CN103975711A - Cultivation method for autumn greenhouse watermelons - Google Patents

Cultivation method for autumn greenhouse watermelons Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103975711A
CN103975711A CN201410126969.3A CN201410126969A CN103975711A CN 103975711 A CN103975711 A CN 103975711A CN 201410126969 A CN201410126969 A CN 201410126969A CN 103975711 A CN103975711 A CN 103975711A
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climing
water
soil
watermelon
planting
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CN103975711B (en
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杨兵
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Fuchuan Xuhui Trading Co.,Ltd.
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Green Nine Gulf Gourd Fruit And Vegetable Plantation Co Ltds Of Ma'an Mountain
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Abstract

The invention discloses a cultivation method for autumn greenhouse watermelons, which comprises the following steps: selecting fine seeds; cultivating strong seedlings; planting; managing the cultivation; performing pest control and the like. According to the cultivation method for the autumn greenhouse watermelons, a high-efficient anti-season special greenhouse watermelons cultivation technique is used for delaying the supply period of the normally open field autumn watermelons from the original second half of October to the days after December for marketing in succession; the technology implementation is simple; the operability is strong; the application is wide; the requirement for the autumn watermelons of the slack season market is met; the plant diseases and insect pests are few during the technical production process; the quality of the acquired autumn watermelons is high.

Description

A kind of booth autumn cultivating watermelon method
Technical field
The present invention relates to proportion of crop planting field, be specifically related to a kind of autumn cultivating watermelon method.
Background technology
Watermelon can be rated as " king in melon ", and taste sugariness succulence, clearly quenches one's thirst, and is good fruit in midsummer, is a kind of food of being rich in nutrition, pure, edible safety.Common growth of watermelon is all in spring, and spring watermelon is generally 7, concentrate listing between the megathermal period in August, and amount is large, is difficult to long-term storage.Development autumn watermelon can extend the supply phase of watermelon.
Summary of the invention
The invention provides a kind of booth autumn cultivating watermelon method.
The present invention adopts following technical scheme:
A booth autumn cultivating watermelon method, is characterized in that comprising following content:
(1), select breeding autumn cultivating watermelon need select early-maturing variety, as disease-resistant Soviet Union honey, No. mono-, Feng Le, poly-precious No. one, Zheng assorted No. five, Jinzhongguanlong, watermelon 8242 etc.;
(2), cultivate strong sprout
The preparation of a, Nutrition Soil
Generally in broadcasting front 1-2 month, in in the nearly 3-5 of 60-70%, the field of planting vegetable crop soil, 30-40% do not prepare Nutrition Soil through the ratio of the fertilizer of harmless treatment, in every lm3 Nutrition Soil, add again 2-3kg superphosphate, 4-5g sulfuric acid zinc powder, 1-2g ammonium molybdate, 1-2g zinc chloride, and fully mix thoroughly and sieve;
Prepare in b, sowing seedbed
With above-mentioned Nutrition Soil, make the high furrow of wide 1.2-1.3m, high 10-15cm, thin rake leveling, waters vola water before sowing;
C, sowing
Sowing time is at mid or late July-early August sowing, every 667 ㎡ cultivation field sowing quantity 20-30g,
Broadcast frontly first by seed airing 2-3h under the low light level, then with the hot water of about 50-60 ℃, scald kind and constantly stir a 10-15min, then with the mature vinegar seed soaking 1-2h of 5-10%, pull out, clear water is clean, is placed in 28 ℃ of vernalization;
The medicine soil that before sowing, first place mat 1cm is thick below seedbed, fill out again Nutrition Soil, first water sprays Seeding bed, uniform broadcasting seed, cover again the thick medicine soil of 1cm in the above, the preparation of its Chinese medicine soil is killed star, 2g sulfuric acid manganese powder and appropriate fine earth and is mixed by every square meter seedbed 8g50% carbendazim, 3g3% ground worm, at lid sunshade net or straw;
D, seedling management
During 80% seed sprouting, throw off bed surface covering; With by sunshade net suitably to lower the temperature, while growing seedlings, to water sufficient water, with grow seedlings season and soil moisture content of backsight, suitably water, at rice shoot, open to 2 leaf 1 hearts constantly, can select a day field planting;
(3), field planting
Cultivation field arranges
