CN100356838C - Season-opposite culture method of peach - Google Patents

Season-opposite culture method of peach Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100356838C
CN100356838C CNB2005100066211A CN200510006621A CN100356838C CN 100356838 C CN100356838 C CN 100356838C CN B2005100066211 A CNB2005100066211 A CN B2005100066211A CN 200510006621 A CN200510006621 A CN 200510006621A CN 100356838 C CN100356838 C CN 100356838C
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peach
season
greenhouse
fruit
management
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CNB2005100066211A
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CN1631095A (en
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裴学魁
王素兰
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裴学魁
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Abstract

The present invention relates to a season-opposite cultivating method of a peach tree, which comprises the following procedures: a nectarine seedling which grows for one to two years is adopted; the nectarine seedling is planted into a woven bag filled with nutrition soil and underground embedded in a greenhouse from November to December in winter after stored in sand and processed to manage the peach tree in a growth season, and the peach tree forms plump flower buds from July to August in summer; then, the peach tree is removed together with the woven bag, moved into a constant temperature warehouse, and processed for dormancy under the condition of the temperature of 3 to 9DEG C, and the peach tree is delivered out of the warehouse and moved into the greenhouse to be planted when the highest external diurnal air temperature does not exceed 25DEG C in autumn; the fruits mature from January to February through flower protection management, fruit setting management and fruit growth management which are performed in the greenhouse. The season-opposite cultivating method of a peach tree, which is applied, can realize fresh peach supply to markets before and after the Spring festival, and in addition, the season-opposite cultivating method of a peach tree has the characteristics of less equipment investment and few management expenses, and thereby, the high economic benefit of fresh peach production can be obtained.

Description

Season-opposite culture method of peach
Technical field
The present invention relates to fruit growing, is a kind of season-opposite culture method of peach specifically.
Background technology
Bright peach is one of fruit of the most difficult long-time storage, and in people's consumption habit, its demand is very big again.In order to shorten the vacancy time of bright peach on market, pursue the high benefit in market, after the forcing culture of peach greenhouse, " late peach prolong ripe cultivation " becomes the subject topic that bright peach fruit is produced experimental study.In China " late peach prolong ripe cultivation " mainly is to select later Chinese peach offered as a birthday present of maturing stage for use and avenge peach all over the city and wherein major clique kind, use the sprout inhibition in spring, detain the method that canopy shelters from heat or light autumn, make it late-maturing as much as possible, to postpone the supply time in market, generally can be extended to go up November, gather the middle ten days, can not satisfy the needs of the bright peach supply in market around the Spring Festival particularly in winter.Reported " prolong ripe anti-season cultivation " and publication number are that " the anti-season potted fruit tree " of CN1301482A discloses two kinds respectively and can make the fruit maturation fruit growing method of supply the market around the Spring Festival in the winter time." prolonging ripe anti-season cultivation " method wherein is to form the basin peach of bud autumn after autumn, winter finishing the vernalization process naturally, before spring, bud was sprouted, insert in the freezer and preserve, the outbound in June will be set the body immigration and be had highly modern in temperature-controlling chamber, rely on air-conditioning temperature-reducing, temperature keeps being no more than 25 ℃ in 3-4 month in the greenhouse under the situation of 30-35 ℃ of the extraneous day highest temperature, the peach degree of safety is crossed bloom setting to close, final fruit is in 12-2 month maturation.This " prolonging ripe anti-season cultivation " though method can realize bright peach supply the market around the Spring Festival in the winter time, equipment investment and management cost are huge.And the method for " Unseasonable pot cultivated fruit tree " is to be planted in spring in the container, form the fruit tree of bud autumn, autumn, winter moved in the freezer before 1 year spring, bud was sprouted after the vernalization process is finished in simple and easy storage, and storing under 0-2 ℃ condition heats up to outbound in September yields positive results.Because this method will form the peach of bud and begin dormancy October in the fall, shift out the constant heat storage breaking dormancy up to September in next year, not only make as a result the cycle long, and the expense that the athermobiosis that reaches 12 months is handled also is high, therefore is difficult to become the feasible anti-season peach cultivation method of industrialization equally.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of cycle as a result short, equipment investment and administrative expenses are few, can be implemented in around the Spring Festival the season-opposite culture method of peach to the bright peach of market supply.
