CN113016515A - Chestnut-flavor pumpkin planting method capable of improving yield - Google Patents

Chestnut-flavor pumpkin planting method capable of improving yield Download PDF

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Publication number
CN113016515A
CN113016515A CN202110228893.5A CN202110228893A CN113016515A CN 113016515 A CN113016515 A CN 113016515A CN 202110228893 A CN202110228893 A CN 202110228893A CN 113016515 A CN113016515 A CN 113016515A
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China
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pumpkin
chestnut
seedlings
soil
temperature
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
张莹
陈艳利
朱莉
曾剑波
马超
陈文钊
攸学松
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BEIJING AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGY PROMOTION STATION
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BEIJING AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGY PROMOTION STATION
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Publication of CN113016515A publication Critical patent/CN113016515A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/05Fruit crops, e.g. strawberries, tomatoes or cucumbers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/14Greenhouses
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01HNEW PLANTS OR NON-TRANSGENIC PROCESSES FOR OBTAINING THEM; PLANT REPRODUCTION BY TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES
    • A01H1/00Processes for modifying genotypes ; Plants characterised by associated natural traits
    • A01H1/02Methods or apparatus for hybridisation; Artificial pollination ; Fertility
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/25Greenhouse technology, e.g. cooling systems therefor

Abstract

The invention discloses a chestnut flavor pumpkin planting method capable of improving yield, which comprises the following steps: s1, selecting seedlings: in the selection process of the local chestnut flavored pumpkin seedlings, seedlings with long, thick and large seedlings need to be selected, and the selected seedlings have high relative survival rate. According to the chestnut pumpkin planting method capable of improving the yield, the chestnut pumpkin is protected from being damaged by diseases and insects by selecting relatively strong seedlings, the resistance of the chestnut pumpkin is improved, favorable conditions can be provided for the growing environment of the chestnut pumpkin through a soil detection instrument, the pollination rate is improved through artificial pollination, the artificial pollination can ensure that each chestnut pumpkin can be pollinated, and the efficiency is improved relative to natural pollination, so that the productivity in the chestnut pumpkin planting process is further improved.

Description

Chestnut-flavor pumpkin planting method capable of improving yield
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of chestnut-flavor pumpkins, and particularly relates to a chestnut-flavor pumpkins planting method capable of improving yield.
Background
The chestnut-flavored pumpkin is a new pumpkin type, the fruit is oblate-shaped, the peel has longitudinal patterns, the flesh is thick and orange yellow, the chestnut-flavored pumpkin is a general name of pumpkin types, can be divided into green chestnut-flavored pumpkin and red chestnut-flavored pumpkin according to the color, can be divided into high-yield chestnut-flavored pumpkin and small chestnut-flavored pumpkin according to the fruit type, can be divided into edible chestnut-flavored pumpkin, processed chestnut-flavored pumpkin and edible processing dual-purpose chestnut-flavored pumpkin according to the application, the variety has unique flavor, compact meat quality, fine and smooth taste, is suitable for various cooking methods such as frying, steaming and the like, the prominent variety is 'Ji chestnut 958' pumpkin seed, the variety belongs to edible and processing dual-purpose chestnut-flavored pumpkin and is one of the high-yield chestnut-flavored pumpkins, the area is wider in China at present, and the commodity sale problem is smoother due to the edible and processable characteristics of the pumpkin, the variety is characterized in that the plant has strong growth potential, strong disease resistance and stress resistance, strong fruit setting capability, outstanding cold resistance and heat resistance, dark green peel and light color stripes; 2-4 single plants bear melons, the weight of each melon is about 2kg, the yield is high, and the commodity is good.
At present, the chestnut pumpkin planting method capable of improving yield is characterized in that the common chestnut pumpkin planting method is to directly purchase the existing seedlings to plant in the soil with relatively large water content, the water content in the soil is large, the chestnut pumpkin can rot in the growth process to cause yield reduction, the growth temperature of the chestnut pumpkin is 18-23 ℃, the common chestnut pumpkin is exposed under the sunlight, but the planting time is 2-3 months in the lunar calendar, and in the period, due to large temperature difference, the chestnut pumpkin grows slowly and seedlings can die, so that the yield is reduced.
