CN111011019A - Grape grafting and seedling method - Google Patents

Grape grafting and seedling method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111011019A
CN111011019A CN201911309075.7A CN201911309075A CN111011019A CN 111011019 A CN111011019 A CN 111011019A CN 201911309075 A CN201911309075 A CN 201911309075A CN 111011019 A CN111011019 A CN 111011019A
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China
Prior art keywords
scion
grafting
cutting
selecting
soil
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CN201911309075.7A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
李迎忠
吕科
张拥军
程龙
龙智强
王志润
马辰运
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Beijing Sangreen International Agricultural Technology Co ltd
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Beijing Sangreen International Agricultural Technology Co ltd
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Priority to CN201911309075.7A priority Critical patent/CN111011019A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/30Grafting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/02Cultivation of hops or vines
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/10Vegetative propagation by means of cuttings

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Botany (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Developmental Biology & Embryology (AREA)
  • Cultivation Of Plants (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses a grape grafting and seedling raising method, which comprises the following steps: selecting neutral or slightly acidic sandy soil as a nursery land, selecting giant peak, sunshine rose, sunset rose or giant rose as a scion variety, selecting summer black, berda, 3309 or 5BB as a stock variety, covering a seedbed or a seedling ridge with a mulching film before cuttage of grapes at the beginning of 4 months at the bottom of 3 months, compacting the periphery of the mulching film with soil, cutting the plant spacing of 10cm and the row spacing of 40cm, cutting the scion from a semi-lignified new tip in a scion cutting garden, selecting the scion with plump bud eyes for double-root grafting, cutting the scion into wedges by adopting a single-bud cleft method, cutting off 1/3 stocks of each plant, inserting the scions, aligning one side of the scions, and tightly wrapping the scions with a grafting film. The grape grafting and seedling raising method provided by the invention has the advantages that the survival rate of grafted seedlings is high, the growth vigor is strong, the emergence rate of first-stage seedlings is high, the phenomena of stiff seedlings and root death are avoided, the disease resistance is good, and the mature period is advanced by adopting a double-root grafting technology.

