US20120146206A1 - Pin attachment - Google Patents

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Publication number
US20120146206A1
US20120146206A1 US12966225 US96622510A US2012146206A1 US 20120146206 A1 US20120146206 A1 US 20120146206A1 US 12966225 US12966225 US 12966225 US 96622510 A US96622510 A US 96622510A US 2012146206 A1 US2012146206 A1 US 2012146206A1
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Prior art keywords
surface
microelectronic
metal
elements
substrate
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Abandoned
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US12966225
Inventor
Belgacem Haba
Ilyas Mohammed
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Tessera Inc
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Tessera Research LLC
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    • HELECTRICITY
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    • H01L24/80Methods for connecting semiconductor or other solid state bodies using means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected
    • H01L24/81Methods for connecting semiconductor or other solid state bodies using means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected using a bump connector
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    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/48Manufacture or treatment of parts, e.g. containers, prior to assembly of the devices, using processes not provided for in a single one of the subgroups H01L21/06 - H01L21/326
    • H01L21/4814Conductive parts
    • H01L21/4846Leads on or in insulating or insulated substrates, e.g. metallisation
    • H01L21/4853Connection or disconnection of other leads to or from a metallisation, e.g. pins, wires, bumps
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    • H01L21/4846Leads on or in insulating or insulated substrates, e.g. metallisation
    • H01L21/486Via connections through the substrate with or without pins
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    • H01L21/50Assembly of semiconductor devices using processes or apparatus not provided for in a single one of the subgroups H01L21/06 - H01L21/326, e.g. sealing of a cap to a base of a container
    • H01L21/56Encapsulations, e.g. encapsulation layers, coatings
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    • H01L23/3107Encapsulations, e.g. encapsulating layers, coatings, e.g. for protection characterised by the arrangement or shape the device being completely enclosed
    • H01L23/3121Encapsulations, e.g. encapsulating layers, coatings, e.g. for protection characterised by the arrangement or shape the device being completely enclosed a substrate forming part of the encapsulation
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    • H01L23/498Leads, i.e. metallisations or lead-frames on insulating substrates, e.g. chip carriers
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    • H01L2924/181Encapsulation

Abstract

A microelectronic package includes a substrate having a first region, a second region, a first surface, and a second surface remote from the first surface. At least one microelectronic element overlies the first region on the first surface. First electrically conductive elements are exposed at one of the first surface and the second surface of the substrate within the second region with at least some of the first conductive elements electrically connected to the at least one microelectronic element. Substantially rigid metal elements overlie the first conductive elements and have end surfaces remote therefrom. A bond metal joins the metal elements with the first conductive elements, and a molded dielectric layer overlies at least the second region of the substrate and has a surface remote from the substrate. The end surfaces of the metal elements are at least partially exposed at the surface of the molded dielectric layer.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Microelectronic devices such as semiconductor chips typically require many input and output connections to other electronic components. The input and output contacts of a semiconductor chip or other comparable device are generally disposed in grid-like patterns that substantially cover a surface of the device (commonly referred to as an “area array”) or in elongated rows which may extend parallel to and adjacent each edge of the device's front surface, or in the center of the front surface. Typically, devices such as chips must be physically mounted on a substrate such as a printed circuit board, and the contacts of the device must be electrically connected to electrically conductive features of the circuit board.
  • Semiconductor chips are commonly provided in packages that facilitate handling of the chip during manufacture and during mounting of the chip on an external substrate such as a circuit board or other circuit panel. For example, many semiconductor chips are provided in packages suitable for surface mounting. Numerous packages of this general type have been proposed for various applications. Most commonly, such packages include a dielectric element, commonly referred to as a “chip carrier” with terminals formed as plated or etched metallic structures on the dielectric. These terminals typically are connected to the contacts of the chip itself by features such as thin traces extending along the chip carrier itself and by fine leads or wires extending between the contacts of the chip and the terminals or traces. In a surface mounting operation, the package is placed onto a circuit board so that each terminal on the package is aligned with a corresponding contact pad on the circuit board. Solder or other bonding material is provided between the terminals and the contact pads. The package can be permanently bonded in place by heating the assembly so as to melt or “reflow” the solder or otherwise activate the bonding material.