Disclosure of Invention
Technical problem to be solved
Aiming at the defects of the prior art, the invention provides the chestnut pumpkin planting method capable of improving the yield, solves the problem that the chestnut pumpkin yield is reduced due to soil problems and high growth temperature in the traditional planting process, and can effectively solve the problems in the background art.
(II) technical scheme
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention is realized by the following technical scheme: a chestnut flavor pumpkin planting method capable of improving yield comprises the following steps:
s1, selecting seedlings: the method comprises the steps that local chestnut pumpkin seedlings are selected, in the selection process, seedlings which are long, thick and large in size need to be selected, the survival rate of the selected seedlings is high, then the selected seedlings are further selected through a component detection instrument, whether components of the selected seedlings are complete or not can be further detected through an inspection needle of the detection instrument, and the chestnut pumpkin yield is further improved;
s2, culturing: the working personnel put melon seeds into a nutrition pot for cultivation, the temperature of a seedbed is kept at 28-30 ℃, the temperature at night is kept at 14-16 ℃, the temperature is timely reduced after seedling emergence to prevent excessive growth, the daytime is not more than 25 ℃, the temperature at night is about 15 ℃, the pumpkin needs low-temperature female flower bud differentiation, the day and night temperature difference is increased to promote the formation of female flowers, the number of the female flowers is increased, ventilation and seedling hardening are carried out before field planting for one week, and meanwhile, the moisture is controlled to prevent the excessive growth of seedlings;
s3, land preparation and shed building: the planting greenhouse is installed on soil through the tool, the left side and the right side of seedlings to be planted are corrected through the soil preparation tool, a drainage ditch is added, the damage of chestnut-flavored pumpkin seedlings caused by excessive water is reduced, and then a film is laid on the corrected soil, so that the water in the soil is conveniently stored;
s4, transplanting: the method comprises the following steps of taking the cultured seedlings out of a nutrition pot, placing the seedlings on a frame, transplanting the seedlings to improved soil through a transplanting instrument by a worker, enabling the transplanted plant spacing to be 0.8-1 m and the row spacing to be 1.1-1.5 m, beginning to hoist vines when the vine extends to more than 10 sections, ensuring that the 1 st melon leaves the ground when the vine is hoisted, timely guiding the vines to hoist the vines along with the continuous growth of the vine, and reducing the contact damage of chestnut pumpkin and the ground;
s5, fertilizing: before transplanting seedlings, applying mature organic fertilizer and ternary compound fertilizer as base fertilizer in furrows, applying 4-5 cubic meters of mature organic fertilizer and 30-50 kilograms of ternary compound fertilizer or diammonium phosphate to each mu of seedlings, applying sufficient water in time when the plants enter a vine extending period, applying 3-5 kilograms of balance fertilizer (N: P: K: 20: 20: 20) to each mu of seedlings along with water topdressing so as to facilitate the rapid vine extension of the plants, supplementing proper water after the vine extending period is finished, applying sufficient water when fruits enter a swelling period, applying first expanding fertilizer along with water, applying 20-25 kilograms of balance fertilizer per mu of fruits, applying second expanding fertilizer about 25 days after fruit setting, watering, applying ternary 15-20 kilograms per mu of fertilizer and applying 20-30 kilograms of potassium fertilizer per mu of fruits;
s6, plant adjustment: when the melon seedlings grow to 4-5 main leaves, timely pinching is carried out, two side vines with the same length and size are selected as main vines of the melons, the vines begin to be hung when the melon seedlings extend to more than 10 sections, the 1 st melon is guaranteed to leave the ground when the vines are hung, the vines need to be guided to hang the vines in time along with the continuous growth of the melon seedlings, old leaves and diseased leaves at the bottom are timely knocked off at the middle and later stages of the plant growth, and partial leaves at the upper part of the plant are properly removed to guarantee ventilation and light transmission, reduce unnecessary nutrient consumption, reduce temperature and humidity in the greenhouse and reduce diseases;
s7, assisting: when the pumpkin seedlings grow to 3-4 true leaves, the Guaping is sprayed, so that the rate of sitting the pumpkin is improved by more than 40%, the excessive growth of the vine of the pumpkin can cause less melon formation, and the excessive growth can be inhibited if a crack is cut at a position 30 cm away from the root of the vine and black charcoal is plugged;
s8, flower and fruit retention: when 2-3 melon embryos appear on each seed vine, pollinating and fruit setting by using a Guaping with a certain concentration, or picking off male flowers on different plants, smearing on pistils of female flowers, covering a cover, removing after 2-3 days, and generally selecting 9-11 points on sunny days;
s9, harvesting: after the chestnut-flavor pumpkin is ripe, workers cut off roots and stems of the upper end of the chestnut-flavor pumpkin through the scissors, the ripe chestnut-flavor pumpkin can be picked conveniently by the workers, and the chestnut-flavor pumpkin is ripe and transited, so that the chestnut-flavor pumpkin is damaged.
