CN103798030B - Anji white tea ecological and efficient cultivation method - Google Patents

Anji white tea ecological and efficient cultivation method Download PDF

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CN103798030B
CN103798030B CN201410033496.2A CN201410033496A CN103798030B CN 103798030 B CN103798030 B CN 103798030B CN 201410033496 A CN201410033496 A CN 201410033496A CN 103798030 B CN103798030 B CN 103798030B
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tea
anji
branch
soil
cultivation
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CN201410033496.2A
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CN103798030A (en
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许万富
罗先平
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浙江安吉宋茗白茶有限公司
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Abstract

The invention relates to tea leaf cultivation, in particular to an Anji white tea ecological and efficient cultivation method. The method comprises the following steps: the ecology of a tea garden is constructed; tea seedlings are transplanted; after the tea seedlings are lifted, planting furrows are formed, base fertilizer is applied into the furrows and mixed with soil uniformly, the mixture is covered with a layer of surface soil, and the Anji white tea seedlings which accord with the standard of coming out of a nursery are transplanted; the depth of the planting furrows is around 30-36cm; 2-3 tea seedlings are planted in each cluster; the tea seedlings are moved into the furrows, original postures of root systems are maintained, the root systems are stretched, and the root systems are covered with soil and treaded tightly at the same time; the tea seedlings are planted in single row in a strip array mode, wherein the row spacing ranges from 150cm to 170cm, and the cluster spacing ranges from 26cm to 33cm; trees of economic value are interplanted; three-dimensional keeping and cultivation are conducted; after spring tea leaf picking is completed in a grown tea garden, the tea trees are immediately subjected to heavy pruning or deep pruning, tea leaves are not picked in summer and autumn, fertility management is reinforced, and the tea leaves grow naturally; fertilization is managed; tea flowers are removed, wherein the tea flowers are removed manually in a period when the tea flowers bloom intensively in autumn and winter every year; plant diseases and insect pests are managed; the tea garden is closed. According to the Anji white tea ecological and efficient cultivation method, the tea leaves are high in quality, safety of the tea leaves can be guaranteed, the yield of the tea leaves is increased, the income of the tea garden is also increased, and the ecology of the tea garden is protected.

Description

Anji white tea ecological efficient cultivation method
Technical field
The present invention relates to tealeaves cultivation, particularly relate to Anji white tea ecological efficient cultivation method.
Background technology
The white tea in existing Anji is planted as solid stays foster culture technique, its shortcoming comprises 1) specific requirement is not had to tea place ecotope environment, Tea Garden Ecosystem species are single, in inclement weather, resistivity, self-recovery are limited in one's ability, are easy to the impact being subject to harsh weather elements.Tea leaf quality and output can not get ensureing; 2) use of the countryside tax system such as chemical fertilizer, agricultural chemicals product, easily makes tea garden soil harden, and reduces fertility, destroys tea place ecological.There is certain threat in the safety of tea products; 3) tealeaves management cost is high, and the impact that tea quality and output are subject to the factor such as ecology, weather is larger.Often drop into many, output is few; Economic benefit has to be hoisted.
CN100337526C (2007-9-19) discloses the cultivation method of a kind of tea tree, but the method still drops into many, and output is few; Overall efficiency has to be hoisted.
Summary of the invention
The object of this invention is to provide and a kind ofly can improve the Anji white tea ecological efficient cultivation method that tea leaf quality and output, protection tea place are ecological, promote tea place income.
