CN102265767A - Prunus humilis cultivation technology - Google Patents

Prunus humilis cultivation technology Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102265767A
CN102265767A CN 201110151493 CN201110151493A CN102265767A CN 102265767 A CN102265767 A CN 102265767A CN 201110151493 CN201110151493 CN 201110151493 CN 201110151493 A CN201110151493 A CN 201110151493A CN 102265767 A CN102265767 A CN 102265767A
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planting
soil
fruit
branch
pruning
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李卫东
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Beijing University of Chinese Medicine
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Beijing University of Chinese Medicine
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Abstract

The invention discloses a prunus humilis cultivation technology, which comprises the following steps of: selecting a land and preparing; transplanting; managing soil, fertilizers and water; trimming and pruning; performing flower thinning and fruit thinning; preventing and controlling diseases and insect pests; and harvesting. The invention aims to research the prunus humilis cultivation technology, a prunus humilis production program is further standardized, powerful basis and examples are provided for large-area scientific cultivation, popularization and application in a large quantity of sand, abandoned lands and unused wastelands and the like in three north districts in China, and the technology has obvious ecological benefits, economic benefits and social benefits.

Description

Europe Lee's planting technology
Technical field
The present invention relates to Europe Lee's planting technology, belong to the planting technology field.
Background technology
Europe Lee [Cerasus humilis (Bge) sok.] belongs to rose family cherry and belongs to short living shrub wild fruit tree, for the peculiar third generation fruitlet of China, also is the medicinal plant of great exploitation potential for its.That Europe Lee plant has is cold-resistant, drought-enduring, barren-resistant, salt tolerant alkali, adaptable characteristic, short with its plant, the fruit look gorgeous, unique flavor, nutritiously liked by people.Europe Lee plants the main source that benevolence is the brush-cherry seed medicinal material, belongs to " integration of drinking and medicinal herbs " medicinal material.
Europe Lee is born in height above sea level 100m~1800m mountain region, tailo, sandy ground or the shrubbery, and happiness light, also anti-the moon, cold-resistant are drought-resistant, barren-resistant, salt tolerant alkali, well-grown in sandy loam.The Europe Prunus root system of tillering by force, huge root system is deep-rooted, crisscross, concentrate to be distributed in the soil layer of 20cm~40cm, the darkest reached at 1.5m~2.0m forms the intensive network structure of table soil, soil in the dark soil layer of 20cm is tightly encased, extremely strong fixing of soil and conservation of water effect is arranged, also ability-35 ℃ low temperature, adaptive capacity is strong.The rare seeds that Europe Lee is a kind of short, adaptable and fast planting trees on barren hills, control soil erosion can be on the level land, the area plantation of hillside pH value<8.5, also can standard fruit-tree in the ranks, the plantation of terraced fields rand.Along with in the great Northwest, the popularization plantation in areas such as North China, northeast, Europe Lee has special effect at aspects such as the desert that transforms barren hills, sand ground, prevention soil and water loss, is classified as ecological forest fine tree species by the State Administration of Forestry.
How red, sparkling and crystal-clear lovely, sour-sweet moderate the Europe plum fruit is, the taste uniqueness, and nutritious, it contains more than the nutrition kind, and the height of content is better than walnut class fruits such as cherry, Lee, apricot, peach.Wherein vitamin A, Cobastab 2, Cobastab 12, vitamin C, vitamin E, trace elements K, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, zinc, magnesium, selenium equal size enrich, the overwhelming majority is higher than several times to tens times of above-mentioned fruits, and contains 18 seed amino acids that comprise lysine, and the ripening fruits sugar content is up to 14%~19%.The Europe plum fruit can be processed into food such as fruit juice, fruit wine, fruit vinegar, fruit milk, can, preserved fruit.Ou Like claims it is children, old man's health fruit, is human natural health good merchantable brand.
Europe Lee plants the main source that benevolence is traditional Chinese medicine material brush-cherry seed, contain prunasin, amarogentin, fatty wet goods composition, have the laxation of moisturizing, the therapeutic method to keep the adverse qi flowing downward, the effect of sharp water, curing mainly illnesss such as dry feces, oedema, beriberi, also is one of " integration of drinking and medicinal herbs " kind of Ministry of Public Health's announcement.The Europe plum fruit also has diuresis, laxative action; Europe Lee's root is used for treating varication and vasculitis in folk prescription among the people, therapeutic action is preferably arranged.
Europe Lee's petal mostly is white or pink, aromatic flavour.Fruit colour is gorgeous, the fruit face powder of having no result, and light has multiple colors such as redness, aubergine, has very strong ornamental value.The potted plant plant type compactness of Europe Lee not only can have been viewed and admired but also edible, made us pleasing, was the desirable green tree species of viewing and admiring.Europe Lee's potted landscape spring considerable flower, autumn considerable fruit, potentiality to be exploited is huge.Along with people's the growth in the living standard and the quickening of rhythm of life, the requirement of characteristic tourism and leisure health is improved constantly, the ornamental value that Europe Lee is very high meets current people's high standard life requirement.