  • Many packages include solder masses in the form of solder balls, typically about 0.1 mm and about 0.8 mm (5 and 30 mils) in diameter, attached to the terminals of the package. A package having an array of solder balls projecting from its bottom surface is commonly referred to as a ball grid array or “BGA” package. Other packages, referred to as land grid array or “LGA” packages are secured to the substrate by thin layers or lands formed from solder. Packages of this type can be quite compact. Certain packages, commonly referred to as “chip scale packages,” occupy an area of the circuit board equal to, or only slightly larger than, the area of the device incorporated in the package. This is advantageous in that it reduces the overall size of the assembly and permits the use of short interconnections between various devices on the substrate, which in turn limits signal propagation time between devices and thus facilitates operation of the assembly at high speeds.
  • Packaged semiconductor chips are often provided in “stacked” arrangements, wherein one package is provided, for example, on a circuit board, and another package is mounted on top of the first package. These arrangements can allow a number of different chips to be mounted within a single footprint on a circuit board and can further facilitate high-speed operation by providing a short interconnection between packages. Often, this interconnect distance is only slightly larger than the thickness of the chip itself. For interconnection to be achieved within a stack of chip packages, it is necessary to provide structures for mechanical and electrical connection on both sides of each package (except for the topmost package). This has been done, for example, by providing contact pads or lands on both sides of the substrate to which the chip is mounted, the pads being connected through the substrate by conductive vias or the like. Solder balls or the like have been used to bridge the gap between the contacts on the top of a lower substrate to the contacts on the bottom of the next higher substrate. The solder balls must be higher than the height of the chip in order to connect the contacts. Examples of stacked chip arrangements and interconnect structures are provided in U.S. Patent App. Pub. No. 2010/0232129 (“the '129 Publication”), the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.
  • Microcontact elements in the form of elongated posts or pins may be used to connect microelectronic packages to circuit boards and for other connections in microelectronic packaging. In some instances, microcontacts have been formed by etching a metallic structure including one or more metallic layers to form the microcontacts. The etching process limits the size of the microcontacts. Conventional etching processes typically cannot form microcontacts with a large ratio of height to maximum width, referred to herein as “aspect ratio”. It has been difficult or impossible to form arrays of microcontacts with appreciable height and very small pitch or spacing between adjacent microcontacts. Moreover, the configurations of the microcontacts formed by conventional etching processes are limited.
  • Despite all of the above-described advances in the art, still further improvements in making and testing microelectronic packages would be desirable.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • An embodiment of the present invention relates to a microelectronic package. In one embodiment, the microelectronic package includes a substrate having a first region and a second region and further having a first surface and a second surface remote from the first surface. At least one microelectronic element overlies the first region on the first surface. First electrically conductive elements are exposed at one of the first surface and the second surface of the substrate within the second region with at least some of the first conductive elements electrically connected to the at least one microelectronic element. Substantially rigid metal elements overlie the first conductive elements and have end surfaces remote therefrom. A bond metal joins the metal elements with the first conductive elements, and a molded dielectric layer overlies at least the second region of the substrate and has a surface remote from the substrate. The end surfaces of the metal elements are at least partially exposed at the surface of the molded dielectric layer.
  • At least some of the first conductive elements can be exposed at the second surface of the substrate within the second region. Further, the molded dielectric layer can overlie at least the second surface of the substrate. Additionally or alternatively, the first conductive elements can be exposed at the first surface of the substrate within the second region and the molded dielectric layer can overlie at least the first surface of the substrate. Such an embodiment can further include second conductive elements exposed at the second surface of the substrate and electrically connected with at least some of the first conductive elements. In various embodiments, the molded dielectric layer can further overlie the microelectronic element. Further embodiments are possible that include an encapsulant layer that is not molded in place of the molded dielectric layer.
