CN103283450A - Golden camellia bud seedling stock grafting propagation method - Google Patents

Golden camellia bud seedling stock grafting propagation method Download PDF

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CN103283450A
CN103283450A CN2013101981857A CN201310198185A CN103283450A CN 103283450 A CN103283450 A CN 103283450A CN 2013101981857 A CN2013101981857 A CN 2013101981857A CN 201310198185 A CN201310198185 A CN 201310198185A CN 103283450 A CN103283450 A CN 103283450A
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China
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grafting
seedling
bud
liquid
stock
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CN2013101981857A
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CN103283450B (en
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邓荫伟
梁士楚
梁瑞郑
唐绍清
刘灵
韩宗林
邓益德
吴建波
刘仁路
韩宗柏
唐森生
邓鑫洲
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广西师范大学
广西合浦德顺种养有限公司
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Abstract

The invention relates to a golden camellia bud seedling stock grafting propagation method. The golden camellia bud seedling stock grafting propagation method includes the steps of stock seedlings cultivation, nursery lands selection and soil preparation, sun shelter building, grafting, field planting, seedling management, nursery stock transplanting, nursery stock out-planting and the like. Bud seedling stocks are grafted indoors, and the golden camellia bud seedling stock grafting propagation method is simple and easy to operate, high in grafting speed, low in cost and high in benefit and is an important technique for cultivating a large number of golden camellia grafting seedlings.

Description

The propagation method of a kind of Camellia nitidissima sprout stock grafting
Technical field
The present invention relates to the propagation method of flowers, particularly the propagation method of a kind of Camellia nitidissima sprout stock grafting.
Background technology
Camellia nitidissima belongs to the Theaceae dungarunga, is one of eight kinds of the most precious plants of China, is described as " world's treasure ", " queen of tea family ", " plant giant panda ", " flowers superstar " by public affairs throughout the world, belongs to the first-grade state protection rare plant.Camellia nitidissima is well-known in the world, and Japan once introduced a strain Camellia nitidissima with 2.5 ten thousand dollars from China, thereby causes a sensation the world, and flower bed makes a stir all over the world.Camellia nitidissima contains trace element and the Tea Polyphenols that the important health care of kinds more than ten such as natural organic germanium, selenium, molybdenum, vanadium, zinc is worth, and the amino acid necessary to human body, tool is hypotensive, reducing blood lipid, reduction cholesterol, prevents arteriosclerosis, delay senility, improve health-care effects such as immunologic function.
In recent years; the every strain valency of the qualified seedling 30-50 unit of Camellia nitidissima; 6.0 yuan of bright leaf per kilogram valencys; fresh flower per kilogram valency 800-1000 unit; but annual value of production is about 1.7 ten thousand yuan when planting 1 mu of Camellia nitidissima operation; Camellia nitidissima is evergreen rare famous and precious seeds, the plantation Camellia nitidissima to protect ecology, the effect of beautifying the environment is obvious.This shows development Camellia nitidissima industrial economy, society, ecology " three is big " remarkable benefit.
Mainly in area growth warm, moist, half cloudy half light, its major part is grown under the pin broad leaved forest Camellia nitidissima, suitable sylvan life cultivation.Development sylvan life economy is " short, adaptable and fast " and a kind of new way of benefiting the rural area huge numbers of families, is the green civilian-oriented project that the guiding peasant does not chop at a tree or chops at a tree less and can get rich in the same old way, save the forest resources, protect ecology.Guangxi is attached great importance to the sylvan life economic development, and in June, 2010, party committee of autonomous region, government held the economic development of whole district's sylvan life first on-the-spot meeting, had put into effect a series of Huinong's policies, had promoted the sylvan life rapid economic development; In October, 2010, Guangxi district government put into effect " about promoting the suggestion of sylvan life economic development energetically " again in succession, had implemented the sylvan life economic development policy of a series of great efforts, broad covered area.And set aside 5 hundred million of funds and support the sylvan life economic development.General office of party committee of autonomous region, Office of the People's Government dispatched a joint document and started Guangxi sylvan life economy " ten million peasant increases income for thousand yuan " engineering in September, 2011: plan was from 2011, used for 5 years, strive for that whole district's sylvan life economic area develops into 5,000 ten thousand mu, 50,000,000,000 yuan of annual value of production; By development sylvan life economy, accumulative total 2,000 ten thousand self-employed tree cultivators realize that the people increases income more than 1000 yuan every year.Develop sylvan life economy so on a large scale; Camellia nitidissima has become the first-selected seeds of underwood planting; a large amount of breeding Camellia nitidissima nursery stocks are breeding protection with development and use and promoting the sylvan life economic development of the rare famous and precious plant-Camellia nitidissima of development; the masses increase income to hill farmer, realize that Guangxi new leap of rich people Qiang Gui has great significance.