On the basis that Beijing University of Chinese Medicine collects, puts in order and estimate in Europe Lee's germ plasm resource, the varietal yield test and the regional test of system have been carried out in Changping, Beijing, Huairou and Yanqing.In July, 2009, No. 2, No. 1, Europe Lee's new varieties giga ohm and giga ohm have passed through the authorization of Beijing forest variety certification committee, and the two is pollinated variety each other.The object of the invention is, worked out the planting technology of No. 2, No. 1, Europe Lee's new varieties giga ohm and giga ohm, standard the production routine of two Europe Lee's new varieties, for providing strong foundation and illustrative examples, have significant ecological benefits, economic benefit and social benefit in large tracts of land scientic planting, large scale applications such as a large amount of sand grounds in China " three Norths " area, abandoned land, idle wastelands.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of Europe Lee's planting technology.
A kind of Europe Lee's planting technology may further comprise the steps and carries out: choosing ground and whole ground step, the step of planting, clay fertilizer water management step, pruning step, flower and fruit thinning step, pest control method step, the step of gathering;
Step 1, choosing ground and whole ground step; Basal dressing;
Step 2, the step of planting comprise that kind selects step, planting system to select step and the training seedling booth step of planting;
Step 3, clay fertilizer water management step comprise soil management step, fertilising step and water management step;
Step 4, pruning step comprise the time and the method for pruning;
Step 5, flower and fruit thinning step;
Step 6, the main disease of Europe Lee have powdery mildew, shot hole of leaf disease; Main insect pest has pest control method steps such as aphid, heart-eating worm, slug moth, white moth, comprises cultural control, physical control and chemical prevention and control method step;
Step 7, the step of gathering.
A kind of Europe Lee's planting technology may further comprise the steps and carries out: choosing ground and whole ground step, the step of planting, clay fertilizer water management step, pruning step, flower and fruit thinning step, pest control method step, the step of gathering.
Step 1, choosing ground and whole ground step:
Choosing ground step:
Environmental requirement: choosing ground should be away from city and traffic main artery, should be apart from highway greater than 50m, and 3km is with interior direct pollution source (dischargings of " three wastes ") and the zone, indirect pollution source (pollution of uptake or upstream) that does not have industrial and mining enterprises on every side;
The ecological requirement: ecological condition requires sunny, and winter, number was 480h~720h during low temperature below 7.2 ℃;
Soil requires: select soil thickness to be not less than 40cm, and soil pH 6.5~8.5, permeability is good, accumulated water, soil salt content be not less than 0.3%, is good with sandy loam and loam, grassland aeolian sandy soil, desert aeolian sandy soil.Build breeding Europe Li Yuan at hilly and mountainous land, the gradient needs below 25 degree, and should avoid disaster caused by hail Yi Fa district, windburn cheuch forward, low-lying land and the bigger ridge of wind-force that cold air is detained easily;
Whole ground step:
Plantation gently, it is smooth to need soil to plough, and irregular hilly ground can be planted along contour, and planting belt can be considered 2~3m band distance, according to turning over whole soil in the planting belt, can suitably keep original grass to irritate vegetation in the band distance.
The basal dressing step:
The sandy soil soil property is loose, and permeability is good, and preserve moisture and fertility ability, nutrient poorness, soil body arid, the content of organic matter only are 0.1~0.3%, should increase the organic matter of soil year by year by adding an amount of turfy soil (peat soil), sward, covering grass etc. and improve.
Step 2, the step of planting:
Kind is selected step:
Select suitable this area, the giga ohm of cold resistance, strong stress resistance is Europe Lee's kind: No. 1, giga ohm, No. 2, giga ohm.
Planting system is selected step:
Naked-root planting: require more than the plant height 25cm, the abundant lignification of stem, 1 year or 2 years living nursery stocks that base diameter 0.2cm is above, more than the root system 25cm, no damage by disease and insect and obviously injury.
Container seedling is planted: grow seedlings field planting then, used vessel seedling then.Require more than the plant height 15cm, more than the root system 15cm, the land for growing field crops field planting time is not later than early July.
