CN104956981A - Cultivating method for big fruit hawthorn trees on self-conservation stony desertification land - Google Patents

Cultivating method for big fruit hawthorn trees on self-conservation stony desertification land Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104956981A
CN104956981A CN201510308142.9A CN201510308142A CN104956981A CN 104956981 A CN104956981 A CN 104956981A CN 201510308142 A CN201510308142 A CN 201510308142A CN 104956981 A CN104956981 A CN 104956981A
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tree
fructus crataegi
parts
crataegi pinnatifidae
fruit
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雷军强
韦在雄
覃稳梅
韦倩梅
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XIANGZHOU COUNTY SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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XIANGZHOU COUNTY SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N65/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing material from algae, lichens, bryophyta, multi-cellular fungi or plants, or extracts thereof
    • A01N65/06Coniferophyta [gymnosperms], e.g. cypress
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N65/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing material from algae, lichens, bryophyta, multi-cellular fungi or plants, or extracts thereof
    • A01N65/08Magnoliopsida [dicotyledons]
    • A01N65/12Asteraceae or Compositae [Aster or Sunflower family], e.g. daisy, pyrethrum, artichoke, lettuce, sunflower, wormwood or tarragon
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N65/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing material from algae, lichens, bryophyta, multi-cellular fungi or plants, or extracts thereof
    • A01N65/08Magnoliopsida [dicotyledons]
    • A01N65/22Lamiaceae or Labiatae [Mint family], e.g. thyme, rosemary, skullcap, selfheal, lavender, perilla, pennyroyal, peppermint or spearmint
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B1/00Superphosphates, i.e. fertilisers produced by reacting rock or bone phosphates with sulfuric or phosphoric acid in such amounts and concentrations as to yield solid products directly
    • C05B1/02Superphosphates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F17/00Preparation of fertilisers characterised by biological or biochemical treatment steps, e.g. composting or fermentation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G1/00Mixtures of fertilisers belonging individually to different subclasses of C05
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • C05G3/60Biocides or preservatives, e.g. disinfectants, pesticides or herbicides; Pest repellants or attractants
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The invention discloses a cultivating method for big fruit hawthorn trees on a self-conservation stony desertification land. The cultivating method is characterized in that the to-be-cultivated big fruit hawthorn trees are from Jingxi, an area of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous region. The cultivating method comprises steps of grating, seedling raising, planting fixation, cutting and trimming, fertilizer and water management, field management and pest control. Self-conservation stony desertification land expansion can be effectively prevented by the use of the cultivating method, and soil moisture retention can be achieved, so water and soil erosion can be reduced; the Jingxi big fruit hawthorn trees introduced to the land and widely grown is advantaged by great quality and large yield; and great economic and social benefits can be achieved.

Description

The cultivation method of self-restraint Karst Mountains Desertification Area fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree
Technical field
The present invention relates to the cultivation method of economic crops, particularly conserve the cultivation method of Karst Mountains Desertification Area fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree.
Background technology
Fructus crataegi pinnatifidae (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.), be commonly called as Chinese bush cherry, hawthorn, belong to the rose family, May dungarunga or algae wood, adapt to China's north and south plantation.Hawthorn is that China is original and distinctively to cultivate apple trees, and its fruits nutrition enriches, edible all very high with medical value, is defined as medicine-food two-purpose food by health ministry.The triterpene that hawthorn contains and flavones ingredient, have strengthen and regulate cardiac muscle, increase coronary blood flow, reduce serum cholesterol, the special result of the blood fat that reduces blood pressure.Fructus crataegi pinnatifidae fruit look bright-coloured, and taste delicate fragrance is sour-sweet, is rich in nutrition, containing protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin A, B, C, pectin, tartaric acid etc.Fruit working modulus is high, as preserved fruit, hawthorn angle (cake), fruit juice, fruit wine, jam, medicament etc.There is higher medical value, myocardial contractive power can be strengthened, increase atrial ventricle's motional amplitude, increase coronary blood flow, prevent arrhythmia, reduce serum cholesterol and glyceride, antihypertensive diuretic and sedation.Can disappear long-pending.Scattered silt, reduce phlegm, detoxify, prevent heatstroke and lower the temperature, produce refreshing effect to the mind, tonifying spleen stomach invigorating, to improve a poor appetite.