Above-mentioned technical purpose of the present invention is achieved by the following technical programs:
Anji white tea ecological efficient cultivation method, it comprises the following steps successively:
(1) construction of tea place ecology: Bai Cha tea place, Anji is opened up based on hillside, hills, mountain top, tea hill, the foot of the hill, hill-side keep tall and big high forest to cover, with water conservation, windproof solid soil;
(2) tea shoot is transplanted: before lifting, hold planting furrow successfully, apply base manure, and fertile and soil is mixed thoroughly, above covers one deck table soil, then carries out transplanting the white tea tea shoot in the Anji meeting garden specification; Plant ditch depth about 30-36cm; Plant 2-3 strain for every clump, transplant tea shoot and want lifting, while plant, be with soil as far as possible and damage root system to improve survival rate; Tea shoot moves in ditch, and keep the original attitude of root system, root system is unfolded, and earthing limit, limit tracks tramping, and makes to exceed around tea shoot tea shoot and originally to bury vestige place 5-10cm, cover into ditch shape, to water next time and to receive rainwater; Single file strip columnwise is planted, line-spacing 150-170cm, and clump is apart from 26-33cm;
(3) interplant commodity trees: rationally interplant commodity trees according to physical features and kind, described commodity trees are one or more in Chinese torreya, Chinese yew, jujube tree, car li son or osmanthus fragrans;
(4) solid is stayed and is supported cultivation: one-tenth tea place in age is after spring tea harvesting terminates, immediately tea tree is deeplyd prune or deep pruning, Summer-autumn tea is not adopted, and strengthen fertile training management, allow its self-sow, the branch of new pumping grows to 60-70cm through season in autumn in summer two, forms the tree crown of solid type, grows many bud heads from top to bottom thus form the picking surface of solid type to each branch in spring in next year;
(5) fertilizing management: Bai Cha tea place, Anji fertilising generally annual 2 times, annual spring tea is plucked and terminates rear fertilising once, and based on fertilizer, ditching-fertilizing, covers with soil after executing, and covers to prune branch, every mu of application of organic fertilizers about 150kg; Second time fertilising is in the basic stopping of tea place growth, and apply fertilizer before entering the winter dormancy phase, based on fertilizer, amount of application is 150-200kg/ mu;
(6) camellia is extractd: annual autumn and winter season, tea tree blooms the period of comparatively concentrating, manual removal's camellia;
(7) pest management;
(8) garden is sealed: spray tea tree antifreezing agent, carry out tea place Feng Yuan, until spring tea exploitation in next year.
Advantage of the present invention is:
1. tea hill, tea place ecotope is superior; Interplanting economic forest, so play certain effect of sheltering from heat or light, interplant trees flowers and fruits simultaneously and have fragrance, the flowers and fruits that tealeaves can adsorb a part are fragrant; The whole application of organic fertilizers of new technology, the tender tip of tealeaves glossy glossy, bud-leaf is plump, component content is abundant, the resistance to bubble of tealeaves, tea leaf quality that new technology is produced is more excellent; The nutrient loss that excision camellia can stop tea tree to absorb is in camellia tea fruit, and better for nutrient is gathered in the sprouting of the tea shoot of next year, tree plant flowers can be used as the sale of Herb Tea new product after processing simultaneously, provides source again for tea place increases income;
2. tea place output promotes, and tea quality is excellent, and with regard to the tealeaves output value, its income promotes greatly.Meanwhile, the utilization of Tea Flower, the sale of interplanting commodity trees fruit, the increment of economic forest trees itself, all will promote tea place benefit;
3. mountain top, tea hill, the foot of the hill, hill-side keep tall and big high forest to cover, form the tea hill of " head cap; wear footwear, waist frenulum ", tea place is surrounded by tall and big forest, tea place row interplant commodity trees, increase tea place ecological species variation, increase the ability of its windproof solid soil, water conservation, opposing harsh weather, carry out disease and pest control with limited means, tea place ecotope can be kept better, better tealeaves can be cultivated.
As preferably, the Chinese yew 30-40 plant/acre of described step (3) interplanting commodity trees, Chinese torreya 20-30 plant/acre, car li son or jujube tree 20-25 plant/acre, osmanthus fragrans 15-20 plant/acre.
By rational close planting, both for tea tree blocks a part of sunlight, windproof solid soil, had promoted Anji quality of white tea, had opened another road again for tea place increases income.