The booth of growing seedlings is cultivated: for spring coolness, arid, strong wind weather is many, the area that moisture evaporation is fast, and for promoting the Ou Limiao slow seedling of root of hair as early as possible, the nursery stock growing way is prosperous, survival rate is high, can adopt Europe Lee booth culture technology of growing seedlings;
The booth of growing seedlings is cultivated step:
Preparation: be ready to plastics sight booth, or build a little shed in the lee side that faces south.Europe Lee is deep rooted plant, and mainly be root of hair early stage, and is must nutritive cube dark, uses the nutritive cube of specification 10cm * 20cm.Use the slightly loam of some viscosity, be difficult for loose to guarantee Ou Limiao Tu Tuo when field planting goes out nutritive cube;
Time: plantation when do not freeze morning in early spring (March) or canopy, urgent;
Nursery stock is planted preceding root system pruning: lateral root will be cut short long root system from newly cutting new stubble, being can unfold to be as the criterion nutritive cube Rigen.The stem branch is pruned to stay 5cm~10cm to be advisable.Answer the limit to bury the compacting of native limit when planting seedling, the depth of planting is consistent with the rhizome position of former nursery stock, and can not cross deeply can not crab rooting.Must water permeable the same day at once after the plantation;
Management after the plantation: after planting, watered water the same day one time, and did wet situation with backsight soil and take the circumstances into consideration to water, and noted irrigating.A spray foliage fertilizer (urea 0.1%~0.2% and potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.1%~0.2%) about 10d.If temp. and humidity is excessive in the canopy, note ventilating fine noon.For preventing that disease from taking place, 1~2 bactericide of preventability spray in the canopy is as triazolone, mancozeb etc.;
Land for growing field crops field planting: mid or late May to early June land for growing field crops field planting.Carefully get seedling during field planting from container, prevent to do the Tu Tuo that looses, in time water after the plantation;
Pollinizers configurations: cultivar is minimum wants 2 kinds, and ratio that can 1~3: 1 between kind plants;
Planting density: level land, the land for growing field crops seeding row spacing 1m * 1m that plants, row is advisable to planting with the north-south.Irregular hilly ground can be planted along contour, and planting belt can consider that 1.5m~2m is with distance, duplicate rows plantation in the band, and line-spacing 0.5m~0.8m in the band turns over whole soil in the planting belt, and band can suitably keep original grass to irritate vegetation apart from interior.
Step 3, clay fertilizer water management step:
The soil management step:
Clean tillage: a situation arises according to weeds in field, and the field weeds a garden;
Sod culture: plant clover in the ranks, cradle every year, is overlying in the ranks;
Sod mulch: soil cover crop stalk and sawdust are main.Mantle thickness is more than 10cm.
The fertilizing management step:
Fertilizer type: based on compost balanced in nutrition, make compost, farmyard manure and composite fertilizer such as biogas manure, green manure, compost made of stalks, cake fertilizer, farmyard manure is used after must fully becoming thoroughly decomposed;
Fertilizing method: fertilizing method is divided into two kinds of soil application and spray leaf fertilizeies.Soil application can adopt spread fertilizer over the fields, ditch spread or the mode of spreading manuer in holes, fertilization depth is 10cm~20cm.To in time pour water after the fertilising; Spray leaf fertilizer mainly solves plant nutritional deficiency problem.In conjunction with soil application,, can be replenished by spraying foliage fertilizer at the plant nutritional deficiency symptom;
Fertilization time: soil topdressing is annual to be divided 2 times, and the 1st time the 2nd time base manure should be used in the fall before fruit harvesting before rudiment;
Fertilising quantity: fertilizing amount should be determined according to factors such as soil fertility situation, tree body situation, field management level, weather conditions.
The water management step:
Irrigation period: annual 3 need water critical periods.Rudiment is before bloom, and the young fruit expanding stage was irritated in conjunction with fertilising before the winter and frozen water;
Irrigation method: adopt drip irrigation and sprinkling irrigation.
Step 4, pruning step:
The time of pruning:
The pruning time is divided into winter pruning and summer pruning, based on winter pruning.
The method of pruning:
Earsh is pruned: the treelet in discontented 3 years of field planting enlarges shrubbery and is shaped as the master to cultivate.Trimming method mainly is to wipe out thin and delicate branch and sprig group;
Become the tree-pruning in age: remove the thin and delicate branch in the strain clump, old and feeble branch, sick branch, overstocked branch, the old branch of retraction.The branch group that annual cultivation is new, and remove too much bud;
Old and feeble tree-pruning:, stay stake height 2cm along the ground stump.
Step 5, flower and fruit thinning step:
Ou Liyi becomes flower, and general base is given birth to branch and up all can be yielded positive results from base portion the 3rd joint, and every joint can be bloomed 2~8, and fruit thinning when mung bean grain size is dredged topping portion fruit, close crowded fruit, makes healthy and strong branch keep 20 fruits, and golden mean of the Confucian school branch keeps 10 fruits, 3~5 fruits of weak branch.
Step 6, pest control method step:
The main disease of Europe Lee has powdery mildew, shot hole of leaf disease; Main insect pest has aphid, heart-eating worm, slug moth, white moth etc.
The cultural control method:
In conjunction with operation such as the farming of pruning, plough deeply, remove the sick branch tip, leaf, fruit and weeds, to reduce the bacterium source, reduce the worm's ovum radix;
The physical control method:
Adult is caused harm the phase, uses insect-killing trappings such as frequency ventilating type insecticidal lamp, sugar-vinegar liquid, insect-sticking plate;
Chemical prevention and control method:
Control principle is implemented the plant protection policy of " putting prevention first integrated control ", selects the chemical pesticide of biopesticide and efficient, low toxicity, low-residual for use, and alternatively administered improves pesticide application technology, reduces pesticide dosage.20d forbade medication before flowering stage, the berry maturation before fruit picking finishes;
The generation that the lime sulfur of one time 3~5 degree of spray or equivalent formula bordeaux mixture prevent damage by disease and insect before the rudiment in early spring;
Spend the pesticide control heart-eating worm of efficient low-residual such as back young fruit period spray avermectin, phoxim, 2.5% time or Imidacloprid;
Late spring, the drought in early summer strong wind weather was the multiple season of aphid, and should spray low-toxin farm chemicals controls such as Imidacloprid this moment;
Xia Qiu prevents and treats powdery mildew with triazolone (having another name called powder embroiders peaceful) rainy season; With agricultural streptomycin control blade shothole disease.