Fructus crataegi pinnatifidae has following characteristics: 1, fruit is rich in nutrition: fructus crataegi pinnatifidae fruits nutrition enriches, containing protein, fat, and carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, carotin, thiamine, vitamin b3, vitamin c, pectic substance, haematochrome and multiple tartaric acid etc.2, fruit working modulus is high: fructus crataegi pinnatifidae fruit is large, and pulp is thick, can be processed into various products, as preserved haw, the hawthorn honey of preserved fruit class; Can be made into hawthorn jam, fruit juice, fruit wine, haw jelly, hawthorn dry plate, hawthorn angle, sour haw berry, haw tea etc.3, there is higher medical value: study discovery according to expert in recent years, hawthorn has enhancing myocardial contractive power, increase atrial ventricle's motional amplitude, increase coronary blood flow, prevent arrhythmia, reduce serum cholesterol and glyceride, antihypertensive diuretic and calmness wait effect, can also disappear long-pending, scattered silt, reduce phlegm, detoxify, stop blooding, prevent heatstroke and lower the temperature, produce refreshing effect to the mind, tonifying spleen stomach invigorating, the effect such as improve a poor appetite.4, woods fruit dual-purpose seeds: fructus crataegi pinnatifidae possesses fast-growing, the feature that the life-span is long, manage and comparatively extensively still obtain good economic benefit, being the very high fruit tree of economic worth, is again that courtyard greening views and admires the fast-growing fine tree species with forestation in mountain area.
The a lot of provinces, cities and autonomous regions of south China, much conserve mountain areas as the ground such as Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan, Guangdong, Jiangxi have.The feature of self-restraint mountain areas is that the water with corrosion power carries out the general name that corrosion etc. acts on earth's surface and the underground form formed, also known as karst features to solublerock.Except corrosion, also comprise the erosion of flowing water, erosion of diving, and the mechanical erosion process such as to collapse.Before centuries, the self-restraint mountain areas rainfall of south China is abundant, have abundant water resources, virgin forest coverage rate is high, aboundresources, beautiful scenery, but along with the growth of entrance, the mankind are in self-restraint mountain areas Fast Activities, just cause the destruction of mountain areas forest, the Karst Desertification in current Southwestern China self-restraint area has been current global the most serious one of environment and socioeconomic problem, when we are having a taste of self-restraint peak forest in different poses and with different expressions and stone forest wonder, after the superb craftsmanship of admiration the Nature, hardly realize that our home is engulfed in self-restraint stony desertification just gradually, threaten our production and life.Under the fragile ecological environment in self-restraint area, because locals is to the unreasonable exploitation of land resources, cause vegetation deterioration, water and soil loss, land capability decline or lose, rock is exposed gradually, and earth's surface presents similar desertscape.At present, the Rocky desertification hazard of China nearly more than 70% is mainly distributed in southern 8 provinces (district, city) such as Guizhou, Yunnan, Guangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing, Sichuan, Guangdong centered by Guizhou Plateau, stony desertification area reaches 12.96 ten thousand square kilometres, annual land area of approximately engulfing 1856 square kilometres, overall in aggravation trend.
For intensity Rocky Desertification Region, due to the relation numerous imbalances of human and environment, the mankind lack basic life condition, therefore the ecology strategy based on clear-cutting forestland is mainly taked to the improvement of stony desertification, except planned, do systematically Ecological Immigration, the measure such as take to close hillsides to facilitate afforestation progressively recovers vegetation, and the eco-tour of reasonable development self-restraint.For moderate Rocky Desertification Region, mainly take to administer into main ecology strategy, by conceding the land to forestry, developing, the measures such as farm forestry are actively administered.For slight Rocky Desertification Region; mainly taking to administer is ecology strategy that is main, that strengthen prevention; carry out the Comprehensive ecological control of the ecological agriculture, courtyard economy; strengthen farmland capital construction, rural energy construction and man and livestock drinking water project construction; protect existing soil and vegetation cover, prevent new stony desertification soil.