More preferably, described commodity trees are osmanthus fragrans, are transplanting the March in the same year of the white tea tea shoot in Anji, are digging the hole that the degree of depth is 40-50cm with described tea shoot at a distance of 60-80cm place, plantation sweet osmanthus sapling in hole, and follow-up management carries out pruning to osmanthus fragrans:
(1) when part sprouting has just sprouted or part young sprout has just started pumping except sprouting, bud picking:
(2) part is just carried out to pinching at mushroom young sprout, turned round the tip; Described pinching is the tender part of children of extracing part young sprout tip, controls young sprout growing height, promotes that branch is aging, stimulates the mitogenetic of side shoot; Turning round the tip is sprained by the young sprout of part semi-lignified, by damaging the conducting tissue of xylem, weakening the growth potential of this branch, and retaining the photosynthetic function of this branch blade;
(3) cutting back, retraction and dredging is deleted: growing aging branch to sweet osmanthus seedling needs to prune by training; Described cutting back is that annual branch is cut off a part, to reduce the quantity of bud on this branch, concentrates nutrient, promotes the thick and branch of the increasing of branch, stimulates clip bud pumping enriching shoot.
Adopt the cultivation method at interplanting osmanthus trees in tea garden, make tea tree absorb the fragrance of sweet osmanthus, thus make the tealeaves picked directly can be processed into osmanthus flower tea.Adopt cultivation method of the present invention, the tealeaves of harvesting, in the process making osmanthus flower tea, saves the operation mixed with sweet osmanthus together, has saved human and material resources.Planted sweet osmanthus sapling in tea place after, can use for many years, not need to buy sweet osmanthus again, save osmanthus flower tea cost of manufacture.Adopt the osmanthus flower tea that this implantation methods is produced, the harmful substance in sweet osmanthus can not be brought into, improve tea quality.
As preferably, described step (7) pest management comprises physics or biological control tea place damage by disease and insect; Physical control is with tea place solar insect-killing light, green plate or yellow card's trap; Biological control is the flowers and fruits of the tree growth utilizing tealeaves to interplant, and attracts the natural enemy of the sick worm in tea place.
In the inventive method, diseases and pests of tea tree is is all prevented and treated with the biopesticide of physics or organic standard, and the white tea in Anji is plucked all in the 3-4 month that temperature is lower, generally there will not be disease worm to endanger, the pollution of chemical agent between the picking period, can not be there is, the biopesticide of the low toxicity and low residue that upper one year is used, through very long winter, also degrade, so Anji white tea product quality safety is guaranteed, alleviate the misgivings of consumer; Minimizing Pesticide use can be reached, disease and pest control population quantity, reduce the object of disease worm harm; Improve ecological requirements.
As preferably, described step (2) tea shoot moves into soil that after in ditch, earthing is used and is mixed by matrix and rural area soil or clay, is by weight percentage: matrix 25-45%, rural area soil or clay 55-75%; Described matrix comprises by weight: organic 60-80%, wherein nitrogen: 1-3%, phosphorus: 1.5-3.5%, potassium: 2-4%, and trace magnesium, calcium, iron, manganese and boron is 0.02-0.08% altogether; The pH of described matrix is 6.5-6.8; Described organic matter comprises the human and animal excreta 15-40 part after bamboo vinegar 1-4 part, starch-acrylate graft copolymer 1-3 part, straw decomposing microbial inoculum 15-40 part, fermentation, edible fungi residue 10-18 part, useless bamboo bits 3-6 part, plant powdered carbon 2-5 part, silt slag 5-10 part, bone meal 4-6 part, dregs of beans 4-9 part.