Step 7, the step of gathering:
The Europe plum fruit maturing stage is inconsistent, should gather in batches.When having water, rain, dew, greasy weather, high temperature or fruit surface should not gather.Eat raw when plucking and gently to take, put down gently with fruit.Sick fruit, malformed fruit should singly be received singly and put.
Embodiment
Step 1, choosing ground and whole ground:
Selection meets soil, atmosphere, the water quality soil of national non-polluted planting standard, and soil thickness is not less than 40cm, pH 6.5~8.5, permselectivity is good, not accumulated water, salt content less than 0.3%, sunny, winter, number was that the soil of 480h~720h is as planting site (with sandy loam and loam, grassland aeolian sandy soil, desert aeolian sandy soil are good) during low temperature below 7.2 ℃.Plantation gently, soil is ploughed smooth, and irregular hilly ground can be planted along contour, and planting belt can be considered 2~3m band distance, according to turning over whole soil in the planting belt, can keep original grass to irritate vegetation in the band distance.Because the sandy soil soil property is loose, permeability is good, but the preserve moisture and fertility ability, nutrient poorness, soil body arid, the content of organic matter only are 0.1~0.3%.Therefore, should improve, increase the organic matter in soil year by year by adding an amount of turfy soil (peat soil), sward, multiple grass etc.
Step 2, plant:
Select suitable this area, the giga ohm of cold resistance, strong stress resistance is Europe Lee's kind: No. 1, giga ohm, No. 2, giga ohm.
Naked-root planting: require above, the abundant lignification of stem of plant height 25cm, 1 year or 2 years livings nursery stocks that base diameter 0.2cm is above, more than the root system 25cm, no damage by disease and insect and obvious the injury.
Container seedling is planted: grow seedlings field planting then, used vessel seedling then.Require more than the plant height 15cm, more than the root system 15cm, the land for growing field crops field planting time is not later than early July.
The booth of growing seedlings is cultivated: for spring coolness, arid, strong wind weather is many, the area that moisture evaporation is fast, and for promoting the Ou Limiao slow seedling of root of hair as early as possible, the nursery stock growing way is prosperous, survival rate is high, can adopt Europe Lee booth culture technology of growing seedlings;
Preparation: be ready to plastics sight booth, or build a little shed in the lee side that faces south.Europe Lee is deep rooted plant, and mainly be root of hair early stage, and is must nutritive cube dark, uses the nutritive cube of specification 10cm * 20cm.Use the slightly loam of some viscosity, be difficult for loose to guarantee Ou Limiao Tu Tuo when field planting goes out nutritive cube;
Time: plantation when do not freeze morning in early spring (March) or canopy, urgent.
Nursery stock is planted preceding root system pruning: lateral root will be cut short long root system from newly cutting new stubble, being can unfold to be as the criterion nutritive cube Rigen.The stem branch is pruned to stay 5cm~10cm to be advisable.Answer the limit to bury the compacting of native limit when planting seedling, the depth of planting is consistent with the rhizome position of former nursery stock, and can not cross deeply can not crab rooting.Must water permeable the same day at once after the plantation.
Management after the plantation: after planting, watered water the same day one time, and did wet situation with backsight soil and take the circumstances into consideration to water, and noted irrigating.A spray foliage fertilizer (urea 0.1%~0.2% and potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.1%~0.2%) about 10d.If temp. and humidity is excessive in the canopy, note ventilating fine noon.For preventing that disease from taking place, 1~2 bactericide of preventability spray in the canopy is as triazolone, mancozeb etc.
Land for growing field crops field planting: mid or late May to early June land for growing field crops field planting.Carefully get seedling during field planting from container, prevent to do the Tu Tuo that looses, in time water after the plantation.
Pollinizers configurations: cultivar is minimum wants 2 kinds, and ratio that can 1~3: 1 between kind plants.
Planting density: level land, the land for growing field crops seeding row spacing 1m * 1m that plants, row is advisable to planting with the north-south.Irregular hilly ground can be planted along contour, and planting belt can consider that 1.5m~2m is with distance, duplicate rows plantation in the band, and line-spacing 0.5m~0.8m in the band turns over whole soil in the planting belt, and band can suitably keep original grass to irritate vegetation apart from interior.
Step 3, clay fertilizer water management:
Soil management: a situation arises according to weeds in field, in time carries out field management such as weeding.Be to increase soil fertility, plant clover, every year in the ranks and cradle, be overlying in the ranks; But also cover crop stalk and sawdust, mantle thickness is on 10cm.
Fertilising: based on compost balanced in nutrition, make compost, farmyard manure and composite fertilizers such as biogas manure, green manure, compost made of stalks, cake fertilizer, farmyard manure is used after must fully becoming thoroughly decomposed.Fertilizing method is divided into two kinds of soil application and foliar application.Soil application can adopt spread fertilizer over the fields, ditch spread or the mode of spreading manuer in holes, fertilization depth is 10cm~20cm.To in time pour water after the fertilising; Foliar application mainly solves plant nutritional deficiency problem.In conjunction with soil application,, can be replenished by spraying foliage fertilizer at the plant nutritional deficiency symptom.Soil topdressing is annual to be divided 2 times, and the 1st time the 2nd time base manure should be used in the fall before fruit harvesting before rudiment.Fertilizing amount should be determined according to factors such as soil fertility situation, tree body situation, field management level, weather conditions.
