spacing 25-30 cm, ditch depth about 3cm, soil covering 2-3 cm, sowing quantity 15-20 kg/667 square meter. Mulching film is covered in spring sowing.
Post-broadcast management
10d to 15d after spring sowing and 7d to 10d after summer sowing. Before the seedling height is 10cm, spray irrigation is adopted, thinning is carried out when the seedling height is 10 cm-15 cm, excessive dense seedlings and weak seedlings are pulled out, and the plant spacing is kept at 10 cm-15 cm.
Seedling management
Watering the seedlings in the growing period according to soil moisture content in time, paying attention to drainage and waterlogging prevention in rainy seasons, and timely intertillage, weeding and soil moisture conservation. The additional fertilizer is applied for 3 to 4 times each year, and the fertilizer is applied to the plant leaves for preventing the plant leaves from being sprinkled. 2-3 times of urea is applied in the middle and upper 5 months to 7 months in the middle and upper ten days, 15 kg-20 kg/667 square meters each time; and in the middle ten days of 8 months, 20 kg-25 kg/667 square meter of the phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer is applied for 1 time. And watering in time after fertilization.
3 grafting of improved variety
Stock field planting
Before germination in early spring, selecting the seedling of Chimonanthus praecox with height above 100cm and ground diameter above 3.0cm, and transplanting to field. The plant row spacing is generally 1.5X2.5 m, and the hole specification is 40X 40cm. Applying base fertilizer to planting holes, applying 3 kg-5 kg of fully decomposed organic fertilizer to each hole, and uniformly mixing 150 kg-200 kg of compound fertilizer with planting soil. Soil is preferably taken during transplanting, the transplanting is carried out along with the transplanting, the transplanting depth is 2-3 cm deeper than the original soil mark, and water is thoroughly poured after the transplanting.
Variety selection
Selecting long-branch easily-flowering fine-variety of Chimonanthus praecox, and performing wax sealing treatment on the collected scions.
Grafting
Cutting and grafting method is adopted in the middle and upper 3 months of spring, and cutting the anvil at the position of about 0.8m of the dry height. An inclined section is cut obliquely upwards at a position 0.5cm below the edge of the section of the stock, the section length is about 1/4 of the diameter of the stock, a straight cutting knife with xylem is carried downwards on the inclined section, and the length is about 4 cm. The scion length is about 8cm, the lower part is cut into an asymmetric wedge shape, the cutting surface slightly exposes xylem, and 2 pairs of buds are reserved. Inserting the cutting slips into the cut of the stock, paying attention to alignment of cambium layers, and then binding firmly by using a grafting strip. Typically 2 scions are grafted to a stock.
Post-connection management
And (3) timely watering according to soil moisture content, checking survival conditions 1-2 weeks after grafting, and timely wiping off sprouts on the stock, and paying attention to timely grafting. And removing the plastic strips bound at the joint after the grafting opening is completely healed.
4 crown type culture
Shaping and trimming
After the scion survives, the scion is topped in time to promote the branches to grow, 20-30 cm of the scion is reserved when the germination length is about 40-50 cm, the scion is used as a 2-stage branch for cultivation after the germination of the scion at the top 1, 30-40 cm of the scion is reserved when about 50-60 cm, 40-50 cm of the scion is reserved when about 60-70 cm of the scion is reserved, and finally 4 main branches, 8 2-stage branches and crowns of more than 16 3-stage branches with uniform directions are cultivated.
The branches that are extracted and developed on the 3-stage branches are generally not cut any more and are taken as cut flowers each year. The direction of the bud under the cutting opening is distributed on two sides during the cutting. The whole cultivation process is to remove basal sprouts and redundant sprouting branches affecting crowns in time.
Water and fertilizer management
After the grafting survival is carried out for 4 months, the compound fertilizer is respectively applied for 1 time in the middle ten days of 5 months and the late ten days of 8 months, and 20-25 kg/667 square meter of the compound fertilizer is applied each time. Timely watering is needed after fertilization, soil moisture content is combined at ordinary times, watering is timely carried out, and draining is paid attention to in rainy seasons.
