WO2019029027A1 - 混联式可移动重载铸造机器人 - Google Patents

混联式可移动重载铸造机器人 Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2019029027A1
WO2019029027A1 PCT/CN2017/108814 CN2017108814W WO2019029027A1 WO 2019029027 A1 WO2019029027 A1 WO 2019029027A1 CN 2017108814 W CN2017108814 W CN 2017108814W WO 2019029027 A1 WO2019029027 A1 WO 2019029027A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
hinge
telescopic
fixedly mounted
leg
working arm
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/CN2017/108814
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English (en)
French (fr)
Inventor
王成军
郭永存
任润润
沈豫浙
郑艳
李龙
杨洪涛
张军
王鹏
Original Assignee
安徽理工大学
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Publication date
Application filed by 安徽理工大学 filed Critical 安徽理工大学
Priority to US16/075,144 priority Critical patent/US10668626B2/en
Priority to GB1919395.2A priority patent/GB2578383B/en
Priority to AU2017395128A priority patent/AU2017395128B2/en
Publication of WO2019029027A1 publication Critical patent/WO2019029027A1/zh

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J11/00Manipulators not otherwise provided for
    • B25J11/005Manipulators for mechanical processing tasks
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D37/00Controlling or regulating the pouring of molten metal from a casting melt-holding vessel
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J15/00Gripping heads and other end effectors
    • B25J15/0019End effectors other than grippers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J15/00Gripping heads and other end effectors
    • B25J15/02Gripping heads and other end effectors servo-actuated
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J15/00Gripping heads and other end effectors
    • B25J15/02Gripping heads and other end effectors servo-actuated
    • B25J15/0253Gripping heads and other end effectors servo-actuated comprising parallel grippers
    • B25J15/0293Gripping heads and other end effectors servo-actuated comprising parallel grippers having fingers directly connected to actuator
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J19/00Accessories fitted to manipulators, e.g. for monitoring, for viewing; Safety devices combined with or specially adapted for use in connection with manipulators
    • B25J19/0008Balancing devices
    • B25J19/002Balancing devices using counterweights
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J19/00Accessories fitted to manipulators, e.g. for monitoring, for viewing; Safety devices combined with or specially adapted for use in connection with manipulators
    • B25J19/02Sensing devices
    • B25J19/021Optical sensing devices
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J5/00Manipulators mounted on wheels or on carriages
    • B25J5/007Manipulators mounted on wheels or on carriages mounted on wheels
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/003Programme-controlled manipulators having parallel kinematics
    • B25J9/0072Programme-controlled manipulators having parallel kinematics of the hybrid type, i.e. having different kinematics chains
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/02Programme-controlled manipulators characterised by movement of the arms, e.g. cartesian coordinate type
    • B25J9/04Programme-controlled manipulators characterised by movement of the arms, e.g. cartesian coordinate type by rotating at least one arm, excluding the head movement itself, e.g. cylindrical coordinate type or polar coordinate type
    • B25J9/041Cylindrical coordinate type

Definitions

  • the invention belongs to the technical field of casting robot equipment, and particularly relates to a hybrid movable heavy-duty casting robot.
  • the casting robot can be used not only for the casting and conveying of castings in die casting and precision casting, but also for the molding, core making, lower core, pouring, cleaning and inspection processes of sand casting.
  • the size and weight of sand cores and castings are relatively large, and it is difficult and demanding to perform core-taking, core-forming, lower-core, pouring and handling operations.
  • highly flexible, heavy-duty casting robots that can meet the needs of core, core, core, casting and handling operations in casting production.
  • the robots used in foundry production are articulated tandem robots, which have the advantages of simple structure, convenient control and large working space, but their precision is poor and the load capacity is small, and only light load tasks can be performed. It is difficult to meet the heavy-duty task requirements in the production of medium and large-sized castings, and the improvement of work accuracy and efficiency is limited.
  • the application of the existing casting robot is only limited to assisting the simple casting operation task in the fixed station, and can not meet the requirements of the mobile precise operation in the complex working environment of the casting production.
  • the tandem casting robot used in production has a simple structure and low cost, but because the degree of freedom is too small, the application is single and cannot be used in various occasions.
  • the commonly used casting robots are all modified from ordinary robots.
  • the molten iron or molten steel needs to be transferred to the production line by pouring the ladle, and the molten iron or molten steel in the ladle is poured into the pouring riser of the pouring workpiece.
  • pouring molten iron or molten steel is carried by workers or lifting heavy ladle. From the high-frequency electric furnace, iron or steel is connected, and then three or four hundred kilograms of molten iron or molten steel and ladle are moved to the pouring place. Or multi-person cooperation, slowly pour the ladle Tilt, pour the molten iron or molten steel in the ladle into the sprue of the workpiece.
  • This method has the following disadvantages: (1) Due to the weight of the worker, the size (weight) of the casting is limited, and one casting should be poured in a short time, if two or more bags are used. Cast iron or steel water, due to the slow speed of the workers, the cast castings are prone to quality problems such as casting defects; (2) workers have high labor intensity and poor working environment. The temperature of molten iron or molten steel is as high as 1500 °C, the working environment temperature is above 40 °C, the labor intensity of workers is large, and it is easy to fatigue; (3) The working environment is dangerous, and the hot metal or molten steel splash should be taken care of at all times, and the personal safety of the staff exists. Hidden dangers; (4) Low transportation speed and slow casting speed; low work efficiency, low productivity, increased manufacturing costs, and delayed manufacturing progress.
  • the prior patent documents also propose solutions for problems in the core, core, casting and handling of castings.
  • the Chinese patent application No. 201610698460.5 discloses an automatic pouring robot which is composed of a power device, a transmission device, a picking device and a detecting device, and can control the rotation speed and angle of the spoon, but the solution can only be simple. With the pouring and pouring, the robot has a small working space and low production efficiency.
  • the Chinese patent application No. 200910015467.2 discloses an aluminum piston casting robot.
  • the main swing arm, the auxiliary swing arm, the vertical swing arm and the connecting rod of the pouring robot form a parallel four-bar linkage mechanism, which can satisfy the aluminum piston blank casting forward or
  • the reverse tilting follow casting process requires, but the scheme has poor flexibility, long action tempo, low production efficiency, and the accuracy of the weight of the aluminum liquid is poor, the positioning accuracy is poor, and the product quality is unstable.
  • the Chinese patent application No. 201610072679.4 discloses a robot-controlled pouring device which uses a bevel gear transmission, a compressed air cooling pipe and a fan to continuously cool the pouring device, but at the same time, the casting liquid also has a cooling effect, so that the product quality reduce.
  • 201611165409.4 discloses a high-precision pouring robot for aluminum pistons, including ABB six-axis industrial robots and pouring robots, which have multiple degrees of freedom and high flexibility.
  • the solution uses a series robot arm to work. The space is small and the motion process is not stable, which affects the quality of the casting.
  • the Chinese patent No. 200710012538.4 discloses a novel parallel pouring robot, which comprises a base, a rotating pair, a turntable, a body and a ladle, and ensures the accuracy of liquid taking by a volumetric method, and drives a set of parallelogram four-bar mechanism by a motor.
  • the ladle is oscillated within a certain range to realize the positioning of the ladle, but the other directions cannot ensure accurate positioning, and the robot has a small working space.
  • the Chinese patent No. 201320665695.6 discloses a four-joint soup or a pouring robot which is simple in structure and cannot perform complicated pouring work, has low positioning accuracy during casting, and has a small structural load.
  • the Chinese patent No. 201120359585.8 discloses a robot double-casting pouring arm, which comprises a pouring arm, a support frame, a servo motor and a reducer, and the two motors respectively drive two ladle through the chain transmission system for pouring, thereby improving production.
  • the Chinese patent No. 201510444411.4 discloses a ground moving casting robot, which is mounted under the pouring manipulator and moves on the ground rail through the pulley, but the working track is limited by the track, and the flexibility is poor.
  • the Chinese patent No. 201621367895.3 proposes a design scheme of a piston-machine two-mode automatic casting machine. The task of taking aluminum liquid, pouring and casting is completed by a series-type casting robot with a fixed position and a simple pick-up hand. Light-duty operation at a fixed position on the production line.
  • the Chinese patent No. 200920140832.8 discloses a casting core device consisting of a sand box, a sand box positioning assembly and a series robot for holding the lower core, the robot Only in the limited scope
  • the inner working device and the actuator for clamping the sand core adopt the splint structure, which can only meet the operation requirements of the single sand core.
  • the Chinese patent application No. 201520331028.3 discloses a robot automatic core assembly device, which comprises a sand core placing slide table and a gripper working at a fixed position, and a support base, an adjustment eccentric wheel, a positioning wheel and a support wheel are arranged on the sand core placement slide table.
  • the photoelectric detecting switch is provided with a glueing device and a detecting device on the gripping hand, and several glue guns are arranged on the glueing device.
  • the technical solution merely simplifies the structure of the glueing device and the detecting device, and realizes the integration of the two functions. The whole device is not movable, the working range is limited, and the operation requirements of the shaped sand core are not satisfied.
  • Chinese Patent Application No. 201610325766.6 discloses a pedestal robot lower core take-up mechanism, including a casting robot arm and a lower core picking robot arm, although the three-station core rotating platform can meet the three-station position.
  • the core operation radius requirements reduce the labor intensity of the employees, but the scope and objects of the work are still limited by the fixed position of the robot and the simple end effector.
  • Cida 201011053848.6 discloses a coring core robot gripper, including a control module, a grip frame, a connecting flange, a gripping mechanism on the left side of the gripper, a linear slider guide, and an intermediate grip of the gripper.
  • the mechanism module, the pneumatic servo translation mechanism, and the clamp mechanism on the right side of the gripper can clamp one, two or three sand cores at the left, the middle and the right at the same time.
  • the sand can be realized by the pneumatic rotary module.
  • the rotation action of the core is insufficient in that the sand core can only be clamped by the movable end clamping arm module when grasping, and not only the clamping point is small when grasping the heavy sand core, but also the sand core needs to be moved, which easily causes the sand core to be damaged. .
  • the object of the present invention is to provide an omnidirectional wheeled movable heavy-duty casting robot capable of coring, assembling, lower core, pouring and carrying in the casting process of medium and large castings in view of the deficiencies of the prior art. Such operations can improve the efficiency of casting production, the quality and safety of castings, reduce labor intensity and production costs, and overcome the shortcomings of the prior art.
  • a hybrid movable heavy-duty casting robot includes a four-wheel drive mobile platform, a slewing device, a column assembly, a lifting drive, a parallel working arm, an end effector, and a binocular vision system.
  • the four-wheel drive mobile platform is the carrying and moving platform of the present invention, including a platform frame, a front drive wheel, a rear drive wheel, a rear hydraulic leg, an adjustable hydraulic leg, a controller, a monitor, and Hydraulic power station.
  • a navigation sensor is disposed at a bottom of the front and rear ends of the platform frame, and the navigation sensor uses a magnetic navigation sensor or a laser scanner or an infrared emitter or an ultrasonic transmitter, and a digital double is arranged in the platform frame.
  • An axis level meter, and the digital biaxial level meter has a measurement accuracy of not less than 0.01 degrees; a distance measuring sensor is disposed on a front side, a rear side, a left side surface, and a middle side of the right side surface of the platform frame, The distance measuring sensor uses a laser ranging sensor or an ultrasonic ranging sensor; two front driving wheels are mounted on the front end of the platform frame, and two rear driving wheels are mounted on the rear end of the platform frame for driving the four-wheel drive type
  • the mobile platform moves and walks; two rear hydraulic legs are symmetrically mounted on two corners behind the platform frame, and the adjustable hydraulic legs are mounted on the front sides of the platform frame for the casting machine The occupant supports the stagnation point during the operation to ensure that the four-wheel drive wheel platform realizes in-situ positioning and stable support during the operation.
  • the controller is disposed in the middle of the rear end of the platform frame for receiving the sensors acquired by the industrial cameras installed in the four-wheel drive system mounted on the four-wheel drive mobile platform and the binocular vision system installed on the top of the column assembly. Information, and control of the four-wheel drive wheeled platform, slewing device, lifting drive, parallel working arm and end effector to perform corresponding actions or task commands.
  • the monitor is fixedly mounted on the top of the controller for displaying the navigation sensor, the position and distance information acquired by the ranging sensor, the attitude parameter of the platform frame measured by the digital dual-axis level, and the position of the end effector.
  • the pose parameters and image information acquired by the binocular vision system and the operational status parameters of the present invention are the present invention.
  • the hydraulic pump station is fixedly mounted on the left side of the rear end of the platform frame for supplying pressure oil to the rear hydraulic leg, the adjustable hydraulic leg or the servo hydraulic motor; the rotary device is located in the four-wheel drive type
  • the front end of the platform is fixedly mounted on the platform frame by screws for driving the lifting drive, the parallel working arm and the end effector for the rotary motion.