Water management: annual 3 need water critical periods.Rudiment is before bloom, and the young fruit expanding stage was irritated in conjunction with fertilising before the winter and frozen water.Irrigation method adopts drip irrigation and sprinkling irrigation.
Step 4, pruning:
The pruning time is divided into winter pruning and summer pruning, based on winter pruning.The method of pruning: the treelet in discontented 3 years of field planting enlarges shrubbery and is shaped as the master to cultivate, and trimming method mainly is to wipe out thin and delicate branch and sprig group; Become the tree-pruning in age, remove the thin and delicate branch in the strain clump, old and feeble branch, sick branch, overstocked branch or branch group, the old branch of retraction.The branch group that annual cultivation is new, and remove too much bud; Old and feeble tree-pruning along the ground stump, is stayed stake height 2cm.
Step 5, flower and fruit thinning:
Ou Liyi becomes flower, and general base is given birth to branch and up all can be yielded positive results from base portion the 3rd joint, and every joint can be bloomed 2~8, and fruit thinning when mung bean grain size is dredged topping portion fruit, close crowded fruit, makes healthy and strong branch keep 20 fruits, and golden mean of the Confucian school branch keeps 10 fruits, 3~5 fruits of weak branch.
Step 6, the extermination of disease and insect pest:
The main disease of Europe Lee has powdery mildew, shot hole of leaf disease; Main insect pest has aphid, heart-eating worm, slug moth, white moth etc.
Europe Lee's extermination of disease and insect pest has cultural control, physical control and chemical prevention and control method.
Cultural control: in conjunction with operation such as the farming of pruning, plough deeply, remove the sick branch tip, leaf, fruit and weeds,, reduce the worm's ovum radix to reduce the bacterium source.
Physical control: adult is caused harm the phase, uses insect-killing trappings such as frequency ventilating type insecticidal lamp, sugar-vinegar liquid, insect-sticking plate
Chemical control: control principle is implemented the plant protection policy of " putting prevention first integrated control ", selects the chemical pesticide of biopesticide and efficient, low toxicity, low-residual for use, and alternatively administered improves pesticide application technology, reduces pesticide dosage.20d forbade medication before flowering stage, the berry maturation before fruit picking finishes;
Chemical control:
1. the generation that the lime sulfur of one time 3~5 degree of spray or equivalent formula bordeaux mixture prevent damage by disease and insect before the rudiment in early spring.
2. spend back young fruit period spray avermectin, the pesticide control heart-eating worm of efficient low-residual such as phoxim, 2.5% time or Imidacloprid.
3. the drought in early summer strong wind weather is the multiple season of aphid late spring, and should spray low-toxin farm chemicals controls such as Imidacloprid this moment.
4. prevent and treat powdery mildew with triazole cave (having another name called powder embroiders peaceful) in autumn in summer in rainy season; With agricultural streptomycin control blade shothole disease.
Step 7, gather:
The Europe plum fruit maturing stage is inconsistent, should gather in batches.When rain, dew, greasy weather, high temperature or fruit surface have water not the official gather.Eat raw when plucking and gently to take, put down gently with fruit.Sick fruit, malformed fruit should singly be received singly and put.
The present invention has cultivated strong stress resistance, No. 1, giga ohm, No. 2 Europe of giga ohm Lee's kind that fruit quality is good, and 2009 by the authorization of Beijing forest variety certification committee.
No. 1 feature of giga ohm: plant shrub shape, plant height 1.2~1.5m, well developed root system, strong stress resistance.The annual branch taupe, the pale red brown of young sprout; The average long 5cm of leaf, the wide 1.5cm of leaf, elongated lanceolar does not have hair, the thin crenation of leaf margin, the long 0.5cm of petiole; The bud lightpink is spent light pink white; The fruit aubergine, oblateness, longitudinal and transverse demeter was than 2: 2.2, and suture is shallow, and stalk is hollow shallow, and the fruit top is flat, the long 1.2cm of carpopodium; The pulp redness, the meat exquisiteness, clingstone, examine little, edible rate 94.5%.Fruit is gorgeous, gives off a strong fragrance, and delicious flavour, sweet mouthfeel is crisp and refreshing.Average fruit mass 6.2g, crushing juice rate 82.4%, dry matter content 16.2%, average soluble solid content 15.4%, soluble sugar content 7.85%, total acid content 1.12%, sugar-acid ratio 7.01, calcium content 249mgkg -1, Vitamin C content 380mgkg -1, total amino acid content 5.13gkg -1, TEAA 1.54gkg -1, account for 30.0% of total amino acid.In the Beijing area, sprout mid-March, and flower at the beginning of mid-April is about florescence 10d.Mid-July fruit maturation, fruit development period 86d, by the end of October fallen leaves.Early fruiting character, yielding ability are extremely strong, the fruit-setting rate height, and the 2nd year beginning result after the field planting, the equal strain output of life reached 1.5kg in 3~5 years.Fruit can be processed into fruit juice, fruit wine, can, jam etc.