In order to enlarge the breeding of Camellia nitidissima nursery stock, domestic part scientific research institutions have carried out method propagation techniques researchs such as employing seed, overhead layering, cuttage, grafting in succession, change hat grafting, autumn branches, simple bud side grafting and sprout grafting etc. as big tree, but exist the inheritance instability, survival rate is low, be difficult to cultivate nursery stock in enormous quantities, breeding not in enormous quantities is applied, field operation, and grafting speed is slow, time-consuming, the cost-effective benefit is low.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention provides the propagation method of a kind of Camellia nitidissima sprout stock grafting, and propagation method of the present invention is adopted sprout stock in grafting, and operation is simple, grafting speed is fast, cost is low, and high efficiency is the important technology of factorial seedling growth, large scale cultivating Camellia nitidissima grafting.Only property cultivation Camellia nitidissima nursery stock strain more than 70,000 annually (graft survival rate 95%, nursery stock storage rate 85%) in 2012 of the present invention.
The technical scheme that the present invention solves the problems of the technologies described above is as follows: the propagation method of a kind of Camellia nitidissima sprout stock grafting comprises:
(1) the anvil seedling is cultivated
1, seed is selected: pluck ripe Vietnam's oil tea fruit, through after the Exposure to Sunlight in 1-2 days, be placed on the shady and cool ventilation place, take out seed behind the cracking of fruit;
2, seed storage and vernalization: seed adopts clean river sand to preserve and vernalization, cultivates sturdy grafting anvil seedling;
(2) nursery lot is selected and whole ground
Be chosen in have a good transport service, face south, leeward area, more than the dark 50cm of soil layer, soil pH value 5.5-6.5, plough deeply 25cm in mid-November last year to late December, carry out the whole ground second time mid-February next year, deep-cut 20cm, apply base manure, plough deeply, every mu is spilt that to execute concentration be 2% ferrous sulfate aqueous solution 8kg then, and it is standby to cover plastic sheeting for farm use;
(3) take cool canopy
Set up cool canopy at nursery lot, the high 1.8-2.0m of frame, on cover the sunshade net, the sunshade degree is 75%, all covers around the cool canopy;
(4) grafting
1, grafting time: mid-April is to mid-May;
2, scion is selected and keeping: in Camellia nitidissima elite stand tree crown middle and upper part, select to give birth to last year the full autumn growth of axillalry bud, the branch of the thick 0.25-0.30cm in footpath is done scion;
3, the anvil seedling is selected and handled: that selects the anvil seedling bud thick 0.25-0.35cm in footpath makes the anvil bud, and the anvil bud is with clear water flush away river sand, puts into 500 times of liquid of carbendazim of 50% again and soaks 10 seconds, pulls filter out and does, and preserves moisture with wet towel lid anvil bud simultaneously, standby;
4, grafting operation
(1) cut scion: every section long 2.0cm of scion, a fringe one leaf, every leaf cuts off 1/2,0.30cm place, flat axillalry bud upper end cuts off, the lower end keeps long 1.6cm, when cutting scion under both sides, 0.3cm place below the bud the past 15 ° of angles of declivity of cutter, be whittled into that otch 1.3cm grows, the wedge shape scion of 30 ° of points;
(2) cut stock: as stock, the 1.50-2.50cm place cuts off stem apex above the seed of bud seedling with the anvil bud, is completely cured in 4.0-5.0cm place, bud seed below, and cutter is rived the long 1.2-1.3cm of opening toward the lower edge medulla under center above the seedling stem then;
(3) engage: behind the stock opening, the wedge shape scion straight cutting of cutting is gone into opening, prick with the special-purpose aluminium suitcase of the grafting of long 3.8cm, wide 1.0cm;
(5) field planting
After the grafting, plant in nursery lot in 30 minutes, by spacing in the rows 4.0cm, line-spacing 7.5cm field planting, with the clear water seedbed of drenching, when treating that blade loseed moisture content in 20-30 minute, 500 times of liquid of the carbendazim with 50% are sprayed, and do the insulation canopy then in the seedbed behind the intact furrow of field planting;
(6) seedling management
Carry out the extermination of disease and insect pest, in time take off plastic sheeting for farm use, weeding, remove rudiment, spray medicine, execute foliage fertilizer, loosen the soil, topdress, in time water;
(7) Nursery stock transplanting
Early October, transplanted in the nutrition cup and cultivates after the Camellia nitidissima seedling grafting survives and takes out the tip to early November, put cup by the wide furrow face of 1.2m, every row is put 8 in cup, the long 7.5m of every furrow, pavement 40cm, in time drench with clear water after sequencing the nutrition cup of furrow, treat 20-30 minute after, spray 500 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim, carry out the plastic sheeting for farm use shed then, set up the cool canopy of sunshade degree 75% simultaneously, stuffy sun around the high 1.8-2.0m of cool canopy, cool canopy;
Mid-February next year, the plastic sheeting for farm use shed is removed, topdress once after 15 days at interval.
(8) outplanting
Seedling height reaches more than the 45cm, and the Camellia nitidissima nutrition cup grafting of the thick 0.4-0.5cm in footpath is out the qualified seedling in garden.
On the basis of technique scheme, the present invention can also do following improvement.
Further, select and put in order in the ground at nursery lot, the described base manure that applies is that every mu of nursery lot is executed compound potassium sulfate fertilizer (solid particulate) 30kg and superphosphate 50kg, and the specification of described compound potassium sulfate fertilizer is: 15%(N), 15%(P 2O 5), 15%(K 2O).