Preferably, the nutrient soil of the nutrient pot is generally piled up half a month ago, the soil is loose and fertile, and has no pests and weeds, and the nutrient soil is prepared by mixing garden soil, stable manure and grass carbon soil by one third respectively, and 2 kilograms of calcium superphosphate or diammonium phosphate is added per cubic meter and is fully and uniformly mixed, so that the nutrient soil is prepared. In order to prevent seedling diseases, 500-600 carbendazim liquid medicine can be uniformly sprayed on nutrient soil, then the nutrient soil is covered by a plastic film, the soil is covered for 10-15 days, the film is removed 1-2 days before seeding, the seedling is filled in a pot, and the seedling is stacked in a prepared seedbed to wait for seeding.
Preferably, the suitable growth temperature of the chestnut pumpkin is 18-23 ℃, the root system of the chestnut pumpkin is 28-32 ℃, the chestnut pumpkin can tolerate 6-8 ℃ at the lowest temperature, the chestnut pumpkin has different requirements on the temperature in different growth periods, the suitable temperature is 25-30 ℃, the seeds can not germinate when the chestnut pumpkin sprouts, the suitable temperature for seedling growth is 23-25 ℃ in the daytime, and the temperature is 13-15 ℃ at night; the proper temperature in the vegetative growth period is 20-25 ℃; the proper temperature in the flower and fruit period is 25-27 ℃, the temperature is not lower than 15 ℃ or higher than 35 ℃, the fruit develops slowly below 15 ℃, and the fruit cannot grow normally above 35 ℃.
Preferably, the chestnut-flavored pumpkin is short in sunshine duration, high in requirement on illumination intensity, sufficient illumination is needed in the whole growing period, under the environment with sufficient illumination, the chestnut-flavored pumpkin grows well, leaves are large, vines are thick, fruits grow fast and the quality is good, if the illumination is insufficient, the plants grow badly, the leaves are light and thin, the flower and fruit dropping phenomenon is serious, and when the chestnut-flavored pumpkin is cultivated in a high-temperature season, the leaves are withered due to too strong illumination, so that the influence of the strong light on the chestnut-flavored pumpkin is reduced, and a plurality of farmers often adopt a direct-irradiation and high-stem plant relay intercropping method to reduce the strong light.
Preferably, the chestnut-flavored pumpkin has developed root system, strong drought resistance and low requirement on moisture, but the root system is mainly distributed on the surface of a soil layer, and generally shallow plowing is performed during actual planting, so that the water storage capacity is low, in addition, when the pumpkin is luxuriant, the stem and leaf of the pumpkin grow fast, the transpiration effect is extremely high, the moisture requirement is high, so that certain humidity of soil still needs to be kept, in dry seasons, the air humidity is low, watering is performed timely, the leaf withering is avoided, malformed fruits appear, before fruit setting, the soil humidity is high, the plant grows too much, flower and fruit dropping is caused, the humidity in the flowering phase is high, and pollination is abnormal.