  • the column assembly is located directly above the swing device, and the bottom of the column assembly is fixedly mounted on the top of the swing device; the lift drive device is fixedly mounted on the column assembly, and the front end of the lift drive device and the rear of the parallel work arm The ends are connected by a hinge for driving the parallel working arms and the end effector for lifting movement.
  • the parallel working arm is a four-degree-of-freedom parallel mechanism of 2RPU-2RRPR structure, and is used for supporting and driving the end effector to realize front and rear telescopic movement, left and right translation, rotation around a horizontal axis, and rotation about a vertical axis. Movement and posture adjustment.
  • the end effector is mounted on the front end of the parallel working arm, and the rear end of the parallel working arm is mounted on the column assembly and can slide down along the column assembly;
  • the binocular vision system includes an industrial camera, an image capture card, and Industrial computer for collecting, analyzing and processing image information acquired by industrial cameras at the job site, identifying and judging the geometry and attitude of sand core components, castings, flasks and gates;
  • the industrial camera has two parts, and Each is provided with an LED illumination source, the image acquisition card is integrally installed in the monitor, the industrial computer is integrated and installed in the controller, and the industrial camera and the image acquisition card are connected by a data line, the The frame grabber is connected to the industrial computer via a data line.
  • Both the front drive wheel and the rear drive wheel adopt a Mecanum omnidirectional wheel; the end effector may specifically adopt a ladle or a two-plier splint type pneumatic gripper or a three-finger synchronous pneumatic gripper or a multi-finger Asynchronous pneumatic gripper, the gripper finger has a logarithm range of 4-12, and each pair of gripper fingers are independently connected and controlled by a bidirectionally acting finger cylinder, thereby achieving independent fingers of each pair of grippers. Loosen and clamp to achieve a suitable gripping of the shaped sand core or casting.
  • the driving force of the rear hydraulic leg and the vertical leg is an electro-hydraulic servo cylinder or electric power.
  • Liquid stepping hydraulic cylinder the adjustable hydraulic leg can be adjusted not only by left and right but also by extension or shortening.
  • the adjustable hydraulic leg includes a leg box, a telescopic arm, a vertical leg, a leg telescopic cylinder and a swing angle adjusting cylinder.
  • the leg box is a hollow structure, the rear end of the leg box is connected with the platform frame through a hinge, and an angle sensor is arranged at the rear end of the leg box for detecting the angle of the left and right swing of the leg box
  • the rear end of the telescopic arm is set in the leg box and can slide in the leg box;
  • the leg telescopic cylinder is installed in the leg box for driving the telescopic arm to slide along the leg box Shifting, thereby realizing the telescopic function of the adjustable hydraulic leg, the front and rear ends of the leg telescopic cylinder are respectively connected with the telescopic arm and the leg box through a hinge;
  • the top of the vertical leg is fixed Mounted on the front end of the telescopic arm;
  • the two ends of the swing angle adjusting cylinder are respectively connected with the platform frame and the leg box through a hinge, and the leg telescopic cylinder and the swing angle adjusting cylinder adopt a double-acting hydraulic cylinder
  • a displacement sensor is also disposed on the leg telescopic cylinder for detecting the displacement of the telescopic arm relative to the movement of the leg box.
  • the rear hydraulic leg and the adjustable hydraulic leg can automatically adjust the static tilt angle of the four-wheel drive mobile platform relative to the horizontal plane according to the digital dual-axis level gauge in the platform frame, thereby realizing the four-wheel drive mobile platform. Self-balancing function when stagnation is supported.
  • the rotary device includes a rotary base, a rotary body, a swing motor, a rotary gear, an inner ring gear and a rotary top cover.
  • the rotating base is fixedly mounted on the platform frame by screws;
  • the rotating body is set in the rotating base, and is connected with the rotating base through a radial bearing and two thrust bearings,
  • the radial bearing adopts a cylindrical roller type radial bearing, and the thrust bearing is a cylindrical roller type thrust bearing;
  • the rotary motor is fixedly mounted under the rotary base for driving the rotary body and the rotary top cover Performing a rotary motion, the slewing gear is mounted on an output shaft of the slewing motor;
  • the inner ring gear is fixedly mounted in the rotator body by screws, and is internally engaged with the slewing gear;
  • the slewing top cover is fixedly mounted on the slewing a top portion of the body and connected to the rotating body by a screw, and an angle sensor is further disposed at
  • the column assembly includes a column base, a column and a top beam.
  • the column base is located above the swing top cover and is fixedly connected with the swing top cover by screws.
  • the two columns are arranged symmetrically between the column base and the top beam, and the column base,
  • the top beam is fixed;
  • a large displacement sensor is arranged on the inner side of one of the columns for measuring the displacement parameter of the parallel working arm when sliding on the column;
  • the front side of the two columns is fixedly mounted before
  • the linear guide rail is fixedly mounted on the rear side of the two columns with a rear linear guide rail, and the rear linear guide rail adopts an ⁇ -type linear guide rail; further, the large displacement sensor can adopt a linear magnetic grid sensor or a straight line Type grating sensor or linear inductive synchronizer.
  • the two industrial cameras are fixedly mounted on both sides of the front end of the top beam and connected to the top beam by a two-degree-of-freedom pan/tilt.
  • the lifting drive device comprises an elevation motor, a drive sprocket, a front guide sprocket, a rear guide sprocket, a chain and a weight.
  • the number of the driving sprocket, the front guiding sprocket, the rear guiding sprocket and the chain is two, and is arranged symmetrically on the column assembly;
  • the lifting motor is fixedly installed at the top middle position of the top beam For driving the rotation of the driving sprocket, and driving the parallel working arm for lifting movement;
  • the two driving sprocket are located on both sides of the top beam and fixedly mounted on the output shaft of the lifting motor, two front guiding chains
  • the wheel is fixedly mounted on the front side of the top beam, and the two rear guiding sprockets are fixedly mounted on the rear side of the top beam;
  • the front end of the chain is connected to the top end of the parallel working arm by a hinge, and the rear end of the chain
  • the weight is connected to
  • the connecting rods are connected.
  • the weight block adopts a split structure, and the weight of the weight block The amount can be adjusted according to the load of the end effector, and the number of weights can also be increased along the front-rear direction, and the weights arranged one behind the other are connected by screws.
  • the lifting motor uses a servo reduction motor or a servo hydraulic motor.
  • the parallel working arm includes a working arm mount, a first branch, a second branch, a third branch, and a fourth branch.
  • the working arm mounting seat is located on the front side of the column, and the rear end surface of the working arm mounting seat is provided with four symmetrically arranged rear sliding blocks and is connected with the front linear guide rail of the vertical column through the sliding pair
  • the first branch and the third branch have the same structure, and the mechanism topological structure is an RPU structure, and is arranged symmetrically on the working arm mount; the second branch and the fourth branch
  • the structure of the chain is identical, and the mechanism topology is RRPR structure, and is arranged symmetrically on the working arm mount.
  • the parallel working arm and the end effector together form a parallel mechanism having four degrees of freedom of motion for two translations and two rotations.
  • the working arm mounting seat is a fixed platform of a parallel mechanism composed of a parallel working arm and an end effector
  • the end effector is a moving platform of a parallel mechanism composed of a parallel working arm and an end effector.
  • the parallel working arm and the end effector together with the column assembly and the slewing device form a hybrid mechanism having three degrees of translation and two degrees of freedom and a total of five degrees of freedom, wherein the rotation about the vertical axis is redundant degrees of freedom.
  • the first branch includes a first front universal joint, a first telescopic joint, and a first rear hinge.
  • first rear hinge is fixedly coupled to the working arm mounting seat
  • rear end of the first telescopic group is connected to the outer end of the first rear hinge by a sliding pair
  • the front end of the telescopic group is fixed to the rear end of the first front universal joint
  • the front end of the first front universal joint is fixed to the end effector.
  • the second branch includes a first front hinge, a second telescoping set, a second rear hinge, and a first vertical hinge.
  • the fourth branch includes a second front hinge, a fourth telescopic set, a fourth rear hinge, and a second vertical hinge.
  • the front end of the second front hinge is fixedly connected to the end effector
  • the front end of the fourth telescopic group is fixed to the rear end of the second front hinge
  • the rear end of the fourth telescopic group The lower end of the fourth rear hinge is connected to the lower end of the fourth rear hinge
  • the upper end of the second vertical hinge is fixed to the lower end of the fourth rear hinge
  • the bottom of the second vertical hinge is fixedly mounted on the working arm mount.
  • the lower end of the first vertical hinge is fixed to the upper end of the second vertical hinge.
  • the axis of the first rear hinge is parallel to an axis of the cross shaft of the first front joint, the horizontal axis of the cross shaft of the first front joint and the second front of the third branch
  • the horizontal axis of the cross shaft of the joint is kept coaxial;
  • the axis of the first front hinge is parallel to the axis of the second rear hinge, and the axis of the first front hinge is perpendicular to the axis of the first vertical hinge,
  • a vertical hinge is coaxial with the second vertical hinge, the axis of the first front hinge is parallel to the axis of the second front hinge, and the axis of the second front hinge is parallel to the axis of the fourth rear hinge;
  • the axes of a vertical hinge, the second vertical hinge and the third rear hinge on the third branch are kept parallel to each other, thereby ensuring that the parallel mechanism formed by the parallel working arm and the end effector has two translational spaces in a certain space.
  • the two rotations have
  • the first telescopic assembly includes a first telescopic frame, a first screw, a first slider, and a first drive motor.
  • the front end of the first telescopic frame is fixed to the rear end of the first front universal joint; the two ends of the first screw are installed through the bearing seat
  • the first driving motor is fixedly mounted on the rear end of the first telescopic frame and connected to the rear end of the first screw through a coupling for driving the first slider along the first
  • the screw is elongated or shortened; the first slider is mounted on the inner side of the first telescopic frame by two parallel linear guides, and is connected to the first screw by threads; the first slider and the working arm
  • the mounting base is connected by a first rear hinge; the second telescopic group, the third telescopic group, and the fourth telescopic group are identical in structure to the first telescopic group.
  • a multi-finger asynchronous pneumatic gripper can be selected as the end effector. Then, according to the operation requirement, the front drive wheel and the rear drive wheel are activated to move the four-wheel drive type mobile platform to the designated work position in the workshop, and then the swing device and the lift drive device are separately adjusted according to the work posture and the height requirement, and the invention is adjusted.
  • the parallel working arms adjust the end effector to a suitable working attitude and working height, and the attitude adjustment of the parallel working arms is achieved by driving the sliders on each branch to move forward or backward along the screw.
  • the front drive wheel and the rear drive wheel may cause slippage or instability, which may affect the working accuracy of the casting robot, and the adjustable hydraulic pressure needs to be adjusted.
  • the swinging angle of the legs, and at the same time, the rear hydraulic legs and the vertical legs of the adjustable hydraulic legs are elongated to realize the stable support of the stagnation point of the four-wheel drive mobile platform.
  • the navigation sensor, the distance sensor position, the distance information, the image information acquired by the binocular vision system, the vertical displacement and rotation angle information of the end effector, and the real-time working state parameters of the casting robot are all visually displayed on the monitor, and the posture of the casting robot Information analysis and processing tasks such as adjustments and job tasks are completed by the controller analysis.
  • the invention has the beneficial effects that the four-wheel drive type mobile platform of the invention adopts the independent driving four-wheel omnidirectional wheel drive to realize long-distance flexible and stable walking; the rear hydraulic leg and the adjustable hydraulic pressure are compared with the prior art.
  • the legs can be automatically adjusted according to the digital double-axis level meter in the platform frame to measure the static tilt angle of the four-wheel drive mobile platform with respect to the horizontal plane, and realize the self-balancing support of the stagnation point, which ensures the casting robot under heavy load conditions.
  • the long distance and stable walking can improve the support stability of the work; in addition to the four-wheel drive mobile platform, the robot body can also move up and down, front and rear telescopic, left and right translation three movements and respectively around the vertical axis and around.
  • the two rotations of the horizontal axis have a total of five degrees of freedom of movement.
  • the slewing device and the lifting and lowering device can realize the whole cycle rotation and lifting adjustment respectively.
  • the four-degree-of-freedom parallel working arm can adjust the attitude of the end effector, which significantly expands the work of the robot. Space, the movement flexibility of the casting robot is improved; the end effector of the invention can also be replaced with a watering according to the work needs Or two-plier plywood pneumatic gripper or three-finger synchronous pneumatic gripper or multi-finger asynchronous pneumatic gripper to meet the needs of different operations such as coring, core, core, pouring and handling of medium and large castings.
  • the multi-finger asynchronous pneumatic gripper can meet the needs of the conformal effective grasping of the shaped sand core and the casting, and can avoid damage to the sand core or casting in the process of assembling the core and the lower core, thereby improving the stability of the operation.