Cultivation field should be deep ploughed in advance; Every mu of decomposed manure 1500-2000kg, superphosphate 50kg using through harmless treatment, soil conditioner 10-12kg, sprinkle evenly rear enforcement rotary tillage, the thin leveling of rake again, trench digging bedding, make the cultivating bed of wide 1.8-2.0 rice, high 15-20cm, and reserve and between the furrow of wide 30-50cm, operate ditch and suitably booth limit is empty, the 8-10 days vexed canopies of scaffolding buckle film before field planting;
In good time transplant planting
Selection has this varietal characteristic, tool 5-7 sheet true leaf, leaf look dark green, the sturdy internode of cane is short, without strong sprout of damage by disease and insect, about August 10, select cloudy day or fine day by seeding row spacing, by 43 * 80cm seeding row spacing, to open cave field planting at dusk, and irrigate in time normal root water, after work in 3-5 days, the flat cave of the harmony of earthing up again root, lays micro-irrigation flexible pipe, covering film in the ranks and puts seedling at furrow face;
(4), after field planting, manage
According to weather conditions and plant growing way appearance, by the switching of booth, carry out thermophilic management and Illumination adjusting, and in the field planting of plant, live, just fruit phase, swollen fruit mid-term etc. key point, in conjunction with micro drip-irrigation, implement to topdress, implement three climing trainings, climing length 30 ㎝ implement to hang climing, on main climing 12 joints, stay melon, implement artificial supplementary pollination, and leave mark, when young melon egg is large, implement net and hang;
Training reason is climing
Watermelon is stretched after climing and should be pruned in time, takes three climing pruning methods, and when main climing long 60cm, 2 the healthy and strong lateral bines of selecting and remain at 3~5 joint places, extract all the other lateral bines; Melon is occupied stably the sick leaf of rear removal, Lao Ye, sick branch, weak branch; Draw when climing the climing lower one side of furrow of guiding into, draw when climing and must not arbitrarily stir, do not turn round climing; While keeping down the vines of a creeping plant, branch is converted into inverted U and inserts (pressure is lived climing) in soil, carry out the afternoon that is chosen in fine day;
Rich water quality management
When the climing length 40~50cm of watermelon, carry out the work such as intertill and clean tillage, ridging, after transplanting, 7d executes slow seed manure, take nitrogenous fertilizer as main, adds water water and execute with urea 5kg/ mu; When melon egg is large, execute urea 10kg/ mu or the night soil 600kg/ mu that becomes thoroughly decomposed, potassium sulfate 10kg/ mu, after 7d, execute again 1 time, after gathering, execute each 10kg/ mu of urea and potassium sulfate at every turn, when watermelon growing is rapid, water demand ratio is more, particularly expanding stage is the most urgent to the demand of moisture, but greenhouse watermelon is poured water too much unsuitable, should rationally water according to leaf look fresh and tender degree, watermelon is plucked front 7~10d and should be stopped watering;
(5), the extermination of disease and insect pest
Adopt crop rotation, shine the agricultural measures such as ridge, disease-resistant variety, applying organic manure; Adopt the physical measure such as the vexed canopy of high temperature, black film weeding, colour table and light trap; Adopt the biological control measures such as gyplure trapping and biopesticide, in conjunction with necessary chemical control, carry out comprehensive innoxious diseases and pests controlling, the height poison persistent pesticide of forbidding;
(6) gather: in early and middle ten days in October, generally after female flower is open, within 28-32 days, carry out gathering of first melon; Every about 30 days, gather a collection of later, after gathering, should clean in time rural area, harmless treatment straw and discarded mulch film.
Described booth autumn cultivating watermelon method, it is characterized in that: the soil conditioner described in step (3) is prepared from by the component raw material of following weight portion: vermiculite power 20-30, clay 10-12, citric acid 8-10, dregs of beans 20-25, vinasse 3-5, white lime 2-3, potassium humate 8-10, boric acid 5-6, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2-3, ferrous sulfate 0.1-0.2, sodium selenite 0.01-0.03, manganese sulphate 0.02-0.03, magnesium sulfate 0.4-0.5, ammonium molybdate 0.01-0.02, bone meal 8-11, peppermint oil 1-2, glycerine 1-2, sucrose ester 0.1-0.3, water is appropriate, by vermiculite power, clay, citric acid adds suitable quantity of water to mix, stir into mud, send into 200-300 ℃ of kiln roasting 3-4 hour, then, cooling crush becomes 2-4mm coarse grain, by again with formula in rest materials mix and blend after 40-50 minute, granulation, spraying peppermint oil, dry and get final product.