Remove sprout
Removing the bud once a month for 4-10 months, and removing the bud of the grafting port and the trunk base.
5 promoting flowering branch
Bud-picking and branch-fixing
At the beginning of 3 months, according to the conditions of cutting flowers in winter or early spring, pruning to ensure that each branch keeps 1-2 pairs of buds, removing thin and weak branches in the crown of the tree, and over-closing branches, and according to tree forms and tree vigor, keeping 30-36 branches per plant for culturing flowering branches. In the growing period, the sprouting is removed in time.
Hormone treatment
After fixing branches in the middle and upper 4 months, 1000ppm paclobutrazol is sprayed to inhibit internode elongation and promote the robustness of the branches.
Water and fertilizer management
Applying a branch extracting fertilizer in the middle ten days of 3 months, wherein the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer is 20-25 kg/667 square meter; applying flower bud fertilizer in middle and late 5 months, and applying 20-25 kg/667 square meter of phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer; applying flower bud expanding fertilizer in middle and late 8 months, and applying 20-25 kg/667 square meters of Shi Lin potassium compound fertilizer or 0.2-0.3% of monopotassium phosphate to leaf surfaces; 1000-1500 kg/667 square meters of thoroughly decomposed organic fertilizer is applied in combination with deep ploughing in autumn from the last 10 months to the last 11 months.
After each fertilization, water is irrigated in time, soil moisture content is combined at ordinary times, watering is performed in time, and drainage is paid attention to in rainy season.
6 collecting and cutting
According to the characteristics of different wax plums, more than 75% of flower buds of the flower branches are expanded like soybeans, the colors turn yellow, 25% of the flower buds are about to open, when the flower buds are in the later stage of the yellow bud period, the flower branches are cut off, and 1-2 pairs of buds are reserved at the lower part of the cut opening of the tree body.
7 pest control
The main diseases of the wax plumes comprise leaf spot, black spot, brown spot and anthracnose; the insect pest mainly comprises pear net bug, leaf rollers and Japanese caterpillar. And controlling according to the principle of prevention and comprehensive control. And removing branches and leaves of nursery pests during weeding in combination with weeding, and intensively destroying to reduce pathogen and infection sources.
Disease control
Leaf spot disease: when the disease is developed, the 50% carbendazim wettable powder 1000 times liquid or the 75% chlorothalonil wettable powder 1000 times liquid is sprayed for 1 time in 7-10 days, and the spraying is carried out for 3-4 times continuously.
Melasma disease: spraying 1000 times of 75% chlorothalonil wettable powder or 1000 times of 50% carbendazim wettable powder for 1 time in 10-15 days, and continuously spraying for 4-5 times.
Brown spot disease: spraying 1:160 Barduo liquid, or 1000 times liquid of 50% carbendazim wettable powder, or 1000 times liquid of 75% chlorothalonil wettable powder. Spraying for 1 time in 15-20 days, and continuously spraying for 3-4 times.
And 50% of the thiram wettable powder 500 times of liquid or 65% of the ambam wettable powder 800 times of liquid is sprayed for 1 time in 10-15 days, and 3-4 times are continuously sprayed for anthracnose.
Pest control
Pear net bug: can be used for preventing and treating 2500 times of liquid of 20% chrysanthemum emulsifiable concentrate or 1500 times of liquid of 29% net She Baoru oil.
Leaf roller moth: when the larvae are damaged, the 20% chrysanthemum emulsifiable concentrate is sprayed with 2000 times of liquid or the 50% phoxim emulsifiable concentrate is sprayed with 1200 times of liquid for preventing and treating.
Japanese Gecko: when nymphs hatch, 50% cartap emulsifiable concentrate 1500 times liquid is sprayed for preventing and controlling.
The quality classification according to the quality of the product is as follows:
Figure BDA0003739050540000071
Figure BDA0003739050540000081
examples:
3 months 2017, a technical verification test was performed in wax Mei Ji of the national institute of forestry science, henan, chuchang, mitsui, bai Liangzhen, ling county, and compared with the existing conventional 2-year-old cut peanut production technology.