  • Sex, safety and adaptability through navigation sensors mounted on the platform frame, ranging sensors, digital dual-axis level, angle sensors on the slewing device, large displacement sensors on the lifting device and multi-sensor information fusion of industrial cameras Automatically complete self-balancing control and position determination of casting robots, identification of sand cores and castings, identification of sand boxes and gates, sand core components and casting Casting tasks such as grasping, placing and pouring of parts, high degree of automation, high work efficiency and low labor intensity; the invention also has compact structure, small space occupied by equipment, low production cost, high safety, strong adaptability, and end The advantages of easy replacement of the actuator, easy operation and maintenance, and the like can overcome the defects of the prior art.
  • Figure 1 is a schematic view of the overall structure of the present invention
  • FIG. 2 is a schematic structural view of a column assembly and a lifting drive device of the present invention
  • FIG. 3 is a schematic structural view of a four-wheel drive mobile platform of the present invention.
  • Figure 4 is a schematic structural view of a swinging device of the present invention.
  • Figure 5 is a view taken along line A-A of Figure 2;
  • Figure 6 is a schematic structural view of a parallel working arm of the present invention.
  • Figure 7 is a schematic structural view of the adjustable hydraulic leg of the present invention (without the swing angle adjusting cylinder);
  • Figure 8 is a schematic structural view of the first branch of the parallel working arm of the present invention.
  • FIG. 9 is a schematic structural view of a second branch and a fourth branch of the parallel working arm of the present invention.
  • FIG. 10 is a schematic structural view of a multi-finger asynchronous pneumatic gripper of the present invention.
  • Figure 11 is a schematic view showing the overall structure of the end effector of the present invention when the multi-finger asynchronous pneumatic gripper is replaced.
  • a hybrid movable heavy-duty casting robot includes a four-wheel drive mobile platform 1 , a rotary device 2 , a column assembly 3 , The lifting drive 4, the parallel working arm 5, the end effector 6 and the binocular vision system 7.
  • the four-wheel drive mobile platform 1 is the load bearing and moving platform of the present invention, including a platform frame 11, a front drive wheel 12, a rear drive wheel 13, a rear hydraulic leg 14, and an adjustable hydraulic leg 15, Controller 16, monitor 17 and hydraulic pump station 18.
  • a navigation sensor 111 is disposed at a bottom of the front and rear ends of the platform frame 11.
  • the navigation sensor 111 is a magnetic navigation sensor or a laser scanner or an infrared emitter or an ultrasonic transmitter, and is disposed in the platform frame 11.
  • the distance measuring sensor 112 is a laser distance measuring sensor or an ultrasonic distance measuring sensor; two front driving wheels 12 are mounted on the front end of the platform frame 11, and two rear driving wheels 13 are mounted on the platform frame 11 a rear end for driving the four-wheel drive mobile platform 1 to move; two rear hydraulic legs 14 are symmetrically mounted on two corners behind the platform frame 11, and the adjustable hydraulic leg 15 is mounted on the platform truck
  • the front sides of the frame 11 are used for the stagnation support of the casting robot during the operation, thereby ensuring the in-situ positioning and stable support of the four-wheel drive mobile platform 1 during the operation.
  • the controller 16 is disposed in the middle of the rear end of the platform frame 11 for receiving each sensor mounted on the four-wheel drive mobile platform 1 and an industrial camera mounted in the binocular vision system 7 on top of the column assembly 3. Acquired sensor letter And controlling the four-wheel drive wheel platform 1, the slewing device 2, the hoisting drive device 4, the parallel working arm 5 and the end effector 6 to perform corresponding actions or task commands.
  • the monitor 17 is fixedly mounted on the top of the controller 16 for displaying the navigation sensor 111, the position and distance information acquired by the ranging sensor 112, and the attitude parameter of the platform frame 11 measured by the digital dual-axis level. The pose parameters of the end effector 6 and the image information acquired by the binocular vision system 7 as well as the operational status parameters of the present invention.
  • the hydraulic pump station 18 is fixedly mounted on the left side of the rear end of the platform frame 11 for providing pressure oil to the rear hydraulic leg 14, the adjustable hydraulic leg 15 or the servo hydraulic motor; the rotary device 2 is located
  • the front end of the four-wheel drive type mobile platform 1 is fixedly mounted on the platform frame 11 by screws for driving the lifting drive unit 4, the parallel working arm 5 and the end effector 6 to perform a turning motion.
  • the column assembly 3 is located directly above the swing device 2, and the bottom of the column assembly 3 is fixedly mounted on the top of the swing device 1; the lift drive device 4 is fixedly mounted on the column assembly 3, and the lift drive device 4 is
  • the front end and the rear end of the parallel working arm 5 are connected by a hinge for driving the parallel working arm 5 and the end effector 6 for lifting movement.
  • the parallel working arm 5 is a four-degree-of-freedom parallel mechanism of 2RPU-2RRPR structure for supporting and driving the end effector 6 to realize front and rear telescopic movement, left and right translation, rotation about a horizontal axis, and rotation about a vertical axis. Movement and attitude adjustment of degrees of freedom.
  • the end effector 6 is mounted at the front end of the parallel working arm 5, and the rear end of the parallel working arm 5 is mounted on the column assembly 3 and can slide down along the column assembly 3;
  • the binocular vision system 7 includes industrial Cameras, image acquisition cards and industrial computers for collecting, analyzing and processing image information acquired by industrial cameras at the job site, identifying and judging the geometry and attitude of sand core components, castings, flasks and gates;
  • the camera has two parts, and each is provided with an LED illumination source.
  • the image acquisition card is integrated and installed in the monitor 17.
  • the industrial computer is integrated and installed in the controller 16, and the industrial camera and the image acquisition card are passed.
  • the data lines are connected, and the image capture card is connected to the industrial computer through a data line.
  • the front drive wheel 12 and the rear drive wheel 13 both adopt a Mecanum omnidirectional wheel; the end effector 6 uses a ladle for performing casting production.
  • the pouring job function As shown in FIG. 1, FIG. 3 and FIG. 11, the front drive wheel 12 and the rear drive wheel 13 both adopt a Mecanum omnidirectional wheel; the end effector 6 uses a ladle for performing casting production.
  • the pouring job function As shown in FIG. 1, FIG. 3 and FIG. 11, the front drive wheel 12 and the rear drive wheel 13 both adopt a Mecanum omnidirectional wheel; the end effector 6 uses a ladle for performing casting production.
  • the pouring job function As shown in FIG. 1, FIG. 3 and FIG. 11, the front drive wheel 12 and the rear drive wheel 13 both adopt a Mecanum omnidirectional wheel; the end effector 6 uses a ladle for performing casting production.
  • the pouring job function As shown in FIG. 1, FIG. 3 and FIG. 11, the front drive wheel 12 and the rear drive wheel 13 both adopt a Mecanum
  • the swivel device 2 includes a swivel base 21, a swivel body 22, a swing motor 23, a swivel gear 24, an inner ring gear 25, and a swivel top cover 26.
  • the rotary base 21 is fixedly mounted on the platform frame 11 by screws; the rotary body 22 is fitted in the rotary base 21, and a radial bearing and two thrust bearings are passed between the rotary base 21 and the rotary base 21.
  • the radial bearing adopts a cylindrical roller type radial bearing
  • the thrust bearing is a cylindrical roller type thrust bearing
  • the swing motor 23 is fixedly mounted under the swing base 21 for The driving rotary body 22 and the rotary top cover 26 are rotated, and the rotary gear 24 is mounted on the output shaft of the swing motor 23
  • the inner ring gear 25 is fixedly mounted in the rotary body 22 by screws
  • the inner cover 26 is fixedly mounted on the top of the rotary body 22, and is connected to the rotary body 22 by screws.
  • An angle sensor is further disposed at the center of the bottom of the rotary top cover 26 for The angle of rotation of the swivel body 22 and the swivel top cover 26 with respect to the swivel base 21 is measured.
  • the column assembly 3 includes a column base 31, a column 32 and a top beam 33.
  • the column base 31 is located above the swing top cover 26 and is fixed to the swing top cover 26 by screws.
  • the two columns 32 are symmetrically arranged between the column base 31 and the top beam 33. And is fixed to the column base 31 and the top beam 33;
  • a large displacement sensor is disposed on the inner side surface of one of the columns 32 for measuring the displacement parameter of the parallel working arm 5 when sliding on the column;
  • the front linear guide 321 is fixedly mounted on the front side of the two columns 32.
  • a rear linear guide 322 is fixedly mounted on the rear side of the two uprights 32, and the rear linear guide 322 is an ⁇ -type linear guide; further, the large displacement sensor may be a linear magnetic grid sensor or Straight line grating sensor or linear inductive synchronizer.
  • the two industrial cameras are fixedly mounted on both sides of the front end of the top beam 33, and are connected to the top beam 33 by a two-degree-of-freedom pan/tilt.
  • the lifting drive device 4 includes an elevation motor 41, a drive sprocket 42, a front guide sprocket 43, a rear guide sprocket 44, a chain 45 and a weight. 46.
  • the number of the driving sprocket 42, the front guiding sprocket 43, the rear guiding sprocket 44 and the chain 45 is two, and is arranged symmetrically on the column assembly 3;
  • the lifting motor 41 is fixedly mounted on The top intermediate position of the top beam 33 is used to power the rotation of the driving sprocket 42 to drive the parallel working arm 5 for lifting movement;
  • the two driving sprocket 42 are located on both sides of the top beam 33 and are fixedly mounted on the lifting
  • two front guide sprockets 43 are fixedly mounted on the front side of the top beam 33, and two rear guide sprockets 44 are fixedly mounted on the rear side of the top beam 33;
  • the front end of the chain 45 The rear end of the parallel working arm 5 is connected by a hinge, the rear end of the chain 45 is connected to the weight 46 by a hinge, and the chain 45 is simultaneously connected to the driving sprocket 42, the front guiding sprocket 43, and
  • the sprocket 44 remains engaged; the counterweight 46 is located on the rear side of the upright 32 for balancing the weight of the parallel working arm 5 and the end effector 6, with two symmetry at the front end of the counterweight 46
  • the rear slider 461 is disposed and communicates with the rear linear guide 322 on the column 32.
  • the super-slip sub-phase is connected, and the left and right weights 46 are connected by a U-shaped link 462.
  • the weight 46 has a split structure, and the weight of the weight can be adjusted according to the load of the end effector 6, and the weight of the weight 46 can also be increased along the front and rear direction, and the weights arranged front and rear.
  • the blocks 46 are connected by screws.
  • the parallel working arm 5 includes a working arm mount 51 , a first branch 52 , and a second branch 53 .
  • the working arm mounting seat 51 is located on the front side of the column 32, and the rear end surface of the working arm mounting base 51 is provided with four symmetrically arranged rear sliding blocks 511 and the front linear guides 321 of the vertical columns 32.
  • the first branch 52 and the third branch 54 are identical in structure, and the mechanism topologies are all RPU structures, and are arranged symmetrically on the working arm mount 51;
  • the second branch 53 and the fourth branch 55 have the same structure, and the mechanism topologies are all RRPR structures, and are arranged symmetrically on the working arm mount 51.
  • the parallel working arm 5 together with the end effector 6 constitutes a parallel mechanism having four degrees of freedom of motion for the two translations and two rotations.
  • the working arm mount 51 is a fixed platform of a parallel mechanism formed by the parallel working arm 5 and the end effector 6.
  • the end effector 6 is a parallel mechanism composed of the parallel working arm 5 and the end effector 6. platform.
  • the parallel working arm 5 and the end effector 6 together with the column assembly 3 and the slewing device 2 form a hybrid mechanism having three degrees of translation and two degrees of rotation and five degrees of freedom, wherein the rotation around the vertical axis is redundant. Degree of freedom.
  • the first branch 52 includes a first front universal joint 521 , a first telescopic group 522 and a first rear hinge 523 .
  • the inner end of the first rear hinge 523 is fixed to the working arm mounting seat 51, and the rear end of the first telescopic group 522 is connected to the outer end of the first rear hinge 523 by a sliding pair.
  • the first telescopic group The front end of the first front universal joint 521 is fixed to the front end of the first front universal joint 521, and the front end of the first front universal joint 521 is fixed to the end effector 6.
  • the second branch 53 includes a first front hinge 531, a second telescoping set 532, a second rear hinge 533, and a first vertical hinge 534.
  • the front end of the first front hinge 531 is fixedly connected to the end effector 6, the front end of the second telescopic group 532 is fixed to the rear end of the first front hinge 531, and the second telescopic
  • the rear end of the group 532 and the upper end of the second rear hinge 533 are connected by a sliding pair, and the lower end of the first vertical hinge 534 is fixed to the upper end of the second rear hinge 533, the first vertical hinge 534
  • the top is fixedly mounted on the working arm mount 51.
  • the fourth branch 55 includes a second front hinge 551, a fourth telescoping group 552, a fourth rear hinge 553, and a second vertical hinge 554.