  • In an embodiment, a first one of the metal elements can be adapted for carrying a first signal electric potential and a second one of the metal elements can be adapted for simultaneously carrying a second electric potential. The second electric potential can be different from said first signal electric potential.
  • In various embodiments, the molded dielectric layer can be formed in different regions wherein respective major surfaces thereof have different heights above the substrate. These regions can correspond to the first and second regions of the substrate. In further embodiments, the end surfaces of the metal elements can be coplanar with the surface of the molded dielectric layer or can be positioned above the surface or below the surface with holes in the molded dielectric layer that expose the ends. In a still further embodiment, a redistribution layer including conductive pads can be formed on the surface of the molded dielectric layer.
  • In an embodiment, the metal elements of the microelectronic package can taper from greater widths at the end surfaces in a direction towards the first conductive elements. The metal elements can further have surfaces of revolution about an axis, which can include a frustroconical shape or a cylindrical shape. The microelectronic package can be structured such that the height of the metal elements extends through at least 60% of the thickness of the molded dielectric layer. Alternatively, the height of the bond metal can extend through at least 60% of the thickness of the molded dielectric layer.
  • A microelectronic package according to various embodiments of the present invention can be included in a microelectronic assembly that further includes a second microelectronic package. The second microelectronic package can include an outer surface having a plurality of connection elements exposed at a surface thereof and a microelectronic element electrically connected to the connection elements. At least a portion of the outer surface of the second microelectronic package can overlie at least a portion of the surface of the molded dielectric layer and the connection elements of the second microelectronic package can be electrically and mechanically connected to the end surfaces of the conductive projections of the first microelectronic package.
  • A further embodiment of the present invention relates to a method for making a microelectronic package that includes providing a microelectronic assembly having a first substrate. The first substrate includes a first surface with a plurality of electrically conductive elements exposed thereon, a carrier having a second surface spaced apart from the first surface of the substrate, and a plurality of substantially rigid metal elements extending from the carrier and joined to the conductive elements. The method further includes removing the carrier from the microelectronic assembly, thereby exposing contact surfaces of respective ones of the plurality of metal elements remote from the first conductive pads. In an embodiment, the step of removing the carrier includes at least one of etching, lapping or peeling the carrier. In a further embodiment, a dielectric material can be injected between the first and second surfaces and around the conductive projections, prior to removing the carrier, to form a molded dielectric layer.
  • The microelectronic subassembly can be formed from a first subassembly including the first substrate and the conductive elements and a second subassembly including the carrier and the metal elements. In such an embodiment, the metal elements can have first surfaces remote from the second surface and that are exposed prior to attaching the first surfaces of the metal elements to the conductive elements of the second subassembly. The metal elements can be attached, by at least the first surfaces thereof, to the conductive pads of the second assembly by forming a plurality of masses of bonding metal that are affixed to the first surfaces of the conductive projections and to respective ones of the conductive elements such that at least a portion of the bonding metal is disposed between the first surfaces and the conductive elements.
  • In an embodiment, the microelectronic assembly further includes a microelectronic element that can be affixed on the substrate and electronically connected to at least some of the conductive elements. The microelectronic element can be affixed on the first substrate prior to the step of removing the carrier or thereafter.
  • In a further embodiment, the first surface of the first substrate can include first and second regions, the conductive elements being exposed at the first surface within the first region and the microelectronic element being attached on the first surface within the second region. A dielectric layer can be molded over the first and second regions of the first surface and at least a portion of said microelectronic element. This can be done such that the molded dielectric layer includes an outer surface, and the contact surfaces of the metal elements can be exposed at the outer surface of the molded dielectric layer. The molded dielectric layer can further be formed in a first dielectric layer portion and a second dielectric layer portion by the steps of that are formed over the different regions thereof. Further, the portions of the molded dielectric layer over the first and second regions can be molded having different respective heights.