Carry out studying becoming focus gradually for self-restraint Karst Mountains Desertification Area exploitation long-term cropping, as authorized publication number being: the invention of CN102907249B: the cultivation method of the mulberry tree of self-restraint Karst Mountains Desertification Area, adopting " Gui Sang excellent 62 " mulberry tree breed as stock, " No. 10, farming and sericulture " mulberry tree breed is as scion, cultivation method comprises wholely, nursery and grafting, seedling treatment, plantation, pruner cuts down, field management, the steps such as the extermination of disease and insect pest, the mulberry tree breed of the present invention's cultivation has well developed root system, water moisture self restraint, tree-like larger, branch is many, joint shape is given prominence to, accessory bud is many greatly, leaf oblong, dark green leaf color, blade face is flat and smooth, gloss is stronger, mesophyll is thick, for the high-quality mulberry leaf of breeding silkworms, can also as cowboying, the excellent food of sheep raising, give self-restraint mountain areas Revegetation of Eco-environment and increase income to mass peasants.
On this basis, inventor tests various crop again, find the extra earning that not only can realize economic benefit in self-restraint Karst Mountains Desertification Area plantation fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree, the continuation that can also improve severe ecotope worsens, to self-restraint Karst Mountains Desertification Area soil, there is water-retaining effect, reduce the effect of water and soil loss.Fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree strong adaptability, be the special fruit of name in Guangxi, fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree requires strict to soil, sandy soil, loam, husky earth all can be planted, and drought-enduring, heat-resisting, resistance to lean, be planting trees on barren hills, the fine tree species of the environment that conserves water and soil, improves.But under self-restraint stony desertification condition, plant fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree, how to overcome moisture and lack, the problems such as soil condition is poor, soil water-reataining fertilizer-keeping ability, meanwhile, select which kind of kind plantation to be also the problem needing to need further to solve.
Summary of the invention
The object of invention is to provide a kind of cultivation method conserving Karst Mountains Desertification Area fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree, not only can planting trees on barren hills, conserve water and soil, improve environment; Can also economic benefit be created in self-restraint Karst Mountains Desertification Area plantation fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree, for peasant increases production extra earning, walk Sustainable Development Road and foundation is provided.
The cultivation method of self-restraint Karst Mountains Desertification Area fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree of the present invention comprises the following steps:
(1) kind is selected: " crataegus jingxiensis Li " (Crataegus Jingxinisi Li)the new varieties found when being the whole nation hawthorn generaI investigation of phase early 1980s.Jingxi hawthorn tree-shaped is tall and big, with luxuriant foliage and spreading branches in leafy profusion, and branch is more.In existing eight or the nine kinds of excellent hawthorn species of China, fruit minimum more than 100 just have one jin, more than medium 50 individual one jin, and large also wants three, 40 one jin, and general three, five of crataegus jingxiensis Li just has one jin, and maximum two just have one jin.Crataegus jingxiensis Li fruit is bright-coloured, its taste delicate fragrance, sour-sweet, and fruit is rich in nutritious, containing protein, fat, and carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, carotin, thiamine, vitamin b3, vitamin C, pectic substance, haematochrome and multiple tartaric acid etc.Jingxi haw pulp is thick, can be processed into various products, as preserved haw, the hawthorn honey of preserved fruit class; Can be made into hawthorn jam, fruit juice, fruit wine, haw jelly, hawthorn dry plate, hawthorn angle, sour haw berry, haw tea etc.Hawthorn has higher medical value can strengthen myocardial contractive power, increase atrial ventricle's motional amplitude, increase coronary blood flow, prevent arrhythmia, reduce serum cholesterol and glyceride, antihypertensive diuretic and calmly wait effect, long-pending, the scattered silt of can also disappearing, reduce phlegm, detoxify, stop blooding, prevent heatstroke and lower the temperature, produce refreshing effect to the mind, tonifying spleen stomach invigorating, the effect such as improve a poor appetite.Belong to woods fruit dual-purpose seeds and possess fast-growing, life-span long feature, manage and comparatively extensively still obtain good economic benefit, being the very high fruit tree of economic worth, is again that courtyard greening views and admires the fast-growing fine tree species with forestation in mountain area.