  • the front end of the second front hinge 551 is fixed to the end effector 6, and the front end of the fourth telescopic group 552 is fixed to the rear end of the second front hinge 551, and the fourth telescopic
  • the rear end of the group 552 and the lower end of the fourth rear hinge 553 are connected by a slip pair, and the upper end of the second vertical hinge 554 is fixed to the upper end of the fourth rear hinge 553, and the second vertical hinge 554 is
  • the bottom portion is fixedly mounted on the working arm mount 51, and the lower end of the first vertical hinge 534 is fixed to the upper end of the second vertical hinge 554, that is, a hinge frame 56 is shared.
  • the axis of the first rear hinge 523 is parallel to an axis of the cross shaft of the first front universal joint 521, and the horizontal axis of the cross shaft of the first front universal joint 521 and the third branch 54
  • the horizontal axis of the cross shaft of the second front universal joint 541 remains coaxial; the axis of the first front hinge 531 is parallel to the axis of the second rear hinge 533, and the axis of the first front hinge 531 is perpendicular to
  • the axis of the first vertical hinge 534, the first vertical hinge 534 is coaxial with the second vertical hinge 554, the axis of the first front hinge 531 is parallel to the axis of the second front hinge 551, and the axis of the second front hinge 551 is
  • the axes of the four rear hinges 553 are parallel; the axes of the first rear hinge 523, the first vertical hinge 534, the second vertical hinge 554 and the third rear hinge 543 on the third branch 54 are kept parallel to each other, thereby ensuring
  • the first telescopic assembly 522 includes a first telescopic frame 5221 , a first screw 5222 , a first slider 5223 , and a first driving motor 5224 .
  • the front end of the first telescopic frame 5221 is fixed to the rear end of the first front universal joint 521; the two ends of the first screw 5222 are mounted on the first telescopic frame 5221 through a bearing housing.
  • the first driving motor 5224 is fixedly mounted on the rear end of the first telescopic frame 5221 and connected to the rear end of the first screw 5222 via a coupling for driving the first slider 5223 to extend along the first screw 5222.
  • the first slider 5223 is mounted on the inner side of the first telescopic frame 5221 by two parallel linear guides, and is connected with the first screw 5222 by threads; the first slider 5223 and the work
  • the arm mounts 51 are connected by a first rear hinge 523; the second telescoping group 532, the third telescoping group 542, and the fourth telescoping group 552 are identical in structure to the first telescoping group 522.
  • the first telescopic group 522, the second telescopic group 532, the third telescopic group 542, and the fourth telescopic group 552 function as a moving pair in the parallel working arm 5, and the driving power thereof is respectively driven by the first driving motor 5224, Two drive motors 5324, a third drive motor 5424, and a fourth drive motor 5524 are provided.
  • the function of the moving pair in the four branches of the parallel working arm 5 is realized by the telescopic group, and the structure is simple and compact, and the first branch 52, the second branch 53, the third branch 54 and the fourth branch can be ensured.
  • the structural rigidity and torsion resistance of the moving pair in 55 makes the screw that drives the slider move only to bear the axial load, and does not bear the shear force and the torsion force, which can effectively reduce the displacement of the mobile pair.
  • the cost of dynamic power by strictly defining the first branch 52, the second branch 53, the third branch 54 and the fourth branch 55 between the axes of the front universal joint, the front hinge, the rear hinge and the vertical hinge
  • the scale constraint type that is, defining the parallel, coaxial or vertical relationship between the axes, can uniquely define the four-degree-of-freedom parallel mechanism formed by the parallel working arm 5 and the end effector 6 in the present invention according to the set space.
  • the translation and the two rotations have a total of four degrees of freedom for accurate motion and attitude adjustment.
  • Other compositions and connection relationships are the same as in the first embodiment.
  • Embodiment 3 is a diagrammatic representation of Embodiment 3
  • the end effector 6 specifically adopts a multi-finger asynchronous pneumatic gripper
  • the multi-finger asynchronous pneumatic gripper includes a pneumatic claw connecting seat 6-1 and a connection.
  • the air grip connector 6-1 is fixedly mounted on the front end of the parallel working arm 5; the upper end of the connecting bracket 6-2 is fixedly connected to the air grip connector 6-1, and the lower end of the bracket 6-2 is connected.
  • a guiding sleeve 6 is provided at the bottom of the gripper mounting plate 6-3 -31, a non-slip rubber 6-41 is disposed on the inner side of the lower end of the jaw finger 6-4, and a guide rod 6-42 is disposed on the inner side of the upper end of the jaw finger 6-4, the guide rod 6-42 is set in the guide sleeve 6-31, and is connected with the guide sleeve 6-31 by a linear bearing;
  • the finger cylinder 6-5 is fixedly mounted on the gripper mounting plate 6-3, the finger cylinder 6 The two ends of the -5 are respectively connected to the two jaw fingers 6-4 through a hinge, and the finger cylinder 6-5 is a double-acting cylinder; electromagnetic force is also provided at the top of the gripper mounting plate 6-3.
  • the guide rod 6-42 of the jaw finger 6-4 can be slid along the guide sleeve 6-31 under the driving of the finger cylinder 6-5, and the jaw finger 6 mounted on both ends of the same finger cylinder 6-5 can be realized. 4
  • the action of loosening and clamping is performed, so that each pair of jaw fingers 6-4 is independently loosened and clamped, so that the conformal effective grasping of the shaped sand core or the casting is realized.
  • the gripper fingers 6-4 have a logarithmic range of 4-12.
  • the invention can be provided with the functions of a core, a lower core and a casting, further expanding the present invention.
  • Other components and connection relationships are the same as those of the first embodiment or the second embodiment.
  • Embodiment 4 is a diagrammatic representation of Embodiment 4:
  • the swing motor 23 in the present embodiment employs a servo reduction motor. So designed, the DC servo motor has a high speed and can provide a large torque with the corresponding RV precision reducer. In addition, the DC servo motor can also realize closed-loop control, which can achieve higher transmission accuracy. Other compositions and connection relationships are the same as those of the specific embodiment one, two or three.
  • Embodiment 5 is a diagrammatic representation of Embodiment 5:
  • the elevation motor 41 in the present embodiment employs a servo reduction motor. So designed, the DC servo motor has a high speed and can provide a large torque with the corresponding RV precision reducer. In addition, the DC servo motor can also realize closed-loop control, which can achieve higher transmission accuracy. Other compositions and connection relationships are the same as those of the specific embodiment one, two, three or four.
  • Embodiment 6 is a diagrammatic representation of Embodiment 6
  • the adjustable hydraulic leg 15 in the present embodiment can be adjusted not only to the right and left, but also to the left and right swings. It can also be stretched or shortened.
  • the adjustable hydraulic leg 15 includes a leg box 151, a telescopic arm 152, a vertical leg 153, a leg telescopic cylinder 154, and a swing angle adjustment cylinder 155.
  • the leg box 151 is a hollow structure, the rear end of the leg box 151 is connected with the platform frame 11 by a hinge, and an angle sensor is disposed at the rear end of the leg box 151 for detecting the leg box
  • the driving telescopic arm 152 is slid along the leg box 151, thereby realizing the telescopic function of the adjustable hydraulic leg 15.
  • the front and rear ends of the leg telescopic cylinder 154 are respectively connected to the telescopic arm 152 and the leg box 151 by a hinge;
  • the top of the vertical leg 153 is fixedly mounted on the front end of the telescopic arm 152; the two ends of the swing angle adjusting cylinder 155 are respectively connected to the platform frame 11 and the leg box 151 by a hinge.
  • the leg extension cylinder 154 and the swing angle adjustment cylinder 155 employ a double-acting hydraulic cylinder for driving the leg box 151, the telescopic arm 152, and the vertical leg 153 to swing left and right around the hinge axis of the rear end of the leg box 151.
  • a displacement sensor is also provided on the leg telescopic cylinder 154 for detecting the displacement of the telescopic arm 152 relative to the movement of the leg box 151.
  • the driving force of the rear hydraulic leg 14 and the vertical leg 153 is an electro-hydraulic servo cylinder or an electro-hydraulic stepping hydraulic cylinder. So designed, the rear hydraulic leg 14 and the adjustable hydraulic leg 15 can automatically adjust the static tilt angle of the four-wheel drive mobile platform 1 with respect to the horizontal plane according to the digital dual-axis level gauge in the platform frame 11, thereby realizing
  • the self-balancing function of the four-wheel drive mobile platform 1 at the stagnation point support can also improve the ability of the four-wheel drive mobile platform 1 of the present invention to resist overturning during heavy load operations.
  • Other compositions and connection relationships are the same as those of the specific embodiment one, two, three, four or five.
  • a multi-finger asynchronous pneumatic gripper can be selected as the end effector. Then, the front drive wheel 12 and the rear drive wheel 13 are activated according to the operation requirements, so that the four-wheel drive type mobile platform 1 moves to the designated working position in the workshop, and then the swing device 2 and the lift drive device 4 are respectively adjusted according to the work posture and the height requirement.
  • the front drive wheel 12 and the rear drive wheel 13 may cause slippage or instability, which may affect the precision of the casting robot, and the adjustment is required.
  • the swing angle of the hydraulic leg 15 is adjustable, and at the same time, the rear hydraulic leg 14 and the vertical leg 153 of the adjustable hydraulic leg 15 are extended to realize the stable support of the stagnation point of the four-wheel drive mobile platform 1.
  • the navigation sensor, the distance sensor position, the distance information, the image information acquired by the binocular vision system, the vertical displacement and rotation angle information of the end effector, and the real-time working state parameters of the casting robot are all visually displayed on the monitor 17, and the casting robot is Information analysis and processing tasks such as gesture adjustment and job tasks are performed by the controller 16.