Description

Grape grafting and seedling method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of grape planting, in particular to a grape grafting and seedling raising method.
Background
Grafting is a mode of artificial propagation of plants, not only can the advantages of scions be maintained, but also the characteristics of stocks can be utilized, and grafting seedling has important significance for improving the nutritive value and economic value of grapes, but the existing grape grafting seedling method has the problems of low survival rate, weak growth vigor and more phenomena of dead seedlings and dead seedlings.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the technical problems in the related art, the invention provides a grape grafting and seedling raising method which can overcome the defects in the prior art.
In order to achieve the technical purpose, the technical scheme of the invention is realized as follows:
a grape grafting seedling method comprises the following steps:
(1) selecting soil: selecting sandy loam land with flat terrain, leeward and sunny, unobstructed irrigation and drainage, fertile soil, neutrality or subacid soil as a nursery land;
(2) selecting scion varieties: selecting Jufeng, sunshine rose, morning sun rose or Ju rose as scion variety;
(3) selecting stock varieties: selecting summer black, Berda, 3309 or 5BB as a stock variety according to soil-borne pest resistance, disease resistance, adaptability to soil stress and influence on the growth characteristics of the scion variety;
(4) a cutting mode: covering a seedbed or a seedling raising ridge with a mulching film before cuttage of the grapes at the bottom of 3 months and the beginning of 4 months, tightly pressing the periphery of the mulching film with soil, and performing cuttage with the plant spacing of 10cm and the row spacing of 40 cm;
(5) and (3) water and fertilizer management: irrigating water 1 time every 10 days after cuttage, intertilling and loosening the soil in time after each irrigation, controlling water in time in 4 months, starting topdressing when the seedlings are 10-15 cm high, and topdressing for 2-3 times in the whole growing season;
(6) preparing before grafting: leaving one branch for each grape at the bottom of 5 months and at the beginning of 6 months;
(7) preparing scions: cutting a scion from a semi-lignified new shoot in a cutting garden, and cutting a leaf stalk on the scion from a base part;
(8) grafting: selecting a scion with plump bud eyes for double-root grafting, cutting the scion into a wedge shape by adopting a single-bud cleft grafting method, cutting off 1/3 of each stock, inserting the scion, aligning one side of the scion, tightly wrapping the scion by using a grafting film, and ensuring that the length of the scion is 3-4cm so as to be convenient for healing.
Further, before cutting, the stock takes out the seed strips, cuts the seed strips into stem sections with 2-3 nodes, the length of the stem sections is 20-30cm, the top ends of the branches are cut flat at the positions 1-1.5cm above the bud nodes, the lower ends of the branches are cut into inclined planes or horseshoe shapes at the positions 2-3cm below the bud nodes, and the inclined planes or the horseshoe shapes are soaked in water.
Further, soaking the seed strips in water at 30 ℃ for 24 hours to ensure that the seed strips completely absorb moisture.
Further, in the step (4), when grape cuttage is carried out, a pointed stick is firstly used for inserting holes in seedling ridges, then the cuttings are inserted into the holes, the uppermost buds of the cuttings are higher than the ground by 0.5cm, the cuttage holes in the lower portions of the cuttings are sealed by fine soil, then water is filled for 1 time, and after water seepage, soil is pressed on a mulching film at certain intervals to prevent the mulching film from being blown up by strong wind.
Further, in the step (5), nitrogen fertilizer is mainly used in the early growth season, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer is mainly used in the later growth season, and 0.3% of urea and 0.3% of monopotassium phosphate are sprayed and applied on the leaf surfaces.
The invention has the beneficial effects that: the grape grafting and seedling raising method provided by the invention has the advantages that the survival rate of grafted seedlings is high, the growth vigor is strong, the emergence rate of first-stage seedlings is high, the phenomena of stiff seedlings and root death are avoided, the disease resistance is good, and the mature period is advanced by adopting a double-root grafting technology.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention are clearly and completely described below, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all embodiments. All other embodiments that can be derived by one of ordinary skill in the art from the embodiments given herein are intended to be within the scope of the present invention.
Example 1
1) Selecting soil: selecting sandy loam land with flat terrain, leeward and sunny, smooth irrigation and drainage, fertile soil, neutral or slightly acidic soil as nursery land, and performing rotation of changing the nursery land one year after another without repeated seedling culture in situ;
2) selecting scion varieties: selecting Kyoho as a scion variety;
3) selecting stock varieties: selecting a stock variety according to factors such as soil-borne pest resistance, disease resistance, adaptation to soil stress, influence on growth characteristics of the stock variety and the like, and selecting a seedling with a developed 3309 root system and good growth vigor as the stock seedling;
4) a cutting mode: before cutting, taking out stock strips, cutting the stock strips into stem sections with 2-3 sections, wherein the length is 20-30cm, the top ends of branches are cut to be flat at a position 1-1.5cm above a bud knot, the lower ends of the branches are cut into an inclined plane or a horseshoe shape at a position 2-3cm below the bud knot, soaking the cut strips with water, soaking the soaked strips with water at 30 ℃, and performing sterilization, wherein the cut strips are generally 12-1 months and cannot be cooled in the weather, the cut strips are basically soaked for about 24 hours with clear water, so that the seed strips completely absorb moisture, the bottom of 3 months is just before 4 months, covering the grape with a seedling bed or a seedling raising ridge before cutting, the periphery of a mulching film is tightly pressed with soil, the plant spacing of the cutting is 10cm, the row spacing is 40cm, a hole is inserted into the seedling ridge by using a thick pointed wood stick during cutting, then the cutting strips are inserted into the hole, the uppermost bud of the cutting strips is higher than 0.5cm, and the lower parts of the inserting holes are sealed by fine soil, then 1 time of water permeation is poured, soil is pressed on the mulching film (thin film) at certain intervals after water permeation, and the mulching film (thin film) is prevented from being blown up by strong wind;
