CN109526522B - Efficient nectarine cultivation method adopting intelligent facilities - Google Patents

Efficient nectarine cultivation method adopting intelligent facilities Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109526522B
CN109526522B CN201811625600.1A CN201811625600A CN109526522B CN 109526522 B CN109526522 B CN 109526522B CN 201811625600 A CN201811625600 A CN 201811625600A CN 109526522 B CN109526522 B CN 109526522B
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fruit
fertilizer
soil
greenhouse
management
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CN109526522A (en
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施庆华
高进
施洋
戚永奎
陈建平
蔡立旺
孙艳茹
陈涛
王海洋
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JIANGSU LITTORAL AGRICULTURE SCIENCE RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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JIANGSU LITTORAL AGRICULTURE SCIENCE RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilizing, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/14Greenhouses
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/24Devices or systems for heating, ventilating, regulating temperature, illuminating, or watering, in greenhouses, forcing-frames, or the like
    • A01G9/246Air-conditioning systems
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/24Devices or systems for heating, ventilating, regulating temperature, illuminating, or watering, in greenhouses, forcing-frames, or the like
    • A01G9/247Watering arrangements
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B7/00Fertilisers based essentially on alkali or ammonium orthophosphates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05DINORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C; FERTILISERS PRODUCING CARBON DIOXIDE
    • C05D3/00Calcareous fertilisers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • C05G3/60Biocides or preservatives, e.g. disinfectants, pesticides or herbicides; Pest repellants or attractants
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G5/00Fertilisers characterised by their form
    • C05G5/20Liquid fertilisers
    • C05G5/23Solutions
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/25Greenhouse technology, e.g. cooling systems therefor

Abstract

The invention discloses an efficient nectarine cultivation method with intelligent facilities, which belongs to the technical field of crop planting and comprises the steps of garden field and variety selection, greenhouse building, field block preparation, tree seedling planting and drip irrigation tape laying, seedling stage management, first-year fruiting period management, full fruiting period management and the like; wherein the seedling management comprises: pruning tree types, managing water, carrying out fertilizer operation, pruning fruiting branches, forming bone trunk branches, preventing and controlling plant diseases and insect pests, preventing and removing weeds and loosening soil in the field; the management of the fruiting period in the first year comprises film mulching heat preservation, water management, fertilizer operation, temperature and humidity management, bee pollination assistance, fruit thinning and setting, summer and autumn trimming and density adjustment, winter trimming, pest and weed control and field soil loosening. The orchard management method is advanced in management of the orchard, the adopted management measures are scientific and reasonable, the production and management efficiency is high, the chemical substance residues in the products do not exceed the standard, the fruit quality is optimized, the fruits can be listed in advance, and the economic benefit is good; and is also beneficial to environmental protection and water and soil conservation.

Description

Efficient nectarine cultivation method adopting intelligent facilities
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of crop planting, in particular to an efficient nectarine cultivation method through an intelligent facility.
Background
Nectarine: rosaceae, Prunus. The pulp is rich in nutrition, contains 13% of sugar, 1.5% of organic acid, 1% of pectin and 1.1% of protein, and contains 12 mg of vitamin C, 40 mg of phosphorus, 12 mg of calcium, 0.8 mg of iron and 14.5 mg of magnesium per 100 g of pulp. In addition, it contains 17 kinds of amino acids, carotene, etc. essential for human body. The content of vitamin C in nectarine is very high, and the vitamin C contained in a fresh nectarine can almost meet the requirement of an adult in one day. Vitamin C is not only helpful for the body to absorb iron and maintain the immune system, but also can promote the scar healing of the wound. The nectarine has no fur on the peel, bright and attractive fruit color, strong fragrance, fine and crisp meat quality, fresh and sweet taste and is popular with consumers.
The method has the advantages of abundant sunshine, abundant rainfall and clear four seasons in Jiangsu coastal areas, and is very suitable for growth and development of nectarines and production of green, healthy and high-quality nectarines. At present, the planting mode in Jiangsu coastal areas mainly adopts the facility cultivation of a single-layer film cold shed, nectarines are sold in the market for a relatively late time, the economic benefit is poor, and the nectarines are easily frozen in accidental extremely low-temperature disasters in winter. Meanwhile, orchard management mainly depends on manual experience and empirical fertilization and irrigation, scientific basis of a system is lacked, labor intensity is high, and production and management efficiency is low; the high yield of the orchard mainly depends on the large input of pesticide and chemical fertilizer, and the use of the pesticide and chemical fertilizer causes the residue of agricultural products to exceed the standard, the quality of fruits to be reduced, the environmental pollution and the soil salinization, thereby forming serious threats to the environmental protection and the water and soil conservation.
Disclosure of Invention
1. Technical problem to be solved
The invention aims to solve the technical problem of providing an efficient nectarine cultivation method with intelligent facilities, which has the advantages of advanced management on an orchard, scientific and reasonable adopted management measures, high production and management efficiency, no standard exceeding of chemical substance residues in products, optimized fruit quality, capability of being listed in advance and good economic benefit; and is also beneficial to environmental protection and water and soil conservation.
2. Technical scheme
In order to solve the problems, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
an efficient nectarine cultivation method adopting intelligent facilities comprises the following steps:
(1) selection of Garden and variety
Selecting a plot with fresh air, clean water quality, flat and wide terrain, sufficient illumination, fertile and unpolluted soil, underground water level not higher than 1 meter and good irrigation and drainage conditions in a garden;
selecting a short low-temperature early-maturing variety from the nectarine variety;
(2) greenhouse building
The greenhouse is a heat-insulating super greenhouse, the greenhouse is built in the north-south direction, the length of the north-south direction is 160m, the width of the east-west direction is 32m, the height of the center is 8m, and the heights of the two sides are 1.1 m; the specific construction process is as follows:
the method comprises the following steps of firstly building a steel frame structure of the greenhouse, namely arranging 3 rows of steel pipe stand columns in the north-south direction at equal intervals, wherein the interval between every two adjacent rows of steel pipe stand columns is 8m, the interval between every two adjacent steel pipe stand columns in the same row is 3.5m, 9 inclined support columns are respectively arranged on the two sides of the north and south of the greenhouse, main supports at the top of the greenhouse are arranged at intervals of 3.5m, and 4 auxiliary supports are arranged between every two adjacent main supports at equal intervals; then covering an insect-proof net and a special 8S P0 film for the greenhouse on the outer surface of the steel frame structure, and arranging a wind-proof rope on the surface of the film and covering a waterproof pearl wool heat-insulating material;
after the external structure of the greenhouse is built, an automatic air release machine, an automatic curtain rolling machine and a water and fertilizer integrated device are installed in the greenhouse, and temperature and humidity sensors are respectively installed in the north and south directions of the greenhouse; the automatic air release machine, the automatic curtain rolling machine, the water and fertilizer integrated equipment and the temperature and humidity sensor are respectively and correspondingly connected with an output end and an input end of a control system by adopting the technology of Internet of things, and the control system is also connected with a 4G mobile phone micro-terminal and a computer terminal;
(3) preparation of field
Before field planting, turning soil, applying a base fertilizer, then ridging, wherein the total width of each ridge and each ditch is 4m, the width and the depth of the ditch formed between every two adjacent ridges are both 60cm, and a black film is paved in the ditches to protect the ditches and prevent growing grass;
(4) tree seedling planting and drip irrigation tape laying
And (3) selecting 1 year-old grafted non-toxic seedlings which are strong in plants, developed in root systems and free of diseases and insect pests for field planting at the beginning of 12 months, wherein the height of the selected seedlings is 95-100 cm, and the initial density of the field planting is as follows: 220 plants/mu, the row spacing is 2m multiplied by the plant spacing is 1.5 m; then laying three-belt type water and fertilizer integrated drip irrigation belts on the outer sides of the saplings;
(5) management of seedling stage
Removing the greenhouse film from the seedling stage of the nectarines to the beginning of 12 months in the next year after field planting, and only covering an insect-proof net to ensure that the seedlings naturally grow in the open field; the management content comprises the following steps: pruning tree types, managing water, carrying out fertilizer operation, pruning fruiting branches, forming bone trunk branches, preventing and controlling plant diseases and insect pests, preventing and removing weeds and loosening soil in the field; loosening the soil 1 time at the beginning of 6 months in the next year after planting, and loosening the soil at a position 40cm away from the tree root by adopting a small machine, wherein the depth of the loosened soil is 10-15 cm;
(6) management of fruiting period in first year
The fruiting period of the first year is 12 months after planting to the end of the third year after planting; the management of the period is as follows:
first, film-coating heat preservation
Covering a film and a heat preservation quilt in the last 12 months of the second year after planting;
② moisture management
Watering for 1 time every 1 month after film covering according to the soil humidity, and watering for the last time at the beginning of 4 months to keep the soil humidity at 65% -75%;