Abstract

一种混联式可移动重载铸造机器人,包括四驱轮式移动平台(1)、回转装置(2)、立柱组件(3)、升降驱动装置(4)、并联工作臂(5)、末端执行器(6)和双目视觉系统(7),四驱轮式移动平台(1)采用四轮全向轮驱动实现长距离灵活稳定行走,利用后液压支腿(14)与可调液压支腿(15)实现驻点自平衡支撑,提高作业的支撑稳定性,机器人本体具有空间五个运动自由度;回转装置(2)、升降驱动装置(4)可分别实现回转和升降调节,四自由度并联工作臂(5)可对末端执行器(6)进行姿态调节,可根据工作需要更换不同的末端执行器(6),满足中大型铸件的组芯、下芯、浇注和搬运等不同作业的需求,提高铸件组芯、下芯和浇注作业的效率、质量和安全性,降低了操作人员的劳动强度和生产成本。

Description

混联式可移动重载铸造机器人 技术领域
本发明属于铸造机器人设备技术领域,特别涉及一种混联式可移动重载铸造机器人。
背景技术
工业机器人高度的柔性化能够满足现代化绿色铸造生产中的各种特殊要求,铸造生产采用机器人,不仅可把操作工人从繁重、单调的体力劳动中解放出来,节约劳动力,而且还是提高铸件生产效率、制造精度和质量、实现铸造生产机械化、自动化及文明化的重要手段。目前,采用先进适用的铸造新技术,提高铸造装备自动化水平,特别是可移动机器人技术的应用,是铸造企业实施绿色铸造生产、实现可持续发展的关键举措。因铸造存在高温、高粉尘、振动、油污、噪声及电磁干扰的恶劣环境,且铸件重量大,因此一般工业机器人无法满足生产需要。铸造机器人要能适应这样的工作环境并正常运行,还存在众多关键技术急需研究与突破。铸造机器人不仅可用于压铸、精铸生产中的铸件搬运和传送,还可用在砂型铸造的造型、制芯、下芯、浇注、清理以及检验等工序中。尤其是在中大型铸件的生产中,砂芯和铸件的尺寸、重量都比较大,执行取芯、组芯、下芯、浇注和搬运作业难度大,要求高。迫切需要能够满足铸件生产中取芯、组芯、下芯、浇注和搬运作业需求的高柔性、重负载型铸造机器人。
目前,在铸造生产中所使用的机器人大多是关节式串联机器人,其优点是结构简单、控制方便、工作空间大,但其精度较差、负载能力小,只能执行轻载作业任务。难以满足中大型铸件生产中的重载作业任务需求,作业精度和效率的提高受到限制。现有铸造机器人的应用还仅局限于在固定工位上辅助完成较为简单的铸造作业任务,无法适应铸造生产复杂作业环境下移动式精确作业要求。如生产中使用的串联式浇注机器人,虽然结构简单,成本较低,但由于自由度过少,应用场合单一,无法满足多种场合的使用。普遍应用的铸造机器人都是由普通机器人改制过来的。目前,很多中小型铸件生产厂家在生产过程中进行取芯、组芯、下芯和浇注等作业时,多采用人海战术,一个工位一个工作人员取芯、下芯、组芯和浇注熔体,工作人员还得来回跑动,显得十分繁乱,同时工作效率低下。砂芯和铸件的搬运作业多以人工辅助简易吊装设备为主,少数采用机器人的技术方案中也多为固定位置的串联式机器人配装气动抓手进行作业,缺乏专业的可移动式的重载铸造机器人。尤其在中大型铸件的浇注作业过程中,仍然以人工为主,工人劳动强调大,体力消耗多、工作效率低。浇注时铁水或钢水需要用浇包转到生产线上,对准浇注口把浇包中的铁水或钢水倒在浇注工件的浇注冒口中。目前,浇注铁水或钢水是由工人手抬或行车吊运沉重的浇包,从高频电炉处接铁水或钢水,再把三、四百斤铁水或钢水与浇包移到浇注地点,两人或多人配合,将浇包慢慢地倾 斜,将浇包中的铁水或钢水倾倒在工件的浇注口中。此种方法有以下缺点:(1)受工人一次负重量的影响,浇注件的大小(重量)受到限制,一件铸件要在很短的时间里浇注好,如果用二包或更多包的铁水或钢水浇注,由于工人的速度慢,则浇注出来的铸件很容易存在铸造缺陷等质量问题;(2)工人的劳动强度大,工作环境差。铁水或钢水的温度高达1500℃左右,其工作环境温度在40℃以上,工人的劳动强度大,容易疲劳;(3)工作环境危险,时刻要小心铁水或钢水飞溅,工作人员的人身安全保障存在隐患;(4)工作中运输速度低,浇注速度慢;工作效率低,生产率低,增加了制造成本,延缓了制造进度。
针对铸件组芯、下芯、浇注和搬运中存在的问题,现有专利文献也提出了一些解决方案。申请号为201610698460.5的中国专利公开了一种自动浇注机器人,由动力装置、传动装置、舀取装置、检测装置等组成,可控制舀勺的旋转速度和角度,但该方案只能进行简单的舀取和浇注,机器人工作空间小,生产效率低。申请号为200910015467.2的中国专利公开了一种铝活塞浇注机器人,浇注机器人的主摆臂、副摆臂、竖直摆臂和连杆形成平行四连杆机构,能够满足铝活塞毛坯铸造正向或反向倾转随动浇注工艺要求,但该方案柔性差,动作节拍长,生产效率低,舀取铝液重量重复量精度及定位精度差,产品质量不稳定。申请号为201610072679.4的中国专利公开了一种由机器人控制的浇注装置,该装置采用锥齿轮传动,压缩空气冷却管路和风机给浇注装置持续冷却,但同时对浇注液也有冷却作用,使产品质量降低。申请号为201611165409.4的中国专利公开了一种铝活塞高精度浇注机器人,包括ABB六轴工业机器人和浇注机器人,具有多自由度,系统柔性高等特点,该方案采用的是串联式的机器人手臂,工作空间小且运动过程不平稳,影响浇注质量。申请号为200710012538.4的中国专利公开了一种新型并联浇注机器人,包括基座,旋转副、转盘、机体和浇包,通过容积法保证取液的准确性,通过电机驱动一套平行四边形四杆机构使浇包在一定范围内摆动,实现浇包的定位,但其他方向无法保证精确的定位,机器人工作空间小。申请号为201320665695.6的中国专利公开了一种四关节舀汤或浇注机器人,该设备结构简单,无法进行复杂的浇注工作,浇注时的定位精度低,结构承载较小。申请号为201120359585.8的中国专利公开了一种机器人双浇包浇注臂,包括浇注臂,支撑架,伺服电机和减速机,两个电机通过链条传动系统分别驱动两个浇包进行浇注,提高了生产效率,但同时定位精度变差,且两个浇包的间距不可调,仅适合于小型铸件的浇注。申请号为201510444411.4的中国专利公开了一种地轨移动浇注机械手,浇注机械手下方安装底座,通过滑轮在地轨上移动,但工作轨迹受轨道限制,灵活性差。申请号为201621367895.3的中国专利提出了一种活塞一机二模全自动铸造机的设计方案,用固定位置的串联式浇注机器人和简易的取件手完成取铝液、浇注和取铸件任务,适合生产线上固定位置的轻载作业。
在取芯、组芯和下芯方面,申请号为200920140832.8的中国专利公开了一种由砂箱、砂箱定位组件和用于夹持下芯的串联式机械手等组成的铸造下芯装置,机械手只能在限定的范 围内作业,且用于夹持砂芯的执行器采用夹板式结构,只能满足单一性砂芯的作业要求。申请号为201520331028.3的中国专利公开了一种机器人自动组芯装置,包括砂芯放置滑台和固定位置工作的抓手,在砂芯放置滑台上设有支撑座、调整偏心轮、定位轮和光电检测开关,在抓手上设有打胶装置和检测装置,在打胶装置上设有数个胶枪,该技术方案仅仅简化了打胶装置及检测装置的结构,并实现两种功能的集成,整个装置不可移动,工作范围受限,且不满足异形砂芯的作业要求。申请号为201610325766.6的中国专利公开了一种基座式机器人下芯取件机构,包括浇料机械臂和下芯取件机械臂,虽然通过设置的三工位组芯旋转平台可以满足三工位组芯作业半径要求,减轻员工劳动强度,但作业范围和对象仍然受机器人固定式位置和简易末端执行器的限制。申请号为201611053848.6的中国专利公开了一种取芯组芯机器人抓手,包括控制模块、抓手框架、连接法兰、抓手左侧夹紧机构模块、直线滑块导轨、抓手中间夹紧机构模块、气动伺服平移机构、抓手右侧夹紧机构模块,能在左、中、右同时夹紧一个、两个或三个砂芯,各模块独立抓取时可通过气动旋转模块实现砂芯的旋转动作,其不足在于抓取时只能通过活动端夹紧臂模块夹紧砂芯,抓取对较重砂芯时不仅夹持点少,而且需要移动砂芯,容易造成砂芯破损。
随着铸造技术水平的提高,中大型铸件的生产及对铸件成型过程中的取芯、组芯、下芯、浇注和搬运作业自动化的需求也越来越多。现有技术方案中多采用固定工位的串联式机械手进行作业,不仅作业范围小、运动受限,而且负载能力较低,无法满足中大型铸件的取芯、组芯、下芯、浇注和搬运作业需求。
发明内容
本发明的目的是针对现有技术的不足,提供一种全向轮式可移动重载铸造机器人,能够用于中大型铸件在铸造成型过程中的取芯、组芯、下芯、浇注和搬运等作业,提高铸造生产的作业效率、铸件质量和安全性,降低劳动强度和生产成本,可克服现有技术的缺陷。
本发明所要解决的技术问题采用以下技术方案来实现。
一种混联式可移动重载铸造机器人,包括四驱轮式移动平台、回转装置、立柱组件、升降驱动装置、并联工作臂、末端执行器和双目视觉系统。其中,所述的四驱轮式移动平台是本发明的承载和移动平台,包括平台车架、前驱动轮、后驱动轮、后液压支腿、可调液压支腿、控制器、监视器和液压泵站。在所述的平台车架的前后两端的底部设有导航传感器,所述的导航传感器采用磁导航传感器或激光扫描器或红外发射器或超声波发射器,在平台车架内还设有数字式双轴水平仪,且所述的数字式双轴水平仪的测量精度不低于0.01度;在所述的平台车架的前侧面、后侧面、左侧面和右侧面中部设有测距传感器,所述的测距传感器采用激光测距传感器或超声波测距传感器;两个前驱动轮安装在平台车架的前端,两个后驱动轮安装在平台车架的后端,用于驱动四驱轮式移动平台移动行走;两条后液压支腿对称安装在平台车架后方的两个角上,所述的可调液压支腿安装在平台车架的前方两侧,用于铸造机 器人在作业时进行驻点支撑,保证四驱轮式移动平台在作业过程中实现原地定位和稳定支撑。所述的控制器布置在平台车架的后端中部,用于接收安装在四驱轮式移动平台上的各传感器和安装在立柱组件顶部的双目视觉系统中的工业摄像机所获取的传感信息,并控制四驱轮式移动平台、回转装置、升降驱动装置、并联工作臂和末端执行器执行相应的动作或任务指令。所述的监视器固定安装在控制器的顶部,用于显示导航传感器、测距传感器所获取的位置、距离信息,数字式双轴水平仪测得的平台车架的姿态参数,末端执行器的位姿参数以及双目视觉系统获取的图像信息以及本发明的工作状态参数。所述的液压泵站固定安装在平台车架的后端左侧,用于为后液压支腿、可调液压支腿或伺服液压马达提供压力油;所述的回转装置位于四驱轮式移动平台的前端,且通过螺钉固定安装在平台车架上,用于驱动升降驱动装置、并联工作臂和末端执行器进行回转运动。所述的立柱组件位于回转装置的正上方,且立柱组件的底部固定安装在回转装置的顶部;所述的升降驱动装置固定安装在立柱组件上,且升降驱动装置的前端与并联工作臂的后端通过铰链相连接,用于驱动并联工作臂和末端执行器进行升降运动。所述的并联工作臂为2RPU-2RRPR结构的四自由度并联机构,用于支撑并驱动末端执行器实现前后伸缩移动、左右平移、绕水平轴的转动和绕垂直轴的转动共四个自由度的运动及姿态调整。所述的末端执行器安装在并联工作臂的前端,并联工作臂的后端安装在立柱组件上并可沿着立柱组件上下滑移;所述的双目视觉系统包括工业摄像机、图像采集卡和工业计算机,用于采集、分析和处理工业摄像机在工作现场获取的图像信息,识别和判断砂芯组件、铸件、砂箱和浇口的几何形状和姿态;所述的工业摄像机有两部,且均设有LED照明光源,所述的图像采集卡集成安装在监视器内,所述的工业计算机集成安装在控制器内,所述的工业摄像机与图像采集卡通过数据线相连接,所述的图像采集卡与工业计算机通过数据线相连接。
所述的前驱动轮和后驱动轮均采用麦克纳姆全向轮;所述的末端执行器具体的可以采用浇包或两爪夹板式气动抓手或三指式同步气动手爪或多指异步式气动抓手,所述的夹爪手指的对数范围为4-12,且每一对夹爪手指之间通过一个双向作用的手指气缸独立连接与控制,进而实现每对夹爪手指独立松开与夹紧,实现对异形砂芯或铸件的贴合式有效抓取。