  • In a still further embodiment, the first subassembly can be formed including the steps of affixing a rigid metal layer to the second surface, depositing masses of a bonding metal along selected portions of the rigid metal layer such that first surfaces are defined on the masses of the bonding metal, and removing areas of the rigid metal layer outside of the selected portions thereof. A mask layer can be deposited over the rigid metal layer, such that the mask layer has a plurality of openings therethrough that expose the selected portions of the metal layer. The step of depositing the masses of the bonding metal can include depositing the masses within the openings. In an embodiment, the mask layer can act as at least a portion of an encapsulant layer formed after the step of transferring the conductive projections.
  • Any one of the embodiments discussed can be used in a system including the microelectronic assembly and one or more other electronic components electrically connected to the assembly. The system can further include a housing within which the microelectronic assembly and the other electronic components are mounted.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 shows a microelectronic assembly according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 2 shows the microelectronic assembly of FIG. 1 connected to a second microelectronic assembly in a stacked relationship therewith;
  • FIG. 3 shows a variation of a microelectronic assembly according to an alternative embodiment;
  • FIG. 4 shows a further variation of a microelectronic assembly according to an alternative embodiment;
  • FIG. 5 shows a further variation of a microelectronic assembly according to an alternative embodiment affixed to another microelectronic assembly in a stacked relationship therewith;
  • FIG. 6 shows a further variation of a microelectronic assembly according to an alternative embodiment
  • FIG. 7 shows a further variation of a microelectronic assembly according to an alternative embodiment;
  • FIG. 8 shows a further variation of a microelectronic assembly according to an alternative embodiment affixed to another microelectronic assembly in a stacked relationship therewith;
  • FIG. 9 shows a further variation of a microelectronic assembly according to an alternative embodiment;
  • FIGS. 10-13 show successive steps used in a method for forming a microelectronic assembly such as that shown in FIG. 1;
  • FIGS. 14-16 show successive steps used in a method for forming a microelectronic assembly such as that shown in FIG. 7;
  • FIGS. 17-22 show successive steps used in an alternative method for forming a microelectronic assembly such as that shown in FIG. 7;
  • FIGS. 23-25 show successive steps used in a further alternative method for forming a microelectronic assembly such as that shown in FIG. 7; and
  • FIG. 26 shows a system including a microelectronic assembly according to the embodiment shown in FIG. 1.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • Turning now to the figures, where similar numeric references are used to indicate similar features, there is shown in FIG. 1 a microelectronic assembly according to an embodiment of the present invention. The embodiment of FIG. 1 is a microelectronic assembly in the form of a packaged microelectronic element such as a semiconductor chip assembly that is used in computer or other electronic applications.
  • The microelectronic assembly 10 of FIG. 1 includes a substrate 20 having a first surface 22 and a second surface 24. The substrate is generally in the form of a dielectric wafer material that forms a substantially flat, thin sheet. The substrate is preferably formed from silicon or other dielectric materials understood in the art to be acceptable for the applications described herein in the semiconductor chip arts. The first surface 20 and second surface 22 are preferably substantially parallel to each other and are spaced apart at a distance perpendicular to the surfaces 22,24 defining the thickness of the substrate 20. The thickness of substrate 20 is preferably within a range of generally acceptable thicknesses for the present application as would be understood by a person of ordinary skill in the art upon reading this description. In an embodiment the distance between the first surface 22 and the second surface 24 is between about 25 and 500 μm. For purposes of this discussion, the first surface 22 may be described as being positioned “above” second surface 24. Such a description, as well as any other description of the relative position of elements used herein that refers to a vertical or horizontal position of such elements is made for illustrative purposes only to correspond with the position of the elements within the Figures, and is not limiting.