Advantage of the present invention is:
1. adopt special component and ratio to coordinate and make organic matter, and be combined with inanimate matter and form weakly acidic matrix, nutrient component is high, trace element ratio is suitable, human and animal excreta after straw decomposing microbial inoculum, fermentation and edible fungi residue all belong to fermentable substance system, are supplied to the cellulose of compost abundance, hemicellulose and lignin; Useless bamboo bits, silt slag, bone meal and dregs of beans contain the necessary trace element of plant growth: phosphorus, manganese, zinc, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium etc., also contain several amino acids in addition in dregs of beans, while increase seedling class output, improve product quality and nutrition; This also with to the addition of starch-acrylate graft copolymer relevant, may can prevent tea shoot nutrient component from reducing or run off;
2. adopt useless bamboo bits and plant powdered carbon, have and good de-taste function, clean environment firendly;
3. bamboo vinegar itself has high osmosis and bacteria resistance function, make bamboo vinegar, plant charcoal and straw decomposing microbial inoculum by proportioning of the present invention, ferment after human and animal excreta, edible fungi residue play permeable synergistic effect, active component in microorganism system can be impelled to play a role, increase the pest effect of organic manure of the present invention; Be convenient to store prevent effect from reducing while make each component of fertilizer play synergistic function;
4. the formulated component of organic matter mainly combines the actual conditions of domestic enterprise, turns waste into wealth, and the bamboo product for locality produces house or planting base, fishes and shrimps pond solves rubbish reuse problem.
More preferably, described organic matter is made successively according to the following steps:
(1) make after mud and water absorbing agent in mass ratio 20-40:1 mix and blend the particle that particle diameter is 0.1-0.3mm, obtain silt slag;
(2) in fresh human and animal excreta, add the peat composed of rotten mosses of 5-8%, the dry and soft bark of 3-6%, 1-4% quick rotting agent heap fermentation, turning is started when temperature rises to 40-48 DEG C, then continue fermentation and keep 3-5 days at 55-60 DEG C, ferment when temperature is down to 20-30 DEG C, sieved and obtain the human and animal excreta after fermenting;
(3) by weight the human and animal excreta 15-40 part after bamboo vinegar 1-4 part, starch-acrylate graft copolymer 1-3 part, straw decomposing microbial inoculum 15-40 part, fermentation, edible fungi residue 10-18 part, useless bamboo bits 3-6 part, plant powdered carbon 2-5 part, silt slag 5-10 part, bone meal 4-6 part, dregs of beans 4-9 part are mixed and obtains organic matter.
Advantage of the present invention is:
1. prepare silt slag and fermentation human and animal excreta according to the inventive method, the nutrient in mud and the composition in microbial fermentation system can be utilized in maximum efficiency, and mix with all the other compositions and microorganism system according to specific ratio, obtain excellent organic matter;
2. add the peat composed of rotten mosses and dry and soft bark while raising fermentation active ingredient and accelerated fermentation processes, can environmental quality be promoted.
More preferably, described water absorbing agent is that polyamide and bentonite in powder are mixed according to 1-2:1.
In sum, the present invention has following beneficial effect:
1, tea leaf quality is excellent;
2, tea-leaf safety is guaranteed;
3, tealeaves volume increase;
4, tea place income promotes;
5, protect tea place ecological.
Embodiment
The Anji main implementation method of white tea ecological efficient culture technique is as follows:
1, to level land trench digging: start smooth mountain region in annual November, do furrow, the specification of furrow is: the wide 50-60cm of the long 50-60cm* of ditch; Subsoil is rolled up;
2, basal dressing: use sufficient base manure in ditch, selects fertilizer 200kg for every mu, farmyard manure 2000kg, is covered by surface soil in ditch, keep ditch depth at 30-36cm after earthing, then prepares to transplant tea shoot;
3, tea shoot is transplanted: tea shoot will be ensured the quality of products, and namely meets garden specification.Plant 2-3 strain for every clump, transplant tea shoot and want lifting, while plant, be with soil as far as possible and do not damage root system, can survival rate be improved like this.Tea shoot moves in ditch, and keep the original attitude of root system, root system is unfolded, and earthing limit, limit tracks tramping, and cake exceeds tea shoot and originally to bury vestige place about 7cm, covers into ditch shape, to water next time and to receive rainwater.Single file strip columnwise is planted, line-spacing 150-170cm, and clump is apart from 26-33cm.