Preferably, the chestnut-flavored pumpkin has a developed root system and strong absorption capacity for rich water in soil, so that the chestnut-flavored pumpkin has no strict requirement on the soil, can grow even on poor and dry soil and can obtain a certain yield, but preferably selects neutral or slightly acidic sandy soil with good water discharge and loose fertility during planting, is easy to obtain high yield, needs to pay attention during planting on the fertile soil, and easily causes vain growth of stems and leaves of the pumpkin to often cause flower and fruit dropping and lower yield if the management is not proper, so that during planting on the fertile soil, the management must be strengthened, and the top picking, the whole branch picking and the proper dense planting are carried out at proper time.
(III) advantageous effects
The invention provides a chestnut-flavor pumpkin planting method capable of improving yield. The method has the following beneficial effects: the method reduces the harm of diseases and insects to chestnut-flavored pumpkin by selecting relatively strong seedlings, increases the resistance of chestnut-flavored pumpkin, increases the planting greenhouse, can effectively control the growth temperature of the chestnut flavor pumpkin, prevent the chestnut flavor pumpkin from slowly growing due to temperature difference, reduce the growth period of the chestnut flavor pumpkin, improve the productivity, the branch hanging mantle can lead the chestnut pumpkin to be far away from the ground, reduce the decomposition of the chestnut pumpkin by the microorganism in the soil, further increase the productivity of the chestnut pumpkin, because the wind hardly flows in the greenhouse, the pollination difficulty of the chestnut flavor pumpkin is increased, because the wind does not exist, the natural pollination efficiency of the chestnut flavor pumpkin is reduced, the artificial pollination can ensure that each chestnut pumpkin can be pollinated, and the efficiency is increased relative to natural pollination, so that the production rate in the chestnut pumpkin planting process is further improved.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all of the embodiments.
All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
Example 1:
the invention relates to a chestnut flavor pumpkin planting method capable of improving yield, which comprises the following steps:
s1, selecting seedlings: the method comprises the steps that local chestnut pumpkin seedlings are selected, in the selection process, seedlings which are long, thick and large in size need to be selected, the survival rate of the selected seedlings is high, then the selected seedlings are further selected through a component detection instrument, whether components of the selected seedlings are complete or not can be further detected through an inspection needle of the detection instrument, and the chestnut pumpkin yield is further improved;
s2, culturing: the working personnel put melon seeds into a nutrition pot for cultivation, the temperature of a seedbed is kept at 28-30 ℃, the temperature at night is kept at 14-16 ℃, the temperature is timely reduced after seedling emergence to prevent excessive growth, the daytime is not more than 25 ℃, the temperature at night is about 15 ℃, the pumpkin needs low-temperature female flower bud differentiation, the day and night temperature difference is increased to promote the formation of female flowers, the number of the female flowers is increased, ventilation and seedling hardening are carried out before field planting for one week, and meanwhile, the moisture is controlled to prevent the excessive growth of seedlings;
s3, land preparation and shed building: the planting greenhouse is installed on soil through the tool, the left side and the right side of seedlings to be planted are corrected through the soil preparation tool, a drainage ditch is added, the damage of chestnut-flavored pumpkin seedlings caused by excessive water is reduced, and then a film is laid on the corrected soil, so that the water in the soil is conveniently stored;
s4, transplanting: the method comprises the following steps of taking the cultured seedlings out of a nutrition pot, placing the seedlings on a frame, transplanting the seedlings to improved soil through a transplanting instrument by a worker, enabling the transplanted plant spacing to be 0.8-1 m and the row spacing to be 1.1-1.5 m, beginning to hoist vines when the vine extends to more than 10 sections, ensuring that the 1 st melon leaves the ground when the vine is hoisted, timely guiding the vines to hoist the vines along with the continuous growth of the vine, and reducing the contact damage of chestnut pumpkin and the ground;