  • In a preferred embodiment, substrate 20 is considered as divided into a first region 26 and a second region 28. The first region 26 lies within the second region and includes a central portion of the substrate 20 and extends outwardly therefrom. The second region 28 substantially surrounds the first region 26 and extends outwardly therefrom to the outer edges of the substrate 20. Preferably, no specific characteristic of the substrate itself physically divides the two regions; however, the regions are demarked for purposes of discussion herein with respect to treatments or features applied thereto or contained therein.
  • A microelectronic element 60 is affixed on first surface 22 of substrate 20 within first region 28. Microelectronic element 60 can be a semiconductor chip or another comparable device. In one embodiment, microelectronic element 60 can be affixed to first surface 22 in what is known as a conventional or “face-up” fashion. In such a case wire leads (not shown) can be used to electrically connect microelectronic element 60 to conductive elements 30 exposed at first surface 22, which may be done by connecting such wire leads to traces (not shown) or other conductive features within substrate 20 that are, in turn, connected to conductive elements 30.
  • A set of first conductive elements 30 are exposed at the first surface 22 of substrate 20. As used in the present description, when an element is described as being “exposed at” another element, such as a surface or the like, “exposed at” indicates that the electrically conductive structure is available for contact with a theoretical point moving in a direction perpendicular to the surface of the dielectric structure toward the surface of the dielectric structure from outside the dielectric structure. Thus, a terminal or other conductive structure which is exposed at a surface of a dielectric structure may project from such surface; may be flush with such surface; or may be recessed relative to such surface and exposed through a hole or depression in the dielectric. The conductive elements 30 can be flat, thin elements forming a first face 32 that is exposed at first surface 22 of substrate 20. In one embodiment, conductive elements 30 can be in the form of substantially circular pads that may be interconnected between each other or to microelectronic element 60 by traces (not shown). Conductive elements 30 can be formed at least within second region 28 of substrate 20. Additionally, in certain embodiments, conductive elements 30 can also be formed within first region 26. Such an arrangement is particularly useful when affixing microelectronic element 60 to substrate 20 in what is known as a “flip-chip” configuration, where contacts on the microelectronic element 60 can be connected to conductive elements 30 within first region 26 by solder bumps (not shown) or the like that are positioned beneath microelectronic element 60.
  • Preferably, conductive elements 30 are formed from a solid metal material such as copper, gold, nickel, or other materials known in the art for such an application, including various alloys including one or more of copper, gold, nickel or combinations thereof.
  • At least some of conductive elements 30 can be interconnected to corresponding second conductive elements 36, such as conductive pads, exposed at second surface 24 of substrate 20. Such an interconnection can be completed using vias 34 formed in substrate 20 that can be lined or filled with conductive metal that can be of the same material as conductive elements 30 and 36. Optionally, conductive elements 36 can be further interconnected by traces on substrate 20.
  • Assembly 10 also includes a plurality of substantially rigid metal elements 40 affixed on at least some of conductive elements 30. Metal elements 40 can be affixed on conductive elements 30 within first region 26 of substrate 20. Metal elements 40 extend away from conductive elements 30 to an end surface 42 spaced above, or otherwise remote, from conductive elements 30. In an alternative embodiment, metal elements 40 can be affixed on conductive elements 36 that are exposed at second surface 24. In such an embodiment, metal elements 40 would extend to an end surface 42 below conductive elements 36.
  • Metal elements 40 are affixed to conductive elements 30 by a bond metal mass 41. Bond metal mass 41 is comprised of any conductive material that is known for affixing two rigid or solid metal elements to each other and can be a material having a relatively low melting point (i.e. below about 300° C.) such that it can be melted to achieve such affixing without melting the adjacent solid metal portions or any other components of the microelectronic assembly 10. Bond metal mass 41 can include a fusible metal such as solder, tin or indium, or which can be a metal or metal alloy having a melting temperature below 300° C. Metal elements 40 are can be formed from a material having a relatively high melting point such that it can withstand the melting temperature of the bond metal mass 41. Further, metal elements 40 can be formed, for example, from a metal known for having reliable conductive properties, which can be copper, gold, nickel or alloys having various mixtures thereof or including other metals.