Purpose of the present invention can reach by following measure: a kind of season-opposite culture method of peach that comprises general peach greenhouse culture technique is characterized in that:
A, choose the nectarine nursery stock of 1-2, go out the garden in 10-11 month, sand through 3-9 ℃ of one month is hidden processing, after finishing the vernalization process, prune root system and do surely, adorning nutrition soil in planting in the 11-12 month in winter and being embedded in the underground internal diameter in greenhouse is in the woven bag of 28-32cm, high 22-24cm, keep greenhouse temperature at 10-30 ℃, carry out the management in peach growth season, among spray paclobutrazol, impel peach to form full bud in the 7-8 month in summer;
B, the peach that will form bud pluck blade, water vola water, connecting woven bag trips out together, put plastic sack and keep moisture content, move into constant heat storage, after 5-7 days slow cooling, dormancy was handled 30-40 days under 3-9 ℃ condition, again through 10-13 days slowly be warming up to 22 ℃, outbound moves into the greenhouse and plants when treating that autumn, extraneous daily maximum temperature was no more than 25 ℃;
The plant temperature in greenhouse between 10-25 ℃ 70-90 days of c, control is carried out peach and is protected flower, setting growth management, controls greenhouse temperature afterwards at 8-28 ℃, carries out the management of fruit growth, until 1-2 month fruit maturation.
The management in described peach growth season comprises: plant furrow ridge bedding of per two row by line-spacing 80-90cm, spacing in the rows 55-70cm; Big flood flood irrigation in 10-15 days once at interval; Treat young sprout length after 10-15cm, fertilising once before watering at every turn; After treating mounted blade, once every 10-15 days spray foliage fertilizers; For the first time branch is long to 30cm pinching, and the secondary branch is long to carry out pinching second time during to 30cm, three branches long during to 15-30cm inhibition grow.
The time that described paclobutrazol sprays starts from into before the constant heat storage 80-90 days, by carrying out for three times every the 8-10 natural gift, sprays 300 times of liquid for the first time, sprays 200 times of liquid for the second time, sprays 100 times of liquid for the third time.
Its dormancy is handled peach guarantor flower, the setting growth management of planting in immigration greenhouse, back and comprised: the plain composite fertilizer of farmyard manure, 50Kg quaternary of becoming thoroughly decomposed by every mu of 3000-5000Kg uses sufficient base fertilizer; Plant per two row-individual furrow ridge north-south beddings by line-spacing 80-90cm, spacing in the rows 55-70cm; Use sprayer to carry out the liquid pollination of pollen concentration at 0.2-0.3%; At early flowering season and young fruit expanding stage spray plant growth regulator.
The management of described fruit growth comprises: at the long fruit thinning at twice during to 1.5-2cm and behind the physiological fallen fruit of fruit.
The invention has the advantages that the equipment, facility and the relative less administrative expenses that use investment lower, be implemented in winter particularly around the Spring Festival on the occasion of vacancy phase of bright peach to the bright peach of market supply, and can be used as the potted landscape peach and sell, thereby obtain the high economic benefit that bright peach produces in red-letter day.
Embodiment
One, peach is planted and the management in the season of growing:
A, select suitable kind: according to the characteristics of off-season cultivation, choose in the nectarine that the fruit type is big, precocity, easy coloring, the beginning of spring that chilling requirement is little, gorgeous light, Hua Guang, middle oily 4, middle oily 5 peach varieties as off-season cultivation.