Beneficial effect of the present invention:
Autumn cultivating watermelon method provided by the invention, a kind ofly to make the supply phase of normal open country autumn watermelon be deferred to a kind of efficient anti-season characteristic autumn cultivating watermelon technology after December by original mid or late October, this technology is implemented simple, workable, wide adaptability, has met the demand of market in dull season to watermelon.This technology is all noted the integrated application to the green prevention and control measure of disease pest and weed choosing seeds, grow seedlings, cultivate each stage, while applying base manure, added soil conditioner, not only improved soil property, lowered the breeding of damage by disease and insect simultaneously, avoid to greatest extent and reduced the use of chemical pesticide, Product quality and safety also has guarantee very reliably.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1: a kind of booth autumn cultivating watermelon method, comprises following content:
(1), select breeding watermelon 8242;
(2), cultivate strong sprout
The preparation of a, Nutrition Soil
Generally in broadcasting front 1-2 month, in the nearly 3-5 of 60-70%, the field of planting vegetable crop soil, 30-40% do not prepare Nutrition Soil, every lm through the ratio of the fertilizer of harmless treatment 3in Nutrition Soil, add again 2-3kg superphosphate, 4-5g sulfuric acid zinc powder, 1-2g ammonium molybdate, 1-2g zinc chloride, and fully mix thoroughly and sieve;
Prepare in b, sowing seedbed
With above-mentioned Nutrition Soil, make the high furrow of wide 1.2-1.3m, high 10-15cm, thin rake leveling, waters vola water before sowing;
C, sowing
Sowing time is at mid or late July-early August sowing, every 667 ㎡ cultivation field sowing quantity 20-30g,
Broadcast frontly first by seed airing 2-3h under the low light level, then with the hot water of about 50-60 ℃, scald kind and constantly stir a 10-15min, then with the mature vinegar seed soaking 1-2h of 5-10%, pull out, clear water is clean, is placed in 28 ℃ of vernalization;
The medicine soil that before sowing, first place mat 1cm is thick below seedbed, fill out again Nutrition Soil, first water sprays Seeding bed, uniform broadcasting seed, cover again the thick medicine soil of 1cm in the above, the preparation of its Chinese medicine soil is killed star, 2g sulfuric acid manganese powder and appropriate fine earth and is mixed by every square meter seedbed 8g50% carbendazim, 3g3% ground worm, at lid sunshade net or straw;
D, seedling management
During 80% seed sprouting, throw off bed surface covering; With by sunshade net suitably to lower the temperature, while growing seedlings, to water sufficient water, with grow seedlings season and soil moisture content of backsight, suitably water, at rice shoot, open to 2 leaf 1 hearts constantly, can select a day field planting;
(3), field planting
Cultivation field arranges
Cultivation field should be deep ploughed in advance; Every mu of decomposed manure 1500-2000kg, superphosphate 50kg using through harmless treatment, soil conditioner 10-12kg, sprinkle evenly rear enforcement rotary tillage, the thin leveling of rake again, trench digging bedding, make the cultivating bed of wide 1.8-2.0 rice, high 15-20cm, and reserve and between the furrow of wide 30-50cm, operate ditch and suitably booth limit is empty, the 8-10 days vexed canopies of scaffolding buckle film before field planting;
In good time transplant planting
Selection has this varietal characteristic, tool 5-7 sheet true leaf, leaf look dark green, the sturdy internode of cane is short, without strong sprout of damage by disease and insect, about August 10, select cloudy day or fine day by seeding row spacing, by 43 * 80cm seeding row spacing, to open cave field planting at dusk, and irrigate in time normal root water, after work in 3-5 days, the flat cave of the harmony of earthing up again root, lays micro-irrigation flexible pipe, covering film in the ranks and puts seedling at furrow face;
(4), after field planting, manage
According to weather conditions and plant growing way appearance, by the switching of booth, carry out thermophilic management and Illumination adjusting, and in the field planting of plant, live, just fruit phase, swollen fruit mid-term etc. key point, in conjunction with micro drip-irrigation, implement to topdress, implement three climing trainings, climing length 30 ㎝ implement to hang climing, on main climing 12 joints, stay melon, implement artificial supplementary pollination, and leave mark, when young melon egg is large, implement net and hang;
Training reason is climing
Watermelon is stretched after climing and should be pruned in time, takes three climing pruning methods, and when main climing long 60cm, 2 the healthy and strong lateral bines of selecting and remain at 3~5 joint places, extract all the other lateral bines; Melon is occupied stably the sick leaf of rear removal, Lao Ye, sick branch, weak branch; Draw when climing the climing lower one side of furrow of guiding into, draw when climing and must not arbitrarily stir, do not turn round climing; While keeping down the vines of a creeping plant, branch is converted into inverted U and inserts (pressure is lived climing) in soil, carry out the afternoon that is chosen in fine day;
Rich water quality management
When the climing length 40~50cm of watermelon, carry out the work such as intertill and clean tillage, ridging, after transplanting, 7d executes slow seed manure, take nitrogenous fertilizer as main, adds water water and execute with urea 5kg/ mu; When melon egg is large, execute urea 10kg/ mu or the night soil 600kg/ mu that becomes thoroughly decomposed, potassium sulfate 10kg/ mu, after 7d, execute again 1 time, after gathering, execute each 10kg/ mu of urea and potassium sulfate at every turn, when watermelon growing is rapid, water demand ratio is more, particularly expanding stage is the most urgent to the demand of moisture, but greenhouse watermelon is poured water too much unsuitable, should rationally water according to leaf look fresh and tender degree, watermelon is plucked front 7~10d and should be stopped watering;
(5), the extermination of disease and insect pest
Adopt crop rotation, shine the agricultural measures such as ridge, disease-resistant variety, applying organic manure; Adopt the physical measure such as the vexed canopy of high temperature, black film weeding, colour table and light trap; Adopt the biological control measures such as gyplure trapping and biopesticide, in conjunction with necessary chemical control, carry out comprehensive innoxious diseases and pests controlling, the height poison persistent pesticide of forbidding;
(6) gather: in early and middle ten days in October, generally after female flower is open, within 28-32 days, carry out gathering of first melon; Every about 30 days, gather a collection of later, after gathering, should clean in time rural area, harmless treatment straw and discarded mulch film.