③ fertilizer operation and research
Applying water-soluble fertilizer to the trees after film covering and before harvesting aiming at the possible symptom of lack of fertilizer of the trees: before fruit swelling, applying water-soluble fertilizers for 1-2 times, wherein the time interval between every two adjacent fertilization times is 15-20 days, and applying sulfur-based ternary water-soluble fertilizers according to the dosage of 7-9 kg/mu in each fertilization, wherein the N, P, K content in the fertilizers is 15%, 15% and 15% respectively; applying 1 time of water-soluble fertilizer in the later stage of fruit swelling and before harvesting, and applying 7-9 kg/mu of sulfur-based ternary water-soluble fertilizer, wherein the N, P, K content in the fertilizer is 12%, 3% and 45% respectively;
after harvesting, applying the ternary compound fertilizer for 1 time by adopting a 4-time hole application method according to the use amount of 20-25 kg/mu at the bottom of 5 months; at the bottom of 9 months, applying the ternary compound fertilizer for the second time by adopting a 4-point application method according to the dosage of 50-55 kg/mu; in the last ten days of 11 months, applying additional fertilizer for the third time, applying the decomposed sheep manure according to the using amount of 1 t/mu, spreading the fertilizer between every two adjacent rows of plants, and slightly turning the manure into soil by using a small machine, wherein the turning depth is 15-20 cm;
spraying 3 times of biogas slurry composite foliar fertilizer and 2 times of procyanidine composite foliar fertilizer after blooming, wherein the interval time between every two adjacent spraying of the foliar fertilizer is more than or equal to 10 days, the first spraying of the biogas slurry composite foliar fertilizer is 30-35 days after blooming, the second spraying of the biogas slurry composite foliar fertilizer is in a fruit expanding period, and the third spraying of the biogas slurry composite foliar fertilizer is 30-35 days before fruit harvest; the spraying time of the procyanidine compound foliar fertilizer for the first time is in the later fruit expansion period, and the spraying time of the procyanidine compound foliar fertilizer for the second time is 20-25 days before fruit harvest; the two leaf fertilizers are prepared at any time;
management of temp. and humidity
Temperature management: after film covering, performing temperature management according to each growth period in the fruit mature period of the next year: in the morning, when the temperature in the greenhouse reaches 12-13 ℃, rolling up the heat preservation quilt; in the noon, when the temperature in the greenhouse reaches 2 ℃ higher than the lower limit of each growth period, the ventilation is started; in the afternoon, when the temperature in the greenhouse is reduced to be higher than the lower limit of each growth period by 2 ℃, closing the ventilation opening;
the fruit harvesting period is from the middle ten days of 5 months to the bottom of 5 months, and the ventilation opening is opened all day long; after harvesting, removing the heat preservation quilt and the greenhouse film to enable the fruit trees to grow in a natural environment;
air humidity management: humidity is adjusted through adjusting the ventilation opening, and ventilation is kept when the relative humidity is high;
in different growth periods of fruit trees, the management parameters of the daytime temperature, the nighttime temperature and the relative air humidity are as follows: in the germination stage, the temperature in the daytime is controlled to be 13-18 ℃, the temperature at night is controlled to be 4-6 ℃, and the relative humidity of air is controlled to be 60% -80%; in the flowering period, the temperature in the daytime is controlled to be 16-20 ℃, the temperature at night is controlled to be 5-10 ℃, and the relative humidity of air is 50-60%; in the young fruit period, the temperature in the daytime is controlled to be 18-22 ℃, the temperature at night is controlled to be 10-15 ℃, and the relative humidity of air is less than 60%; in the fruit expansion period, the temperature in the daytime is controlled to be 20-25 ℃, the temperature at night is controlled to be 10-15 ℃, and the relative humidity of air is less than 60%; in the fruit ripening period, the temperature in the daytime is controlled to be 25-28 ℃, the temperature at night is controlled to be 12-16 ℃, and the relative humidity of air is less than 60%;
bee supplementary pollination
When the fruit trees enter the initial flowering period, bees are placed in the greenhouse, the bee placement amount is 1 box/3 mu and 4000 bees/box, yellow and blue plates are removed during bee supplementary pollination, and the pest killing lamp is turned off during bee activity time; taking out bees after the flowering phase is finished;
fruit thinning and fruit setting
Thinning fruits after the first physiological fruit drop of the fruit trees, removing dysplasia, malformation, upright fruits, small fruits and leafless fruits 25-30 days after flower withering, and reserving long and symmetrical fruits with the fruit amount being 2-2.5 times of the set yield; and (3) fruit setting is carried out after the second physiological fruit drop before kernel hardening, and 8-12 fruits are left in each bone trunk branch according to the set yield of the fruit in the first year after 5-6 weeks of flower withering: each long fruit branch is reserved for 2, each middle fruit branch is reserved for 1-2, each short fruit branch is reserved for 0-1, and no fruit is reserved on weak fruit branches;
seventhly, pruning in summer and autumn and adjusting density
After the fruit is harvested, pruning is carried out in summer in the beginning of 6 months, and part of branches on the back and the branches with vigorous growth are properly pruned, so that the ventilation and light transmittance of the tree body are improved, and the canopy closure caused by large branch quantity in the crown is prevented; if the branches are excessively pruned, the main stems of the fruit trees are burnt and injured, the branches of the main stems are obliquely pulled into an angle of 45 ℃ in the beginning of 8 months, and the tree shape is fixed; when young shoots grow to about 5cm, removing useless buds and young shoots;
after harvesting is finished in the fruiting period of the first year, the row spacing of the fruit trees is unchanged, the row spacing is adjusted to be 3m, and the density of the fruit trees is adjusted to be 110 plants/mu;
eighthly, pruning in winter
In the middle ten days of 11 months to the last ten days of 12 months, performing shrinkage shearing and fruit branch updating, shortening overlong lateral branches to 40-45 cm, shearing off diseased, insect, damaged and weak fruit branches, selecting and reserving 3 robust fruit branches for each lateral branch, reserving the length of the fruit branches to 10-15 cm, spacing every two adjacent fruit branches to 15-20 cm, shearing off other vigorous long branches, back upper branches and downward drooping branches, and performing shrinkage shearing on the length of bone trunk branches to 80-100 cm;
ninthly preventing and controlling diseases, pests and weeds and loosening soil in field
In the aspect of pest control, the prevention is mainly carried out, and a green prevention and control technology combining a plurality of treatment methods is adopted from the aspects of agriculture, physics, biology and chemistry;
agricultural control: selecting a disease-resistant variety, paying attention to timely draining in seasons with frequent rain, and keeping proper soil humidity in the field; the comprehensive management of the peach orchard is enhanced, the ventilation and light transmission are improved, the tree vigor is enhanced, and the disease resistance is improved; meanwhile, reasonably shaping and pruning, timely pruning pest branches, cleaning dead branches and fallen leaves, scraping off bark and disease spots on the trunk after the tree body falls leaves, and timely cleaning the trunk out of the garden and burning the trunk;
physical and biological control: an insect-proof net is covered at the ventilation opening of the greenhouse, and a yellow plate, a blue plate, an insect-killing lamp and a sex attractant are placed in the greenhouse;
chemical control: after bark warping and disease spots of a trunk are scraped, the base part of the trunk is whiteled, 3-5 degrees of lime sulphur is sprayed at the initial germination stage, and biological agents and high-efficiency low-toxicity low-residue chemical agents which meet the GB 4285 standard are selected for timely prevention and treatment according to the occurrence situation of diseases and insect pests during the whole growth period;
artificial weeding is adopted for weed control;
(7) full bearing age management
Firstly, thinning fruit and fixing fruit
The fruit thinning method is the same as the vegetable and fruit thinning method in the fruit bearing period of the first year, fruit setting is carried out after the second physiological fruit drop and before stone hardening, and 30-35 fruits are left in each bone trunk branch after 5-6 weeks after flower withering according to the set yield in the fruit bearing period: 2-3 long fruit branches are reserved in each long fruit branch, 1-2 middle fruit branches are reserved in each medium fruit branch, 0-1 short fruit branch is reserved in each medium fruit branch, and no fruit is reserved in weak fruit branches;
② fertilizer operational research
Applying water-soluble fertilizers for 1-2 times in a fruit swelling period after film covering aiming at the possible fertilizer shortage symptom of the tree body, wherein the time interval between every two adjacent fertilization is 15-20 days, and applying sulfur-based ternary water-soluble fertilizers according to the dosage of 9-12 kg/mu in each fertilization, wherein the N, P, K content in the fertilizers is 15%, 15% and 15% respectively; in the fruit swelling period, applying the sulfur-based ternary compound fertilizer by adopting a 4-point hole application method according to the use amount of 35-40 kg/mu;
after harvesting, applying the ternary compound fertilizer for 1 time by adopting a 4-point hole application method according to the use amount of 25-30 kg/mu at the bottom of 5 months; at the bottom of 9 months, applying the ternary compound fertilizer for the second time by adopting a 4-point application method according to the use amount of 55-60 kg/mu; applying the decomposed sheep manure in the last ten days of 11 months at the dosage of 1-1.25 t/mu, spreading the fertilizer between every two adjacent rows of plants, and shallow-turning the manure into soil by using a small machine, wherein the depth of the turned soil is 15-20 cm; the applied fertilizer is properly increased and decreased according to the field fertility condition along with the growth of the tree body;
spraying a biogas slurry composite foliar fertilizer and a procyanidine composite foliar fertilizer after blooming and before harvesting, wherein the spraying method is the same as that of the corresponding foliar fertilizer in the fruiting period of the first year;
and the other management measures are the same as those in the fruiting period of the first year.