B, plant: after in late October the 1-2 that cultivates being given birth to outplanting, place temperature to hide 30 days in that 3-9 ℃ nice and cool shady spot is husky, finish the vernalization process of peach, late November, take out the husky good transplanted seedling tree of hiding.Root system and fixed doing are pruned by elder generation before planting, and main root is cut to 10-15cm, and lateral root is cut to 10cm, reach at the south that greenhouse by solar heat is planted, the heading height that 30-70cm is selected in the position, north according to the sturdy, thin and delicate of nursery stock and upper and lower part eye situation.Plant and nutrition soil is housed and is embedded in the underground Polywoven Bag in greenhouse cutting nursery stock after root is done surely, the diameter of woven bag is 30cm, high 23cm.The ratio of nutritive soil preparation is that fertile rural area soil 40% is through the decomposed dung 40% of hot fermentation, through the brid guano 20% that becomes thoroughly decomposed of hot fermentation.The line-spacing 80cm that plants, spacing in the rows 60cm.
C, rich water quality management and temperature control: after peach is planted, perform furrow, use broad irrigation by north-south, per furrow ridge of two row.After, poured water once in every 10-15 days.Begin to suppress growth the first tenday period of a month in May, promote flower bud differentiation, water the water yield and gradually reduce, enter after June,, further reduce output, in order to forming bud with increasing of natural precipitation amount.Because of sufficient base fertilizer is arranged, need not apply fertilizer at the treelet initial stage of germinateing, treat that shoot is long to topdress when above that topdress and use fruit-specific fertilizer or quaternary element composite fertilizer, 10-15 of the every strain of consumption restrains, and beats ditch apart from trunk 15cm and applies fertilizer to 10cm.Available methane liquid is done and is topdressed, and each every strain applies 150-300ml.No matter which kind of fertilizer is all covered with soil after the fertilising, in order to avoid the smoked bad blade of fertilizer evaporation.Fertilising combines with watering, and in time waters after each fertilising, extremely stops to topdress by the end of May.Behind the treelet mounted blade, spray leaf fertilizer supplements the nutrients, and adds 10-25 times of water with methane liquid and sprays, and also can spray each solution of 0.3% of urea and phosphoric acid diamino potassium, every 10-15 days once.Spraying foliage fertilizer can combine simultaneously with pesticide and carry out.According to the optimum growth temperature of treelet, keep greenhouse temperature at 10-28 ℃.
D, training: after treelet germinates without bud picking, the long pinching during to 30cm of branch for the first time, the secondary branch is long to carry out the pinching second time during to 30cm, inspires branch three times; Three branches are long to suppress growth during to 15-30cm.
E, spray paclobutrazol and promote bud to form: on May, begin to spray paclobutrazol the middle ten days, this time is that peach went into before the constant heat storage 80-90 days, connect and spray three times, and each 8-10 days at interval, 300 times of liquid, 200 times of liquid, 100 times of liquid for the third time for the second time for the first time.Peach can form full bud at the beginning of by the end of July to 8 months behind the spray paclobutrazol.
Two, the constant heat storage dormancy is handled:
The peach that will form bud before the warehouse-in is removed blade, waters vola water, connects woven bag and takes out together, is close to woven bag and cuts off and stretch out woven bag sturdy root system in addition, and the outside puts plastic sack maintenance moisture content, goes into dormancy in the constant heat storage.The preceding 5 days temperature in warehouse-in back are slowly reduced to 5-8 ℃, and temperature remains in the 3-9 ℃ of scope then, and control processing time 30-40 days according to the size of peach variety chilling requirement, make peach by the vernalization process.Then through 10 days slowly be warming up to 22 ℃, reduce to outbound when being no more than 25 ℃ at extraneous daily maximum temperature.In offshore Qinhuangdao is the 25-10 month in September 5.
Three, planting after the outbound:
A, the preceding fertilising of planting are ploughed: before the peach outbound moved into the greenhouse, earlier with the underground base fertilizer that uses sufficient in greenhouse, based on the farmyard manure that becomes thoroughly decomposed, every mu applied 3000-5000Kg, applies 50Kg quaternary element or fruit-specific fertilizer simultaneously.