Further, in seedling management, described spray medicine refers to spray the seedbed with 500 times of liquid of 70% thiophanate methyl or 500 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim or 800 times of liquid of 75% tpn comprehensively, 7-10 days 1 time at interval, connect and to spray 5-6 time, the medicament of each use can not same kind, should exchange use, the described foliage fertilizer of executing refers to spray foliage fertilizer 1 time in 3-4 days behind each spray medicine, and described foliage fertilizer is that [ specification is: 15%(N), 15%(P for 0.7% compound potassium sulfate fertilizer liquid 2O 5), 15%(K 2O) ], a kind of in the mixed liquor of green fragrant No. 2 800 times of liquid, 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.2% boron fertilizers;
Further, in Nursery stock transplanting, described nutrition cup specification: high 16cm, diameter 15cm, nutrition soil adopt the loose sand loam of subacidity of pH value 5.5-6.5, join 15% pig manure that becomes thoroughly decomposed in the nutrition soil.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
The inventive method is adopted sprout stock in grafting, the grafting well developed root system of cultivation, and growth is fast, graft seedling growth survival rate height, outplanting rate height, but large-scale breeding nursery stock, operation is simple, grafting speed is fast, cost is low, and high efficiency is saved cost, economical, societal benefits are remarkable, are the important technologies of factorial seedling growth, large scale cultivating Camellia nitidissima grafting.Only property cultivation Camellia nitidissima nursery stock strain more than 70,000 annually (graft survival rate 95%, nursery stock storage rate 85%) in 2012 of the present invention.
Sprout stock described in the present invention refers to the not lignified bud as yet that Vietnam's oil tea seed sends, the long 5.0~8.0cm of bud, the long 4~8cm of root;
Grafting described in the present invention refers to the simple bud cleft grafting.
Embodiment
Below principle of the present invention and feature are described, institute only gives an actual example and to be used for explaining the present invention, is not for restriction scope of the present invention.
Below the concrete operations step of propagation method of the present invention is done detailed explanation:
(1) the anvil seedling is cultivated
1, seed is selected
In the oil tea picking time of early November, select Vietnam oil tea of fully ripe (having the fruit of 5%-8% to ftracture in the tree) to plant.After tea fruit is adopted back, through after the Exposure to Sunlight in 1-2 days, regains indoor spreading at the shady and cool ventilation place, take out seed behind the cracking of fruit, select seed full greatly, per kilogram 450-500 grain.
2, seed storage and vernalization
After seed takes out, adopt clean river sand to preserve and vernalization, adopt mixed clay brick to be built into furrow at indoor or outdoors, furrow face width 1.2m, pavement 40cm, the seed storage furrow of high 35cm, river sand requires clean, there are not other foreign material, and with 800 times of liquid disinfectants of carbendazim of 50%, earlier at the thick river sand of furrow heelpiece one deck 12cm, uniform broadcasting one deck seed on the river sand (can not be overlapping between seed and the seed), the river sand that lid layer 3.0cm is thick broadcasts sowing one deck seed more then, the last thick river sand of lid layer 12cm again, compacting, the humidity control of river sand is pinched agglomerating at hand, loose one's grip and namely loose.If adopt outdoor storage, must above the storage furrow, take cool canopy, the high 1.8-2.0m of cool canopy, sunshade degree 75% covers one deck plastic sheeting for farm use simultaneously and prevents that rainwater from drenching on the furrow face, and prevents the plague of rats.Checked once 15 days seed storage phases, as it is too dry river sand to occur, suitably trickle is preserved moisture.
Mid or late Febuary, when temperature went back up to more than 16 ℃, 1000 times of liquid of carbendazim of employing 50% were drenched and are preserved the river sand of furrow furrow face, keep river sand moistening subsequently, make seed germination, cultivate sturdy grafting anvil seedling.
(2) nursery lot is selected and whole ground
The Camellia nitidissima nursery lot should be chosen in and have a good transport service, face south, leeward area, requires more than the dark 50cm of soil layer, and it is fertile that the soil is porous, and soil is subacidity, and the pH value is at 5.5-6.5.After nursery lot is chosen, plough deeply 25cm in mid-November last year to late December, make the soil weathering of passing the winter.Carry out the whole ground second time mid-February next year, deep-cut 20cm, break up the clods, play furrow by furrow face width 1.2m, the wide 40cm of pavement, high 18cm, apply base manure simultaneously, execute compound potassium sulfate fertilizer (solid particulate) [ specification is: 15%(N), 15%(P for every mu 2O 5), 15%(K 2O) ] 30kg and superphosphate 50kg plough deeply, and base manure and soil are fully mixed thoroughly, and every mu is spilt that to execute concentration be 2% ferrous sulfate aqueous solution 8kg then, and it is standby to cover plastic sheeting for farm use.
(3) take cool canopy
Cultivate the garden grafting and set up cool canopy on the ground, use the concrete-pile built, the high 1.8-2.0m of frame, on cover the sunshade net, all cover around the sunshade degree 75%, cool canopy, windproofly enter with sunlight.
(4) grafting
1, grafting time
Mid-April is to mid-May.
2, scion is selected and keeping
In Camellia nitidissima elite stand tree crown middle and upper part, select to give birth to last year the full autumn growth of axillalry bud, the branch of the thick 0.25-0.30cm in footpath is done scion, and scion finished to good to gather grafting at that time at that time, and the scion of adopting back is placed on indoor, and water spray is preserved moisture, and used up the same day.