(2) graft seedling growth: growth selection is healthy and strong, without the wild littlehip hawthorn of damage by disease and insect as stock, get seed from wild littlehip hawthorn and do stock kind, after seed being cleaned surperficial pectic substance, carry out routine disinfection; Hidden by seed sand after sterilization, be sowed at seedbed again after vernalization, husky bed will pad lid plastic sheeting for farm use up and down, heat and moisture preserving, and seedling generally wants trunk to grow to the just grafting of chopsticks diameter; The scion of " crataegus jingxiensis Li " adopts seed sowing or cuttage and seedling culture, the 2-3 month carries out cuttage in fertile field, Plain, the fringe bar of propagation by grafiting should clip before the Spring Festival, trunk grows to chopsticks diameter can carry out grafting, grafting method can adopt fringe connection or tooth connection, and fringe to be grafted survives and grows 5 cm and can transplant.
(3) field planting: according to spacing in the rows 3.5m × 4.5m, 50 ~ 55 plants/acre of specifications dig cave field planting, and every cave length and width are 80cm × 80cm × 70cm deeply; During plantation, root system will evenly be arranged, and successively inserts fine earth, compacting, and nursery stock root mass and soil are close to, and planting depth is for burying soil to nursery stock rhizome portion as well; After field planting, straw or film on fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree disk cover.
(4) trimming and finishing: after the field planting of fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree survives, top can be cut in trunk 60cm eminence, every strain guava stays first order branch 4 ~ 6 row culture trunk branch of different directions, after major branch is formed, retain major branch 70 ~ 80cm short branch again, to cultivate secondary scaffold branch, when young sprout grows to 25 ~ 30cm, pluck the short branch in top later, wipe out the random branch of inner canopy, withered branch and sick branch, be trained evacuate layering shape, many major branches nature globular model or natural open centre shape tree-like.
(5) rich water quality management: execute ash and pig cow dung 5kg, phosphate fertilizer 1 ~ 2kg before field planting in the hole, cave dug, and use 200 ~ 300 grams of water-loss reducers and 1 ~ 2kg compound pesticide fertilizer; Topdress when starting rudiment after plant is pruned and when fruit starts hypertrophy, topdress every year 2 ~ 3 times, manure use is main, coordinates and imposes appropriate compound organic and inorganic fertilizer; Timely draining is irrigated, and accomplishes not flooded not non-irrigated; Before fructus crataegi pinnatifidae is bloomed, young fruit period and fruit expanding period respectively spray a foliage fertilizer, increases thick base of fruit, improve nutrient delivery amount.
(6) field management is: control shoot grows, and the flower bud phase supplements potash fertilizer in time, and the florescence supplements boron fertilizer, flower and fruit protecting; Overstocked fruit, malformed fruit, small and weak fruit and sick wormed fruit to be thinning out in time, fructus crataegi pinnatifidae equilibrium is grown; Find that there is and be short of seedling, should reseed in time, the plant reseeded will be strengthened management.
(7) extermination of disease and insect pest:: to the control of blossom rot, powdery mildew, blistering disease, aphid, heart-eating worm, two spotted spider mite, chafer, oriental moth; Use the insect pest of botanical insect-proof agent control fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree; Harmless bactericidal agent for preventing and treating fructus crataegi pinnatifidae is used to set disease.
Above-described fertilizer, after saccharomyces cerevisiae, microbial fermentation inoculum, general calcium being mixed, adds water and stir, convert into mother liquor, then add in mother liquor molasses alcohol waste liquid, filter mud of sugar refinery, sugarcane marrow to stir soak, ferment 5 ~ 10 days, to obtain final product.