4, economic forest is interplanted: tea place interplanting commodity trees, the commodity trees such as tealeaves row interplant Chinese torreya, Chinese yew, jujube tree, car li son, rationally interplant according to physical features and kind.General Chinese yew 30-40 plant/acre, Chinese torreya 20-30 plant/acre, car li son, jujube tree Chinese torreya 20-25 plant/acre, rational close planting, both for tea tree blocks a part of sunlight, windproof solid soil, had promoted Anji quality of white tea, had opened another road again for tea place increases income.
When needs preparation osmanthus flower tea, commodity trees select osmanthus fragrans, are transplanting the March in the same year of the white tea tea shoot in Anji, are digging the hole that the degree of depth is 40-50cm with described tea shoot at a distance of 60-80cm place, plantation sweet osmanthus sapling in hole, follow-up management carries out pruning to osmanthus fragrans:
(1) when part sprouting has just sprouted or part young sprout has just started pumping except sprouting, bud picking:
(2) part is just carried out to pinching at mushroom young sprout, turned round the tip; Described pinching is the tender part of children of extracing part young sprout tip, controls young sprout growing height, promotes that branch is aging, stimulates the mitogenetic of side shoot; Turning round the tip is sprained by the young sprout of part semi-lignified, by damaging the conducting tissue of xylem, weakening the growth potential of this branch, and retaining the photosynthetic function of this branch blade;
(3) cutting back, retraction and dredging is deleted: growing aging branch to sweet osmanthus seedling needs to prune by training; Described cutting back is that annual branch is cut off a part, to reduce the quantity of bud on this branch, concentrates nutrient, promotes the thick and branch of the increasing of branch, stimulates clip bud pumping enriching shoot.
5, tea place initial management: one, biennial tea shoot, had both been afraid of to do, Keep away from sun again, had promoted its tachyauxesis, must catch remove weeds and protect seedling, water conservation of ploughing shallowly, topdress in good time, shelter from heat or light, the work in every such as irrigation.After 3-5, tea tree can become age, starts to go into operation, and 5-7 can enter high yield period.
6, tea garden management in age is become: the harvesting-fertilising-pruning-extermination of disease and insect pest-defloration-fertilising-envelope garden.
(1) pluck: the white tea in Anji is plucked generally in March-April, and standard of plucking is bud one leaf, or two leaves and a bud, pluck necessary standard, can not be different in size, must break the tender stalk of tealeaves by hand during harvesting, unavailable nail is pinched.Premature eruption is early plucked, and the uniform tender tip is adopted to the greatest extent.
(2) apply fertilizer: spring tea is plucked and terminates rear fertilising once, based on fertilizer (dish cake fertilizer), ditching-fertilizing, covers with soil after executing, every mu of application of organic fertilizers about 150kg.
(3) prune: immediately tea tree is deeplyd prune or deep pruning after fertilising, Summer-autumn tea is not adopted, and strengthen fertile training management, allow its self-sow, through season in autumn in summer two, growth can grow to 60-70cm to the branch of new pumping, form the tree crown of solid type, all can grow many bud heads from top to bottom to each branch in spring in next year, thus form the picking surface of solid type.
(4) extermination of disease and insect pest: main with physics, biological control tea place damage by disease and insect, uses the biopesticide of low toxicity and low residue to prevent and treat if desired.
7, economic forest management is interplanted: the management of economic forest and tea garden management carry out respectively, because economic forest fruit tree mature period is different, same seeds answer unified management, different tree species separate management, and Pest management can utilize the biology in tea place, physical control means are carried out simultaneously.The work such as fertilising, picking fruit are taken measures as the case may be.
It is substrate soil that tea shoot moves into the soil that after in ditch, earthing is used, is mixed by matrix and rural area soil or clay;
Substrate soil formula 1:
Be by weight percentage: matrix 35%, rural area soil 65%;
Matrix total porosity 65-70%, unit weight 0.55-0.65g/cm 3; Matrix comprises organic matter and inanimate matter, and inanimate matter comprises perlite and calcium sulphate.