Described booth autumn cultivating watermelon method, it is characterized in that: the soil conditioner described in step (3) is prepared from by the component raw material of following weight (kg): vermiculite power 25, clay 11, citric acid 9, dregs of beans 22, vinasse 4, white lime 2.5, potassium humate 9, boric acid 5.5, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2.5, ferrous sulfate 0.15, sodium selenite 0.02, manganese sulphate 0.02, magnesium sulfate 0.4, ammonium molybdate 0.01, bone meal 9, peppermint oil 2, glycerine 1, sucrose ester 0.2, water is appropriate, by vermiculite power, clay, citric acid adds suitable quantity of water to mix, stir into mud, send into 200-300 ℃ of kiln roasting 3-4 hour, then, cooling crush becomes 2-4mm coarse grain, by again with formula in rest materials mix and blend after 40-50 minute, granulation, spraying peppermint oil, dry and get final product.
Utilize the autumn watermelon product that autumn watermelon product that above-mentioned complex art is produced is produced with usual manner to compare, there is following advantage:

Claims (2)

1. a booth autumn cultivating watermelon method, is characterized in that comprising following content:
(1), select breeding autumn cultivating watermelon need select early-maturing variety, as disease-resistant Soviet Union honey, No. mono-, Feng Le, poly-precious No. one, Zheng assorted No. five, Jinzhongguanlong, watermelon 8242 etc.;
(2), cultivate strong sprout
The preparation of a, Nutrition Soil
Generally in broadcasting front 1-2 month, in the nearly 3-5 of 60-70%, the field of planting vegetable crop soil, 30-40% do not prepare Nutrition Soil, every lm through the ratio of the fertilizer of harmless treatment 3in Nutrition Soil, add again 2-3kg superphosphate, 4-5g sulfuric acid zinc powder, 1-2g ammonium molybdate, 1-2g zinc chloride, and fully mix thoroughly and sieve;
Prepare in b, sowing seedbed
With above-mentioned Nutrition Soil, make the high furrow of wide 1.2-1.3m, high 10-15cm, thin rake leveling, waters vola water before sowing;
C, sowing
Sowing time is at mid or late July-early August sowing, every 667 ㎡ cultivation field sowing quantity 20-30g,
Broadcast frontly first by seed airing 2-3h under the low light level, then with the hot water of about 50-60 ℃, scald kind and constantly stir a 10-15min, then with the mature vinegar seed soaking 1-2h of 5-10%, pull out, clear water is clean, is placed in 28 ℃ of vernalization;
The medicine soil that before sowing, first place mat 1cm is thick below seedbed, fill out again Nutrition Soil, first water sprays Seeding bed, uniform broadcasting seed, cover again the thick medicine soil of 1cm in the above, the preparation of its Chinese medicine soil is killed star, 2g sulfuric acid manganese powder and appropriate fine earth and is mixed by every square meter seedbed 8g50% carbendazim, 3g3% ground worm, at lid sunshade net or straw;
D, seedling management
During 80% seed sprouting, throw off bed surface covering; With by sunshade net suitably to lower the temperature, while growing seedlings, to water sufficient water, with grow seedlings season and soil moisture content of backsight, suitably water, at rice shoot, open to 2 leaf 1 hearts constantly, can select a day field planting;
(3), field planting
Cultivation field arranges
Cultivation field should be deep ploughed in advance; Every mu of decomposed manure 1500-2000kg, superphosphate 50kg using through harmless treatment, soil conditioner 10-12kg, sprinkle evenly rear enforcement rotary tillage, the thin leveling of rake again, trench digging bedding, make the cultivating bed of wide 1.8-2.0 rice, high 15-20cm, and reserve and between the furrow of wide 30-50cm, operate ditch and suitably booth limit is empty, the 8-10 days vexed canopies of scaffolding buckle film before field planting;
In good time transplant planting
Selection has this varietal characteristic, tool 5-7 sheet true leaf, leaf look dark green, the sturdy internode of cane is short, without strong sprout of damage by disease and insect, about August 10, select cloudy day or fine day by seeding row spacing, by 43 * 80cm seeding row spacing, to open cave field planting at dusk, and irrigate in time normal root water, after work in 3-5 days, the flat cave of the harmony of earthing up again root, lays micro-irrigation flexible pipe, covering film in the ranks and puts seedling at furrow face;