s5, fertilizing: before transplanting seedlings, applying mature organic fertilizer and ternary compound fertilizer as base fertilizer in furrows, applying 4-5 cubic meters of mature organic fertilizer and 30-50 kilograms of ternary compound fertilizer or diammonium phosphate to each mu of seedlings, applying sufficient water in time when the plants enter a vine extending period, applying 3-5 kilograms of balance fertilizer (N: P: K: 20: 20: 20) to each mu of seedlings along with water topdressing so as to facilitate the rapid vine extension of the plants, supplementing proper water after the vine extending period is finished, applying sufficient water when fruits enter a swelling period, applying first expanding fertilizer along with water, applying 20-25 kilograms of balance fertilizer per mu of fruits, applying second expanding fertilizer about 25 days after fruit setting, watering, applying ternary 15-20 kilograms per mu of fertilizer and applying 20-30 kilograms of potassium fertilizer per mu of fruits;
s6, plant adjustment: when the melon seedlings grow to 4-5 main leaves, timely pinching is carried out, two side vines with the same length and size are selected as main vines of the melons, the vines begin to be hung when the melon seedlings extend to more than 10 sections, the 1 st melon is guaranteed to leave the ground when the vines are hung, the vines need to be guided to hang the vines in time along with the continuous growth of the melon seedlings, old leaves and diseased leaves at the bottom are timely knocked off at the middle and later stages of the plant growth, and partial leaves at the upper part of the plant are properly removed to guarantee ventilation and light transmission, reduce unnecessary nutrient consumption, reduce temperature and humidity in the greenhouse and reduce diseases;
s7, assisting: when the pumpkin seedlings grow to 3-4 true leaves, the Guaping is sprayed, so that the rate of sitting the pumpkin is improved by more than 40%, the excessive growth of the vine of the pumpkin can cause less melon formation, and the excessive growth can be inhibited if a crack is cut at a position 30 cm away from the root of the vine and black charcoal is plugged;
s8, flower and fruit retention: when 2-3 melon embryos appear on each seed vine, pollinating and fruit setting by using a Guaping with a certain concentration, or picking off male flowers on different plants, smearing on pistils of female flowers, covering a cover, removing after 2-3 days, and generally selecting 9-11 points on sunny days;
s9, harvesting: after the chestnut-flavor pumpkin is ripe, workers cut off roots and stems of the upper end of the chestnut-flavor pumpkin through the scissors, the ripe chestnut-flavor pumpkin can be picked conveniently by the workers, and the chestnut-flavor pumpkin is ripe and transited, so that the chestnut-flavor pumpkin is damaged.
Furthermore, the nutrient soil of the seedling bed or the nutrition pot is generally piled half a month before, loose and fertile in soil quality and free of diseases, and is generally prepared by mixing garden soil, stable manure and grass carbon soil by one third respectively, adding 2 kilograms of calcium superphosphate or diammonium phosphate into per cubic meter, and fully and uniformly mixing, thereby preparing the nutrient soil. In order to prevent seedling diseases, 500-600 carbendazim liquid medicine can be uniformly sprayed on nutrient soil, then the nutrient soil is covered by a plastic film, the soil is covered for 10-15 days, the film is removed 1-2 days before seeding, the seedling is filled in a pot, and the seedling is stacked in a prepared seedbed to wait for seeding.
Furthermore, the proper growth temperature of the chestnut pumpkin is 18-23 ℃, the proper growth temperature of the root system of the chestnut pumpkin is 28-32 ℃, the chestnut pumpkin can resist 6-8 ℃ at the lowest, the chestnut pumpkin has different requirements on temperature in different growth periods, when in germination, the proper temperature is 25-30 ℃, the seeds can not germinate when the temperature is lower than 10 ℃ or higher than 40 ℃, the proper growth temperature of the seedlings is 23-25 ℃ in the daytime, and the temperature is 13-15 ℃ at night; the proper temperature in the vegetative growth period is 20-25 ℃; the proper temperature in the flower and fruit period is 25-27 ℃, the temperature is not lower than 15 ℃ or higher than 35 ℃, the fruit is slowly developed below 15 ℃, the fruit cannot normally grow above 35 ℃, and the growth temperature of the chestnut flavor pumpkin is controlled.
Furthermore, the chestnut pumpkin is short in sunshine duration, the requirement on illumination intensity is high, sufficient illumination is needed in the whole growing period, under the environment with sufficient illumination, the chestnut pumpkin grows well, leaves are large, vines are thick, fruits grow fast and the quality is good, if the illumination is insufficient, the plants grow badly, the leaves are light and thin, the phenomena of flower and fruit dropping are serious, when the chestnut pumpkin is cultivated in a high-temperature season, the leaves are withered due to too strong illumination, so the influence of the strong light on the chestnut pumpkin is lightened, and a plurality of farmers often adopt a direct-injection and high-stem plant relay intercropping method to lighten the strong light, so that the relatively stable growing environment of the chestnut pumpkin is provided.