Matrix comprises by weight: organic 70-75%, wherein nitrogen: 1.5-2.5%, phosphorus: 2-3%, potassium: 2.5-3.5%, and trace magnesium, calcium, iron, manganese and boron is 0.05-0.07% altogether; Inanimate matter 25-30%;
The pH:6.5-6.8 of matrix, conductivity: 2-3, cation exchange capacity: >=100;
Human and animal excreta 25 parts after organic matter comprises bamboo vinegar 3 parts, starch-acrylate graft copolymer 2 parts, straw decomposing microbial inoculum 20 parts, fermentation, edible fungi residue 15 parts, useless bamboo consider to be worth doing 5 parts, plant powdered carbon 3 parts, 8 parts, mud, bone meal 5 parts, dregs of beans 6 parts.
Substrate soil formula 2:
Be by weight percentage: matrix 25-30%, clay 70-75%;
Matrix total porosity 55-60%, unit weight 0.5-0.6g/cm 3; Matrix comprises organic matter and inanimate matter, and inanimate matter comprises perlite and calcium sulphate.
Matrix comprises by weight: organic 60-70%, wherein nitrogen: 1-2%, phosphorus: 1.5-2.5%, potassium: 2-3%, and trace magnesium, calcium, iron, manganese and boron is 0.02-0.03% altogether; Inanimate matter 30-40%;
The pH:6.5-6.8 of matrix, conductivity: 1.5-2.5, cation exchange capacity: >=100;
Human and animal excreta 15 parts after organic matter comprises bamboo vinegar 1 part, starch-acrylate graft copolymer 1 part, straw decomposing microbial inoculum 15 parts, fermentation, edible fungi residue 10 parts, useless bamboo consider to be worth doing 3 parts, plant powdered carbon 2 parts, silt slag 5 parts, bone meal 4 parts, dregs of beans 4 parts.
Substrate soil formula 3:
Be by weight percentage: matrix 35-45%, clay 55-65%;
Matrix total porosity 65-70%, unit weight 0.6-0.7g/cm 3; Matrix comprises organic matter and inanimate matter, and inanimate matter comprises perlite and calcium sulphate.
Matrix comprises by weight: organic 70-80%, wherein nitrogen: 2-3%, phosphorus: 2.5-3.5%, potassium: 3-4%, and trace magnesium, calcium, iron, manganese and boron is 0.07-0.08% altogether; Inanimate matter 20-30%;
The pH:6.5-6.8 of matrix, conductivity: 2.5-3.5, cation exchange capacity: >=100;
Human and animal excreta 40 parts after organic matter comprises bamboo vinegar 4 parts, starch-acrylate graft copolymer 3 parts, straw decomposing microbial inoculum 40 parts, fermentation, edible fungi residue 18 parts, useless bamboo consider to be worth doing 6 parts, plant powdered carbon 5 parts, silt slag 0 part, bone meal 6 parts, dregs of beans 9 parts.
Embodiment one
Organic matter is made successively according to the following steps:
Make after shrimp pool mud and water absorbing agent in mass ratio 30:1 mix and blend the particle that particle diameter is 0.2mm, obtain silt slag; Water absorbing agent is that polyamide and bentonite in powder are mixed according to 1.5:1;
The peat composed of rotten mosses, 5% dry and soft bark, the 3% quick rotting agent heap fermentation of 6% is added in fresh human and animal excreta, turning is started when temperature rises to 45 DEG C, then continue fermentation and keep 4 days at 58 DEG C, having fermented when temperature is down to 25 DEG C, sieving and obtain the human and animal excreta after fermenting;
Then preparation substrate soil is mixed by formula 1.
Embodiment two
Organic matter is made successively according to the following steps:
Make after fish pond mud and water absorbing agent in mass ratio 20:1 mix and blend the particle that particle diameter is 0.1mm, obtain silt slag; Water absorbing agent is that polyamide and bentonite in powder are mixed according to 1:1;
The peat composed of rotten mosses, 3% dry and soft bark, the 1% quick rotting agent heap fermentation of 5% is added in fresh human and animal excreta, turning is started when temperature rises to 40 DEG C, then continue fermentation and keep 3 days at 55 DEG C, having fermented when temperature is down to 20 DEG C, sieving and obtain the human and animal excreta after fermenting.