B, plant: in the greenhouse that turns over ground, dig tree well by line-spacing 90cm, spacing in the rows 70cm, by tree crown short be planted in south, crown height be planted in the north, and the staggered collocation of tree crown size is planted.Slough earlier before planting be enclosed within soil stick together the outside plastic sack, tree is put into the hole buries soil, the depth of planting is advisable with Tu Tuo top earthing 2cm.Perform the furrow ridge by furrow north-south of per two row after planting, water vola water.
Four, protect the management of flower, setting and fruit growth period:
A, pruning: based on light pruning, little to the tree body, the tree-pruning amount that branch amount is few is little, and the branch amount is big dredges, cut, slow combining, and dredges and removes weak branch and crossed prosperous branch.Every strain tree on average stays 15 of the golden mean of the Confucian school and strong fruit bearing shoot, the suitable cutting back that fruit bearing shoot is long.
B, temperature treatment: the peach outbound and plant after, by adjusting coverlay and straw screen or mat control temperature.Early stage, temperature was controlled at 10-25 ℃, and this stage will continue 70-90 days.When young fruit enters the stone after date, temperature is controlled at 8-28 ℃, until fruit maturation.
C, spreading: when nocturnal temperature was low to mid or late October, black mulch film was spread on ground, is used to improve greenhouse temperature, keeps moisture content in the soil, prevented because of evaporation causes in the greenhouse humidity excessive, and effectively prevented underground sward.
D, artificial pollination and appliable plant growth regulator: gather unnecessary flower earlier in the bud balloon phase and make pollen, pollen and water are mixed with liquid by the concentration of 0.2-0.3%, put into sprayer, add the concentration adding sugar of borax, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, urea and 3-5% simultaneously respectively by 0.3% concentration, when blooming, pollinate toward taking spraying.Appliable plant growth regulator PBO at 100-150 times of liquid of early flowering season spray, sprays 150-200 times of liquid for the first time when young fruit development to diameter is the 0.5cm size for the second time.Behind early flowering season, fallen flowers and the young fruit expanding stage divide and spray growth hormone Activol 50-100ppm for three times.The appliable plant growth regulator can two kinds be used simultaneously, also can use simultaneously with trace elements such as potassium dihydrogen phosphates.
E, fruit thinning: when fruit length is big or small to diameter 1.5-2cm, dredges and remove overstocked, malformed fruit for the first time; On each fruit bearing shoot, enriching shoot stays 3 fruits, and middle branch stays 2 fruits, and weak branch stays 1 fruit.What every strain tree fruit bearing shoot was many stays 20-30 really, and what fruit bearing shoot was few stays 10-15 really.Fruit thinning behind physiological fallen fruit for the second time.
F, rich water quality management: in soil before planting trees, apply the base manure, be covered with mulch film after, the method for fertilising is dashed by watering and is applied fertilizer.Can use methane liquid, chase after fertilizer for the first time behind fallen flowers, chase after fertilizer for the second time after the natural shedding, the rapid expanding stage of fruit chases after fertile for the third time; Whenever water water later on one time, dash and execute disposable fertilizer, every mu applies the measured methane liquid 150-300Kg of matter at every turn; The plain composite fertilizer of also available fruit-specific fertilizer or quaternary executes 20-30Kg for every mu at every turn, imposes the preceding elder generation of solid chemical fertilizer and is dissolved into liquid with 10 times of water, and liquid fertilizer is applied with watering.The number of times that waters is grasped according to soil moisture content, and the soil that the hypsography low-lying water content is high waters less, high-land, and the soil moisture content of Sha Xingda is low, and duty is watered.Water after planting for the first time, between 10-15 days, at this moment indivedual flowers begin open water after planting for the second time, and big portion spends and is in the bud expanding stage.All do not water before the fallen flowers in canopy later on, water water for the third time during soil drought behind the fallen flowers, the stone phase is watered water the 4th time, waters one time water in 10-15 days afterwards.
The disease of season-opposite culture method of peach of the present invention, worm control are managed identical with general peach greenhouse culture.
The present application people uses this season-opposite culture method of peach in offshore Qinhuangdao and cultivates in the demonstration base of 5 mu of 8 greenhouse by solar heat gross areas, the first annual bearing average yield per mu 1423Kg, and 3.1Kg is produced in the highest strain.