  • Bond metal mass 41 is affixed on first face 32 of a corresponding conductive element 30. Metal element 40 includes a base 44 remote from end surface 42 and an edge surface 46 extending between base 44 and end surface 42. Base 44 of metal element 40 is affixed to bond metal mass 41. Base 44 can be spaced apart from face 32 such that bond metal mass 41 is interposed therebetween. Further, some of bond metal mass 41 may extend upwardly along a portion of the edge surface 46 of metal element 40. Thus, bond metal mass 41 can be formed as a solder mass on face 32 of a corresponding conductive element 30 with metal element 40 held partially therein. Further, in an embodiment, bond metal mass 41 can extend upwardly along substantially all of edge surface 46. Still further, some of bond metal mass 41 can wick upwardly along a portion of metal element 40.
  • Metal element 40 can be formed such that end surface 42 is at least as wide as base 44. The width of each of base 44 and end surface 42 is measured in a dimension perpendicular to a longitudinal axis formed by the metal element 40. This direction can also be described as being parallel to face 32 or first surface 22. In an embodiment, metal element 40 is a body of revolution such that base 44 and end surface 42 are substantially circular and such that edge surface 46 is a surface of revolution extending therebetween. In such an embodiment the width of base 44 and end surface 42 are measured as the diameters thereof. In an embodiment, metal element 40 is a truncated cone (a cone that is cut off between the base and the apex thereof such that it has two parallel flat surfaces). Alternatively, metal element 40 can be a hyperboloid, or a revolved paraboloid, wherein the axis of rotation is outside the apex of the parabola. In any of those embodiments, end surface 44 is wider than base 42. Further alternative shapes and structures for metal element 40 and for conductive projection 40 in its entirety are contemplated and are discussed further below.
  • In the embodiment of FIG. 1, metal element 40 is constructed such that it extends through a majority of the height 48 of package 10. In such an embodiment, metal element 40 can extend through at least 60% of the height 48. In a variation of such an embodiment, metal element 40 extends through about 80% to about 90% of height 48. The percentage of the height through which metal element 40 extends is measured irrespective of any amount of bond metal mass 41 extends along edge surface 46.
  • Microelectronic assembly 10 further includes encapsulant layer 50. In the embodiment of FIG. 1, encapsulant layer 50 is formed over the portions of first surface 22 of substrate 20 that are not otherwise covered by or occupied by microelectronic element 60, or conductive elements 30. Similarly, encapsulant layer 50 is formed over the portions of conductive elements 30, including face 32 thereof, that are not otherwise covered by metal elements 40 or bond metal masses 41. Encapsulant layer 50 can also substantially cover microelectronic element 60, as well as bond metal mass 41 and edge surface 46 of metal element 40. End surfaces 42 of metal elements 40 remain exposed at a major surface 52 defined by encapsulant layer 50. In other words, encapsulant layer 50 can cover all of microelectronic assembly 10 from first surface 22 and above, with the exception of end surfaces 42.
  • Encapsulant layer 50 serves to protect the other elements within microelectronic assembly 10, particularly metal elements 40 and bond metal masses 41. This allows for a more robust structure that is less likely to be damaged by testing thereof or during transportation or assembly to other microelectronic structures. Encapsulant layer 50 can be formed from a dielectric material with insulating properties such as that described in U.S. Patent App. Pub. No. 2010/0232129, which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.