Specifically, the concrete operations of turning soil and applying a base fertilizer in the step (3) are as follows: crushing fresh rice straws, directly pressing the crushed fresh rice straws in a field, pressing 600kg of fresh rice straws in each mu of field, applying decomposed sheep manure into the field according to the dosage of 1 t/mu, applying phosphate fertilizer and P in the phosphate fertilizer according to the dosage of 30 kg/mu2O5The content of the fertilizer is 12 percent, and after the base fertilizer is applied, rotary tillage is carried out according to the depth of 20-30 cm, so that the soil and the fertilizer are fully mixed. The straws are returned to the field and the decomposed sheep manure is applied as a base fertilizer, so that soil organic matters can be increased, the soil granular structure can be improved, the soil fertility level can be improved, the soil microbial activity and the development of fruit tree root systems can be promoted, the stress resistance of fruit trees such as drought resistance, waterlogging resistance, disease resistance and the like can be enhanced, the quality of nectarines can be improved, the yield can be increased, and a good foundation can be laid for producing green and healthy high-quality fruits at the later stage.
Specifically, the specific operations of the seedling planting in the step (4) are as follows: adopting north-south row planting, horizontally placing the saplings on ridges, taking soil on the ridges to surround the peripheries of tree roots to form small soil piles with the height of 20-25 cm and the diameter of 40-50 cm, and irrigating water into ditches to 5-8 cm beyond the ridge surfaces after the saplings are planted in a planting mode; draining water in the ditch after 8-10 h to ensure that the soil is fully settled and the root system is in close contact with the soil; and when the soil humidity is restored to 65% -75%, the soil on the ridges is taken again to surround the tree roots, the height of the small soil piles is kept to be 20-25 cm, the diameter is kept to be 40-50 cm, and then the soil is taken to cover the periphery of the small soil piles, so that the root system is prevented from being exposed and the soil is prevented from hardening and cracking. The method of watering the ridge without damaging the soil structure; the field planting mode of the flat ridge enclosing soil enables the soil around and below the root system of the peach tree to have a good structure and reasonable water content, and meanwhile, the soil is in close contact with the root system, so that the recovery growth of the root system is facilitated, the survival rate is improved, and the seedlings are strong and strong after sprouting in the next year.
Specifically, the concrete operation of laying the three-belt type water-fertilizer integrated drip irrigation belt in the step (4) is as follows: 3 water and fertilizer integrated drip irrigation belts are paved at the position 10cm away from the main stem of the seedling and at the positions 30cm away from the left side and the right side of the main stem of the seedling, and anti-freezing and heat-insulating measures are taken for pipelines positioned at the periphery of the greenhouse. The water and fertilizer integrated drip irrigation is adopted, so that the structure of soil can be maintained, the water and nutrient of the soil are increased, and the overlarge air humidity is prevented; compared with the conventional belt-type drip irrigation, the three-belt-type drip irrigation has more uniform water and fertilizer distribution, is beneficial to improving the fruit quality and shortening the irrigation time; particularly in winter with lower temperature, if the irrigation time is too long, the soil temperature can not be recovered in time after falling, which is not beneficial to the growth and development of trees and fruits.
Specifically, the specific preparation method of the biogas slurry composite foliar fertilizer in the third step (6) is as follows: firstly treating biogas slurry, taking biogas slurry in a biogas digester which normally produces biogas for more than 3 months, sending the taken biogas slurry into a fertilizer storage tank for composting and clarification for 5-7 days, filtering the biogas slurry by using sand cloth, and standing the biogas slurry for 2-3 days; then preparing a boron fertilizer solution and a calcium fertilizer solution, selecting the amounts of clear water, the sugar alcohol boron fertilizer and the sugar alcohol chelated calcium fertilizer to be added according to the nutritional status and the safe application concentration of the tree body and the fruit, and mixing the clear water, the sugar alcohol boron fertilizer and the sugar alcohol chelated calcium fertilizer to obtain 1300-1500 times of sugar alcohol boron fertilizer solution and 1300-2000 times of sugar alcohol chelated calcium fertilizer solution, so as to prepare the boron fertilizer solution and the calcium fertilizer solution; preparing a biogas slurry solution, taking biogas slurry according to the dosage of 7-10 kg/mu, diluting with clear water, and preparing the biogas slurry solution, wherein the weight ratio of the biogas slurry to the water is 1: 1-2; and finally, mixing the boron and calcium fertilizer solution with the biogas slurry solution to obtain the biogas slurry composite foliar fertilizer.
The decomposed biogas slurry contains rich amino acids, active enzymes, mineral nutrient elements and the like, the nutrient availability is high, and the decomposed biogas slurry also contains components capable of destroying cell membranes and in-vivo proteins of unicellular germs, so that the yield of peach trees can be increased, the fruit quality can be improved, the stress resistance of the trees can be enhanced, and the propagation of harmful germs and pests can be effectively controlled; the sugar alcohol boron fertilizer and the sugar alcohol chelated calcium fertilizer are added into the biogas slurry, so that cell division can be promoted, the number of cells can be increased, the cells can be arranged orderly, fruit cracking can be prevented, and a foundation is laid for obtaining high yield and excellent appearance in the later period; in addition, the sugar alcohol boron fertilizer and the sugar alcohol chelated calcium fertilizer are adopted according to the method, antagonism of boron and calcium during simultaneous application can be prevented, and the effect of boron and calcium co-supplement is achieved.
Specifically, the specific preparation method of the procyanidine compound foliar fertilizer in the third step (6) comprises the following steps: adding clear water into ascorbic acid to prepare a solution with the concentration of 5g/L, adding natural procyanidine extracted from grape seeds into the ascorbic acid solution to prepare a procyanidine mixed solution with the concentration of 1.5g/L, diluting by 150 times, and adding monopotassium phosphate into a diluent of the procyanidine mixed solution according to the nutritional status of trees and fruits to prepare the procyanidine compound foliar fertilizer with the monopotassium phosphate content of 0.2-0.3%. Procyanidin is a water-soluble powerful antioxidant, is different from anthocyanin, and has the main effects of relieving eye fatigue and accelerating the synthesis speed of rhodopsin on retina by vitamin A, but the capacity of scavenging free radicals and resisting oxidation is lower than that of procyanidin; the water-solubility of procyanidin makes its overall absorption rate much higher than other antioxidants (vitamin E, lycopene, astaxanthin, etc.); the proanthocyanidin can stably exist in a solution containing ascorbic acid and monopotassium phosphate, the content of the proanthocyanidin in the fruits can be effectively improved after the proanthocyanidin is sprayed on the leaf surfaces, the fruit quality is obviously improved, the taste and the flavor of the fruits can be effectively improved by the monopotassium phosphate, the formation of anthocyanin is promoted, the color of the peach fruits is increased, and the appearance quality is improved.
Specifically, when the ventilation opening is opened in the morning, the east and south of the greenhouse which are irradiated by sunlight are heated earlier and faster, and when the preset ventilation temperature is reached, the greenhouse is ventilated first, and the north and west of the greenhouse are heated later and slower, and then the greenhouse is ventilated; when the ventilation opening is closed in the afternoon, the temperature of the east surface and the south surface of the greenhouse is cooled earlier and faster, the ventilation opening is closed firstly when the temperature of the preset closed ventilation opening is reached, and the temperature of the north surface and the west surface of the greenhouse is cooled relatively later and slower, and then the ventilation opening is closed later. According to the temperatures of different areas, the ventilation openings are opened and closed in different areas, a well-balanced growing environment can be created for the tree bodies in all areas, and the growth of the tree bodies in the areas which do not reach the temperatures is effectively prevented from being inhibited.
3. Advantageous effects
(1) According to the invention, the steel frame structure is adopted to build the heat-insulation super-greenhouse, so that the wind resistance and the stress resistance of the greenhouse are stronger, and natural disasters can be effectively resisted; the steel frame structure occupies a small space, the space in the greenhouse is large, the land utilization rate is as high as 90 percent and is far higher than the utilization rate of a standard vegetable greenhouse in China (the land utilization rate of the standard vegetable greenhouse in China is generally 50 percent), the outer surface of the steel frame structure is covered with the insect-proof net and the special 8S P0 film for the greenhouse, compared with a PE film for the greenhouse, the special 8S PO film for the greenhouse has high light transmittance, low haze and good heat preservation, is beneficial to the growth of peach trees, has strong toughness and ageing resistance, can be replaced for 1 time in 2-3 years, and is beneficial to saving labor and material cost; the surface of the special 8S P0 film for the greenhouse is also provided with the windproof rope and covered with the waterproof pearl wool heat-insulating material, so that the heat-insulating effect in the greenhouse is good, the cultured nectarines can appear on the market 25-30 days earlier than the nectarines cultured in a common single-layer film cold greenhouse, and the economic benefit is good.