Above-described water-loss reducer is one or more of polyacrylamide, Sodium Polyacrylate or starch grafted acrylate.
The above compound organic and inorganic fertilizer is 40-44% containing inorganic fertilizer percentage by weight, wherein N>=16%, P 2o5>=8%, K 2o>=16%; Organic percentage by weight>=15%.
Above-described compound pesticide fertilizer contains insecticides thiamethoxam, diazinon and MTI-446 percentage by weight and is respectively 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5%, and chitin percentage by weight is 2 ~ 15%; N P and K weight ratio is 20:5:20.
The above chitin derives from the soft shell of shellfish in ocean, soaks obtain for 2 ~ 4 hours after being ground into 60 mesh sieves with the acetic acid aqueous solution of weight concentration 10%.
The material composition of above-described foliage fertilizer and parts by weight are: 30 ~ 40 parts, urea, 5 ~ 10 parts, carboxymethyl starch potassium, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) 20 ~ 30 parts, 5 ~ 10 parts, molasses, 10 ~ 12 parts, ammonium sulfate, humus 2 ~ 4 parts, glycine zine 3 ~ 5 parts, ferrous bisglycinate chelate 2 ~ 5 parts, neopelex 0.5 ~ 1 part, persimmon leaf flavone 0.1 ~ 0.5 part; Foliage fertilizer is diluted with water to 200 times to spray.
Above-described botanical insect-proof agent, for gathering dried peppermint leaf, pine tree leaf, ginkgo leaf and tarragon, according to the weight portion of 1:1:1:1, dries in the shade at 12 ~ 15 DEG C, coarse crushing to 50 order, add 5 ~ 10 times of water, boil half an hour, to be concentrated into proportion be after 1.25 and get final product to get filter vacuum.
The material composition of above-described harmless bactericide is the mixture of oligosaccharide element, caryophyllus oil and surfactant, oligosaccharide element parts by weight are 50 ~ 60 parts, caryophyllus oil parts by weight are 20 ~ 30 parts, and surfactant parts by weight are 2 ~ 3 parts, thin up 200 times during use.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
1, fructus crataegi pinnatifidae " crataegus jingxiensis Li " kind is introduced a fine variety at self-restraint Karst Mountains Desertification Area and plants experimentally successfully by the present invention first, enrich the kind of self-restraint stony desertification long-term cropping, and the plantation of fructus crataegi pinnatifidae is successfully local farmers volume increase extra earning, significant to the geographical environment and social benefit improving Rocky Desertification Region.
2, the fructus crataegi pinnatifidae pomegranate that the inventive method is planted has fruit look bright-coloured, and taste delicate fragrance is sour-sweet, is rich in nutrition, containing protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin A, B, C, pectin, tartaric acid; But also there is higher medical value, myocardial contractive power can be strengthened, increase atrial ventricle's motional amplitude, increase coronary blood flow, prevent arrhythmia, reduce serum cholesterol and glyceride, antihypertensive diuretic and sedation.Can disappear long-pending; Scattered silt, reduce phlegm, detoxify, prevent heatstroke and lower the temperature, produce refreshing effect to the mind, tonifying spleen stomach invigorating, to improve a poor appetite.
3, cultivation method of the present invention adopts the advanced farming such as compound pesticide fertilizer, fertilizer, harmless botanical insect-proof agent, fertilizer and removes insect pest technology, not only effectively improve the soil property environment of self-restraint Karst Mountains Desertification Area, soil with organic matter content is increased greatly, and the fertile one of medicine, the fertile economic benefits and social benefits of medicine, while guarantee nutrition, also serve good insecticidal effect, under the condition of stony desertification traffic of mountain area inconvenience, significantly reduce the cost of labor of plantation fructus crataegi pinnatifidae.
4, fructus crataegi pinnatifidae of the present invention " crataegus jingxiensis Li " kind have that fruit is large, high yield, stable yields, the advantage such as the life-span is long, fruit quality good, resistance to nonirrigated farmland and pest-resistant disease.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1
(1) kind is selected: fructus crataegi pinnatifidae kind is " crataegus jingxiensis Li ".