No. 2 features of giga ohm: plant shrub shape, plant height 1.2~1.5m, well developed root system, strong stress resistance; The annual branch taupe; The average long 6cm of leaf, the wide 1.5cm of leaf, elongated lanceolar does not have hair, the thin crenation of leaf margin, the long 0.5cm of petiole; Bud white, floral white; The fruit purple, circle, longitudinal and transverse demeter is than 2.1: 2.1cm, suture is shallow, and stalk is hollow shallow, and the fruit top is flat, the long 1.1cm of carpopodium.The pulp redness, the meat exquisiteness, freestone, examine little, edible rate 94.3%.Fruit is gorgeous, and sour and sweet palatability gives off a strong fragrance, delicious flavour.Average fruit mass 6.1g, crushing juice rate 81.5%.Dry matter content 15.0%, average soluble solid content 14.7%, soluble sugar content 7.54%, total acid content 1.32%, sugar-acid ratio 5.71, calcium content 262mgkg -1, Vitamin C content 449mgkg -1, total amino acid content 5.22gkg -1, essential amino acid total amount 1.49gkg -1, account for 28.5% of total amino acid.Sprout mid-March in the Beijing area, and flower at the beginning of mid-April is about florescence 10d.Late July fruit maturation, fruit development period 96d, by the end of October fallen leaves.Early fruiting character, yielding ability are extremely strong, the fruit-setting rate height, and the 2nd year beginning result after the field planting, living individual plant average yield reached 1.5kg in 3~5 years.Fruit can be processed into fruit juice, fruit wine, can, jam etc.

Claims (8)

1. Europe Lee's planting technology is characterized in that may further comprise the steps and carries out: choosing ground and whole ground step, the step of planting, clay fertilizer water management step, pruning step, flower and fruit thinning step, pest control method step, the step of gathering;
Step 1, choosing ground and whole ground step; Basal dressing;
Step 2, the step of planting comprise that kind selects step, planting system to select step and the training seedling booth step of planting;
Step 3, clay fertilizer water management step comprise soil management step, fertilising step and water management step;
Step 4, pruning step comprise the time and the method for pruning;
Step 5, flower and fruit thinning step;
Step 6, the main disease of Europe Lee have powdery mildew, shot hole of leaf disease; Main insect pest has aphid, heart-eating worm, slug moth, white moth etc.The pest control method step comprises cultural control, physical control and chemical prevention and control method step;
Step 7, the step of gathering.
2. a kind of Europe Lee's according to claim 1 planting technology is characterized in that may further comprise the steps:
Choosing ground step:
1. environmental requirement: choosing ground should be away from city and traffic main artery, should be apart from highway greater than 50m, and 3km is with interior direct pollution source (dischargings of " three wastes ") and the zone, indirect pollution source (pollution of uptake or upstream) that does not have industrial and mining enterprises on every side;
2. ecological the requirement: ecological condition requires sunny, and winter, number was 480h~720h during low temperature below 7.2 ℃;
3. soil requires: select soil thickness to be not less than 40cm, soil pH 6.5~8.5, permeability is good, accumulated water, soil salt content be not less than 0.3%, with sandy loam and loam, grassland aeolian sandy soil, desert aeolian sandy soil for living.Build breeding Europe Li Yuan at hilly and mountainous land, the gradient needs below 25 degree, and should avoid disaster caused by hail Yi Fa district, windburn cheuch forward, low-lying land and the bigger ridge of wind-force that cold air is detained easily;
Put in order the ground step: plantation gently, it is smooth to need soil to plough, and irregular hilly ground can be planted along contour, and planting belt can be considered 2~3m band distance, according to turning over whole soil in the planting belt, can suitably keep original grass to irritate vegetation in the band distance;
The basal dressing step: the sandy soil soil property is loose, and permeability is good, the preserve moisture and fertility ability, nutrient poorness, soil body arid, the content of organic matter only are 0.1~0.3%, should increase the organic matter of soil year by year by adding an amount of turfy soil (peat soil), sward, covering grass etc. and improve.