(2) According to the invention, the Internet of things technology is adopted, the temperature and humidity environment in the greenhouse is monitored and regulated in real time by the 4G mobile phone micro-terminal and the computer terminal, the system collects and transmits information through the on-line high-precision measurement of the corresponding sensors and the signal collector, and sends instructions to each control device after analyzing the information, so that the production operations such as ventilation, cooling, irrigation and the like are automatically completed, the orchard is managed accurately and scientifically, the labor intensity of workers is favorably reduced, and the production and operation efficiency is improved.
(3) In the management measures of the invention, scientific and reasonable management measures are applied in the aspects of film covering and heat preservation, water management, fertilizer operation, temperature and humidity management, bee pollination assistance, fruit thinning and fruit setting, summer and autumn trimming and density adjustment, winter trimming, pest and weed control, field soil loosening and the like, and various fertilizing methods are adopted to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers; aiming at the diseases and insect pests, the method takes prevention as a main part, and adopts a green prevention and control technology combining a plurality of treatment methods from various aspects of agriculture, physics, biology and chemistry, thereby greatly reducing the use of pesticides. The method realizes high yield, ensures that the chemical substance residue in the produced nectarine does not exceed the standard, optimizes the fruit quality, can also prevent environmental pollution and soil salinization, and is beneficial to environmental protection and water and soil conservation.
In conclusion, the orchard management method is advanced in management of the orchard, scientific and reasonable in management measures, high in production and management efficiency, free of standard exceeding of chemical substance residues in products, optimized in fruit quality, capable of being listed in advance and good in economic benefit; and is also beneficial to environmental protection and water and soil conservation.
Detailed Description
Examples
An efficient nectarine cultivation method adopting intelligent facilities comprises the following steps:
(1) selection of Garden and variety
Selecting a plot with fresh air, clean water quality, flat and wide terrain, sufficient illumination, fertile soil, no pollution, underground water level of not higher than 1 meter and good drainage and irrigation conditions for the garden, wherein nectarines planted in the plot with poor drainage and high underground water level can cause the adverse phenomena of premature decay of root system, fallen leaves, fallen fruits, gummosis and the like, and even cause the death of plants;
the nectarine variety is a short low-temperature early-maturing variety, so that facility early-maturing cultivation is facilitated, and early-maturing is promoted;
(2) greenhouse building
The greenhouse is a heat-insulating super greenhouse with enough space, the greenhouse is built in the north-south direction, the length of the north-south direction is 160m, the width of the east-west direction is 32m, the height of the center is 8m, and the heights of two sides are 1.1 m; the method comprises the following steps of firstly building a steel frame structure of the greenhouse (so that the greenhouse has strong wind resistance and stress resistance and can effectively resist natural disasters, the steel frame structure occupies small space, the space in the greenhouse is large, the land utilization rate is as high as 90 percent and is far higher than that of a standard vegetable greenhouse in China, and the land utilization rate of the standard vegetable greenhouse in China is generally 50 percent): 3 rows of steel pipe upright columns are arranged in the north-south direction at equal intervals, the interval between every two adjacent rows of steel pipe upright columns is 8m, the interval between every two adjacent steel pipe upright columns in the same row is 3.5m, 9 inclined support columns are respectively arranged on the north-south side of the greenhouse, main supports at the top of the greenhouse are arranged every 3.5m, and 4 auxiliary supports are arranged between every two adjacent main supports at equal intervals; then covering an insect-proof net and a special 8S P0 film for the greenhouse on the outer surface of the steel frame structure (compared with a PE film for the greenhouse, the special 8S PO film for the greenhouse has high light transmittance, low haze and good heat preservation, is beneficial to the growth of peach trees, has strong toughness and aging resistance, can be replaced for 1 time in 2-3 years, is beneficial to saving labor and material cost), then arranging a windproof rope on the surface of the film and covering a waterproof pearl cotton heat preservation material (the heat preservation effect in the greenhouse is good, so that the cultivated nectarines can appear on the market 25-30 days earlier than the nectarines cultivated by a common single-layer film cold greenhouse);
after the greenhouse is built, mechanical equipment such as an automatic air release machine, an automatic curtain rolling machine, a water and fertilizer integrated machine and the like are installed in the greenhouse, and temperature and humidity sensors are respectively installed at the north and south ends of the greenhouse; the subsequent peach orchard management adopts the technology of Internet of things, the temperature and humidity environment in the greenhouse is monitored and regulated in real time by a 4G mobile phone micro-terminal and a computer terminal, the system collects and transmits information through the on-line high-precision measurement of corresponding sensors and a signal collector, and sends instructions to each control device after analyzing the information, so that the production operations such as ventilation, cooling, irrigation and the like are automatically completed, the accurate and scientific orchard management is realized, and the production and management efficiency is improved;
(3) preparation of field
Before field planting, crushing fresh rice straw, directly pressing in field, pressing 600kg of fresh rice straw per mu of field, and applying decomposed sheep manure (sheep manure is raised in livestock manure) according to the dosage of 1 t/muThe best high-quality organic fertilizer is divided, wherein the contents of substances such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and the like are all higher, and phosphate fertilizer (wherein P is applied according to the dosage of 30 kg/mu)2O5The content of the fertilizer is 12%), the fertilizer is applied and then rotary tillage is carried out according to the depth of 20-30 cm, so that the soil and the fertilizer are fully mixed (returning the straw to the field and applying decomposed sheep manure as base fertilizer can increase soil organic matters, improve the soil aggregate structure, improve the soil fertility level, promote the soil microbial activity and the development of fruit tree root systems, and enhance the anti-stress capabilities of fruit trees such as drought resistance, waterlogging resistance and disease resistance, thereby improving the quality of nectarines and the yield, and laying a good foundation for later-stage production of green and healthy high-quality fruits); then, ridging is carried out, the total width of each single ridge and each ditch is 4m, the width and the depth of each ditch formed between every two adjacent ridges are both 60cm, and black thin films are paved in the ditches to protect the ditches and prevent the grass from growing;
(4) planting of sapling
Planting: and (3) selecting 1 year-old grafted non-toxic seedlings which are strong in plants, developed in root systems and free of diseases and insect pests for field planting of the seedlings at the beginning of 12 months, wherein the height of the seedlings is 95-100 cm, and the initial density of field planting is as follows: 220 plants per mu, 2m row spacing and 1.5m plant spacing; because the trees are small and have weak fruiting capacity in the fruiting period of the first year, the increase of the planting density can improve the early-stage yield, increase the economic benefit, overcome the problems of low early-stage yield and poor economic benefit, and simultaneously can not influence the growth and development of plants;
the specific operation of the sapling planting is as follows: adopting north-south row planting, flatly placing the saplings on the ridges, taking soil on the ridges to surround the roots of the saplings to form small soil piles with the height of 20-25 cm and the diameter of 40-50 cm, irrigating water into the ditches after planting the saplings to 5-8 cm after the saplings pass over the ridge surfaces, and emptying water in the ditches after 8-10 h to ensure that the soil is fully sunk and the roots are in close contact with the soil (the soil structure is not damaged by a ridge-watering method); and when the soil humidity is restored to 65% -75%, the soil on the ridges is taken again to surround the tree roots, the height of the small soil piles is kept to be 20-25 cm, the diameter is kept to be 40-50 cm, and then the soil is taken to cover the periphery of the small soil piles to prevent the root systems from being exposed and the soil from hardening and cracking. The field planting mode of the flat ridge enclosing soil enables the soil around and below the root system of the peach tree to have a good structure and reasonable water content, and meanwhile, the soil is in close contact with the root system, so that the recovery growth of the root system is facilitated, the survival rate is improved, and the seedlings are strong and strong after sprouting in the next year.
② three-belt type water and fertilizer integrated drip irrigation: 3 water and fertilizer integrated drip irrigation belts are paved at the position 10cm away from the main stem of the seedling and at the positions 30cm away from the left side and the right side of the main stem of the seedling, anti-freezing and heat-insulating measures are taken for pipelines positioned at the periphery of the greenhouse, the water and fertilizer integrated drip irrigation is adopted to keep the structure of soil, increase the moisture and the nutrient of the soil and prevent the excessive air humidity; compared with the conventional one-belt drip irrigation, the three-belt drip irrigation device has the advantages that the water and fertilizer distribution is more uniform, the fruit quality is favorably improved, the irrigation time is shortened, particularly in winter with lower temperature, the irrigation is finished in the morning, if the irrigation time is too long, the soil temperature cannot be recovered in time after being reduced, and the tree body and the fruit are not favorably grown and developed.