Furthermore, the chestnut-flavored pumpkin has developed root system, strong drought resistance and low requirement on moisture, but the root system is mainly distributed on the surface of a soil layer, and generally shallow plowing is performed during actual planting, so the water storage capacity is low, in addition, when the pumpkin is luxuriant, the stem and leaf of the pumpkin grow fast, the transpiration effect is very high, the requirement on moisture is high, so certain humidity of soil is kept, in dry seasons, the air humidity is low, watering is performed timely, the leaf withering is avoided, malformed fruits appear, before fruit setting, the soil humidity is high, excessive growth of plants is caused, flower and fruit dropping is caused, the humidity in the flowering phase is high, pollination is abnormal, and the pollination rate of the chestnut-flavored pumpkin is improved.
Furthermore, the chestnut-flavored pumpkin has a developed root system and strong absorption capacity for rich water in soil, so that the chestnut-flavored pumpkin has no strict requirement on the soil, can grow even on poor and arid soil and can obtain a certain yield, but the chestnut-flavored pumpkin is preferably planted by selecting neutral or slightly acidic sandy soil with good water discharge and loose fertility, is easy to obtain high yield, needs to be noticed when planted on the fertile soil, and is easy to cause vain growth of stems and leaves of the pumpkin and often causes flower and fruit dropping if not managed properly, but causes low yield, so that when planted on the fertile soil, management must be strengthened, and timely top picking, branch trimming and proper dense planting are performed, so that the chestnut-flavored pumpkin can conveniently grow.
The method reduces the occurrence of the situation of survival rate reduction caused by seedling damage by screening seedlings, then conveniently controls the growth temperature of the chestnut-flavored pumpkin by establishing a greenhouse, reduces the growth period, then increases the physique of the chestnut-flavored pumpkin by cultivating the chestnut-flavored pumpkin seedlings, reduces the harm of diseases and insects, can keep the chestnut-flavored pumpkin away from the ground by covering a film when the chestnut-flavored pumpkin seedlings are planted on the soil and storing the required water and trace elements in the growth process of the chestnut-flavored pumpkin and manufacturing a drainage channel by tools, thereby reducing the excessive water in the soil and reducing the activity of microorganisms, and hanging the canopy by branches, can ensure that the chestnut-flavored pumpkin is far away from the ground, reduce the harm of the microorganisms to the separation of the chestnut-flavored pumpkin, and can provide the required elements for the chestnut-flavored pumpkin by applying a certain amount of fertilizer, further improve the production rate, and because the interior of the greenhouse is less windy when the chestnut-flavored pumpkin blo, therefore, the fruit setting rate can be increased through artificial pollination, the pollination rate is improved relative to natural pollination, the productivity is increased, finally, in the growth process of the chestnut-flavored pumpkin, the element amount in the soil can be kept through irregular fertilization, the capability of the chestnut-flavored pumpkin for resisting diseases and insect hazards can be increased, the high efficiency in the chestnut-flavored pumpkin planting process is further improved, and the chestnut-flavored pumpkin yield is improved.
Although embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that changes, modifications, substitutions and alterations can be made in these embodiments without departing from the principles and spirit of the invention, the scope of which is defined in the appended claims and their equivalents.