(4), after field planting, manage
According to weather conditions and plant growing way appearance, by the switching of booth, carry out thermophilic management and Illumination adjusting, and in the field planting of plant, live, just fruit phase, swollen fruit mid-term etc. key point, in conjunction with micro drip-irrigation, implement to topdress, implement three climing trainings, climing length 30 ㎝ implement to hang climing, on main climing 12 joints, stay melon, implement artificial supplementary pollination, and leave mark, when young melon egg is large, implement net and hang;
Training reason is climing
Watermelon is stretched after climing and should be pruned in time, takes three climing pruning methods, and when main climing long 60cm, 2 the healthy and strong lateral bines of selecting and remain at 3~5 joint places, extract all the other lateral bines; Melon is occupied stably the sick leaf of rear removal, Lao Ye, sick branch, weak branch; Draw when climing the climing lower one side of furrow of guiding into, draw when climing and must not arbitrarily stir, do not turn round climing; While keeping down the vines of a creeping plant, branch is converted into inverted U and inserts (pressure is lived climing) in soil, carry out the afternoon that is chosen in fine day;
Rich water quality management
When the climing length 40~50cm of watermelon, carry out the work such as intertill and clean tillage, ridging, after transplanting, 7d executes slow seed manure, take nitrogenous fertilizer as main, adds water water and execute with urea 5kg/ mu; When melon egg is large, execute urea 10kg/ mu or the night soil 600kg/ mu that becomes thoroughly decomposed, potassium sulfate 10kg/ mu, after 7d, execute again 1 time, after gathering, execute each 10kg/ mu of urea and potassium sulfate at every turn, when watermelon growing is rapid, water demand ratio is more, particularly expanding stage is the most urgent to the demand of moisture, but greenhouse watermelon is poured water too much unsuitable, should rationally water according to leaf look fresh and tender degree, watermelon is plucked front 7~10d and should be stopped watering;
(5), the extermination of disease and insect pest
Adopt crop rotation, shine the agricultural measures such as ridge, disease-resistant variety, applying organic manure; Adopt the physical measure such as the vexed canopy of high temperature, black film weeding, colour table and light trap; Adopt the biological control measures such as gyplure trapping and biopesticide, in conjunction with necessary chemical control, carry out comprehensive innoxious diseases and pests controlling, the height poison persistent pesticide of forbidding;
(6) gather: in early and middle ten days in October, generally after female flower is open, within 28-32 days, carry out gathering of first melon; Every about 30 days, gather a collection of later, after gathering, should clean in time rural area, harmless treatment straw and discarded mulch film.
2. according to the booth autumn cultivating watermelon method described in claim 1, it is characterized in that: the soil conditioner described in step (3) is prepared from by the component raw material of following weight portion: vermiculite power 20-30, clay 10-12, citric acid 8-10, dregs of beans 20-25, vinasse 3-5, white lime 2-3, potassium humate 8-10, boric acid 5-6, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2-3, ferrous sulfate 0.1-0.2, sodium selenite 0.01-0.03, manganese sulphate 0.02-0.03, magnesium sulfate 0.4-0.5, ammonium molybdate 0.01-0.02, bone meal 8-11, peppermint oil 1-2, glycerine 1-2, sucrose ester 0.1-0.3, water is appropriate, by vermiculite power, clay, citric acid adds suitable quantity of water to mix, stir into mud, send into 200-300 ℃ of kiln roasting 3-4 hour, then, cooling crush becomes 2-4 mm coarse grain, by again with formula in rest materials mix and blend after 40-50 minute, granulation, spraying peppermint oil, dry and get final product.
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