1. 80 seedlings of 3-year-old Chimonanthus praecox (40 seedlings of single and multiple branches) are selected for field planting in the beginning of 3 months in 2017, the density is 1.5mX2.5, and grafting is carried out in the middle of 3 months by adopting cut grafting. The invention selects single-dry seedlings to cut off and graft at 1 m; 3-6 multi-dry seedlings in different directions are selected for grafting at the position of 30-40 cm according to the comparison technology. And finally, 30 plants with relatively consistent growth vigor after grafting survival are selected as experimental objects, wherein the average number of trunks is 4.5 by a comparison technology.
2. Summer 2017, the invention and the comparison technology are respectively based on the technical specification of Chimonanthus praecox-cutting peanut production (LY/T)
2321-2014), wherein 30 plants of the wax plums of the technology are respectively trimmed twice in 5 months and 6 months (grafting in the current year, trimming time is later than normal year after molding) to form 8 2-level branches, and other tillers and redundant branches are thinned; the control technology is similar to that of pruning twice in 5 months and 6 months to form 8-12 skeleton branches and 16-22 flowering long branches, and the rest of tillers and redundant branches are thinned. In 10 months 2017, pruning is carried out again after the growth of the branches is stopped, the 8 2-level branches are pruned again according to the requirements, and 16-22 flowering long branches are short-pruned by a contrast technology, so that the length is fixed.
3. In the middle ten days of spring 4 of 2018, 15-19 3 branches are formed on 2 branches trimmed in 2017, chopping is performed again according to the technical requirement, stable 30-36 branches are formed in 5 months finally, multiple effects of spraying are performed to shorten internodes, and flower bud differentiation is promoted (tree-shaped culture period, spraying time is later than normal year after shaping); the plants of the control technology form a plurality of flowering small short branches on flowering long branches in 4 months, and the long branches with sparse flowers are thinned out in 5-6 months to finally form 12-16 flowering long branches.
4. In the flowering period of 12 months 2018-2 months 2019, harvesting and cutting are carried out in batches according to the states of different branches, and finally, 302 1-year-old flowering branches are produced by the technology, wherein 65 branches of 1-level branches and 237 branches of 2-3-level branches are produced; the plants of the control technology produce 150 flowering branches growing for 2 years, wherein 106 branches of level 1 and 44 branches of level 2-3 (refer to Henan province local standard "geographical marking product\37154, ling Chimonanthus praecox (DB 41/T861-2013)").
5. After 2019, the plants are basically molded and are cultured according to respective technologies, and the invention has obvious technical advantages. The specific yields are shown in the following table:
Figure BDA0003739050540000082
Figure BDA0003739050540000091
the invention and its embodiments have been described above with no limitation, and only some, but not all embodiments of the invention are shown in the detailed description, with the true construction not being limited thereto. In summary, if one of ordinary skill in the art is informed by this disclosure, a structural manner and an embodiment similar to the technical solution should not be creatively devised without departing from the gist of the present invention.