3, the anvil seedling is selected and is handled
Mid-April the anvil seedling 5.0-8.0cm that germinateed, that selects the thick 0.25-0.35cm in bud footpath makes the anvil bud, must be careful when taking out the anvil bud from husky bed, preventing from damaging anvil bud or seed comes off, take out the back with clear water flush away river sand, put into 500 times of liquid of carbendazim of 50% again and soaked 10 seconds, pull filter out and do, preserve moisture with wet towel lid anvil bud simultaneously, standby.
4, grafting operation
(1) cut scion: every section long 2.0cm of scion, a fringe one leaf, every leaf cuts off 1/2,0.30cm place, flat axillalry bud upper end cuts off, the lower end keeps long 1.6cm, when cutting scion under both sides, 0.30cm place below the bud the past 15 ° of angles of declivity of cutter, be whittled into the wedge shape scion of long incision 1.2-1.3cm, 30 ° of points.
(2) cut stock: as stock, the 1.5-2.5cm place cuts off stem apex above the seed of bud seedling with the anvil bud, is completely cured in 4.0-5.0cm place, bud seed below, and cutter is rived the long 1.2-1.3cm of opening toward the lower edge medulla under center above the seedling stem then.
(3) engage: behind the stock opening, the wedge shape scion straight cutting of cutting is gone into scion that opening maybe will cut build with wet towel and preserve moisture, grafting finishes in 40 minutes.The formation layer of scion during the grafting fringe will be aimed at the formation layer of stock, pricks with the special-purpose aluminium suitcase of the grafting of long 3.8cm, wide 1.0cm then, will clutch when wrapping and insert good scion and stock, prevents loosening dislocation, reduces graft survival rate.
(5) field planting
Behind the seedling grafting, cover with wet towel and to preserve moisture, in 30 minutes, plant in whole good nursery lot.Before planting, standby nursery lot hoe pine is flattened, drench soil, by spacing in the rows 4.0cm, line-spacing 7.5cm field planting, during field planting according to its seeding row spacing, use diameter 1.2cm, the bamboo spike of long 20cm burrows, the dark 5.0-6.0cm in hole, then the grafting root is inserted in the hole, care should be used to when planting seedlings is handled with care, prevents that the grafting interface from becoming flexible and seed comes off, during planting stock, the seed of stock bud buries in the lump together with nursery stock, and the interface of grafting should be exposed at native face top, while plant compacting soil, seedling root is closely contacted with soil, immediately with the clean clear water seedbed of drenching, when treating that blade loseed moisture content in 20-30 minute, 500 times of liquid of the carbendazim with 50% are sprayed behind the intact furrow of field planting.Do the insulation canopy then in the seedbed, according to the seedbed width, adopt bamboo chip to do arch, each sagitta 60.0cm, arch and the spacing 70cm that encircles, the long 7.5m in every furrow seedbed, the plastic sheeting for farm use of white printing opacity on the slotting arch bonnet, around the plastic sheeting for farm use with the real shed of soil pressure, heat and moisture preserving.
(6) seedling management
1, disease control
After the grafting field planting, observed the nursery at interval in 2-3 days, should not open plastic sheeting for farm use during observation, as find disease, take measures when emergent, open plastic sheeting for farm use and spray 800 times of liquid of thiophanate methyl of 70% or 800 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim or 1000 times of liquid of 75% tpn or 1000 times of liquid of 80% mancozeb (each medicament that uses can not same kind, should exchange uses), cover plastic sheeting for farm use immediately after spraying medicine.
2, take off plastic sheeting for farm use, weeding, except sprouting, spray medicine, foliage fertilizer
Field planting 45 days, the interface of grafting heals, and there is the part nursery stock to take out young sprout, the stock rudiment is many, should select this moment cloudy day or dusk that plastic sheeting for farm use shed two ends are opened, make the cross-ventilation in the seedbed, remove plastic sheeting for farm use after 3-4 days, eliminate the weeds on the seedbed, wipe out rudiment with little scissors along the rudiment base portion of grafting survival strain simultaneously.Spray the seedbed with 500 times of liquid of thiophanate methyl of 70% or 500 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim or 800 times of liquid of 75% tpn then comprehensively, 7-10 days 1 time at interval, connect and spray 5-6 time, each medicament that uses can not same kind, should exchange use, sprayed foliage fertilizer 1 time in 3-4 days behind each spray medicine, foliage fertilizer can [ specification be: 15%(N), 15%(P with 0.7% compound potassium sulfate fertilizer liquid 2O 5), 15%(K 2O) ], green fragrant No. 2 800 times of liquid or 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+0.2% boron fertilizer liquid.
3, loosen the soil, topdress
After field planting 60-70 days, grafting survives fully, and has major part to begin to take out the tip, need to replenish nutrient, loosens the soil, weeding, should enrich liquid manure except after sprouting, and liquid manure adopts the compound potassium sulfate fertilizer of 0.5-1.0%, and [ specification is: 15%(N), 15%(P 2O 5), 15%(K 2O) ] liquid, 10-15 days 1 time at interval, along with seedling age increases and the increasing fertilizing amount.If fertilizer application period is in the rainy day, [ specification is: 15%(N), 15%(P can to spread fertilizer over the fields the graininess compound potassium sulfate fertilizer 2O 5), 15%(K 2O) ], every mu of 10kg must be noted that during broadcast application, graininess fertilizer is not sprinkled upon on blade and the tender tip, in order to avoid cause fertilizer damage.Best fertilizing method is, spreads granular fertile back and takes off moving vane with the bamboo bar and make granular fertilizer fall within ground, slightly loosens the soil then.