  • The structure of the embodiment of FIG. 1, with secondary conductive elements 36 exposed at second surface 24 and end surfaces 42 of metal elements 40, is such that connection to another electronic component can be completed from either below or above microelectronic assembly 10. This allows microelectronic assembly 10 to be mounted to either a semiconductor chip or another microelectronic assembly in either an upright or inverted configuration. It further allows for testing thereof from either the top or the bottom. Further still, microelectronic assembly 10 can be stacked, as shown in FIG. 2, with another microelectronic assembly 90 having its own contact pads 92 and microelectronic element 94. Such a stacked arrangement can include additional assemblies and can be ultimately attached to a printed circuit board (“PCB”) or the like for use in an electronic device. In such a stacked arrangement, metal elements 40 and conductive elements 30 and 32 can carry multiple electronic signals therethrough, each having a different signal potential to allow for different signals to be processed by different microelectronic elements, such as microelectronic element 60 or microelectronic element 92, in a single stack. Solder masses 94 can be used to interconnect the microelectronic assemblies 10,90 in such a stack, such as by electronically and mechanically attaching end surfaces 42 to conductive elements 92.
  • The embodiment of FIGS. 1 and 2 shows a formation of encapsulant layer 50 wherein a major surface 52 thereof is formed in a co-planar relationship with end surfaces 42 of the metal elements such that a substantially contiguous surface is formed thereby. Other arrangements for encapsulant layer 50 are contemplated that result in different relationships between major surface 52 and end surfaces 42. An example of such an embodiment is shown in FIG. 3, wherein metal elements 140 are shorter than encapsulant layer 150. This arrangement results in end surfaces 142 being disposed within encapsulant layer 150, or beneath major surface 152. In this embodiment end surfaces 142 are exposed at major surface 152 within holes 154 in encapsulant layer 150. Holes 154 can be substantially the same cross-sectional size as end surfaces 142 or slightly smaller than end surfaces 142. Holes 154 can be sized so as to be large enough to achieve a reliable connection to end surfaces 142.
  • In a further alternative embodiment shown in FIG. 4, metal elements 240 are formed so as to be taller than encapsulant layer 250. In this embodiment, end surfaces 242 are above, or outside of, major surface 252. In such an embodiment, a plurality of platform portions 256 can be provided within encapsulant layer 250 that correspond to conductive projections 240. Platform portions 256 can extend along edge surfaces 246 to a plurality of secondary surfaces 258 that are substantially flush with end surfaces 242.
  • As a further alternative, the encapsulant layer 350 can be formed in multiple sections having different heights. As shown in FIG. 5, encapsulant layer 350 has a first portion 350 a that substantially corresponds to first region 326 of substrate 320 and a second portion 350 b that substantially corresponds to second region 328. In the embodiment shown first portion 350 a is such that the major surface 352 a thereof is higher than the major surface 352 b of second portion 350 b. Also, end surfaces 342 of metal elements 340 are flush with major surface 352 b and are spaced below major surface 352 a. In an alternative embodiment, the relationship between major surface 352 a and major surface 352 b can be reversed such that major surface 352 b is spaced above major surface 352 a, with end surfaces 342 preferably remaining substantially flush with major surface 352 b.
  • In FIG. 5, microelectronic assembly 310 is shown in a stacked arrangement with microelectronic assembly 390, wherein a plurality of solder masses 396 connect end surfaces 342 to conductive elements 392. In this arrangement solder masses 396 are sufficiently high enough to compensate for the taller first region 350 a.
  • As mentioned above, alternative arrangements of the metal elements 40 shown in FIG. 1 are contemplated. One alternative embodiment is shown in FIG. 6, wherein metal element 440 is further divided into a base portion 440 a and an end portion 440 b. Base portion 440 a includes base 444 and a portion of edge surface 446 extending away therefrom toward end surface 442. Similarly, end portion 440 b includes end surface 442 and a portion of edge surface 446 extending therefrom toward base 444. Metal element 440 is formed such that the portion of edge surface 446 within base portion 440 a slopes outwardly to face first surface 422. The portion of edge surface 446 within end portion 440 b slopes inwardly to face away from first surface 422 such that the slope of edge surface 446 changes abruptly at a boundary formed between base portion 440 a and end portion 440 b. In an embodiment, this boundary forms ridge 447 in edge surface 446, dividing base portion 440 a from end portion 440 b. Ridge 447, or another abrupt transition, can be located in any one of an infinite number of positions between base 444 and end surface 442, including near the halfway point therebetween or closer to either of base 444 or end surface 442. By forming metal elements 440 as described, an anchoring feature, such as ridge 447 is formed therein, that helps secure metal element 440 in position within encapsulant layer 450. Examples of conductive projections having anchoring features are shown and described in U.S. Patent App. Pub. No. 2008/0003402, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein in its entirety. Further examples are shown and described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/838,974, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein in its entirety.