(5) Management of seedling stage
Removing the greenhouse film until the 12 th month of the second year after the field planting, only covering the insect-proof net, and naturally growing in the open field; the management content is as follows:
pruning tree shape
After field planting, trimming and fixing the stems for the first time in 4 middle of the month in the next year, trimming the stems into heart-shaped trees, reserving 3-5 full buds for each tree, cutting off the tops, and reserving the height of the stems for 45-50 cm; carrying out branch fixing treatment in the middle ten days of 5 months in the next year after field planting, and selecting and reserving 3 healthy and strong branches to be cultured into fruiting bone dry branches when the reserved 3-5 full buds grow into 10-15 cm branches;
management of water content
After the seedlings are planted and watered sufficiently, watering is carried out according to the soil humidity in the field, the soil humidity is kept to be 65% -75%, a greenhouse film is covered at the beginning of 12 months in the second year after planting, the soil humidity is adjusted to be 65% -75% before covering (if the soil humidity is reasonable, watering is not carried out, and if the soil humidity is less than 65%, watering is carried out for 1 time);
③ fertilizer operation and research
In the last 5 th ten days of the second year after field planting, 10 days after branch fixing treatment, applying a sulfur-based ternary compound fertilizer (the content of N, P, K in the fertilizer is respectively 15%, 15% and 15%, and all the used water-insoluble ternary compound fertilizers are the same as the water-based ternary compound fertilizers) according to the use amount of 8 kg/mu, and applying the fertilizer by adopting a 4-point hole application method (all the water-insoluble ternary compound fertilizer application methods are the same as the following methods): uniformly digging 4 small holes at a distance of 30-40 cm from the tree root, wherein the depth of each hole is 15-20 cm, applying a fertilizer into the holes, covering soil and watering; after planting, in the last 9 th month of the next year, topdressing for the second time, and applying a ternary compound fertilizer according to the use amount of 45-50 kg/mu; in the 11 th last ten days of the second year after field planting, top dressing for the third time, applying decomposed sheep manure according to the use amount of 1 t/mu, spreading the fertilizer between every two adjacent rows of plants, and shallow-turning the manure into soil by using a small machine, wherein the depth of the turned soil is 15-20 cm;
fourthly, pruning the fruit branches
After the field planting, when the bottom of 10 months to the beginning of 11 months in the next year, the tree body enters a leaf falling period, the bearing branches are trimmed, the tree vigor in a sapling period is vigorous, the bearing branches are grown, the long bearing branches after trimming are kept for 30-35 cm, or the bearing branches are not trimmed slowly, and the bearing branches are trimmed again when the bearing branches droop;
fifthly, bone branch forming
In the 11 th to 12 th last ten days of the second year after planting, the bone trunk branches are inclined to form an angle of 45 ℃ and are fixed and formed;
disease and pest control
The diseases in the seedling stage mainly comprise: peach bacterial perforation disease, peach root cancer, peach leaf shrinkage disease, peach gummosis disease and the like, wherein the insect pests mainly comprise: leaf miner, peach aphid, oriental fruit moth, peach leaf mite, leaf roller moth, plant bug, and longicorn.
Adopting a green prevention and control technology which takes prevention as a main part and combines a plurality of treatment methods;
agricultural control: selecting a disease-resistant variety, paying attention to timely draining in seasons with frequent rain, and keeping proper soil humidity in the field; the comprehensive management of the peach orchard is enhanced, the ventilation and light transmission are improved, the tree vigor is enhanced, and the disease resistance is improved; meanwhile, reasonably shaping and pruning, timely pruning pest branches, cleaning dead branches and fallen leaves, scraping off bark and disease spots on the trunk after the tree body falls leaves, and timely cleaning the trunk out of the garden and burning the trunk;
physical and biological control: an insect-proof net is covered at the ventilating opening of the greenhouse, and a yellow plate, a blue plate, an insect-killing lamp, a sex attractant and the like are placed in the greenhouse;
chemical control: after bark warping and disease spots of a trunk are scraped, the base part of the trunk is whiteled, 3-5 degrees of lime sulphur is sprayed at the initial germination stage, and biological agents and high-efficiency low-toxicity low-residue chemical agents which meet the GB 4285 standard are selected for timely prevention and treatment according to the occurrence situation of diseases and insect pests during the whole growth period;
seventh, weed control and field loosening
Weeding artificially for weed control, loosening the soil 1 time at the beginning of 6 months in the next year after planting, loosening the soil at a position 40cm away from the tree root by using small machinery, wherein the depth of the loosened soil is 10-15 cm;
(6) management of fruiting period in first year
The fruiting period of the first year is 12 months after planting to the end of the third year after planting; the management of the period is as follows:
film covering and heat preservation: covering a film and a heat preservation quilt in 12-month last ten days after the field planting;
water management: watering for 1 time every 1 month after film covering according to the soil humidity, and watering for the last time at the beginning of 4 months, keeping the soil humidity at 65% -75%, and promoting the growth and development of buds, flowers and fruits;
③ fertilizer operation and research
After film covering and before harvesting, if the tree body has the symptom of lack of fertilizer, water-soluble fertilizer can be applied to quickly supply the nutrition of the tree body and promote the growth and development of plants and fruits: before fruit swelling, 1-2 times of water-soluble fertilizers can be applied, the time interval of each two adjacent fertilization is 15-20 days, and a sulfur-based ternary water-soluble fertilizer (the content of N, P, K in the fertilizer is 15%, 15% and 15%) is applied according to the dosage of 7-9 kg/mu in each fertilization; in the later stage of fruit swelling, 1 time of water-soluble fertilizer can be applied before harvesting, 7-9 kg/mu of sulfur-based ternary water-soluble fertilizer (the content of N, P, K in the fertilizer is 12%, 3% and 45% respectively) is applied, and the application of high-potassium fertilizer in the later stage of fruit swelling is beneficial to fruit swelling and filling, so that the weight of a single fruit can be increased, and the taste of the fruit can be optimized;
after harvesting, applying the ternary compound fertilizer for 1 time by adopting a 4-point hole application method according to the use amount of 20-25 kg/mu at the bottom of 5 months so as to promote the growth of fruit tree nutrients; at the bottom of 9 months, applying the ternary compound fertilizer for the second time by adopting a 4-point application method according to the dosage of 50-55 kg/mu; in the last ten days of 11 months, applying additional fertilizer for the third time, applying the decomposed sheep manure according to the using amount of 1 t/mu, spreading the fertilizer between every two adjacent rows of plants, and shallow-turning the manure into soil by using a small machine, wherein the depth of the turned soil is 15-20 cm;
spraying 3 times of biogas slurry composite foliar fertilizer and 2 times of procyanidine composite foliar fertilizer after blooming, wherein the interval time between every two adjacent spraying of the foliar fertilizer is more than or equal to 10 days, the first spraying of the biogas slurry composite foliar fertilizer is 30-35 days after blooming, the second spraying of the biogas slurry composite foliar fertilizer is in a fruit expanding period, and the third spraying of the biogas slurry composite foliar fertilizer is 30-35 days before fruit harvest; the spraying time of the procyanidine compound foliar fertilizer for the first time is in the later fruit expansion period, and the spraying time of the procyanidine compound foliar fertilizer for the second time is 20-25 days before fruit harvest; the two leaf fertilizers are prepared at any time;
the specific preparation method of the biogas slurry compound foliar fertilizer comprises the following steps: firstly treating biogas slurry, taking biogas slurry in a biogas digester which normally produces biogas for more than 3 months, sending the taken biogas slurry into a fertilizer storage tank for composting and clarification for 5-7 days, filtering the biogas slurry by using sand cloth, and standing the biogas slurry for 2-3 days; then preparing a boron fertilizer solution and a calcium fertilizer solution, selecting the amounts of clear water, the sugar alcohol boron fertilizer and the sugar alcohol chelated calcium fertilizer to be added according to the nutritional status and the safe application concentration of the tree body and the fruit, and mixing the clear water, the sugar alcohol boron fertilizer and the sugar alcohol chelated calcium fertilizer to obtain 1300-1500 times of sugar alcohol boron fertilizer solution and 1300-2000 times of sugar alcohol chelated calcium fertilizer solution, so as to prepare the boron fertilizer solution and the calcium fertilizer solution; preparing a biogas slurry solution, taking biogas slurry according to the dosage of 7-10 kg/mu, diluting with clear water, and preparing the biogas slurry solution, wherein the weight ratio of the biogas slurry to the water is 1: 1-2; and finally, mixing the boron, calcium fertilizer solution and biogas slurry solution to obtain the biogas slurry compound foliar fertilizer.
The decomposed biogas slurry contains rich amino acids, active enzymes, mineral nutrient elements and the like, the nutrient availability is high, and the decomposed biogas slurry also contains components capable of destroying cell membranes and in-vivo proteins of unicellular germs, so that the yield of peach trees can be increased, the fruit quality can be improved, the stress resistance of the trees can be enhanced, and the propagation of harmful germs and pests can be effectively controlled; the sugar alcohol boron fertilizer and the sugar alcohol chelated calcium fertilizer are added into the biogas slurry, so that cell division can be promoted, the number of cells can be increased, the cells can be arranged orderly, fruit cracking can be prevented, and a foundation is laid for obtaining high yield and excellent appearance in the later period; in addition, the sugar alcohol boron fertilizer and the sugar alcohol chelated calcium fertilizer are adopted according to the method, antagonism of boron and calcium during simultaneous application can be prevented, and the effect of boron and calcium co-supplement is achieved.