(2) graft seedling growth: growth selection is healthy and strong, without the wild littlehip hawthorn of damage by disease and insect as stock, get seed from wild littlehip hawthorn and do stock kind, after seed being cleaned surperficial pectic substance, carry out routine disinfection; Hidden by seed sand after sterilization, be sowed at seedbed again after vernalization, husky bed will pad lid plastic sheeting for farm use up and down, heat and moisture preserving, and seedling generally wants trunk to grow to the just grafting of chopsticks diameter; The scion of " crataegus jingxiensis Li " adopts seed sowing or cuttage and seedling culture, the 2-3 month carries out cuttage in fertile field, Plain, the fringe bar of propagation by grafiting should clip before the Spring Festival, trunk grows to chopsticks diameter can carry out grafting, grafting method can adopt fringe connection or tooth connection, and fringe to be grafted survives and grows 5 cm and can transplant.
(3) field planting: according to spacing in the rows 3.5m × 4.5m, 50 ~ 55 plants/acre of specifications dig cave field planting, and every cave length and width are 80cm × 80cm × 70cm deeply; During plantation, root system will evenly be arranged, and successively inserts fine earth, compacting, and nursery stock root mass and soil are close to, and planting depth is for burying soil to nursery stock rhizome portion as well; After field planting, straw or film on fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree disk cover.
(4) trimming and finishing: after the field planting of fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree survives, top can be cut in trunk 60cm eminence, every strain guava stays first order branch 4 ~ 6 row culture trunk branch of different directions, after major branch is formed, retain major branch 70 ~ 80cm short branch again, to cultivate secondary scaffold branch, when young sprout grows to 25 ~ 30cm, pluck the short branch in top later, wipe out the random branch of inner canopy, withered branch and sick branch, be trained evacuate layering shape, many major branches nature globular model or natural open centre shape tree-like.
(5) rich water quality management: execute ash and pig cow dung 5kg, phosphate fertilizer 1 ~ 2kg before field planting in the hole, cave dug, and use 200 ~ 300 grams of water-loss reducers and 1 ~ 2kg compound pesticide fertilizer; Topdress when starting rudiment after plant is pruned and when fruit starts hypertrophy, topdress every year 2 ~ 3 times, manure use is main, coordinates and imposes appropriate compound organic and inorganic fertilizer; Timely draining is irrigated, and accomplishes not flooded not non-irrigated; Before fructus crataegi pinnatifidae is bloomed, young fruit period and fruit expanding period respectively spray a foliage fertilizer, increases thick base of fruit, improve nutrient delivery amount.
(6) field management is: control shoot grows, and the flower bud phase supplements potash fertilizer in time, and the florescence supplements boron fertilizer, flower and fruit protecting; Overstocked fruit, malformed fruit, small and weak fruit and sick wormed fruit to be thinning out in time, fructus crataegi pinnatifidae equilibrium is grown; Find that there is and be short of seedling, should reseed in time, the plant reseeded will be strengthened management.
(7) extermination of disease and insect pest:: to the control of blossom rot, powdery mildew, blistering disease, aphid, heart-eating worm, two spotted spider mite, chafer, oriental moth; Use the insect pest of botanical insect-proof agent control fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree; Botanical insect-proof agent is for gathering dried peppermint leaf, pine tree leaf, ginkgo leaf and tarragon, and according to the weight portion of 1:1:1:1, dry in the shade at 12 ~ 15 DEG C, coarse crushing to 50 order, adds 5 ~ 10 times of water, boils half an hour, and to be concentrated into proportion be after 1.25 and get final product to get filter vacuum.Harmless bactericidal agent for preventing and treating fructus crataegi pinnatifidae is used to set disease, the material composition of harmless bactericide is the mixture of oligosaccharide element, caryophyllus oil and surfactant, oligosaccharide element parts by weight are 50 ~ 60 parts, caryophyllus oil parts by weight are 20 ~ 30 parts, surfactant parts by weight are 2 ~ 3 parts, thin up 200 times during use.