5) and (3) water and fertilizer management: generally irrigating 1 time of water every 10 days after cuttage, paying attention to a small amount of water for many times, cultivating and loosening soil in time after each time of irrigation, facilitating improvement of ground temperature, promoting development of root systems, enabling strong growth and full growth of thick vines, controlling water in 4 months in time, promoting growth of seedlings, starting topdressing when the seedlings are 10-15 cm high, enabling the seedlings to grow for 2-3 times in the whole growing season, mainly using nitrogen fertilizers in the early stage, mainly using phosphorus and potassium fertilizers in the later stage, and topdressing 0.3% of urea and 0.3% of monopotassium phosphate on leaf surfaces by combining with pesticide spraying;
6) preparing before grafting: leaving one branch for each grape at the bottom of 5 months and at the beginning of 6 months;
7) preparing scions: cutting a scion bud from a semi-lignified young shoot in a cutting garden, and cutting a petiole on the scion from a base part;
8) grafting: selecting a green branch scion with full bud eyes for double-root grafting, cutting the scion into a wedge shape by adopting a single-bud cleft grafting method, cutting off 1/3 of each stock, inserting the scion, aligning one side of the scion, tightly wrapping the scion by using a grafting film, and ensuring that the length of the scion is 3-4cm so as to be convenient for healing.
Example 2
Selecting sun rose as a scion variety; selecting 5BB as a stock variety; the rest of the procedure was the same as in example 1.
Example 3
Selecting the morning glory rose as a scion variety; selecting Bedad as a stock variety; the rest of the procedure was the same as in example 1.
Example 4
Selecting giant roses as scion varieties; selecting summer black as a stock variety; the rest of the procedure was the same as in example 1.
Comparative example 1
1) Selecting soil: selecting sandy loam land with flat terrain, leeward and sunny, smooth irrigation and drainage, fertile soil, neutral or slightly acidic soil as nursery land, and performing rotation of changing the nursery land one year after another without repeated seedling culture in situ;
2) selecting scion varieties: selecting Kyoho as a scion variety;
3) selecting stock varieties: selecting a stock variety according to factors such as soil-borne pest resistance, disease resistance, adaptation to soil stress, influence on growth characteristics of the stock variety and the like, and selecting a seedling with a developed 3309 root system and good growth vigor as the stock seedling;
4) a cutting mode: before cutting, taking out stock strips, cutting the stock strips into stem sections with 2-3 sections, wherein the length is 20-30cm, the top ends of branches are cut to be flat at a position 1-1.5cm above a bud knot, the lower ends of the branches are cut into an inclined plane or a horseshoe shape at a position 2-3cm below the bud knot, soaking the cut strips with water, soaking the soaked strips with water at 30 ℃, and performing sterilization, wherein the cut strips are generally 12-1 month and the temperature of cold water cannot be reached, the cut strips are basically soaked for about 24 hours with clear water, so that the seeds completely absorb moisture, the bottom of 3 months is covered by 4 months, before grape cutting, a ground seedbed or a seedling ridge is covered by a film, the periphery of the film is pressed by soil, the plant spacing of the cutting is 15cm, the row spacing is 40cm, during cutting, a thick pointed wood stick is used for inserting holes in the ridges, then the cutting strips are inserted into the holes, the uppermost buds of the cutting strips are higher by about 0.5cm, and the lower parts of the cutting strips are sealed by fine, then 1 time of water permeation is poured, soil is pressed on the mulching film (thin film) at certain intervals after water permeation, and the mulching film (thin film) is prevented from being blown up by strong wind;
5) and (3) water and fertilizer management: generally irrigating 1 time of water every 10 days after cuttage, paying attention to a small amount of water for many times, cultivating and loosening soil in time after each time of irrigation, facilitating improvement of ground temperature, promoting development of root systems, enabling strong growth and full growth of thick vines, controlling water in 4 months in time, promoting growth of seedlings, starting topdressing when the seedlings are 10-15 cm high, enabling the seedlings to grow for 2-3 times in the whole growing season, mainly using nitrogen fertilizers in the early stage, mainly using phosphorus and potassium fertilizers in the later stage, and topdressing 0.3% of urea and 0.3% of monopotassium phosphate on leaf surfaces by combining with pesticide spraying;
6) preparing before grafting: leaving one branch for each grape at the bottom of 5 months and at the beginning of 6 months;
7) preparing scions: cutting a scion bud from a semi-lignified young shoot in a cutting garden, and cutting a petiole on the scion from a base part;
8) grafting: selecting a green branch scion with full bud eyes for grafting, cutting the scion into a wedge shape by adopting a single-bud cleft grafting method, cleft the middle part of a branch of a stock by a cutter for about 2cm, wherein the depth of the cut scion is consistent with that of the scion, inserting the scion, aligning one side of the cut scion, tightly wrapping the cut scion with a grafting film, and ensuring that the length of the used scion reaches 3-4cm so as to be convenient for healing.
Statistics on the grafting growth conditions of examples 1-4 and comparative example 1 are given, and the results are shown in Table 1
TABLE 1 statistical results of grafting growth
Grafting method Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Comparative example 1
Total number of grafts 100 100 100 100 100
Number of survivals 100 100 100 100 100
Number of runt seedlings 0 0 0 0 2
Number of dead seedlings 0 0 0 0 3
Number of seedlings emerging at first stage 98 100 99 97 80
Maturity stage Beginning of 10 months Beginning of 10 months Beginning of 10 months Beginning of 10 months Beginning of 11 months
In conclusion, by means of the technical scheme, the seedling can be planted in the same year without stiff seedlings and dead seedlings through the double-root grafting single-bud technology, seedlings grow vigorously and flower buds are well differentiated, high yield can be achieved in the next year, and the variety with the well-differentiated flower buds can be planted in the same year and can bear fruits in the same year.
The above description is only for the purpose of illustrating the preferred embodiments of the present invention and is not to be construed as limiting the invention, and any modifications, equivalents, improvements and the like that fall within the spirit and principle of the present invention are intended to be included therein.