The preparation method of the procyanidine compound foliar fertilizer comprises the following steps: adding clear water into ascorbic acid to prepare a solution with the concentration of 5g/L, adding natural procyanidine extracted from grape seeds into the ascorbic acid solution to prepare a procyanidine mixed solution with the concentration of 1.5g/L, diluting by 150 times, and adding monopotassium phosphate into a diluent of the procyanidine mixed solution according to the nutritional status of trees and fruits to prepare the procyanidine compound foliar fertilizer with the monopotassium phosphate content of 0.2-0.3%. Procyanidin is a water-soluble powerful antioxidant, is different from anthocyanin, and has the main effects of relieving eye fatigue and accelerating the synthesis speed of rhodopsin on retina by vitamin A, but the capacity of scavenging free radicals and resisting oxidation is lower than that of procyanidin; the water-solubility of procyanidin makes its overall absorption rate much higher than other antioxidants (vitamin E, lycopene, astaxanthin, etc.); the proanthocyanidin can stably exist in a solution containing ascorbic acid and monopotassium phosphate, the content of the proanthocyanidin in the fruits can be effectively improved after the proanthocyanidin is sprayed on the leaf surfaces, the fruit quality is obviously improved, the taste and the flavor of the fruits can be effectively improved by the monopotassium phosphate, the formation of anthocyanin is promoted, the color of the peach fruits is increased, and the appearance quality is improved.
Management of temp. and humidity
Temperature management: after film covering, performing temperature management according to each growth period in the fruit mature period of the next year: in the morning, when the temperature in the greenhouse reaches 12-13 ℃, rolling up the heat preservation quilt; in the noon, when the temperature in the greenhouse reaches 2 ℃ higher than the lower limit of each growth period, the ventilation is started; in the afternoon, when the temperature in the greenhouse is reduced to be higher than the lower limit of each growth period by 2 ℃, closing the ventilation opening;
the fruit harvesting period is from the middle ten days of 5 months to the bottom of 5 months, and the ventilation opening is opened all day long; after harvesting, removing the heat preservation quilt and the greenhouse film to enable the fruit trees to grow in a natural environment;
air humidity management: humidity is adjusted through adjusting the ventilation opening, and ventilation is kept when the relative humidity is high;
in different growth periods of fruit trees, the management parameters of the daytime temperature, the nighttime temperature and the relative air humidity are shown in the following table:
growth period Daytime temperature (. degree. C.) Temperature at night (. degree.C.) Relative humidity of air (%)
In the stage of germination 13~18 4~6 60~80
Flowering period 16~20 5~10 50~60
Young fruit period 18~22 10~15 <60
Fruit enlargement period 20~25 10~15 <60
Mature period of fruit 25~28 12~16 <60
The greenhouse has large space, the east and south of the greenhouse which receives the sunlight firstly heats up earlier and faster when the ventilation opening is opened in the morning, the greenhouse is ventilated firstly when the preset ventilation temperature is reached, and the north and west of the greenhouse heat up later and slower, and then the greenhouse is ventilated; when the ventilation openings are closed in the afternoon, the east surface and the south surface of the greenhouse are cooled earlier and faster, when the temperature of the preset closed ventilation openings is reached, the ventilation openings are closed first, and the north surface and the west surface of the greenhouse are cooled relatively later and slower, the ventilation openings are closed later; according to the temperatures of different areas, the ventilation openings are opened and closed in a partitioning mode, a good growing environment is created for the tree body, and the tree body growth inhibition in the area which does not reach the temperature is effectively prevented.
Bee supplementary pollination
When the fruit trees enter the initial flowering period, bees are placed in the greenhouse for pollination, the bee placement amount is 1 box/3 mu, 4000 bees/box, the yellow and blue plates are required to be removed during bee pollination, the insecticidal lamp is turned off during the bee activity time, otherwise, the bees are adhered to the insecticidal plates (namely the yellow and blue plates) or killed by the insecticidal lamp, the pollination effect is influenced, and the nectarine yield is reduced; taking out bees after the flowering phase is finished;
fruit thinning
Thinning fruits twice, wherein thinning fruits is carried out after the first physiological fruit drop of the fruit trees occurs for the first time, picking off dysplasia, malformation, upright fruits, small fruits and leafless fruits 25-30 days after flower withering, and leaving long and large fruits with uniform growth, wherein the fruit quantity is 2-2.5 times of the set yield;
and (3) thinning fruits for the second time, namely fruit setting, before hardening kernels after physiological fruit dropping for the second time, and leaving 8-12 fruits on each bone trunk branch in 5-6 weeks after flower withering according to the set yield (500 kg/mu) of the first year: 2 long fruit branches are reserved, 1-2 middle fruit branches are reserved, 0-1 short fruit branches are reserved, and no fruit is reserved on weak fruit branches;
seventhly, pruning in summer and autumn and adjusting density
After the fruit is harvested, pruning is carried out in summer in the beginning of 6 months, and part of branches on the back and the branches with vigorous growth are properly pruned, so that the ventilation and light transmittance of the tree body are improved, and the canopy closure caused by large branch quantity in the crown is prevented; if the branches are excessively pruned, the main stems of the fruit trees are scorched and injured, the main stems of the fruit trees are obliquely pulled into an angle of 45 ℃ at the beginning of 8 months, the tree shape is fixed, and when the young shoots grow to about 5cm, useless buds and young shoots are removed;
after harvesting is finished in the fruiting period of the first year, the row spacing of the fruit trees is unchanged, the plant spacing is adjusted to be 3m, and the density is adjusted to be 110 plants/mu; after the first year fruiting period is finished, the tree bodies are greatly increased compared with the earlier period, the fruiting capacity is also enhanced, and the density is adjusted in time, so that the later healthy growth of the tree bodies is facilitated, and the fruit yield and the economic benefit are not influenced;
eighthly, pruning in winter
In the middle ten days of 11 months to the last ten days of 12 months, performing shrinkage shearing and fruit branch updating, shortening overlong lateral branches to 40-45 cm, shearing off diseased, insect, damaged and weak fruit branches, selecting and reserving 3 robust fruit branches for each lateral branch, reserving the fruit branches to 10-15 cm in length, spacing every two adjacent fruit branches to 15-20 cm, shearing off other vigorous long branches, upward branches on the back, downward branches and the like, and performing shrinkage shearing on the bone trunk branches to 80-100 cm in length;
ninthly preventing and controlling diseases, pests and weeds and loosening soil in field
The pest and disease damage in the fruiting period is increased compared with the pest and disease damage in the seedling period, and the peach scab, peach anthracnose, peach brown rot, peach fruit borer and the like which damage fruits have the same prevention and treatment method as the prevention and treatment method of seedling management;
the method for weed control and field loosening is the same as that for seedling management.
(7) Full bearing age management
First, thinning fruit
The first fruit thinning method is the same as the vegetable and fruit thinning method in the first year fruit bearing period, the second fruit thinning is carried out after the second physiological fruit dropping and before the fruit is hardened, in 5-6 weeks after flower withering, according to the set yield (1250-1500 kg/mu) in the fruit bearing period, 30-35 fruits are left in each bone branch, 2-3 long branches are left, 1-2 middle branches are left, 0-1 short branches are left, and no fruit is left in weak branches;
② fertilizer operational research
During the period from film covering to fruit swelling, if the tree body has the symptom of fertilizer shortage, 1-2 times of water-soluble fertilizer can be applied to rapidly supply the nutrition of the tree body and promote the growth and development of plants and fruits, the time of applying fertilizer every two adjacent times is 15-20 days apart, and 9-12 kg/mu of sulfur-based ternary water-soluble fertilizer (the content of N, P, K in the fertilizer is 15%, 15% and 15% respectively) is applied during each time of applying fertilizer; in the swelling period, at the beginning of 4 months, applying the sulfur-based ternary compound fertilizer by adopting a 4-point hole application method according to the use amount of 35-40 kg/mu; after harvesting, applying the ternary compound fertilizer for 1 time by adopting a 4-point hole application method according to the use amount of 25-30 kg/mu at the bottom of 5 months to promote the growth of fruit tree nutrients, and applying the ternary compound fertilizer for the second time by adopting a 4-point hole application method according to the use amount of 55-60 kg/mu at the bottom of 9 months; applying the decomposed sheep manure in the last ten days of 11 months at the dosage of 1-1.25 t/mu, spreading the fertilizer between every two adjacent rows of plants, and shallow-turning the manure into soil by using a small machine, wherein the depth of the turned soil is 15-20 cm; the applied fertilizer is properly increased and decreased according to the field fertility condition along with the growth of the tree body;
spraying a biogas slurry composite foliar fertilizer and a procyanidine composite foliar fertilizer after blooming and before harvesting, wherein the spraying method is the same as that of the corresponding foliar fertilizer in the fruiting period of the first year;
and the other management measures are the same as the fruiting period in the first year.