3. a kind of Europe Lee's according to claim 1 planting technology is characterized in that may further comprise the steps:
Kind is selected step: select suitable this area, the giga ohm of cold resistance, strong stress resistance is Europe Lee's kind: No. 1, giga ohm, No. 2, giga ohm;
Planting system is selected step:
1. naked-root planting: require more than the plant height 25cm, the abundant lignification of stem, 1 year or 2 years living nursery stocks that base diameter 0.2cm is above, more than the root system 25cm, no damage by disease and insect and obviously injury; Container seedling is planted: grow seedlings field planting then, used vessel seedling then.Require more than the plant height 15cm, more than the root system 15cm, the land for growing field crops field planting time is not later than early July;
2. the booth of growing seedlings is cultivated: for spring coolness, arid, strong wind weather is many, the area that moisture evaporation is fast, and for promoting the Ou Limiao slow seedling of root of hair as early as possible, the nursery stock growing way is prosperous, survival rate is high, can adopt Europe Lee booth culture technology of growing seedlings;
The step of planting:
1. preparation: be ready to the plastics sun light green house, or build a little shed in lee side on the sunny side.Europe Lee is deep rooted plant, and mainly be root of hair early stage, and is must nutritive cube dark, uses the nutritive cube of specification 10cm * 20cm.Use the slightly loam of some viscosity, be difficult for loose to guarantee Ou Limiao Tu Tuo when field planting goes out nutritive cube;
2. time: plantation when do not freeze morning in early spring (March) or canopy, urgent;
3. nursery stock is planted preceding root system pruning: lateral root will be cut short long root system from newly cutting new stubble, being can unfold to be as the criterion nutritive cube Rigen.The stem branch is pruned to stay 5cm~10cm to be advisable.Answer the limit to bury the compacting of native limit when planting seedling, the depth of planting is consistent with the rhizome position of former nursery stock, and can not cross deeply can not crab rooting.Must water permeable the same day at once after the plantation;
4. the management after the plantation: after planting, watered water the same day one time, and did wet situation with backsight soil and take the circumstances into consideration to water, and noted irrigating.A spray foliage fertilizer (urea 0.1%~0.2% and potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.1%~0.2%) about 10d.If temp. and humidity is excessive in the canopy, note ventilating fine noon.For preventing that disease from taking place, 1~2 bactericide of preventability spray in the canopy is as triazolone, mancozeb etc.;
5. land for growing field crops field planting: mid or late May to early June land for growing field crops field planting.Carefully get seedling during field planting from container, prevent to do the Tu Tuo that looses, in time water after the plantation;
6. pollinizers configuration: cultivar is minimum wants 2 kinds, and ratio that can 1~3: 1 between kind plants;
7. planting density: level land, the land for growing field crops seeding row spacing 1m * 1m that plants, row is advisable to planting with the north-south.Irregular hilly ground can be planted along contour, and planting belt can consider that 1.5m~2m is with distance, duplicate rows plantation in the band, and line-spacing 0.5m~0.8m in the band turns over whole soil in the planting belt, and band can suitably keep original grass to irritate vegetation apart from interior.
4. a kind of Europe Lee's according to claim 1 planting technology is characterized in that may further comprise the steps:
The soil management step:
1. clean tillage: a situation arises according to weeds in field, and the field weeds a garden;
2. sod culture: plant clover in the ranks, cradle every year, is overlying in the ranks;
3. sod mulch: soil cover crop stalk and sawdust are main.Mantle thickness is more than 10cm;
The fertilising step:
1. fertilizer type: based on compost balanced in nutrition, make compost, farmyard manure and composite fertilizer such as biogas manure, green manure, compost made of stalks, cake fertilizer, farmyard manure is used after must fully becoming thoroughly decomposed;
2. fertilizing method: fertilizing method is divided into two kinds of soil application and spray leaf fertilizeies.Soil application can adopt spread fertilizer over the fields, ditch spread or the mode of spreading manuer in holes, fertilization depth is 10cm~20cm.To in time pour water after the fertilising; Spray leaf fertilizer mainly solves plant nutritional deficiency problem.In conjunction with soil application,, can be replenished by spraying foliage fertilizer at the plant nutritional deficiency symptom;
3. fertilization time: soil topdressing is annual to be divided 2 times, and the 1st time the 2nd time base manure should be used in the fall before fruit harvesting before rudiment;
4. the quantity of applying fertilizer: fertilizing amount should be determined according to factors such as soil fertility situation, tree body situation, field management level, weather conditions;
The water management step:
1. irrigate period: annual 3 need water critical periods.Rudiment is before bloom, and the young fruit expanding stage was irritated in conjunction with fertilising before the winter and frozen water;
2. irrigation method: adopt drip irrigation and sprinkling irrigation.
5. a kind of Europe Lee's according to claim 1 planting technology is characterized in that the pruning time is divided into winter pruning and summer pruning, based on winter pruning;
The method of pruning:
1. earsh is pruned: the treelet in discontented 3 years of field planting enlarges shrubbery and is shaped as the master to cultivate.Trimming method mainly is to wipe out thin and delicate branch and sprig group;
2. become the tree-pruning in age: remove the thin and delicate branch in the strain clump, old and feeble branch, sick branch, overstocked branch, the old branch of retraction.The branch group that annual cultivation is new, and remove too much bud;
3. old and feeble tree-pruning:, stay stake height 2cm along the ground stump.
6. a kind of Europe Lee's according to claim 1 planting technology, it is characterized in that flower and fruit thinning step: Ou Liyi becomes flower, general base is given birth to branch and up all can be yielded positive results from base portion the 3rd joint, every joint can be bloomed 2~8, fruit thinning when mung bean grain size is dredged topping portion fruit, close crowded fruit, makes healthy and strong branch keep 20 fruits, golden mean of the Confucian school branch keeps 10 fruits, 3~5 fruits of weak branch.