Claims (5)

1. A grape grafting seedling method is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) selecting soil: selecting sandy loam land with flat terrain, leeward and sunny, unobstructed irrigation and drainage, fertile soil, neutrality or subacid soil as a nursery land;
(2) selecting scion varieties: selecting Jufeng, sunshine rose, morning sun rose or Ju rose as scion variety;
(3) selecting stock varieties: selecting summer black, Berda, 3309 or 5BB as a stock variety according to soil-borne pest resistance, disease resistance, adaptability to soil stress and influence on the growth characteristics of the scion variety;
(4) a cutting mode: covering a seedbed or a seedling raising ridge with a mulching film before cuttage of the grapes at the bottom of 3 months and the beginning of 4 months, tightly pressing the periphery of the mulching film with soil, and performing cuttage with the plant spacing of 10cm and the row spacing of 40 cm;
(5) and (3) water and fertilizer management: irrigating water 1 time every 10 days after cuttage, intertilling and loosening the soil in time after each irrigation, controlling water in time in 4 months, starting topdressing when the seedlings are 10-15 cm high, and topdressing for 2-3 times in the whole growing season;
(6) preparing before grafting: leaving one branch for each grape at the bottom of 5 months and at the beginning of 6 months;
(7) preparing scions: cutting a scion from a semi-lignified new shoot in a cutting garden, and cutting a leaf stalk on the scion from a base part;
(8) grafting: selecting a scion with plump bud eyes for double-root grafting, cutting the scion into a wedge shape by adopting a single-bud cleft grafting method, cutting off 1/3 of each stock, inserting the scion, aligning one side of the scion, tightly wrapping the scion by using a grafting film, and ensuring that the length of the scion is 3-4cm so as to be convenient for healing.
2. The grape grafting seedling raising method according to claim 1, wherein before cuttage of the rootstock, the seed strips are taken out and cut into stem sections with 2-3 nodes, the length is 20-30cm, the top ends of the branches are cut to be flat at the position 1-1.5cm above the bud nodes, the lower ends of the branches are cut to be inclined planes or horseshoe shapes at the position 2-3cm below the bud nodes, and the inclined planes or the horseshoe shapes are soaked in water.
3. The grape grafting seedling method according to claim 2, wherein the seed strips are soaked in water at 30 ℃ for 24 hours to completely absorb moisture.
4. A grape grafting seedling method according to claim 1, wherein in the step (4), a pointed stick is used for inserting the grape cuttage into the hole on the seedling ridge, then the cuttings are inserted into the hole, the uppermost bud of the cuttings is higher than the ground by 0.5cm, the cuttage hole at the lower part of the cuttings is sealed by fine soil, then water is filled for 1 time, and after the water is infiltrated, soil is pressed on the ground film at certain intervals to prevent the strong wind from blowing up the ground film.
5. The grape grafting seedling method according to claim 1, wherein in the step (5), nitrogen fertilizer is mainly used in the early growth season, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer is mainly used in the later growth season, and 0.3% urea and 0.3% monopotassium phosphate are sprayed and applied on leaf surfaces.
CN201911309075.7A 2019-12-18 2019-12-18 Grape grafting and seedling method Pending CN111011019A (en)

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Cited By (3)

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CN112868463A (en) * 2020-12-29 2021-06-01 南京农业大学 Method for changing varieties in vineyard
CN113317051A (en) * 2021-05-20 2021-08-31 河北科技师范学院 Cultivation method for grafting fresh grapes onto cold-resistant grape stocks
CN114557203A (en) * 2022-03-14 2022-05-31 安康市农业科学研究院 Method for cultivating double-rootstock high-resistance kiwi fruit grafted seedlings

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112868463A (en) * 2020-12-29 2021-06-01 南京农业大学 Method for changing varieties in vineyard
CN113317051A (en) * 2021-05-20 2021-08-31 河北科技师范学院 Cultivation method for grafting fresh grapes onto cold-resistant grape stocks
CN114557203A (en) * 2022-03-14 2022-05-31 安康市农业科学研究院 Method for cultivating double-rootstock high-resistance kiwi fruit grafted seedlings
CN114557203B (en) * 2022-03-14 2023-08-22 安康市农业科学研究院 Cultivation method of double-stock high-resistance kiwi fruit grafted seedlings

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