Claims (6)

1. A chestnut flavor pumpkin planting method capable of improving yield is characterized by comprising the following steps: the method comprises the following steps:
s1, selecting seedlings: the method comprises the steps that local chestnut pumpkin seedlings are selected, in the selection process, seedlings which are long, thick and large in size need to be selected, the survival rate of the selected seedlings is high, then the selected seedlings are further selected through a component detection instrument, whether components of the selected seedlings are complete or not can be further detected through an inspection needle of the detection instrument, and the chestnut pumpkin yield is further improved;
s2, culturing: the working personnel put melon seeds into a nutrition pot for cultivation, the temperature of a seedbed is kept at 28-30 ℃, the temperature at night is kept at 14-16 ℃, the temperature is timely reduced after seedling emergence to prevent excessive growth, the daytime is not more than 25 ℃, the temperature at night is about 15 ℃, the pumpkin needs low-temperature female flower bud differentiation, the day and night temperature difference is increased to promote the formation of female flowers, the number of the female flowers is increased, ventilation and seedling hardening are carried out before field planting for one week, and meanwhile, the moisture is controlled to prevent the excessive growth of seedlings;
s3, land preparation and shed building: the planting greenhouse is installed on soil through the tool, the left side and the right side of seedlings to be planted are corrected through the soil preparation tool, a drainage ditch is added, the damage of chestnut-flavored pumpkin seedlings caused by excessive water is reduced, and then a film is laid on the corrected soil, so that the water in the soil is conveniently stored;
s4, transplanting: the method comprises the following steps of taking the cultured seedlings out of a nutrition pot, placing the seedlings on a frame, transplanting the seedlings to improved soil through a transplanting instrument by a worker, enabling the transplanted plant spacing to be 0.8-1 m and the row spacing to be 1.1-1.5 m, beginning to hoist vines when the vine extends to more than 10 sections, ensuring that the 1 st melon leaves the ground when the vine is hoisted, timely guiding the vines to hoist the vines along with the continuous growth of the vine, and reducing the contact damage of chestnut pumpkin and the ground;
s5, fertilizing: before transplanting seedlings, applying mature organic fertilizer and ternary compound fertilizer as base fertilizer in furrows, applying 4-5 cubic meters of mature organic fertilizer and 30-50 kilograms of ternary compound fertilizer or diammonium phosphate to each mu of seedlings, applying sufficient water in time when the plants enter a vine extending period, applying 3-5 kilograms of balance fertilizer (N: P: K: 20: 20: 20) to each mu of seedlings along with water topdressing so as to facilitate the rapid vine extension of the plants, supplementing proper water after the vine extending period is finished, applying sufficient water when fruits enter a swelling period, applying first expanding fertilizer along with water, applying 20-25 kilograms of balance fertilizer per mu of fruits, applying second expanding fertilizer about 25 days after fruit setting, watering, applying ternary 15-20 kilograms per mu of fertilizer and applying 20-30 kilograms of potassium fertilizer per mu of fruits;
s6, plant adjustment: when the melon seedlings grow to 4-5 main leaves, timely pinching is carried out, two side vines with the same length and size are selected as main vines of the melons, the vines begin to be hung when the melon seedlings extend to more than 10 sections, the 1 st melon is guaranteed to leave the ground when the vines are hung, the vines need to be guided to hang the vines in time along with the continuous growth of the melon seedlings, old leaves and diseased leaves at the bottom are timely knocked off at the middle and later stages of the plant growth, and partial leaves at the upper part of the plant are properly removed to guarantee ventilation and light transmission, reduce unnecessary nutrient consumption, reduce temperature and humidity in the greenhouse and reduce diseases;
s7, assisting: when the pumpkin seedlings grow to 3-4 true leaves, the Guaping is sprayed, so that the rate of sitting the pumpkin is improved by more than 40%, the excessive growth of the vine of the pumpkin can cause less melon formation, and the excessive growth can be inhibited if a crack is cut at a position 30 cm away from the root of the vine and black charcoal is plugged;
s8, flower and fruit retention: when 2-3 melon embryos appear on each seed vine, pollinating and fruit setting by using a Guaping with a certain concentration, or picking off male flowers on different plants, smearing on pistils of female flowers, covering a cover, removing after 2-3 days, and generally selecting 9-11 points on sunny days;
s9, harvesting: after the chestnut-flavor pumpkin is ripe, workers cut off roots and stems of the upper end of the chestnut-flavor pumpkin through the scissors, the ripe chestnut-flavor pumpkin can be picked conveniently by the workers, and the chestnut-flavor pumpkin is ripe and transited, so that the chestnut-flavor pumpkin is damaged.