Claims (5)

1. A cultivation method of a yearly cut wax Mei Qie flower, which is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
1) And (3) garden selection: the nursery conditions are preferably selected from a nursery with flat land, leeward and sunny, deep soil layer, rich soil, good irrigation and drainage, and soil texture of loam or sandy soil;
2) Stock cultivation: comprises seed collection, land preparation, seed treatment, seeding time and method, post-seeding management and seedling management,
the sowing time and method are as follows: the soil moisture content is ensured before sowing in the last ten days of 3 months in spring and 6 to 7 months in summer; drill sowing, wherein the row spacing is 25-30 cm, the ditch depth is about 3cm, the soil is covered by 2-3 cm, and the sowing quantity is 15-20 kg/667 square meter; mulching films are covered in spring sowing;
post-broadcast management: 10d to 15d after spring sowing, 7d to 10d after summer sowing can germinate and emerge; before the seedling height is 10cm, spray irrigation is adopted, thinning is carried out when the seedling height is 10 cm-15 cm, excessive dense seedlings and weak seedlings are pulled out, and the plant spacing is kept at 10 cm-15 cm;
seedling management
Watering the seedlings in the growing period according to soil moisture content in time, paying attention to drainage and waterlogging prevention in rainy seasons, and timely intertillage, weeding and soil moisture conservation; topdressing for 3-4 times each year, and applying the fertilizer to the plant leaves for preventing the plant leaves from being sprayed; 2-3 times of urea is applied in the middle and upper 5 months to 7 months in the middle and upper ten days, 15 kg-20 kg/667 square meters each time; applying phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer 1 time for 20 kg-25 kg/667 square meter in the middle ten days of 8 months; watering in time after fertilization;
3) Fine variety grafting: comprises stock field planting, variety selection and grafting,
before germination in early spring, selecting the wintersweet seedlings with the height of more than 100cm and the ground diameter of more than 3.0cm, and transplanting the wintersweet seedlings to a field; the plant row spacing is 1.5 multiplied by 2.5m, and the hole specification is 40 multiplied by 40cm; applying base fertilizer to planting holes, applying 3 kg-5 kg of fully decomposed organic fertilizer to each hole, and uniformly mixing 150 kg-200 kg of compound fertilizer with planting soil; soil is preferably taken during transplanting, the transplanting is carried out along with the transplanting, the planting depth is 2-3 cm deeper than the original soil mark, and water is thoroughly poured after the planting; selecting fine varieties of wintersweet with long branches easy to flower, and carrying out wax sealing treatment on collected scions;
grafting: cutting off the stock at the position of about 0.8m of the dry height by adopting a cutting-off method in the middle and upper 3 months of spring; obliquely cutting an inclined section at a position 0.5cm below the cross section edge of the stock, wherein the cross section length is about 1/4 of the diameter of the stock, and carrying a xylem straight cutting knife downwards on the inclined section, and the length is about 4 cm; the length of the scion is about 8cm, the lower part is cut into an asymmetric wedge shape, the cutting surface slightly exposes xylem, and 2 pairs of buds are reserved; inserting cutting slips into the incision of the stock, paying attention to alignment of cambium layers, and then binding firmly by using grafting strips; 2 scions are grafted on a stock;
4) Culturing crowns, shaping and trimming: after the scion survives, the scion is topped in time to promote the branches, 20-30 cm of the scion is reserved for cutting when the germination length of the scion is 40-50 cm, the scion is used as a 2-stage branch for culturing after the germination of the scion at the top 1, 30-40 cm of the scion is reserved for cutting when 50-60 cm, 40-50 cm of the scion is reserved when 3-stage branches are 60-70 cm, 4 main branches, 8 2-stage branches and crowns of more than 16 3-stage branches with uniform directions are finally cultured,
the branches extracted and light on the 3-level branches are not cut into short sections any more and are used as flowers and branches collected and cut every year; during the chopping, the direction of the bud under the cutting opening is distributed on two sides; the whole cultivation process is to remove basal sprouts and redundant sprouting branches affecting crowns in time;
5) Flower branches promote: comprises bud picking, branch fixing, hormone treatment and water and fertilizer management,
the bud picking and branch fixing:
at the beginning of 3 months, according to the conditions of cutting flowers in winter or early spring, pruning to ensure that each branch keeps 1-2 pairs of buds, removing thin and weak branches in the crown of the tree, and over-closing the branches, and according to tree forms and tree vigor, keeping 30-36 branches for culturing flowering branches; during the growing period, the sprouts are removed in time;
the hormone treatment:
after fixing branches in the middle and upper 4 months, 1000ppm paclobutrazol is sprayed to inhibit internode elongation and promote the strong branches;
and (3) water and fertilizer management: applying a branch extracting fertilizer in the middle ten days of 3 months, wherein the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer is 20-25 kg/667 square meter; applying flower bud fertilizer in middle and late 5 months, and applying 20-25 kg/667 square meter of phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer; applying flower bud expanding fertilizer in middle and late 8 months, and applying 20-25 kg/667 square meters of Shi Lin potassium compound fertilizer or 0.2-0.3% of monopotassium phosphate to leaf surfaces; applying 1000-1500 kg/667 square meters of thoroughly decomposed organic fertilizer in combination with deep ploughing in autumn from the last 10 months to the last 11 months; timely watering after each fertilization, combining soil moisture content at ordinary times, watering timely, and taking care of drainage in rainy season;
6) Collecting and cutting
According to the characteristics of different wax plums, more than 75% of flower buds of the flower branches are expanded like soybeans, the colors turn yellow, 25% of the flower buds are about to open, when the flower buds are in the later stage of the yellow bud period, the flower branches are cut off, and 1-2 pairs of buds are reserved at the lower part of the cut opening of the tree body.