4, drought resisting
The 8-10 month, south is in high temperature and drought season, and at this moment the phase is the seedling growth busy season, needs moisture more, as prolonged drought, should be at interval 2-3 days trickles 1 time, keep the seedbed moistening, promote seedling growth.
(7) Nursery stock transplanting
After the Camellia nitidissima seedling grafting survives and takes out the tip, must transplant in the nutrition cup and cultivate, its nutrition cup specification is: high 16cm, diameter 15cm, nutrition soil adopt the loose sand loam of subacidity of pH value 5.5-6.5, join 15% pig manure that becomes thoroughly decomposed in the nutrition soil.
1, transplanting time, method
Early October, nursery stock stopped growing to early November, and this period can be with the nursery stock transplantation with soil in standby nutrition cup.Transplant behind the nutrition cup, put cup by the wide furrow face of 1.2m, every row is put 8 in cup, the long 7.5m of every furrow, pavement 40cm in time drenches with clear water after sequencing the nutrition cup of furrow, treat that 20-30 minute blade slightly done after, spray 500 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim, carry out the plastic sheeting for farm use shed then immediately, tight envelope is incubated, preserves moisture, and sets up the cool canopy of sunshade degree 75% simultaneously, stuffy sun around the high 1.8-2.0m of cool canopy, cool canopy.Should often observe after the transplanting, trickle is preserved moisture, and causes harm as ill worm, adopts relevant medicine medicament to prevent and treat immediately.
2, except cool canopy, insulation plastic sheeting for farm use
Mid-February next year, temperature gos up, and seedling root has grown the radicula of white, and has the part nursery stock to begin to take out young sprout, the plastic sheeting for farm use shed can be removed, and progressively opens shading screen simultaneously, increases illumination, makes nursery stock enter normal growth.
3, fertilising, drought resisting
Topdress once after 15 days at interval, the 3-7 month is the seedling growth phase, and the fine liquid manure that adopts is executed, and the rainy day is spread fertilizer over the fields granular fertilizer, and [ specification is fertilizer type: 15%(N), 15%(P with compound potassium sulfate fertilizer 2O 5), 15%(K 2O) ] be main, can not use urea and carbon ammonium, in order to avoid cause the nursery stock fertilizer damage.In the 8-10 dry season month, 2-3 days trickles are 1 time at interval, keep the ground moistening in the nutrition cup.
4, take cool canopy
The Camellia nitidissima nursery stock, the seedling phase still needs suitable concealment, tans by the sun and will suppress seedling growth if run into strong sun, and mid-May, south was in high temperature and drought to mid-September, except strengthening trickle, should set up cool canopy to shade, the high 1.8-2.0m of cool canopy, sunshade degree 65%.
(8) outplanting
Through the cultivation in 2 years, seedling height reached more than the 45cm, and the Camellia nitidissima nutrition cup grafting of thick (the above 1.0cm of the grafting mouth place diameter) 0.4-0.5cm in footpath is out the qualified seedling in garden, can confess garden afforestation and use seedling.
Embodiment 1
Below be that the present application people uses this propagation method and cultivates the example of the Camellia nitidissima of strain more than 70,000 nursery stock in year April in April, 2012-2013.
(1) the anvil seedling is cultivated
Vietnam oil tea that in early November, 2011 selects to have the fruit of 5%-8% to ftracture is in the tree planted, and after Exposure to Sunlight in 2 days, regains indoor spreading at the shady and cool ventilation place, takes out seed behind the cracking of fruit, selects cultivating seeds anvil seedling full greatly, per kilogram 450-500 grain.Mix clay brick in indoor employing and be built into the seed storage furrow, furrow face width 1.2m, pavement 40cm, high 35cm, and with 800 times of liquid disinfectants of carbendazim of 50%, earlier at the thick river sand of furrow heelpiece one deck 12cm, uniform broadcasting one deck seed on river sand, the river sand that lid layer 3.0cm is thick broadcasts sowing one deck seed more then, last lid layer 12cm is thick again river sand, compacting.Mid or late Febuary, when temperature goes back up to more than 16 ℃, adopt 1000 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim to drench and preserve the river sand of furrow furrow face, keep river sand moistening, make seed germination, cultivate sturdy grafting anvil seedling.
(2) nursery lot is selected and whole ground
More than the dark 50cm of Camellia nitidissima nursery lot soil layer, it is fertile that the soil is porous, soil pH value is ploughed deeply 25cm at 5.5-6.5 in mid-November, 2011 to late December, carry out the whole ground second time in mid-February, 2012, deep-cut 20cm, break up the clods, play furrow by furrow face width 1.2m, the wide 40cm of pavement, high 18cm, execute compound potassium sulfate fertilizer (solid particulate) specification for every mu and be: 15%(N), 15%(P 2O 5), 15%(K 2O) ] 30kg and superphosphate 50kg plough deeply, and base manure and soil are fully mixed thoroughly, and every mu is spilt that to execute concentration be 2% ferrous sulfate aqueous solution 8kg then, and it is standby to cover plastic sheeting for farm use.