2. The chestnut flavor pumpkin planting method capable of improving yield according to claim 1, characterized in that: the nutrient soil of the nutrient pot is generally piled up before half a month, the soil is loose and fertile, and has no pests and weeds, the nutrient soil is generally prepared by mixing turf and vermiculite, 2 kilograms of calcium superphosphate or diammonium phosphate is added per cubic meter and is fully and uniformly mixed, so that the nutrient soil is prepared, in order to prevent seedling diseases, 500-600 carbendazim liquid medicine can be uniformly sprayed on the nutrient soil, then the nutrient soil is covered by a plastic film and is subjected to soil covering for 10-15 days, the film is removed 1-2 days before sowing, the seedling soil is loaded into the pot, and the pot is stacked in a prepared seedbed to wait for sowing.
3. The chestnut flavor pumpkin planting method capable of improving yield according to claim 1, characterized in that: the proper growth temperature of the chestnut-flavor pumpkin is 18-23 ℃, the root system of the chestnut-flavor pumpkin is properly grown at 28-32 ℃, can resist 6-8 ℃ at the lowest, and has different requirements on temperature in different growth periods, when in germination, the proper temperature is 25-30 ℃, the seeds can not germinate when the temperature is lower than 10 ℃ or higher than 40 ℃, the proper temperature for seedling growth is 23-25 ℃ in the daytime, and the temperature is 13-15 ℃ at night; the proper temperature in the vegetative growth period is 20-25 ℃; the proper temperature in the flower and fruit period is 25-27 ℃, the temperature is not lower than 15 ℃ or higher than 35 ℃, the fruit develops slowly below 15 ℃, and the fruit cannot grow normally above 35 ℃.
4. The chestnut flavor pumpkin planting method capable of improving yield according to claim 1, characterized in that: the chestnut-flavored pumpkin has short sunshine duration, the requirement on the illumination intensity is high, sufficient illumination is needed in the whole growing period, under the environment with sufficient illumination, the chestnut-flavored pumpkin has good plant growth, large leaves, thick vines, fast fruit growth and good quality, and if the illumination is insufficient, the plant growth is poor, the leaves are light and thin, the flower and fruit dropping phenomenon is serious, and when the chestnut-flavored pumpkin is cultivated in a high-temperature season, the leaves are withered due to too strong illumination, so the influence of the strong light on the chestnut-flavored pumpkin is reduced, and a plurality of farmers often adopt a method for relay intercropping with high-stem plants to reduce the direct light.
5. The chestnut flavor pumpkin planting method capable of improving yield according to claim 1, characterized in that: the chestnut-flavored pumpkin has developed root systems, strong drought resistance and low requirement on moisture, but the root systems are mainly distributed on the surface of a soil layer, and when the chestnut-flavored pumpkin is actually planted, shallow tillage is generally performed, so that the water storage capacity is low, in addition, when the pumpkin is luxuriant, stems and leaves of the chestnut-flavored pumpkin grow fast, the transpiration effect is very high, the requirement on moisture is high, so that certain humidity of soil is kept, in dry seasons, the air humidity is low, watering is performed in time, the leaf withering is avoided, malformed fruits appear, before fruit setting, the soil humidity is high, the plant grows too much, flower and fruit dropping is caused, the humidity in the flowering phase is high, and pollination is abnormal.
6. The chestnut flavor pumpkin planting method capable of improving yield according to claim 1, characterized in that: the chestnut-flavored pumpkin has a developed root system and strong absorption capacity for rich water in soil, so that the chestnut-flavored pumpkin has low requirements for the soil, can grow even on poor and dry soil and can obtain a certain yield, but the chestnut-flavored pumpkin is preferably planted by selecting neutral or slightly acidic sandy loam which is good in water discharge and fertile and loose, is extremely easy to obtain high yield, needs to be noticed when planted on fertile soil, if the management is not proper, the stem and leaf of the pumpkin are extremely grown, the flower and fruit dropping is often caused, and the yield is low, so that when planted on fertile soil, the management is enhanced, and the top picking, the pruning and the proper dense planting are carried out at proper time.
CN202110228893.5A 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 Chestnut-flavor pumpkin planting method capable of improving yield Pending CN113016515A (en)

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Application publication date: 20210625