The control efficiency of table 1 fructus crataegi pinnatifidae " crataegus jingxiensis Li " kind in the different bearing stage to disease and insect pest
The dispenser phase Spraying times Diseased plant rate Insect pest rate Severity
Young sprout germination period 2 8.9% 10.2% Slightly
Vegetative period 3 11.6% 12.8% Gently
Initial bloom stage 3 12.8% 13.9% Gently
CK 0 93.2% 96.3% Heavy
Note: disease generation severity divide do not occur, slightly, gently, in, heavily etc. 5 grades.
In fructus crataegi pinnatifidae " crataegus jingxiensis Li " kind of self-restraint Karst Mountains Desertification Area cultivation, there is quality better, advantage that output is high by technique scheme, per mu yield 5000 ~ 6000 kilograms, good harvest is created to local peasant household, simultaneously, through 5 years planting experimentally and promoting, local Karst Mountains Desertification Area effectively shortens the process continuing to worsen, the suitable regional large-scale promotion at home with conditions of similarity.

Claims (9)

1. one kind is conserved the cultivation method of Karst Mountains Desertification Area fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree, it is characterized in that: the fructus crataegi pinnatifidae of cultivating tree kind is " crataegus jingxiensis Li ", cultivation method comprises the step of graft seedling growth, field planting, trimming and finishing, rich water quality management, field management and the extermination of disease and insect pest:
Described graft seedling growth is: growth selection is healthy and strong, without the wild littlehip hawthorn of damage by disease and insect as stock, get seed from wild littlehip hawthorn and do stock kind, after seed being cleaned surperficial pectic substance, carry out routine disinfection; Hidden by seed sand after sterilization, be sowed at seedbed again after vernalization, husky bed will pad lid plastic sheeting for farm use up and down, heat and moisture preserving, and seedling generally wants trunk to grow to the just grafting of chopsticks diameter; The scion of " crataegus jingxiensis Li " adopts seed sowing or cuttage and seedling culture, the 2-3 month carries out cuttage in fertile field, Plain, the fringe bar of propagation by grafiting should clip before the Spring Festival, trunk grows to chopsticks diameter can carry out grafting, grafting method can adopt fringe connection or tooth connection, and fringe to be grafted survives and grows 5 cm and can transplant;
Described field planting is: according to spacing in the rows 3.5m × 4.5m, and 50 ~ 55 plants/acre of specifications dig cave field planting, and every cave length and width are 80cm × 80cm × 70cm deeply; During plantation, root system will evenly be arranged, and successively inserts fine earth, compacting, and nursery stock root mass and soil are close to, and planting depth is for burying soil to nursery stock rhizome portion as well; After field planting, straw or film on fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree disk cover;
Described trimming and finishing is: after the field planting of fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree survives, top can be cut in trunk 60cm eminence, every strain guava stays first order branch 4 ~ 6 row culture trunk branch of different directions, after major branch is formed, retain major branch 70 ~ 80cm short branch again, to cultivate secondary scaffold branch, when young sprout grows to 25 ~ 30cm, pluck the short branch in top later, wipe out the random branch of inner canopy, withered branch and sick branch, be trained evacuate layering shape, many major branches nature globular model or natural open centre shape tree-like;
Described rich water quality management is: in the hole, cave dug, execute ash and pig cow dung 5kg, phosphate fertilizer 1 ~ 2kg before field planting, and use 200 ~ 300 grams of water-loss reducers and 1 ~ 2kg compound pesticide fertilizer; Topdress when starting rudiment after plant is pruned and when fruit starts hypertrophy, topdress every year 2 ~ 3 times, manure use is main, coordinates and imposes appropriate compound organic and inorganic fertilizer; Timely draining is irrigated, and accomplishes not flooded not non-irrigated; Before fructus crataegi pinnatifidae is bloomed, young fruit period and fruit expanding period respectively spray a foliage fertilizer, increases thick base of fruit, improve nutrient delivery amount;
Described field management is: control shoot grows, and the flower bud phase supplements potash fertilizer in time, and the florescence supplements boron fertilizer, flower and fruit protecting; Overstocked fruit, malformed fruit, small and weak fruit and sick wormed fruit to be thinning out in time, fructus crataegi pinnatifidae equilibrium is grown; Find that there is and be short of seedling, should reseed in time, the plant reseeded will be strengthened management;
The described extermination of disease and insect pest is the control to blossom rot, powdery mildew, blistering disease, aphid, heart-eating worm, two spotted spider mite, chafer, oriental moth; Use the insect pest of botanical insect-proof agent control fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree; Harmless bactericidal agent for preventing and treating fructus crataegi pinnatifidae is used to set disease.