(3) take cool canopy
Cultivate the garden grafting and set up cool canopy on the ground, use the concrete-pile built, the high 2.0m of frame, on cover the sunshade net, sunshade degree 75%, cool canopy all covers all around.
(4) grafting
In mid-April, 2012 is to grafting mid-May, in Camellia nitidissima elite stand tree crown middle and upper part, select to give birth to last year the full autumn growth of axillalry bud, the branch of the thick 0.25-0.30cm in footpath is done scion, every section long 2.0cm of scion, one fringe, one leaf, every leaf cuts off 1/2, and 0.30cm place, flat axillalry bud upper end cuts off, and the lower end keeps long 1.6cm, when cutting scion under both sides, 0.30cm place below the bud cutter be whittled into that otch 1.3cm is long, the wedge shape scion of 30 ° of points toward 15 ° of angles of declivity.
That selects the thick 0.25-0.35cm in bud footpath in mid-April, 2012 makes the anvil bud, anvil bud clear water flush away river sand, putting into 500 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim again soaked 10 seconds, pulling filter out does, as stock, the 1.50-2.50cm place cuts off stem apex above the seed of bud seedling with the anvil bud, is completely cured in 4.0-5.0cm place, bud seed below, cutter is rived the long 1.2-1.3cm of opening toward the lower edge medulla under center above the seedling stem then.
The wedge shape scion straight cutting of cutting is gone into the stock opening, prick with the special-purpose aluminium suitcase of the grafting of long 3.8cm, wide 1.0cm.
(5) field planting
Behind the seedling grafting, in 30 minutes, plant in whole good nursery lot.By spacing in the rows 4.0cm, line-spacing 7.5cm field planting, during field planting according to its seeding row spacing, bamboo spike with diameter 1.2cm, long 20cm burrows, the dark 5.0-6.0cm in hole, the grafting root is inserted in the hole then, plant compacting soil on one side, field planting finishes behind the furrow with the clean clear water seedbed of drenching, when treating that blade loseed moisture content in 20-30 minute, 500 times of liquid sprayings of the carbendazim with 50%.Do the insulation canopy then in the seedbed, adopt bamboo chip to do arch, each sagitta 60.0cm, arch and the spacing 70.0cm that encircles, the long 7.5m in every furrow seedbed, the plastic sheeting for farm use of white printing opacity on the slotting arch bonnet, around the plastic sheeting for farm use with the real shed of soil pressure, heat and moisture preserving.
(6) seedling management
After the grafting field planting, observe the nursery in 2-3 days at interval, prevent damage by disease and insect.After the field planting 45 days, select cloudy day or dusk that plastic sheeting for farm use shed two ends are opened, remove plastic sheeting for farm use after 3-4 days, eliminate the weeds on the seedbed, wipe out rudiment with little scissors along the rudiment base portion of grafting survival strain simultaneously.Spray the seedbed with 500 times of liquid of thiophanate methyl of 70% or 800 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim or 1000 times of liquid of 75% tpn or 1000 times of liquid of 80% mancozeb then comprehensively, 7-10 days 1 time at interval, connect and spray 5-6 time, each medicament that uses can not same kind, should exchange use, sprayed foliage fertilizer 1 time in 3-4 days behind each spray medicine, foliage fertilizer can [ specification be: 15%(N), 15%(P with 0.7% compound potassium sulfate fertilizer 2O 5), 15%(K 2O) ] liquid or green fragrant No. 2 800 times of liquid or 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+0.2% boron fertilizer liquid.
After field planting 60-70 days, loosen the soil, weeding, except should enriching liquid manure after sprouting, liquid manure adopts the compound potassium sulfate fertilizer of 0.5-1.0%, and [ specification is: 15%(N), 15%(P 2O 5), 15%(K 2O) ] liquid, 10-15 days 1 time at interval, along with seedling age increases and the increasing fertilizing amount.
The 8-10 month in 2012, in time water, keep the seedbed moistening, promote seedling growth.
(7) Nursery stock transplanting
In early October, 2012 is to early November, with the nursery stock transplantation with soil in standby nutrition cup.Nutrition cup specification is: high 16cm, diameter 15cm, nutrition soil adopt the loose sand loam of subacidity of pH value 5.5-6.5, join 15% pig manure that becomes thoroughly decomposed in the nutrition soil.Transplant behind the nutrition cup, put cup by the wide furrow face of 1.2m, every row is put 8 in cup, the long 7.5m of every furrow, pavement 40cm, in time drench with clear water after sequencing the nutrition cup of furrow, treat that 20-30 minute blade slightly done after, spray 500 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim, carry out the plastic sheeting for farm use shed, set up the cool canopy of sunshade degree 75% simultaneously, stuffy sun around the high 2.0m of cool canopy, cool canopy.
In mid-February, 2013, the plastic sheeting for farm use shed is removed, progressively open shading screen simultaneously, increase illumination, make nursery stock enter normal growth.