2. A method of growing annually cuttable wax Mei Qie flowers according to claim 1, further comprising the step of selecting climate conditions in step 1); the annual average temperature is selected to be 14-24 ℃, the lowest air temperature is higher than-15 ℃, and the annual precipitation is preferably 600-1300 ml.
3. A method of cultivating annually cuttable wax Mei Qie flowers according to claim 1, wherein said seeds of step 2) are harvested:
harvesting when the cermets fruit support turns brown for 6-7 months, taking out seeds, drying in the shade after seed cleaning, putting into a breathable storage bag, and storing in a shade and dry place;
the land preparation:
the ploughing depth is more than 25cm, and 1000-1500 kg/667 square meters of decomposed organic fertilizer and 30-50 kg/667 square meters of compound fertilizer are applied; simultaneously, the ferrous sulfate is applied to 25-30 kg/667 square meters; after the land is leveled, making furrows in the north-south direction, wherein the width of the furrow is 2m;
the seed treatment:
after spring sowing seeds are selected by water, the seeds are soaked in clear water for 48 to 72 hours, and water is changed for 1 to 2 times during the period; the seeds which are picked and sowed in summer can be directly sowed after water selection.
4. The method of cultivating annually cuttable wax Mei Qie flowers according to claim 1, wherein said step 3) further comprises the step of post-management: timely watering according to soil moisture content, checking survival condition 1-2 weeks after grafting, and timely wiping off sprouts on the stock, and paying attention to timely grafting; and removing the plastic strips bound at the joint after the grafting opening is completely healed.
5. The method for cultivating annually-cleavable wax Mei Qie flowers according to claim 1, further comprising pest control, wax plum disease, including leaf spot, black spot, brown spot, anthracnose; the insect pest comprises pear net bug, leaf rollers and Japanese caterpillar; the prevention and the control are carried out according to the principle of prevention and control; removing branches and leaves of nursery diseases and insects during weeding in combination, and intensively destroying to reduce pathogen and infection sources;
disease control
Leaf spot disease: spraying 1000 times of 50% carbendazim wettable powder or 1000 times of 75% chlorothalonil wettable powder for 1 time in 7-10 days and continuously spraying 3-4 times during the onset;
melasma disease: spraying 1000 times of 75% chlorothalonil wettable powder or 1000 times of 50% carbendazim wettable powder for 1 time in 10-15 days, and continuously spraying for 4-5 times;
brown spot disease: spraying 1:160 Barduo liquid, or 1000 times liquid of 50% carbendazim wettable powder, or 1000 times liquid of 75% chlorothalonil wettable powder; spraying for 1 time in 15-20 days, and continuously spraying for 3-4 times;
the anthracnose is sprayed with 500 times of 50% of thiram wettable powder or 800 times of 65% of ambam wettable powder for 1 time in 10-15 days and 3-4 times continuously;
pest control
Pear net bug: preventing and treating with 2500 times of 20% chrysanthemum emulsifiable concentrate or 1500 times of 29% clean She Baoru oil;
leaf roller moth: spraying 2000 times of 20% chrysanthemum emulsifiable concentrate or 1200 times of 50% phoxim emulsifiable concentrate for preventing and controlling the damage of larvae;
japanese Gecko: when nymphs hatch, 50% cartap emulsifiable concentrate 1500 times liquid is sprayed for preventing and controlling.
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