2. the cultivation method of self-restraint Karst Mountains Desertification Area fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described fertilizer is after saccharomyces cerevisiae, microbial fermentation inoculum, general calcium being mixed, add water and stir, convert into mother liquor, then add in mother liquor molasses alcohol waste liquid, filter mud of sugar refinery, sugarcane marrow to stir soak, ferment 5 ~ 10 days, to obtain final product.
3. the cultivation method of self-restraint Karst Mountains Desertification Area fructus crataegi pinnatifidae according to claim 1 tree, is characterized in that: described water-loss reducer is one or more of polyacrylamide, Sodium Polyacrylate or starch grafted acrylate.
4. the cultivation method of self-restraint Karst Mountains Desertification Area fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described compound organic and inorganic fertilizer is 40-44% containing inorganic fertilizer percentage by weight, wherein N>=16%, P 2o5>=8%, K 2o>=16%; Organic percentage by weight>=15%.
5. the cultivation method of self-restraint Karst Mountains Desertification Area fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described compound pesticide fertilizer contains insecticides thiamethoxam, diazinon and MTI-446 percentage by weight and is respectively 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5%, and chitin percentage by weight is 2 ~ 15%; N P and K weight ratio is 20:5:20.
6. the cultivation method of self-restraint Karst Mountains Desertification Area fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described chitin derives from the soft shell of shellfish in ocean, soak with the acetic acid aqueous solution of weight concentration 10% after being ground into 50 mesh sieves and obtain for 2 ~ 4 hours.
7. the cultivation method of self-restraint Karst Mountains Desertification Area fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the material composition of described foliage fertilizer and parts by weight are: 30 ~ 40 parts, urea, 5 ~ 10 parts, carboxymethyl starch potassium, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) 20 ~ 30 parts, 5 ~ 10 parts, molasses, 10 ~ 12 parts, ammonium sulfate, humus 2 ~ 4 parts, glycine zine 3 ~ 5 parts, ferrous bisglycinate chelate 2 ~ 5 parts, neopelex 0.5 ~ 1 part, persimmon leaf flavone 0.1 ~ 0.5 part; Foliage fertilizer is diluted with water to 200 times to spray.
8. the cultivation method of self-restraint Karst Mountains Desertification Area fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described botanical insect-proof agent is for gathering dried peppermint leaf, pine tree leaf, ginkgo leaf and tarragon, according to the weight portion of 1:1:1:1, dry in the shade at 12 ~ 15 DEG C, coarse crushing to 50 order, adds 5 ~ 10 times of water, boil half an hour, to be concentrated into proportion be after 1.25 and get final product to get filter vacuum.
9. the cultivation method of self-restraint Karst Mountains Desertification Area fructus crataegi pinnatifidae tree according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the material composition of described harmless bactericide is the mixture of oligosaccharide element, caryophyllus oil and surfactant, oligosaccharide element parts by weight are 50 ~ 60 parts, caryophyllus oil parts by weight are 20 ~ 30 parts, surfactant parts by weight are 2 ~ 3 parts, thin up 200 times during use.
CN201510308142.9A 2015-06-08 2015-06-08 Cultivating method for big fruit hawthorn trees on self-conservation stony desertification land Pending CN104956981A (en)

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CN107820976A (en) * 2017-11-23 2018-03-23 桂林国农生态农业有限公司 A kind of high-yield method of hawthorn

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