为了提高本发明的四驱轮式移动平台在驻点停车时的平衡性和大负载作业时抗倾覆的能力,所述的后液压支腿和垂直支腿的驱动动力采用电液伺服油缸或电液步进式液压缸;所述的可调液压支腿不仅可以左右摆动调节,还可以伸长或缩短。所述的可调液压支腿包括支腿箱、伸缩臂、垂直支腿、支腿伸缩缸和摆角调节缸。其中,所述的支腿箱为中空结构,支腿箱的后端与平台车架通过铰链相连接,且在支腿箱的后端设有角度传感器,用于检测支腿箱左右摆动的角度;所述的伸缩臂的后端套装在支腿箱内并可在支腿箱内滑移;所述的支腿伸缩缸安装在支腿箱内,用于驱动伸缩臂沿着支腿箱滑移,进而实现可调液压支腿的伸缩功能,支腿伸缩缸的前后两端分别与伸缩臂、支腿箱通过铰链相连接;所述的垂直支腿的顶部固定 安装在伸缩臂的前部末端;所述的摆角调节缸的两端分别与平台车架、支腿箱通过铰链相连接,所述的支腿伸缩缸和摆角调节缸采用双作用液压缸,用于驱动支腿箱、伸缩臂和垂直支腿绕支腿箱后端的铰链轴线左右摆动。在支腿伸缩缸上还设有位移传感器,用于检测伸缩臂相对支腿箱移动的位移。后液压支腿与可调液压支腿可根据平台车架内的数字式双轴水平仪测得四驱轮式移动平台相对于水平面的静态倾斜角度进行自动调节,进而实现四驱轮式移动平台在驻点支撑时的自平衡功能。
所述的回转装置包括回转底座、回转体、回转马达、回转齿轮、内齿圈和回转顶盖。其中,所述的回转底座通过螺钉固定安装在平台车架上;所述的回转体套装在回转底座内,且与回转底座之间通过一个径向轴承和两个止推轴承相连接,所述的径向轴承采用圆柱滚子型径向轴承,所述的止推轴承为圆柱滚子型止推轴承;所述的回转马达固定安装在回转底座的下方,用于驱动回转体和回转顶盖进行回转运动,所述的回转齿轮安装在回转马达的输出轴上;所述的内齿圈通过螺钉固定安装在回转体内,且与回转齿轮保持内啮合;所述的回转顶盖固定安装在回转体的顶部,且与回转体通过螺钉相连接,在所述的回转顶盖的底部中心还设有角度传感器,用于测量回转体和回转顶盖相对回转底座的转动角度;所述的回转马达采用伺服减速电机或伺服液压马达。
所述的立柱组件包括立柱底座、立柱和顶梁。其中,所述的立柱底座位于回转顶盖的上方且与回转顶盖通过螺钉相固连,所述的立柱有两个,呈左右对称布置在立柱底座与顶梁之间,且与立柱底座、顶梁均固连;在其中一个立柱的内侧面上设有大位移传感器,用于测量并联工作臂在立柱上滑移运动时的位移参数;在两个立柱的前侧面上均固定安装有前直线导轨,在两个立柱的后侧面上均固定安装有后直线导轨,且所述的后直线导轨采用Ω型直线导轨;进一步地,所述的大位移传感器可采用直线式磁栅传感器或直线型光栅传感器或直线式感应同步器。所述的两部工业摄像机固定安装在顶梁的前端两侧,且与顶梁之间通过两自由度云台相连接。
所述的升降驱动装置包括升降马达、主动链轮、前导向链轮、后导向链轮、链条和配重块。其中,所述的主动链轮、前导向链轮、后导向链轮和链条的数量均为二,且呈左右对称布置在立柱组件上;所述的升降马达固定安装在顶梁的顶部中间位置,用于为主动链轮的旋转提供动力,进而驱动并联工作臂进行升降运动;两个主动链轮位于顶梁的中部两侧,且固定安装在升降马达的输出轴上,两个前导向链轮固定安装在顶梁的前侧面上,两个后导向链轮固定安装在顶梁的后侧面上;所述的链条的前端与并联工作臂的后端顶部通过铰链相连接,链条的后端与配重块通过铰链相连接,且所述的链条同时与主动链轮、前导向链轮、后导向链轮保持啮合;所述的配重块位于立柱的后侧,用于平衡并联工作臂和末端执行器的重量,在所述的配重块的前端设有两个对称布置的后滑块且与立柱上的后直线导轨通过滑移副相连接,左右两个配重块之间通过U型连杆相连接。所述的配重块采用分体式结构,配重块的重 量可根据末端执行器的负载大小进行调整,同时也可沿着前后方向增加配重块的数量,且前后布置的配重块之间通过螺钉相连接。所述的升降马达采用伺服减速电机或伺服液压马达。
所述的并联工作臂包括工作臂安装座、第一支链、第二支链、第三支链和第四支链。其中,所述的工作臂安装座位于立柱的前侧,在所述的工作臂安装座的后端面上设有四个对称布置的后滑块且与立柱的前直线导轨通过滑移副相连接;所述的第一支链与第三支链的结构完全相同,其机构拓扑结构均为RPU结构,且呈左右对称布置在工作臂安装座上;所述的第二支链与第四支链的结构完全相同,其机构拓扑结构均为RRPR结构,且呈上下对称布置在工作臂安装座上。从机构学的角度看,所述的并联工作臂与末端执行器一起构成一个具有空间两个平移和两个转动共四个运动自由度的并联机构。所述的工作臂安装座即为并联工作臂与末端执行器所构成的并联机构的定平台,末端执行器即为并联工作臂与末端执行器所构成的并联机构的动平台。所述的并联工作臂、末端执行器与立柱组件、回转装置一起构成一个具有空间三个平移两个转动共五个自由度的混联机构,其中绕垂直轴的转动为冗余自由度。
所述的第一支链包括第一前万向节、第一伸缩组和第一后铰链。其中,所述的第一后铰链的内侧端与工作臂安装座相固连,所述的第一伸缩组的后端与第一后铰链的外侧端通过滑移副相连接,所述的第一伸缩组的前端与第一前万向节的后端相固连,第一前万向节的前端与末端执行器相固连。第二支链包括第一前铰链、第二伸缩组、第二后铰链和第一垂直铰链。其中,所述的第一前铰链的前端与末端执行器相固连,所述的第二伸缩组的前端与第一前铰链的后端相固连,所述的第二伸缩组的后端与第二后铰链的上端通过滑移副相连接,所述的第一垂直铰链的下端与第二后铰链的上端固连,所述的第一垂直铰链的顶部固定安装在工作臂安装座上。第四支链包括第二前铰链、第四伸缩组、第四后铰链和第二垂直铰链。其中,所述的第二前铰链的前端与末端执行器相固连,所述的第四伸缩组的前端与第二前铰链的后端相固连,所述的第四伸缩组的后端与第四后铰链的下端通过滑移副相连接,所述的第二垂直铰链的上端与第四后铰链的下端固连,所述的第二垂直铰链的底部固定安装在工作臂安装座上,所述的第一垂直铰链的下端与第二垂直铰链的上端相固连。所述的第一后铰链的轴线与第一前万向节的十字轴的一条轴线相平行,所述的第一前万向节的十字轴的水平轴线与第三支链的第二前万向节的十字轴的水平轴线保持同轴;所述的第一前铰链的轴线与第二后铰链的轴线相平行,所述的第一前铰链的轴线垂直于第一垂直铰链的轴线,第一垂直铰链与第二垂直铰链保持同轴,第一前铰链的轴线与第二前铰链的轴线相平行,第二前铰链的轴线与第四后铰链的轴线相平行;第一后铰链、第一垂直铰链、第二垂直铰链与第三支链上的第三后铰链的轴线均保持相互平行,从而保证了并联工作臂与末端执行器一起构成的并联机构具有确定的空间内两个平移和两个转动共四个运动自由度。
所述的第一伸缩组包括第一伸缩架、第一螺杆、第一滑块和第一驱动电机。其中,所述的第一伸缩架的前端与第一前万向节的后端相固连;所述的第一螺杆的两端通过轴承座安装 在第一伸缩架上,所述的第一驱动电机固定安装在第一伸缩架的后端且与第一螺杆的后端通过联轴器相连接,用于驱动第一滑块沿着第一螺杆进行伸长或缩短;所述的第一滑块通过两条平行的直线导轨安装在第一伸缩架的内侧,且与第一螺杆通过螺纹相连接;所述的第一滑块与工作臂安装座通过第一后铰链相连接;所述的第二伸缩组、第三伸缩组、第四伸缩组与第一伸缩组的结构完全相同。
使用时,先根据铸造作业的任务选择合适的末端执行器,执行浇注任务时选择浇包作为末端执行器,执行取芯、组芯、下芯和搬运任务时,尤其是当作业对象为异形砂芯和异形铸件时,可选择多指异步式气动抓手作为末端执行器。然后,根据作业要求启动前驱动轮、后驱动轮使四驱轮式移动平台在车间内移动行走至指定作业位置,再根据作业姿态和高度要求分别调整回转装置、升降驱动装置,通过调整本发明的并联工作臂将末端执行器调整到合适的作业姿态和作业高度,并联工作臂的姿态调整通过驱动各支链上滑块沿着螺杆向前或向后移动来实现。在执行驻点作业时,尤其是针对重量比较大的铸件的浇注和装运时,由于前驱动轮、后驱动轮可能产生打滑或失稳,进而会影响铸造机器人的作业精度,需要调节可调液压支腿的摆角,并同时将后液压支腿与可调液压支腿的垂直支腿伸长,实现四驱轮式移动平台的驻点稳定支撑。导航传感器、测距传感器位置、距离信息、双目视觉系统获取的图像信息、末端执行器的垂直位移和转角信息以及铸造机器人的实时工作状态参数等均在监视器上直观显示,铸造机器人的姿态调整和作业任务等信息分析和处理任务由控制器分析完成。
本发明的有益效果是,与现有的技术相比,本发明的四驱轮式移动平台采用独立驱动的四轮全向轮驱动,实现长距离灵活稳定行走;后液压支腿与可调液压支腿可根据平台车架内的数字式双轴水平仪测得四驱轮式移动平台相对于水平面的静态倾斜角度进行自动调节,实现驻点自平衡支撑,既保证了铸造机器人在重负载条件下的长距离稳定行走,又能提高作业的支撑稳定性;除了四驱轮式移动平台可全向移动行走外,机器人本体还具有升降、前后伸缩、左右平移三个移动和分别绕垂直轴、绕水平轴的两个转动共五个运动自由度,回转装置、升降驱动装置可分别实现整周回转和升降调节,四自由度并联工作臂可对末端执行器进行姿态调节,明显扩大了机器人的工作空间,提高了铸造机器人的运动灵活性;本发明的末端执行器还可根据工作需要更换为浇包或两爪夹板式气动抓手或三指式同步气动手爪或多指异步式气动抓手,以满足中大型铸件的取芯、组芯、下芯、浇注和搬运等不同作业的需求,提高铸造生产中组芯、下芯、浇注和搬运作业的效率、质量和安全性,降低了操作人员的劳动强度和生产成本。尤其是多指异步式气动抓手的采用可以满足异形砂芯、铸件的贴合式有效抓取的作业需求,可避免在组芯、下芯过程中损伤砂芯或铸件,提高了作业的稳定性、安全性和适应性,通过安装在平台车架上的导航传感器、测距传感器、数字式双轴水平仪、回转装置上的角度传感器、升降装置上的大位移传感器和工业摄像机多传感器信息融合,自动完成铸造机器人自平衡控制与位置判断、砂芯与铸件的识别、砂箱和浇口的识别,砂芯组件和铸 件的抓取、安放以及浇注等铸造作业任务,自动化程度高、工作效率高、劳动强度低;本发明还具有结构紧凑,设备占用空间小、生产成本低、安全性高、适应性强、末端执行器更换方便、操作维护简便等优点,可克服现有技术的缺陷。
附图说明
图1为本发明的总体结构示意图;
图2为本发明的立柱组件与升降驱动装置的结构示意图;
图3为本发明的四驱轮式移动平台的结构示意图;
图4为本发明的回转装置的结构示意图;
图5为图2的A-A向视图;
图6为本发明的并联工作臂的结构示意图;
图7为本发明的可调液压支腿(不含摆角调节缸)的结构示意图;
图8为本发明的并联工作臂的第一支链的结构示意图;
图9为本发明的并联工作臂的第二支链与第四支链的结构示意图;
图10为本发明的多指异步式气动抓手的结构示意图;
图11为本发明的末端执行器换装多指异步式气动抓手时的总体结构示意图。
具体实施方式
为了使本发明所实现的技术手段、创作特征、达成目的与功效易于明白了解,下面结合具体实施例和图示,进一步阐述本发明。
具体实施方式一:
如图1、图2、图3、图4、图7和图11所示,一种混联式可移动重载铸造机器人,包括四驱轮式移动平台1、回转装置2、立柱组件3、升降驱动装置4、并联工作臂5、末端执行器6和双目视觉系统7。其中,所述的四驱轮式移动平台1是本发明的承载和移动平台,包括平台车架11、前驱动轮12、后驱动轮13、后液压支腿14、可调液压支腿15、控制器16、监视器17和液压泵站18。在所述的平台车架11的前后两端的底部设有导航传感器111,所述的导航传感器111采用磁导航传感器或激光扫描器或红外发射器或超声波发射器,在平台车架11内还设有数字式双轴水平仪,且所述的数字式双轴水平仪的测量精度不低于0.01度;在所述的平台车架11的前侧面、后侧面、左侧面和右侧面中部设有测距传感器112,所述的测距传感器采用激光测距传感器或超声波测距传感器;两个前驱动轮12安装在平台车架11的前端,两个后驱动轮13安装在平台车架11的后端,用于驱动四驱轮式移动平台1移动行走;两条后液压支腿14对称安装在平台车架11后方的两个角上,所述的可调液压支腿15安装在平台车架11的前方两侧,用于铸造机器人在作业时进行驻点支撑,保证四驱轮式移动平台1在作业过程中实现原地定位和稳定支撑。所述的控制器16布置在平台车架11的后端中部,用于接收安装在四驱轮式移动平台1上的各传感器和安装在立柱组件3顶部的双目视觉系统7中的工业摄像机所获取的传感信 息,并控制四驱轮式移动平台1、回转装置2、升降驱动装置4、并联工作臂5和末端执行器6执行相应的动作或任务指令。所述的监视器17固定安装在控制器16的顶部,用于显示导航传感器111、测距传感器112所获取的位置、距离信息,数字式双轴水平仪测得的平台车架11的姿态参数,末端执行器6的位姿参数以及双目视觉系统7获取的图像信息以及本发明的工作状态参数。所述的液压泵站18固定安装在平台车架11的后端左侧,用于为后液压支腿14、可调液压支腿15或伺服液压马达提供压力油;所述的回转装置2位于四驱轮式移动平台1的前端,且通过螺钉固定安装在平台车架11上,用于驱动升降驱动装置4、并联工作臂5和末端执行器6进行回转运动。所述的立柱组件3位于回转装置2的正上方,且立柱组件3的底部固定安装在回转装置1的顶部;所述的升降驱动装置4固定安装在立柱组件3上,且升降驱动装置4的前端与并联工作臂5的后端通过铰链相连接,用于驱动并联工作臂5和末端执行器6进行升降运动。所述的并联工作臂5为2RPU-2RRPR结构的四自由度并联机构,用于支撑并驱动末端执行器6实现前后伸缩移动、左右平移、绕水平轴的转动和绕垂直轴的转动共四个自由度的运动及姿态调整。所述的末端执行器6安装在并联工作臂5的前端,并联工作臂5的后端安装在立柱组件3上并可沿着立柱组件3上下滑移;所述的双目视觉系统7包括工业摄像机、图像采集卡和工业计算机,用于采集、分析和处理工业摄像机在工作现场获取的图像信息,识别和判断砂芯组件、铸件、砂箱和浇口的几何形状和姿态;所述的工业摄像机有两部,且均设有LED照明光源,所述的图像采集卡集成安装在监视器17内,所述的工业计算机集成安装在控制器16内,所述的工业摄像机与图像采集卡通过数据线相连接,所述的图像采集卡与工业计算机通过数据线相连接。