Topdress once after 15 days at interval, the 3-7 month in 2013 was the seedling growth phase, and the fine liquid manure that adopts is executed, and the rainy day is spread fertilizer over the fields granular fertilizer, and [ specification is fertilizer type: 15%(N), 15%(P with compound potassium sulfate fertilizer 2O 5), 15%(K 2O) ] be main.In the 8-10 dry season month, 2-3 days trickles are 1 time at interval, keep the ground moistening in the nutrition cup.
Strengthen trickle to mid-September in mid-May, 2013, sets up cool canopy to shade, the high 2.0m of cool canopy, sunshade degree 65%.
(8) outplanting
Through the cultivation in 2 years, seedling height reached more than the 45cm, and the Camellia nitidissima nutrition cup grafting of thick (the above 1.0cm of the grafting mouth place diameter) 0.4-0.5cm in footpath is out the qualified seedling in garden, can confess garden afforestation and use seedling.
Wherein, the graft survival rate 95% of present embodiment, nursery stock storage rate 85%.
The above only is preferred embodiment of the present invention, and is in order to limit the present invention, within the spirit and principles in the present invention not all, any modification of doing, is equal to replacement, improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (5)

1. the propagation method of Camellia nitidissima sprout stock grafting is characterized in that, comprising:
(1) the anvil seedling is cultivated
1, seed is selected: pluck ripe Vietnam's oil tea fruit, through after the Exposure to Sunlight in 1-2 days, be placed on the shady and cool ventilation place, take out seed behind the cracking of fruit;
2, seed storage and vernalization: seed adopts clean river sand to preserve and vernalization, cultivates sturdy grafting anvil seedling;
(2) nursery lot is selected and whole ground
Be chosen in have a good transport service, face south, leeward area, more than the dark 50cm of soil layer, soil pH value 5.5-6.5, plough deeply 25cm in mid-November last year to late December, carry out the whole ground second time mid-February next year, deep-cut 20cm, apply base manure, plough deeply, every mu is spilt that to execute concentration be 2% ferrous sulfate aqueous solution 8kg then, and it is standby to cover plastic sheeting for farm use;
(3) take cool canopy
Set up cool canopy at nursery lot, the high 1.8-2.0m of frame, on cover the sunshade net, the sunshade degree is 75%, all covers around the cool canopy;
(4) grafting
1, grafting time: mid-April is to mid-May;
2, scion is selected and keeping: in Camellia nitidissima elite stand tree crown middle and upper part, select to give birth to last year the full autumn growth of axillalry bud, the branch of the thick 0.25-0.30cm in footpath is done scion;
3, the anvil seedling is selected and handled: that selects the anvil seedling bud thick 0.25-0.35cm in footpath makes the anvil bud, and the anvil bud is with clear water flush away river sand, puts into 500 times of liquid of carbendazim of 50% again and soaks 10 seconds, pulls filter out and does, and preserves moisture with wet towel lid anvil bud simultaneously, standby;
4, grafting operation
(1) cut scion: every section long 2.0cm of scion, a fringe one leaf, every leaf cuts off 1/2,0.30cm place, flat axillalry bud upper end cuts off, the lower end keeps long 1.6cm, when cutting scion under both sides, 0.30cm place below the bud the past 15 ° of angles of declivity of cutter, be whittled into that otch 1.30cm grows, the wedge shape scion of 30 ° of points;
(2) cut stock: as stock, the 1.50-2.50cm place cuts off stem apex above the seed of bud seedling with the anvil bud, is completely cured in 4.0-5.0cm place, bud seed below, and cutter is rived the long 1.2-1.3cm of opening toward the lower edge medulla under center above the seedling stem then;
(3) engage: behind the stock opening, the wedge shape scion straight cutting of cutting is gone into opening, prick with the special-purpose aluminium suitcase of the grafting of long 3.8cm, wide 1.0cm;
(5) field planting
After the grafting, plant in nursery lot in 30 minutes, by spacing in the rows 4.0cm, line-spacing 7.5cm field planting, with the clear water seedbed of drenching, when treating that blade loseed moisture content in 20-30 minute, 500 times of liquid of the carbendazim with 50% are sprayed, and do the insulation canopy then in the seedbed behind the intact furrow of field planting;
(6) seedling management
Carry out the extermination of disease and insect pest, in time take off plastic sheeting for farm use, weeding, remove rudiment, spray medicine, execute foliage fertilizer, loosen the soil, topdress, in time water;
(7) Nursery stock transplanting
Early October, transplanted in the nutrition cup and cultivates after the Camellia nitidissima seedling grafting survives and takes out the tip to early November, put cup by the wide furrow face of 1.2m, every row is put 8 in cup, the long 7.5m of every furrow, pavement 40cm, in time drench with clear water after sequencing the nutrition cup of furrow, treat 20-30 minute after, spray 500 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim, carry out the plastic sheeting for farm use shed then, set up the cool canopy of sunshade degree 75% simultaneously, stuffy sun around the high 1.8-2.0m of cool canopy, cool canopy;
Mid-February next year, the plastic sheeting for farm use shed is removed, topdress once after 15 days at interval;
(8) outplanting
Seedling height reaches more than the 45cm, and the Camellia nitidissima nutrition cup grafting of the thick 0.4-0.5cm in footpath is out the qualified seedling in garden.