Then substrate soil is mixed with by formula 2.
Embodiment three
Organic matter is made successively according to the following steps:
Make after soft-shelled turtle pool mud and water absorbing agent in mass ratio 40:1 mix and blend the particle that particle diameter is 0.3mm, obtain silt slag; Water absorbing agent is that polyamide and bentonite in powder are mixed according to 2:1;
The peat composed of rotten mosses, 6% dry and soft bark, the 4% quick rotting agent heap fermentation of 8% is added in fresh human and animal excreta, turning is started when temperature rises to 48 DEG C, then continue fermentation and keep 5 days at 60 DEG C, having fermented when temperature is down to 30 DEG C, sieving and obtain the human and animal excreta after fermenting.
Then substrate soil is mixed with by formula 3.
This specific embodiment is only explanation of the invention; it is not limitation of the present invention; those skilled in the art can make to the present embodiment the amendment not having creative contribution as required after reading this specification, as long as but be all subject to the protection of Patent Law in right of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. the white tea ecological efficient in Anji cultivation method, is characterized in that comprising the following steps successively:
(1) construction of tea place ecology: Bai Cha tea place, Anji is opened up based on hillside, hills, mountain top, tea hill, the foot of the hill, hill-side keep tall and big high forest to cover, with water conservation, windproof solid soil;
(2) tea shoot is transplanted: before lifting, hold planting furrow successfully, apply base manure, and fertile and soil is mixed thoroughly, above covers one deck table soil, then carries out transplanting the white tea tea shoot in the Anji meeting garden specification; Plant ditch depth 30-36cm; Plant 2-3 strain for every clump, transplant tea shoot and want lifting, while plant, be with soil as far as possible and damage root system to improve survival rate; Tea shoot moves in ditch, and keep the original attitude of root system, root system is unfolded, and earthing limit, limit tracks tramping, and makes to exceed around tea shoot tea shoot and originally to bury vestige place 5-10cm, cover into ditch shape, to water next time and to receive rainwater; Single file strip columnwise is planted, line-spacing 150-170cm, and clump is apart from 26-33cm;
(3) interplant commodity trees: rationally interplant commodity trees according to physical features and kind, described commodity trees are one or more in Chinese torreya, Chinese yew, jujube tree, car li son or osmanthus fragrans;
(4) solid is stayed and is supported cultivation: one-tenth tea place in age is after spring tea harvesting terminates, immediately tea tree is deeplyd prune or deep pruning, Summer-autumn tea is not adopted, and strengthen fertile training management, allow its self-sow, the branch of new pumping grows to 60-70cm through season in autumn in summer two, forms the tree crown of solid type, grows many bud heads from top to bottom thus form the picking surface of solid type to each branch in spring in next year;
(5) fertilizing management: Bai Cha tea place, Anji fertilising generally annual 2 times, annual spring tea is plucked and terminates rear fertilising once, and based on fertilizer, ditching-fertilizing, covers with soil after executing, and covers to prune branch, every mu of application of organic fertilizers about 150kg; Second time fertilising is in the basic stopping of tea place growth, and apply fertilizer before entering the winter dormancy phase, based on fertilizer, amount of application is 150-200kg/ mu;
(6) camellia is extractd: annual autumn and winter season, tea tree blooms the period of comparatively concentrating, manual removal's camellia;
(7) pest management;
(8) garden is sealed: spray tea tree antifreezing agent, carry out tea place Feng Yuan, until spring tea exploitation in next year.
2. the white tea ecological efficient in Anji according to claim 1 cultivation method, is characterized in that: the Chinese yew 30-40 plant/acre of described step (3) interplanting commodity trees, Chinese torreya 20-30 plant/acre, car li son or jujube tree 20-25 plant/acre, osmanthus fragrans 15-20 plant/acre.