7. a kind of Europe Lee's according to claim 1 planting technology is characterized in that the pest control method step: cultural control, physical control and chemical prevention and control method step;
Cultural control method: in conjunction with operation such as the farming of pruning, plough deeply, remove the sick branch tip, leaf, fruit and weeds,, reduce the worm's ovum radix to reduce the bacterium source;
The physical control method: adult is caused harm the phase, uses insect-killing trappings such as frequency ventilating type insecticidal lamp, sugar-vinegar liquid, insect-sticking plate;
Chemical prevention and control method: control principle is implemented the plant protection policy of " putting prevention first integrated control ", selects the chemical pesticide of biopesticide and efficient, low toxicity, low-residual for use, and alternatively administered improves pesticide application technology, reduces pesticide dosage.20d forbade medication before flowering stage, the berry maturation before fruit picking finishes;
1. the generation that the lime sulfur of one time 3~5 degree of spray or equivalent formula bordeaux mixture prevent damage by disease and insect before the rudiment in early spring;
2. spend the pesticide control heart-eating worm of efficient low-residual such as back young fruit period spray avermectin, phoxim, 2.5% time or Imidacloprid;
3. the drought in early summer strong wind weather is the multiple season of aphid late spring, and should spray low-toxin farm chemicals controls such as Imidacloprid this moment;
4. prevent and treat powdery mildew with triazolone (having another name called powder embroiders peaceful) in autumn in summer in rainy season; With agricultural streptomycin control blade shothole disease.
8. a kind of Europe Lee's according to claim 1 planting technology is characterized in that comprising the step of gathering: the Europe plum fruit maturing stage is inconsistent, should gather in batches.When having water, rain, dew, greasy weather, high temperature or fruit surface should not gather.Eat raw when plucking and gently to take, put down gently with fruit.Sick fruit, malformed fruit should singly be received singly and put.
CN 201110151493 2011-06-08 2011-06-08 Prunus humilis cultivation technology Pending CN102265767A (en)

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CN107258433A (en) * 2017-06-20 2017-10-20 普定县绿源苗业开发有限公司 A kind of method for culturing seedlings of high calcium fruit
CN107278420A (en) * 2017-08-01 2017-10-24 甘肃省治沙研究所 A kind of Chinese calcium fruit seed seedling-raising method
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CN109362784A (en) * 2018-12-24 2019-02-22 陕西省治沙研究所 A kind of insecticide of Europe Lee insect pest preventing and controlling
CN111727798A (en) * 2020-07-02 2020-10-02 山西农业大学 Short trunk umbrella frame-shaped tree form culture method for cerasus humilis

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CN102687651A (en) * 2012-06-15 2012-09-26 福建省农业科学院植物保护研究所 Integral prevention and control method for dark plum pest diseases
CN102939880A (en) * 2012-11-27 2013-02-27 福建省农业科学院植物保护研究所 Standardized planting method for black plum
CN102939880B (en) * 2012-11-27 2014-01-08 福建省农业科学院植物保护研究所 Standardized planting method for black plum
CN104418673A (en) * 2013-08-27 2015-03-18 亿利资源集团有限公司 Cerasus humilis formula fertilizer and preparation method and application thereof
CN103875500A (en) * 2014-04-03 2014-06-25 福建漳州绿野农业开发有限公司 Method for planting soft branch sweet carambola
CN103875500B (en) * 2014-04-03 2016-03-30 福建漳州绿野农业开发股份有限公司 The fragrant sweetened carambola implantation methods of a kind of switch
CN104025953A (en) * 2014-06-19 2014-09-10 南京麦思德餐饮管理有限公司 Aphis robiniae macchiati prevention method
CN104223331A (en) * 2014-09-19 2014-12-24 福建省农业科学院果树研究所 Method for promoting post-harvest plum fruit coloring
CN104396667A (en) * 2014-11-13 2015-03-11 张全友 Planting method for bee sugar plums
CN105123407B (en) * 2015-08-31 2019-04-05 贵州科睿捷信息技术有限公司 It is a kind of how the implantation methods of Lee
CN105123407A (en) * 2015-08-31 2015-12-09 铜仁市万山区万兴珍禽生态养殖农民专业合作社 Nai-plum planting method
CN105941057A (en) * 2016-05-25 2016-09-21 郎溪县天香油用牡丹种植专业合作社 A seedling culture method for interplanting of paeonia suffruticosa for oil and garlic
CN106069546B (en) * 2016-07-21 2019-03-15 四川省农业科学院园艺研究所 A kind of light simplified pruning method of Japanese plum
CN106069546A (en) * 2016-07-21 2016-11-09 四川省农业科学院园艺研究所 A kind of Japanese plum gently simplify pruning method
CN106417002B (en) * 2016-09-28 2018-08-07 山西省农业科学院园艺研究所 A kind of distant hybridization method of mirabalan
CN106417002A (en) * 2016-09-28 2017-02-22 山西省农业科学院园艺研究所 Distant hybridization method for prune trees
CN107258433A (en) * 2017-06-20 2017-10-20 普定县绿源苗业开发有限公司 A kind of method for culturing seedlings of high calcium fruit
CN107278420A (en) * 2017-08-01 2017-10-24 甘肃省治沙研究所 A kind of Chinese calcium fruit seed seedling-raising method
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