It should be understood by those skilled in the art that the above embodiments are only for illustrating the present invention and are not to be used as a limitation of the present invention, and that changes and modifications to the above embodiments are within the scope of the claims of the present invention as long as they are within the spirit and scope of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. An efficient nectarine cultivation method through intelligent facilities is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) selection of Garden and variety
Selecting a plot with fresh air, clean water quality, flat and wide terrain, sufficient illumination, fertile and unpolluted soil, underground water level not higher than 1 meter and good irrigation and drainage conditions in a garden;
selecting a short low-temperature early-maturing variety from the nectarine variety;
(2) greenhouse building
The greenhouse is a heat-insulating super greenhouse, the greenhouse is built in the north-south direction, the length of the north-south direction is 160m, the width of the east-west direction is 32m, the height of the center is 8m, and the heights of the two sides are 1.1 m; the specific construction process is as follows:
the method comprises the following steps of firstly building a steel frame structure of the greenhouse, namely arranging 3 rows of steel pipe stand columns in the north-south direction at equal intervals, wherein the interval between every two adjacent rows of steel pipe stand columns is 8m, the interval between every two adjacent steel pipe stand columns in the same row is 3.5m, 9 inclined support columns are respectively arranged on the two sides of the north and south of the greenhouse, main supports at the top of the greenhouse are arranged at intervals of 3.5m, and 4 auxiliary supports are arranged between every two adjacent main supports at equal intervals; then covering an insect-proof net and a special 8S P0 film for the greenhouse on the outer surface of the steel frame structure, and arranging a wind-proof rope on the surface of the film and covering a waterproof pearl wool heat-insulating material;
after the external structure of the greenhouse is built, an automatic air release machine, an automatic curtain rolling machine and a water and fertilizer integrated device are installed in the greenhouse, and temperature and humidity sensors are respectively installed in the north and south directions of the greenhouse; the automatic air release machine, the automatic curtain rolling machine, the water and fertilizer integrated equipment and the temperature and humidity sensor are respectively and correspondingly connected with an output end and an input end of a control system by adopting the technology of Internet of things, and the control system is also connected with a 4G mobile phone micro-terminal and a computer terminal;
(3) preparation of field
Before field planting, turning soil, applying a base fertilizer, then ridging, wherein the total width of each ridge and each ditch is 4m, the width and the depth of the ditch formed between every two adjacent ridges are both 60cm, and a black film is paved in the ditches to protect the ditches and prevent growing grass;
(4) tree seedling planting and drip irrigation tape laying
And (3) selecting 1 year-old grafted non-toxic seedlings which are strong in plants, developed in root systems and free of diseases and insect pests for field planting at the beginning of 12 months, wherein the height of the selected seedlings is 95-100 cm, and the initial density of the field planting is as follows: 220 plants/mu, the row spacing is 2m multiplied by the plant spacing is 1.5 m; then laying three-belt type water and fertilizer integrated drip irrigation belts on the outer sides of the saplings;
(5) management of seedling stage
Removing the greenhouse film from the seedling stage of the nectarines to the beginning of 12 months in the next year after field planting, and only covering an insect-proof net to ensure that the seedlings naturally grow in the open field; the management content comprises the following steps: pruning tree types, managing water, carrying out fertilizer operation, pruning fruiting branches, forming bone trunk branches, preventing and controlling plant diseases and insect pests, preventing and removing weeds and loosening soil in the field; loosening the soil 1 time at the beginning of 6 months in the next year after planting, and loosening the soil at a position 40cm away from the tree root by adopting a small machine, wherein the depth of the loosened soil is 10-15 cm;
(6) management of fruiting period in first year
The fruiting period of the first year is 12 months after planting to the end of the third year after planting; the management of the period is as follows:
first, film-coating heat preservation
Covering a film and a heat preservation quilt in the last 12 months of the second year after planting;
② moisture management
Watering for 1 time every 1 month after film covering according to the soil humidity, and watering for the last time at the beginning of 4 months to keep the soil humidity at 65% -75%;
③ fertilizer operation and research
Applying water-soluble fertilizer to the trees after film covering and before harvesting aiming at the possible symptom of lack of fertilizer of the trees: before fruit swelling, applying water-soluble fertilizers for 1-2 times, wherein the time interval between every two adjacent fertilization times is 15-20 days, and applying sulfur-based ternary water-soluble fertilizers according to the dosage of 7-9 kg/mu in each fertilization, wherein the N, P, K content in the fertilizers is 15%, 15% and 15% respectively; applying 1 time of water-soluble fertilizer in the later stage of fruit swelling and before harvesting, and applying 7-9 kg/mu of sulfur-based ternary water-soluble fertilizer, wherein the N, P, K content in the fertilizer is 12%, 3% and 45% respectively;
after harvesting, applying the ternary compound fertilizer for 1 time by adopting a 4-time hole application method according to the use amount of 20-25 kg/mu at the bottom of 5 months; at the bottom of 9 months, applying the ternary compound fertilizer for the second time by adopting a 4-point application method according to the dosage of 50-55 kg/mu; in the last ten days of 11 months, applying additional fertilizer for the third time, applying the decomposed sheep manure according to the using amount of 1 t/mu, spreading the fertilizer between every two adjacent rows of plants, and slightly turning the manure into soil by using a small machine, wherein the turning depth is 15-20 cm;
spraying 3 times of biogas slurry composite foliar fertilizer and 2 times of procyanidine composite foliar fertilizer after blooming, wherein the interval time between every two adjacent spraying of the foliar fertilizer is more than or equal to 10 days, the first spraying of the biogas slurry composite foliar fertilizer is 30-35 days after blooming, the second spraying of the biogas slurry composite foliar fertilizer is in a fruit expanding period, and the third spraying of the biogas slurry composite foliar fertilizer is 30-35 days before fruit harvest; the spraying time of the procyanidine compound foliar fertilizer for the first time is in the later fruit expansion period, and the spraying time of the procyanidine compound foliar fertilizer for the second time is 20-25 days before fruit harvest; the two leaf fertilizers are prepared at any time;
management of temp. and humidity
Temperature management: after film covering, performing temperature management according to each growth period in the fruit mature period of the next year: in the morning, when the temperature in the greenhouse reaches 12-13 ℃, rolling up the heat preservation quilt; in the noon, when the temperature in the greenhouse reaches 2 ℃ higher than the lower limit of each growth period, the ventilation is started; in the afternoon, when the temperature in the greenhouse is reduced to be higher than the lower limit of each growth period by 2 ℃, closing the ventilation opening;
the fruit harvesting period is from the middle ten days of 5 months to the bottom of 5 months, and the ventilation opening is opened all day long; after harvesting, removing the heat preservation quilt and the greenhouse film to enable the fruit trees to grow in a natural environment;
air humidity management: humidity is adjusted through adjusting the ventilation opening, and ventilation is kept when the relative humidity is high;
in different growth periods of fruit trees, the management parameters of the daytime temperature, the nighttime temperature and the relative air humidity are as follows: in the germination stage, the temperature in the daytime is controlled to be 13-18 ℃, the temperature at night is controlled to be 4-6 ℃, and the relative humidity of air is controlled to be 60% -80%; in the flowering period, the temperature in the daytime is controlled to be 16-20 ℃, the temperature at night is controlled to be 5-10 ℃, and the relative humidity of air is 50-60%; in the young fruit period, the temperature in the daytime is controlled to be 18-22 ℃, the temperature at night is controlled to be 10-15 ℃, and the relative humidity of air is less than 60%; in the fruit expansion period, the temperature in the daytime is controlled to be 20-25 ℃, the temperature at night is controlled to be 10-15 ℃, and the relative humidity of air is less than 60%; in the fruit ripening period, the temperature in the daytime is controlled to be 25-28 ℃, the temperature at night is controlled to be 12-16 ℃, and the relative humidity of air is less than 60%;
bee supplementary pollination
When the fruit trees enter the initial flowering period, bees are placed in the greenhouse, the bee placement amount is 1 box/3 mu and 4000 bees/box, yellow and blue plates are removed during bee supplementary pollination, and the pest killing lamp is turned off during bee activity time; taking out bees after the flowering phase is finished;
fruit thinning and fruit setting
Thinning fruits after the first physiological fruit drop of the fruit trees, removing dysplasia, malformation, upright fruits, small fruits and leafless fruits 25-30 days after flower withering, and reserving long and symmetrical fruits with the fruit amount being 2-2.5 times of the set yield; and (3) fruit setting is carried out after the second physiological fruit drop before kernel hardening, and 8-12 fruits are left in each bone trunk branch according to the set yield of the fruit in the first year after 5-6 weeks of flower withering: each long fruit branch is reserved for 2, each middle fruit branch is reserved for 1-2, each short fruit branch is reserved for 0-1, and no fruit is reserved on weak fruit branches;
seventhly, pruning in summer and autumn and adjusting density