Above-mentioned is that this season-opposite culture method of peach is by the management process of nursery stock to the result, it is after fruit maturation is gathered around the Spring Festival, the same with general peach greenhouse by solar heat cultivation management method, implementation is deeplyd prune, inspire shoot, the healthy and strong branch that forms bud cut stay 2-3 joint bud, make it tie the regrowth hair fruit then again, realizes tying in 1 year two batches of fruits with new shoot growth.Before the warehouse-in dormancy, begin to spray paclobutrazol in 80-90 days afterwards, change the management of this peach anti-season over to.
In addition, this cultivation method can also change plants to planting in the 3-4 month in spring in 11-12 month in winter, use common greenhouse forcing culture method, make its one batch of fruit of knot earlier, gather back young sprout in spring not by pruning direct Cheng Huahou, go into the constant heat storage dormancy summer, incorporate off-season cultivation method management of the present invention into.

Claims (5)

1, a kind of season-opposite culture method of peach comprises general peach greenhouse culture technique, it is characterized in that:
A, choose the nectarine nursery stock of 1-2, go out the garden in 10-11 month, sand through 3-9 ℃ of one month is hidden processing, after finishing the vernalization process, prune root system and do surely, adorning nutrition soil in planting in the 11-12 month in winter and being embedded in the underground internal diameter in greenhouse is in the woven bag of 28-32cm, high 22-24cm, keep greenhouse temperature at 10-30 ℃, carry out the management in peach growth season, among spray paclobutrazol, impel peach to form full bud in the 7-8 month in summer;
B, the peach that will form bud pluck blade, water vola water, connecting woven bag trips out together, put plastic sack and keep moisture content, move into constant heat storage, after 5-7 days slow cooling, dormancy was handled 30-40 days under 3-9 ℃ condition, again through 10-13 days slowly be warming up to 22 ℃, outbound moves into the greenhouse and plants when treating that autumn, extraneous daily maximum temperature was no more than 25 ℃;
The plant temperature in greenhouse between 10-25 ℃ 70-90 days of c, control is carried out peach and is protected flower, setting growth management, controls greenhouse temperature afterwards at 8-28 ℃, carries out the management of fruit growth, until 1-2 month fruit maturation.
2, season-opposite culture method of peach according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the management in described peach growth season comprises: plant furrow ridge bedding of per two row by line-spacing 80-90cm, spacing in the rows 55-70cm; Big flood flood irrigation in 10-15 days once at interval; Treat young sprout length after 10-15cm, fertilising once before watering at every turn; After treating mounted blade, once every 10-15 days spray foliage fertilizers; For the first time branch is long to 30cm pinching, and the secondary branch is long to carry out pinching second time during to 30cm, three branches long during to 15-30cm inhibition grow.
3, season-opposite culture method of peach according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the time that described paclobutrazol sprays starts from into before the constant heat storage 80-90 days, by carrying out for three times every the 8-10 natural gift, sprays 300 times of liquid for the first time, for the second time spray 200 times of liquid, spray 100 times of liquid for the third time.
4, season-opposite culture method of peach according to claim 1 is characterized in that: dormancy is handled peach guarantor flower, the setting growth management of planting in immigration greenhouse, back and comprised: the plain composite fertilizer of farmyard manure, 50Kg quaternary of becoming thoroughly decomposed by every mu of 3000-5000Kg uses sufficient base fertilizer; Plant per two row furrow ridge north-south bedding by line-spacing 80-90cm, spacing in the rows 55-70cm; Use sprayer to carry out the liquid pollination of pollen concentration at 0.2-0.3%; At early flowering season and young fruit expanding stage spray plant growth regulator.
5, season-opposite culture method of peach according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the management of described fruit growth comprises: at the long fruit thinning at twice during to 1.5-2cm and behind the physiological fallen fruit of fruit.
CNB2005100066211A 2005-01-06 2005-01-06 Season-opposite culture method of peach CN100356838C (en)

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