如图1、图3和图11所示,所述的前驱动轮12和后驱动轮13均采用麦克纳姆全向轮;所述的末端执行器6采用浇包,用于执行铸造生产中的浇注作业功能。
如图1、图3、图4和图11所示,所述的回转装置2包括回转底座21、回转体22、回转马达23、回转齿轮24、内齿圈25和回转顶盖26。其中,所述的回转底座21通过螺钉固定安装在平台车架11上;所述的回转体22套装在回转底座21内,且与回转底座21之间通过一个径向轴承和两个止推轴承相连接,所述的径向轴承采用圆柱滚子型径向轴承,所述的止推轴承为圆柱滚子型止推轴承;所述的回转马达23固定安装在回转底座21的下方,用于驱动回转体22和回转顶盖26进行回转运动,所述的回转齿轮24安装在回转马达23的输出轴上;所述的内齿圈25通过螺钉固定安装在回转体22内,且与回转齿轮24保持内啮合;所述的回转顶盖26固定安装在回转体22的顶部,且与回转体22通过螺钉相连接,在所述的回转顶盖26的底部中心还设有角度传感器,用于测量回转体22和回转顶盖26相对回转底座21的转动角度。
如图1、图2、图5和图11所示,所述的立柱组件3包括立柱底座31、立柱32和顶梁33。其中,所述的立柱底座31位于回转顶盖26的上方且与回转顶盖26通过螺钉相固连,所述的立柱32有两个,呈左右对称布置在立柱底座31与顶梁33之间,且与立柱底座31、顶梁33均固连; 在其中一个立柱32的内侧面上设有大位移传感器,用于测量并联工作臂5在立柱上滑移运动时的位移参数;在两个立柱32的前侧面上均固定安装有前直线导轨321,在两个立柱32的后侧面上均固定安装有后直线导轨322,且所述的后直线导轨322采用Ω型直线导轨;进一步地,所述的大位移传感器可采用直线式磁栅传感器或直线型光栅传感器或直线式感应同步器。所述的两部工业摄像机固定安装在顶梁33的前端两侧,且与顶梁33之间通过两自由度云台相连接。
如图1、图2、图5和图11所示,所述的升降驱动装置4包括升降马达41、主动链轮42、前导向链轮43、后导向链轮44、链条45和配重块46。其中,所述的主动链轮42、前导向链轮43、后导向链轮44和链条45的数量均为二,且呈左右对称布置在立柱组件3上;所述的升降马达41固定安装在顶梁33的顶部中间位置,用于为主动链轮42的旋转提供动力,进而驱动并联工作臂5进行升降运动;两个主动链轮42位于顶梁33的中部两侧,且固定安装在升降马达41的输出轴上,两个前导向链轮43固定安装在顶梁33的前侧面上,两个后导向链轮44固定安装在顶梁33的后侧面上;所述的链条45的前端与并联工作臂5的后端顶部通过铰链相连接,链条45的后端与配重块46通过铰链相连接,且所述的链条45同时与主动链轮42、前导向链轮43、后导向链轮44保持啮合;所述的配重块46位于立柱32的后侧,用于平衡并联工作臂5和末端执行器6的重量,在所述的配重块46的前端设有两个对称布置的后滑块461且与立柱32上的后直线导轨322通过滑移副相连接,左右两个配重块46之间通过U型连杆462相连接。所述的配重块46采用分体式结构,配重块的重量可根据末端执行器6的负载大小进行调整,同时也可沿着前后方向增加配重块46的数量,且前后布置的配重块46之间通过螺钉相连接。
如图1、图2、图5、图7、图8、图9和图11所示,所述的并联工作臂5包括工作臂安装座51、第一支链52、第二支链53、第三支链54和第四支链55。其中,所述的工作臂安装座51位于立柱32的前侧,在所述的工作臂安装座51的后端面上设有四个对称布置的后滑块511且与立柱32的前直线导轨321通过滑移副相连接;所述的第一支链52与第三支链54的结构完全相同,其机构拓扑结构均为RPU结构,且呈左右对称布置在工作臂安装座51上;所述的第二支链53与第四支链55的结构完全相同,其机构拓扑结构均为RRPR结构,且呈上下对称布置在工作臂安装座51上。从机构学的角度看,所述的并联工作臂5与末端执行器6一起构成一个具有空间两个平移和两个转动共四个运动自由度的并联机构。所述的工作臂安装座51即为并联工作臂5与末端执行器6所构成的并联机构的定平台,末端执行器6即为并联工作臂5与末端执行器6所构成的并联机构的动平台。所述的并联工作臂5、末端执行器6与立柱组件3、回转装置2一起构成一个具有空间三个平移两个转动共五个自由度的混联机构,其中绕垂直轴的转动为冗余自由度。
具体实施方式二:
如图1、图7、图8、图9和图11所示,所述的第一支链52包括第一前万向节521、第一伸缩组522和第一后铰链523。其中,所述的第一后铰链523的内侧端与工作臂安装座51相固连,所述的第一伸缩组522的后端与第一后铰链523的外侧端通过滑移副相连接,所述的第一伸缩组 522的前端与第一前万向节521的后端相固连,第一前万向节521的前端与末端执行器6相固连。第二支链53包括第一前铰链531、第二伸缩组532、第二后铰链533和第一垂直铰链534。其中,所述的第一前铰链531的前端与末端执行器6相固连,所述的第二伸缩组532的前端与第一前铰链531的后端相固连,所述的第二伸缩组532的后端与第二后铰链533的上端通过滑移副相连接,所述的第一垂直铰链534的下端与第二后铰链533的上端固连,所述的第一垂直铰链534的顶部固定安装在工作臂安装座51上。第四支链55包括第二前铰链551、第四伸缩组552、第四后铰链553和第二垂直铰链554。其中,所述的第二前铰链551的前端与末端执行器6相固连,所述的第四伸缩组552的前端与第二前铰链551的后端相固连,所述的第四伸缩组552的后端与第四后铰链553的下端通过滑移副相连接,所述的第二垂直铰链554的上端与第四后铰链553的上端固连,所述的第二垂直铰链554的底部固定安装在工作臂安装座51上,所述的第一垂直铰链534的下端与第二垂直铰链554的上端相固连,即共用一个铰链框架56。所述的第一后铰链523的轴线与第一前万向节521的十字轴的一条轴线相平行,所述的第一前万向节521的十字轴的水平轴线与第三支链54的第二前万向节541的十字轴的水平轴线保持同轴;所述的第一前铰链531的轴线与第二后铰链533的轴线相平行,所述的第一前铰链531的轴线垂直于第一垂直铰链534的轴线,第一垂直铰链534与第二垂直铰链554保持同轴,第一前铰链531的轴线与第二前铰链551的轴线相平行,第二前铰链551的轴线与第四后铰链553的轴线相平行;第一后铰链523、第一垂直铰链534、第二垂直铰链554与第三支链54上的第三后铰链543的轴线均保持相互平行,从而保证了并联工作臂5与末端执行器6一起构成的并联机构具有确定的空间内两个平移和两个转动共四个运动自由度。
如图1、图7、图8、图9和图11所示,所述的第一伸缩组522包括第一伸缩架5221、第一螺杆5222、第一滑块5223和第一驱动电机5224。其中,所述的第一伸缩架5221的前端与第一前万向节521的后端相固连;所述的第一螺杆5222的两端通过轴承座安装在第一伸缩架5221上,所述的第一驱动电机5224固定安装在第一伸缩架5221的后端且与第一螺杆5222的后端通过联轴器相连接,用于驱动第一滑块5223沿着第一螺杆5222进行伸长或缩短;所述的第一滑块5223通过两条平行的直线导轨安装在第一伸缩架5221的内侧,且与第一螺杆5222通过螺纹相连接;所述的第一滑块5223与工作臂安装座51通过第一后铰链523相连接;所述的第二伸缩组532、第三伸缩组542、第四伸缩组552与第一伸缩组522的结构完全相同。所述的第一伸缩组522、第二伸缩组532、第三伸缩组542、第四伸缩组552在并联工作臂5中起移动副的作用,其驱动动力分别由第一驱动电机5224、第二驱动电机5324、第三驱动电机5424和第四驱动电机5524提供。
如此设计,用伸缩组实现并联工作臂5的四条支链中移动副的功能,结构简单、紧凑,既可以保证第一支链52、第二支链53、第三支链54和第四支链55中移动副的结构刚度、抗扭能力,使驱动滑块移动的螺杆只承受轴向载荷,不承受剪切力和扭力,能有效降低移动副中驱 动动力的成本;通过严格限定第一支链52、第二支链53、第三支链54和第四支链55中前万向节、前铰链、后铰链及垂直铰链的轴线之间的尺度约束类型,即限定各轴线之间的平行、同轴或垂直的关系,可以唯一限定本发明中并联工作臂5与末端执行器6所构成的四自由度并联机构能按照设定的空间两个平移和两个转动共四个自由度进行准确地运动和姿态调整。其它组成及连接关系与具体实施方式一相同。
具体实施方式三:
如图1、图10和图11所示,所述的末端执行器6具体的采用多指异步式气动抓手,所述的多指异步式气动抓手包括气爪连接座6-1、连接支架6-2、气爪安装板6-3、夹爪手指6-4和手指气缸6-5。其中,所述的气爪连接座6-1固定安装在并联工作臂5的前端;所述的连接支架6-2的上端与气爪连接座6-1固连,连接支架6-2的下端与气爪安装板6-3的顶部固连,且在连接支架6-2的中部还设有加强连杆6-21;在所述的气爪安装板6-3的底部设有导向套6-31,在所述的夹爪手指6-4的下端内侧设有防滑橡胶6-41,在所述的夹爪手指6-4的上端内侧设有导向杆6-42,所述的导向杆6-42套装在导向套6-31内,且与导向套6-31之间通过直线轴承相连接;所述的手指气缸6-5固定安装在气爪安装板6-3上,手指气缸6-5的两端分别与两个夹爪手指6-4通过铰链相连接,所述的手指气缸6-5为双作用气缸;在所述的气爪安装板6-3的顶部还设有电磁换向阀、安全阀。夹爪手指6-4的导向杆6-42在手指气缸6-5的驱动下,可沿着导向套6-31滑移,实现安装在同一个手指气缸6-5两端的夹爪手指6-4进行松开与夹紧的动作,进而实现每对夹爪手指6-4独立松开与夹紧,实现对异形砂芯或铸件的贴合式有效抓取。所述的夹爪手指6-4的对数范围为4-12。如此设计,用多指异步式气动抓手替换浇包,用于抓取砂芯组件、整体砂芯或铸件,可以使本发明具备组芯、下芯和搬运铸件的功能,进一步扩大了本发明的使用功能。其它组成及连接关系与具体实施方式一或具体实施方式二相同。
具体实施方式四:
如图1、图4和图11所示,本实施方式中的回转马达23采用伺服减速电机。如此设计,直流伺服电机转速高,配合相应的RV精密减速器可以提供较大的扭矩;另外,直流伺服电机还可实现闭环控制,可实现较高的传动精度。其它组成及连接关系与具体实施方式一、二或三相同。
具体实施方式五:
如图1和图2所示,本实施方式中的升降马达41采用伺服减速电机。如此设计,直流伺服电机转速高,配合相应的RV精密减速器可以提供较大的扭矩;另外,直流伺服电机还可实现闭环控制,可实现较高的传动精度。其它组成及连接关系与具体实施方式一、二、三或四相同。
具体实施方式六:
如图1、图3、图6和图11所示,本实施方式中的可调液压支腿15不仅可以左右摆动调节, 还可以伸长或缩短。所述的可调液压支腿15包括支腿箱151、伸缩臂152、垂直支腿153、支腿伸缩缸154和摆角调节缸155。其中,所述的支腿箱151为中空结构,支腿箱151的后端与平台车架11通过铰链相连接,且在支腿箱151的后端设有角度传感器,用于检测支腿箱151左右摆动的角度;所述的伸缩臂152的后端套装在支腿箱151内并可在支腿箱151内滑移;所述的支腿伸缩缸154安装在支腿箱151内,用于驱动伸缩臂152沿着支腿箱151滑移,进而实现可调液压支腿15的伸缩功能,支腿伸缩缸154的前后两端分别与伸缩臂152、支腿箱151通过铰链相连接;所述的垂直支腿153的顶部固定安装在伸缩臂152的前部末端;所述的摆角调节缸155的两端分别与平台车架11、支腿箱151通过铰链相连接,所述的支腿伸缩缸154和摆角调节缸155采用双作用液压缸,用于驱动支腿箱151、伸缩臂152和垂直支腿153绕支腿箱151后端的铰链轴线左右摆动。在支腿伸缩缸154上还设有位移传感器,用于检测伸缩臂152相对支腿箱151移动的位移。后液压支腿14和垂直支腿153的驱动动力采用电液伺服油缸或电液步进式液压缸。如此设计,后液压支腿14与可调液压支腿15可根据平台车架11内的数字式双轴水平仪测得四驱轮式移动平台1相对于水平面的静态倾斜角度进行自动调节,进而实现四驱轮式移动平台1在驻点支撑时的自平衡功能,还可以提高本发明的四驱轮式移动平台1在大负载作业时抗倾覆的能力。其它组成及连接关系与具体实施方式一、二、三、四或五相同。
使用时,先根据铸造作业的任务选择合适的末端执行器6,执行浇注任务时选择浇包作为末端执行器,执行取芯、组芯、下芯和搬运任务时,尤其是当作业对象为异形砂芯和异形铸件时,可选择多指异步式气动抓手作为末端执行器。然后,根据作业要求启动前驱动轮12、后驱动轮13使四驱轮式移动平台1在车间内移动行走至指定作业位置,再根据作业姿态和高度要求分别调整回转装置2、升降驱动装置4,通过第一驱动电机5224、第二驱动电机5324、第三驱动电机5424和第四驱动电机5524的正转或反转调整本发明的并联工作臂5将末端执行器6调整到合适的作业姿态和作业高度。在执行驻点作业时,尤其是针对重量比较大的铸件的浇注和装运时,由于前驱动轮12、后驱动轮13可能产生打滑或失稳,进而会影响铸造机器人的作业精度,需要将调节可调液压支腿15的摆角,并同时将后液压支腿14与可调液压支腿15的垂直支腿153伸长,实现四驱轮式移动平台1的驻点稳定支撑。导航传感器、测距传感器位置、距离信息、双目视觉系统获取的图像信息、末端执行器的垂直位移和转角信息以及铸造机器人的实时工作状态参数等均在监视器17上直观显示,铸造机器人的姿态调整和作业任务等信息分析和处理任务由控制器16完成。
在本发明的描述中,需要理解的是,术语“上”、“下”、“左”、“右”、“水平”、“顶”、“底”、“内”、“外”、“前”、“后”等指示的方位或位置关系为基于附图所示的方位或位置关系,仅是为了便于描述本发明和简化描述,而不是指示或暗示所指的装置或元件必须具有特定的方位、以特定的方位构造和操作,因此不能理解为对本发明的限制。
以上显示和描述了本发明的基本原理、主要特征和优点。本行业的技术人员应该了解, 本发明不受上述实施例的限制,上述实施例和说明书中描述的只是说明本发明的原理,在不脱离本发明精神和范围的前提下,本发明还会有各种变化和改进,这些变化和改进都落入要求保护的本发明范围内。本发明要求保护范围由所附的权利要求书及其等效物界定。

Claims (10)

  1. 一种混联式可移动重载铸造机器人,包括四驱轮式移动平台、回转装置、立柱组件、升降驱动装置、并联工作臂、末端执行器和双目视觉系统,其特征在于:所述的四驱轮式移动平台包括平台车架、前驱动轮、后驱动轮、后液压支腿、可调液压支腿、控制器、监视器和液压泵站,两个前驱动轮安装在平台车架的前端,两个后驱动轮安装在平台车架的后端,两条后液压支腿对称安装在平台车架后方的两个角上,所述的可调液压支腿安装在平台车架前方两侧,所述的控制器布置在平台车架的后端中部,所述的监视器固定安装在控制器的顶部,所述的液压泵站固定安装在平台车架的后端左侧;所述的回转装置固定安装在四驱轮式移动平台的前端,所述的立柱组件位于回转装置的正上方,且立柱组件的底部固定安装在回转装置的顶部;所述的升降驱动装置固定安装在立柱组件上,且升降驱动装置的前端与并联工作臂的后端通过铰链相连接;所述的并联工作臂为2RPU-2RRPR结构的四自由度并联机构,所述的末端执行器安装在并联工作臂的前端,并联工作臂的后端安装在立柱组件上并可沿着立柱组件上下滑移;所述的双目视觉系统包括工业摄像机、图像采集卡和工业计算机,所述的工业摄像机有两部,且均设有LED照明光源,所述的图像采集卡集成安装在监视器内,所述的工业计算机集成安装在控制器内,所述的工业摄像机与图像采集卡通过数据线相连接,所述的图像采集卡与工业计算机通过数据线相连接;
    所述的回转装置包括回转底座、回转体、回转马达、回转齿轮、内齿圈和回转顶盖,所述的回转底座通过螺钉固定安装在平台车架上;所述的回转体套装在回转底座内,且与回转底座之间通过一个径向轴承和两个止推轴承相连接,所述的径向轴承采用圆柱滚子型径向轴承,所述的止推轴承为圆柱滚子型止推轴承;所述的回转马达固定安装在回转底座的下方,所述的回转齿轮安装在回转马达的输出轴上;所述的内齿圈通过螺钉固定安装在回转体内,且与回转齿轮保持内啮合;所述的回转顶盖固定安装在回转体的顶部,在所述的回转顶盖的底部中心还设有角度传感器;
    所述的立柱组件包括立柱底座、立柱和顶梁,所述的立柱底座位于回转顶盖的上方且与回转顶盖通过螺钉相固连,所述的立柱有两个,呈左右对称布置在立柱底座与顶梁之间,且与立柱底座、顶梁均固连,在其中一个立柱的内侧面上设有大位移传感器,在两个立柱的前侧面上均固定安装有前直线导轨,在两个立柱的后侧面上均固定安装有后直线导轨,且所述的后直线导轨采用Ω型直线导轨;
    所述的升降驱动装置包括升降马达、主动链轮、前导向链轮、后导向链轮、链条和配重块,所述的主动链轮、前导向链轮、后导向链轮和链条的数量均为二,且左右对称布置在立柱组件上,所述的升降马达固定安装在顶梁的顶部中间位置,两个主动链轮位于顶梁的中部两侧,且固定安装在升降马达的输出轴上,两个前导向链轮固定安装在顶梁的前侧面上,两个后导向链轮固定安装在顶梁的后侧面上;所述的链条的前端与并联工作臂的后端顶部通过铰链相连接,链条的后端与配重块通过铰链相连接,且所述的链条同时与主动链轮、前导向 链轮、后导向链轮保持啮合;所述的配重块位于立柱的后侧,在配重块的前端设有两个对称布置的后滑块且与立柱上的后直线导轨通过滑移副相连接;
    所述的并联工作臂包括工作臂安装座、第一支链、第二支链、第三支链和第四支链,所述的工作臂安装座位于立柱的前侧,在所述的工作臂安装座的后端面上设有四个对称布置的后滑块且与立柱的前直线导轨通过滑移副相连接,所述的第一支链与第三支链的结构完全相同,其机构拓扑结构均为RPU结构,且呈左右对称布置在工作臂安装座上;所述的第二支链与第四支链的结构完全相同,其机构拓扑结构均为RRPR结构,且呈上下对称布置在工作臂安装座上。
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的一种混联式可移动重载铸造机器人,其特征在于:所述的第一支链包括第一前万向节、第一伸缩组和第一后铰链,所述的第一后铰链的内侧端与工作臂安装座相固连,所述的第一伸缩组的后端与第一后铰链的外侧端通过滑移副相连接,所述的第一伸缩组的前端与第一前万向节的后端相固连,第一前万向节的前端与末端执行器相固连;第二支链包括第一前铰链、第二伸缩组、第二后铰链和第一垂直铰链,所述的第一前铰链的前端与末端执行器相固连,所述的第二伸缩组的前端与第一前铰链的后端相固连,所述的第二伸缩组的后端与第二后铰链的上端通过滑移副相连接,所述的第一垂直铰链的下端与第二后铰链的上端固连,所述的第一垂直铰链的顶部固定安装在工作臂安装座上;第四支链包括第二前铰链、第四伸缩组、第四后铰链和第二垂直铰链,所述的第二前铰链的前端与末端执行器相固连,所述的第四伸缩组的前端与第二前铰链的后端相固连,所述的第四伸缩组的后端与第四后铰链的下端通过滑移副相连接,所述的第二垂直铰链的上端与第四后铰链的下端固连,所述的第二垂直铰链的底部固定安装在工作臂安装座上,所述的第一垂直铰链的下端与第二垂直铰链的上端相固连;
    所述的第一伸缩组包括第一伸缩架、第一螺杆、第一滑块和第一驱动电机,所述的第一伸缩架的前端与第一前万向节的后端相固连;所述的第一螺杆的两端通过轴承座安装在第一伸缩架上,所述的第一驱动电机固定安装在第一伸缩架的后端且与第一螺杆的后端通过联轴器相连接;所述的第一滑块通过两条平行的直线导轨安装在第一伸缩架的内侧,且与第一螺杆通过螺纹相连接;所述的第一滑块与工作臂安装座通过第一后铰链相连接;所述的第二伸缩组、第三伸缩组、第四伸缩组与第一伸缩组的结构完全相同。
  3. 根据权利要求1所述的一种混联式可移动重载铸造机器人,其特征在于:所述的末端执行器具体的采用浇包或两爪夹板式气动抓手或三指式同步气动手爪或多指异步式气动抓手。
  4. 根据权利要求1所述的一种混联式可移动重载铸造机器人,其特征在于:所述的配重块采用分体式结构,可沿着前后方向增加配重块的数量,且前后布置的配重块之间通过螺钉相连接;左右两个配重块之间通过U型连杆相连接。
  5. 根据权利要求1所述的一种混联式可移动重载铸造机器人,其特征在于:在平台车架内还设有数字式双轴水平仪,且所述的数字式双轴水平仪的测量精度不低于0.01度;所述的大位移传感器采用直线式磁栅传感器或直线型光栅传感器或直线式感应同步器。
  6. 根据权利要求2所述的一种混联式可移动重载铸造机器人,其特征在于:所述的前驱动轮和后驱动轮均采用麦克纳姆全向轮;所述的回转马达、升降马达均采用伺服减速电机或伺服液压马达。
  7. 根据权利要求1所述的一种混联式可移动重载铸造机器人,其特征在于:所述的两部工业摄像机固定安装在顶梁的前端两侧,且与顶梁之间通过两自由度云台相连接。
  8. 根据权利要求1所述的一种混联式可移动重载铸造机器人,其特征在于:所述的可调液压支腿包括支腿箱、伸缩臂、垂直支腿、支腿伸缩缸和摆角调节缸,所述的支腿箱为中空结构,支腿箱的后端与平台车架通过铰链相连接,所述的伸缩臂的后端套装在支腿箱内,所述的支腿伸缩缸安装在支腿箱内,支腿伸缩缸的前后两端分别与伸缩臂、支腿箱通过铰链相连接,所述的垂直支腿的顶部固定安装在伸缩臂的前部末端,所述的摆角调节缸的两端分别与平台车架、支腿箱通过铰链相连接,所述的支腿伸缩缸和摆角调节缸采用双作用液压缸;所述的后液压支腿和垂直支腿的驱动动力采用电液伺服油缸或电液步进式液压缸。
  9. 根据权利要求2所述的一种混联式可移动重载铸造机器人,其特征在于:所述的第一后铰链的轴线与第一前万向节的十字轴的一条轴线相平行,所述的第一前万向节的十字轴的水平轴线与第三支链的第二前万向节的十字轴的水平轴线保持同轴;所述的第一前铰链的轴线与第二后铰链的轴线相平行,所述的第一前铰链的轴线垂直于第一垂直铰链的轴线,第一垂直铰链与第二垂直铰链保持同轴,第一前铰链的轴线与第二前铰链的轴线相平行,第二前铰链的轴线与第四后铰链的轴线相平行;第一后铰链、第一垂直铰链、第二垂直铰链与第三支链上的第三后铰链的轴线均保持相互平行。
  10. 根据权利要求3所述的一种混联式可移动重载铸造机器人,其特征在于:所述的多指异步式气动抓手包括气爪连接座、连接支架、气爪安装板、夹爪手指和手指气缸,所述的气爪连接座固定安装在并联工作臂的前端;所述的连接支架的上下两端分别与气爪连接座和气爪安装板固连;在所述的气爪安装板的底部设有导向套,在所述的夹爪手指的下端内侧设有防滑橡胶,在所述的夹爪手指的上端内侧设有导向杆,所述的导向杆套装在导向套内,且与导向套之间通过直线轴承相连接;所述的手指气缸固定安装在气爪安装板上,手指气缸的两端分别与两个夹爪手指通过铰链相连接,所述的手指气缸为双作用气缸;在所述的气爪安装板的顶部还设有电磁换向阀、安全阀;所述的夹爪手指的对数范围为4-12,且每一对夹爪手指之间通过一个手指气缸独立连接与控制。
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