After the fruit is harvested, pruning is carried out in summer in the beginning of 6 months, and part of branches on the back and the branches with vigorous growth are properly pruned, so that the ventilation and light transmittance of the tree body are improved, and the canopy closure caused by large branch quantity in the crown is prevented; if the branches are excessively pruned, the main stems of the fruit trees are burnt and injured, the branches of the main stems are obliquely pulled into an angle of 45 ℃ in the beginning of 8 months, and the tree shape is fixed; when young shoots grow to about 5cm, removing useless buds and young shoots;
after harvesting is finished in the fruiting period of the first year, the row spacing of the fruit trees is unchanged, the row spacing is adjusted to be 3m, and the density of the fruit trees is adjusted to be 110 plants/mu;
eighthly, pruning in winter
In the middle ten days of 11 months to the last ten days of 12 months, performing shrinkage shearing and fruit branch updating, shortening overlong lateral branches to 40-45 cm, shearing off diseased, insect, damaged and weak fruit branches, selecting and reserving 3 robust fruit branches for each lateral branch, reserving the length of the fruit branches to 10-15 cm, spacing every two adjacent fruit branches to 15-20 cm, shearing off other vigorous long branches, back upper branches and downward drooping branches, and performing shrinkage shearing on the length of bone trunk branches to 80-100 cm;
ninthly preventing and controlling diseases, pests and weeds and loosening soil in field
In the aspect of pest control, the prevention is mainly carried out, and a green prevention and control technology combining a plurality of treatment methods is adopted from the aspects of agriculture, physics, biology and chemistry;
agricultural control: selecting a disease-resistant variety, paying attention to timely draining in seasons with frequent rain, and keeping proper soil humidity in the field; the comprehensive management of the peach orchard is enhanced, the ventilation and light transmission are improved, the tree vigor is enhanced, and the disease resistance is improved; meanwhile, reasonably shaping and pruning, timely pruning pest branches, cleaning dead branches and fallen leaves, scraping off bark and disease spots on the trunk after the tree body falls leaves, and timely cleaning the trunk out of the garden and burning the trunk;
physical and biological control: an insect-proof net is covered at the ventilation opening of the greenhouse, and a yellow plate, a blue plate, an insect-killing lamp and a sex attractant are placed in the greenhouse;
chemical control: after bark warping and disease spots of a trunk are scraped, the base part of the trunk is whiteled, 3-5 degrees of lime sulphur is sprayed at the initial germination stage, and biological agents and high-efficiency low-toxicity low-residue chemical agents which meet the GB 4285 standard are selected for timely prevention and treatment according to the occurrence situation of diseases and insect pests during the whole growth period;
artificial weeding is adopted for weed control;
(7) full bearing age management
Firstly, thinning fruit and fixing fruit
The fruit thinning method is the same as the vegetable and fruit thinning method in the fruit bearing period of the first year, fruit setting is carried out after the second physiological fruit drop and before stone hardening, and 30-35 fruits are left in each bone trunk branch after 5-6 weeks after flower withering according to the set yield in the fruit bearing period: 2-3 long fruit branches are reserved in each long fruit branch, 1-2 middle fruit branches are reserved in each medium fruit branch, 0-1 short fruit branch is reserved in each medium fruit branch, and no fruit is reserved in weak fruit branches;
② fertilizer operational research
Applying water-soluble fertilizers for 1-2 times in a fruit swelling period after film covering aiming at the possible fertilizer shortage symptom of the tree body, wherein the time interval between every two adjacent fertilization is 15-20 days, and applying sulfur-based ternary water-soluble fertilizers according to the dosage of 9-12 kg/mu in each fertilization, wherein the N, P, K content in the fertilizers is 15%, 15% and 15% respectively; in the fruit swelling period, applying the sulfur-based ternary compound fertilizer by adopting a 4-point hole application method according to the use amount of 35-40 kg/mu;
after harvesting, applying the ternary compound fertilizer for 1 time by adopting a 4-point hole application method according to the use amount of 25-30 kg/mu at the bottom of 5 months; at the bottom of 9 months, applying the ternary compound fertilizer for the second time by adopting a 4-point application method according to the use amount of 55-60 kg/mu; applying the decomposed sheep manure in the last ten days of 11 months at the dosage of 1-1.25 t/mu, spreading the fertilizer between every two adjacent rows of plants, and shallow-turning the manure into soil by using a small machine, wherein the depth of the turned soil is 15-20 cm; the applied fertilizer is properly increased and decreased according to the field fertility condition along with the growth of the tree body;
spraying a biogas slurry composite foliar fertilizer and a procyanidine composite foliar fertilizer after blooming and before harvesting, wherein the spraying method is the same as that of the corresponding foliar fertilizer in the fruiting period of the first year;
and the other management measures are the same as those in the fruiting period of the first year.
2. The efficient nectarine cultivation method through intelligent facilities as claimed in claim 1, wherein the concrete operations of turning soil and applying base fertilizer in step (3) are as follows: crushing fresh rice straws, directly pressing the crushed fresh rice straws in a field, pressing 600kg of fresh rice straws in each mu of field, applying decomposed sheep manure into the field according to the dosage of 1 t/mu, applying phosphate fertilizer and P in the phosphate fertilizer according to the dosage of 30 kg/mu2O5The content of the fertilizer is 12 percent, and after the base fertilizer is applied, rotary tillage is carried out according to the depth of 20-30 cm, so that the soil and the fertilizer are fully mixed.
3. The efficient nectarine cultivation method through intelligent facilities as claimed in claim 1, wherein the specific operations of field planting of the saplings in the step (4) are as follows: adopting north-south row planting, horizontally placing the saplings on ridges, taking soil on the ridges to surround the peripheries of tree roots to form small soil piles with the height of 20-25 cm and the diameter of 40-50 cm, and irrigating water into ditches to 5-8 cm beyond the ridge surfaces after the saplings are planted in a planting mode; draining water in the ditch after 8-10 h to ensure that the soil is fully settled and the root system is in close contact with the soil; and when the soil humidity is restored to 65% -75%, the soil on the ridges is taken again to surround the tree roots, the height of the small soil piles is kept to be 20-25 cm, the diameter is kept to be 40-50 cm, and then the soil is taken to cover the periphery of the small soil piles, so that the root system is prevented from being exposed and the soil is prevented from hardening and cracking.
4. The efficient nectarine cultivation method adopting the intelligent facilities as claimed in claim 1, wherein the laying of the three-belt type water-fertilizer integrated drip irrigation belt in the step (4) is specifically performed by: 3 water and fertilizer integrated drip irrigation belts are paved at the position 10cm away from the main stem of the seedling and at the positions 30cm away from the left side and the right side of the main stem of the seedling, and anti-freezing and heat-insulating measures are taken for pipelines positioned at the periphery of the greenhouse.
5. The efficient nectarine cultivation method through intelligent facilities according to claim 1, wherein the specific preparation method of the biogas slurry compound foliar fertilizer in the third step (6) is as follows: firstly treating biogas slurry, taking biogas slurry in a biogas digester which normally produces biogas for more than 3 months, sending the taken biogas slurry into a fertilizer storage tank for composting and clarification for 5-7 days, filtering the biogas slurry by using sand cloth, and standing the biogas slurry for 2-3 days; then preparing a boron fertilizer solution and a calcium fertilizer solution, selecting the amounts of clear water, the sugar alcohol boron fertilizer and the sugar alcohol chelated calcium fertilizer to be added according to the nutritional status and the safe application concentration of the tree body and the fruit, and mixing the clear water, the sugar alcohol boron fertilizer and the sugar alcohol chelated calcium fertilizer to obtain 1300-1500 times of sugar alcohol boron fertilizer solution and 1300-2000 times of sugar alcohol chelated calcium fertilizer solution, so as to prepare the boron fertilizer solution and the calcium fertilizer solution; preparing a biogas slurry solution, taking biogas slurry according to the dosage of 7-10 kg/mu, diluting with clear water, and preparing the biogas slurry solution, wherein the weight ratio of the biogas slurry to the water is 1: 1-2; and finally, mixing the boron, calcium fertilizer solution and biogas slurry solution to obtain the biogas slurry compound foliar fertilizer.
6. The intelligent facility efficient nectarine cultivation method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the specific preparation method of the proanthocyanidin compound foliar fertilizer in the third step (6) is as follows: adding clear water into ascorbic acid to prepare a solution with the concentration of 5g/L, adding natural procyanidine extracted from grape seeds into the ascorbic acid solution to prepare a procyanidine mixed solution with the concentration of 1.5g/L, diluting by 150 times, and adding monopotassium phosphate into a diluent of the procyanidine mixed solution according to the nutritional status of trees and fruits to prepare the procyanidine compound foliar fertilizer with the monopotassium phosphate content of 0.2-0.3%.
7. The intelligent nectarine facility efficient cultivation method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step (6), when the ventilation opening is opened in the morning, the east and south of the greenhouse which is irradiated by sunlight first are heated earlier and faster, when the preset ventilation temperature is reached, the greenhouse is ventilated first, and when the north and west of the greenhouse are heated later and slower, the greenhouse is ventilated later; when the ventilation opening is closed in the afternoon, the temperature of the east surface and the south surface of the greenhouse is cooled earlier and faster, the ventilation opening is closed firstly when the temperature of the preset closed ventilation opening is reached, and the temperature of the north surface and the west surface of the greenhouse is cooled relatively later and slower, and then the ventilation opening is closed later.
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