2. propagation method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, select and put in order in the ground at nursery lot, the described base manure that applies is that every mu of nursery lot is executed solid particulate compound potassium sulfate fertilizer 30kg and superphosphate 50kg, and the specification of described compound potassium sulfate fertilizer is: contain 15% N, 15% P 2O 5, 15% K 2O.
3. propagation method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, in seedling management, described spray medicine refers to spray the seedbed with 500 times of liquid of 70% thiophanate methyl or 500 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim or 800 times of liquid of 75% tpn comprehensively, 7-10 days 1 time at interval, connect and spray 5-6 time, each medicament that uses can not same kind, should exchange use, the described foliage fertilizer of executing refers to spray foliage fertilizer 1 time in 3-4 days behind each spray medicine, and described foliage fertilizer is a kind of in the mixed liquor of 0.7% compound potassium sulfate fertilizer liquid, green fragrant No. 2 800 times of liquid, 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.2% boron fertilizers.
4. propagation method according to claim 3 is characterized in that, the specification of described 0.7% compound potassium sulfate fertilizer liquid is: contain 15% N, 15% P 2O 5, 15% K 2O.
5. propagation method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, in Nursery stock transplanting, described nutrition cup specification: high 16.0cm, diameter 15.0cm, nutrition soil adopt the loose sand loam of subacidity of pH value 5.5-6.5, join 15% pig manure that becomes thoroughly decomposed in the nutrition soil.
CN201310198185.7A 2013-05-24 2013-05-24 Golden camellia bud seedling stock grafting propagation method CN103283450B (en)

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CN105766391A (en) * 2016-03-31 2016-07-20 广西壮族自治区农业科学院花卉研究所 Novel method for grafting seedling culture of camellia nitidissima
CN106305066A (en) * 2016-08-18 2017-01-11 广西鑫雅皇庭园林工程有限责任公司 Oil tea seedling raising method
CN107926319A (en) * 2017-12-16 2018-04-20 柳州市合联农业有限公司 A kind of engrafting method of Camellia nitidissima
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CN108522121A (en) * 2018-04-16 2018-09-14 广西壮族自治区农业科学院花卉研究所 A kind of simple reproduction technology of Gaozhou oil-tea camellia grafting Camellia nitidissima
CN109496580A (en) * 2018-12-19 2019-03-22 广西国茗金花茶科技有限公司 A kind of Camellia nitidissima grafting of tender branch propagation method
CN109997591A (en) * 2019-04-28 2019-07-12 广西师范大学 A kind of breeding method of Camellia nitidissima container seedlings
CN110012740A (en) * 2019-04-28 2019-07-16 广西师范大学 A kind of biological control method of Camellia nitidissima hardwood cutting

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CN104221674A (en) * 2014-09-03 2014-12-24 广西师范大学 Plant seedlings culturing non-woven fabric nutrition cup cutting method
CN104303770A (en) * 2014-10-13 2015-01-28 金华市永根杜鹃花培育有限公司 Seedling scion grafting method
CN104350960A (en) * 2014-11-12 2015-02-18 湖南新丰果业有限公司 Method for indoor root-grafting cultivating nutrition pot Chinese date seedlings
CN104350960B (en) * 2014-11-12 2016-02-17 湖南新丰果业有限公司 A kind of indoor root connects the method for cultivating nutritive cube jujube seedling
CN105104058A (en) * 2015-08-12 2015-12-02 安徽德昌苗木有限公司 Method for increasing germination rate by sand-storage sowing of fresh oil-tea seeds
CN105165352A (en) * 2015-09-24 2015-12-23 广西百润源农业有限公司 Tea planting method
CN105594540A (en) * 2015-12-24 2016-05-25 广西壮族自治区中国科学院广西植物研究所 Camellia pubipetala grafting and seedling cultivating method
CN105766391A (en) * 2016-03-31 2016-07-20 广西壮族自治区农业科学院花卉研究所 Novel method for grafting seedling culture of camellia nitidissima
CN106305066A (en) * 2016-08-18 2017-01-11 广西鑫雅皇庭园林工程有限责任公司 Oil tea seedling raising method
CN107926319A (en) * 2017-12-16 2018-04-20 柳州市合联农业有限公司 A kind of engrafting method of Camellia nitidissima
CN108450218A (en) * 2018-02-10 2018-08-28 信阳农林学院 A kind of seedling breeding method of oil tea
CN108522121A (en) * 2018-04-16 2018-09-14 广西壮族自治区农业科学院花卉研究所 A kind of simple reproduction technology of Gaozhou oil-tea camellia grafting Camellia nitidissima
CN108522121B (en) * 2018-04-16 2020-06-30 广西壮族自治区农业科学院花卉研究所 Simple propagation method for grafting camellia chrysantha to camellia oleifera
CN109496580A (en) * 2018-12-19 2019-03-22 广西国茗金花茶科技有限公司 A kind of Camellia nitidissima grafting of tender branch propagation method
CN109997591A (en) * 2019-04-28 2019-07-12 广西师范大学 A kind of breeding method of Camellia nitidissima container seedlings
CN110012740A (en) * 2019-04-28 2019-07-16 广西师范大学 A kind of biological control method of Camellia nitidissima hardwood cutting

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