3. the white tea ecological efficient in Anji according to claim 2 cultivation method, is characterized in that: described step (7) pest management comprises physics or biological control tea place damage by disease and insect; Physical control is with tea place solar insect-killing light, green plate or yellow card's trap; Biological control is the flowers and fruits of the tree growth utilizing tealeaves to interplant, and attracts the natural enemy of the sick worm in tea place.
4. the white tea ecological efficient in Anji according to claim 2 cultivation method, it is characterized in that: described commodity trees are osmanthus fragrans, transplanting the March in the same year of the white tea tea shoot in Anji, digging at a distance of 60-80cm place the hole that the degree of depth is 40-50cm with described tea shoot, plantation sweet osmanthus sapling in hole, follow-up management carries out pruning to osmanthus fragrans:
(1) when part sprouting has just sprouted or part young sprout has just started pumping except sprouting, bud picking:
(2) part is just carried out to pinching at mushroom young sprout, turned round the tip; Described pinching is the tender part of children of extracing part young sprout tip, controls young sprout growing height, promotes that branch is aging, stimulates the mitogenetic of side shoot; Turning round the tip is sprained by the young sprout of part semi-lignified, by damaging the conducting tissue of xylem, weakening the growth potential of this branch, and retaining the photosynthetic function of this branch blade;
(3) cutting back, retraction and dredging is deleted: growing aging branch to sweet osmanthus seedling needs to prune by training; Described cutting back is that annual branch is cut off a part, to reduce the quantity of bud on this branch, concentrates nutrient, promotes the thick and branch of the increasing of branch, stimulates clip bud pumping enriching shoot.
5. the white tea ecological efficient cultivation method of the Anji according to any one of claim 1-4, it is characterized in that: described step (2) tea shoot moves into soil that after in ditch, earthing is used and mixed by matrix and rural area soil or clay, be by weight percentage: matrix 25-45%, rural area soil or clay 55-75%; Described matrix comprises by weight: organic 60-80%, wherein nitrogen: 1-3%, phosphorus: 1.5-3.5%, potassium: 2-4%, and trace magnesium, calcium, iron, manganese and boron is 0.02-0.08% altogether; The pH of described matrix is 6.5-6.8; Described organic matter comprises the human and animal excreta 15-40 part after bamboo vinegar 1-4 part, starch-acrylate graft copolymer 1-3 part, straw decomposing microbial inoculum 15-40 part, fermentation, edible fungi residue 10-18 part, useless bamboo bits 3-6 part, plant powdered carbon 2-5 part, silt slag 5-10 part, bone meal 4-6 part, dregs of beans 4-9 part.
6. the white tea ecological efficient in Anji according to claim 5 cultivation method, is characterized in that: described organic matter is made successively according to the following steps:
(1) make after mud and water absorbing agent in mass ratio 20-40:1 mix and blend the particle that particle diameter is 0.1-0.3mm, obtain silt slag;
(2) in fresh human and animal excreta, add the peat composed of rotten mosses of 5-8%, the dry and soft bark of 3-6%, 1-4% quick rotting agent heap fermentation, turning is started when temperature rises to 40-48 DEG C, then continue fermentation and keep 3-5 days at 55-60 DEG C, ferment when temperature is down to 20-30 DEG C, sieved and obtain the human and animal excreta after fermenting;
(3) by weight the human and animal excreta 15-40 part after bamboo vinegar 1-4 part, starch-acrylate graft copolymer 1-3 part, straw decomposing microbial inoculum 15-40 part, fermentation, edible fungi residue 10-18 part, useless bamboo bits 3-6 part, plant powdered carbon 2-5 part, silt slag 5-10 part, bone meal 4-6 part, dregs of beans 4-9 part are mixed and obtains organic matter.
7. the white tea ecological efficient in Anji according to claim 6 cultivation method, is characterized in that: described water absorbing agent is that polyamide and bentonite in powder are mixed according to 1-2:1.
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