  • A further embodiment of microelectronic assembly 510 is shown in FIG. 7, wherein bond metal masses 541 extend through a majority of the height 548 of encapsulant layer 550. In such an embodiment, bond metal mass 541 preferably extends through at least about 60% of the height 548. In an embodiment, bond metal mass 541 extends through about 80% to 90% of the height 548. The percentage of bond metal mass 541 extends is measured as the portion thereof that is fully between base 544 of metal element 540 and face 432 of conductive element 430. Further, in such an embodiment, metal element 540 is formed as a substantially circular contact pad that sits substantially atop bond metal mass 541.
  • FIGS. 8 and 9 show further alternative embodiments of a microelectronic subassembly having an upper redistribution layer. In FIG. 8 redistribution layer 670 is formed as a second substrate 672 that is assembled on major surface 652 of encapsulant layer 650. Redistribution layer further includes a plurality of contact pads 674 exposed at a surface of substrate 672. Contact pads 674 are preferably interconnected by a series of traces (not shown) formed in substrate 672 and can be interconnected to end surfaces 642 by conductive vias 676 formed in substrate 672.
  • The redistribution layer 770 of FIG. 9 is similar in structure to that of FIG. 8 but is formed directly on major surface 752 of encapsulant layer 750. That is, traces are formed connecting end surfaces 742 to contact pads 774 formed on major surface 752.
  • A method for making a microelectronic assembly, such as that shown in FIG. 1 is shown in FIGS. 10-13. In this method, a subassembly 12 is provided having carrier 80 with a first surface 82. Solid metal elements 40 are formed on first surface 82 of carrier 80. End surfaces 42 of metal elements 40 are removably affixed on surface 82 such that bases 44 are remote therefrom. Metal elements 40 can be formed on carrier 80 by a number of known methods including by plating layers of metal in the desired locations for metal element 40. Alternatively, metal elements 40 can be formed by depositing a layer of metal on carrier 80 and by selectively etching away areas outside of the desired areas for metal elements 40. Such etching can be done using known chemical compositions, lasers, or other known means.
  • FIG. 11 shows a subsequent step of the method wherein subassembly 12 is aligned with a second subassembly 14 that includes substrate 20 and conductive elements 30 of, for example, the finished microelectronic assembly of FIG. 1. This alignment is such that metal elements 40 are substantially aligned with corresponding ones of the conductive elements 30. Bases 44 of the metal elements 40 can be held spaced apart from contact pads 30 at a desired distance. As shown in FIG. 12, bond metal masses 41 are provided between base 44 and the corresponding contact pad 30. Bond metal masses 41 can be provided by first being deposited on conductive elements 30, on metal elements 40, or in portions on each thereof. This can be done either prior to or after the step of aligning the metal elements 40 with conductive elements 30.
  • As shown in FIG. 12, carrier 80 is then removed from the assembly 10′ resulting from the step shown in FIG. 11. This can be completed by methods known in the art including peeling, lapping or etching. As shown in FIG. 12, once the carrier 80 has been removed, end surfaces 42 of metal elements 40 are exposed remote from surface 22 of substrate 20.
  • FIG. 13 shows a step in which microelectronic element 60 is affixed on substrate 20. This can be done in a method in accordance with any of the attachment means described with respect to FIG. 1 including face up or flip-chip bonding. The resulting structure of microelectronic assembly 10″ can also be achieved by affixing microelectronic element 60 to substrate 20 before the step shown in FIG. 11.
  • Microelectronic assembly 10 is achieved by applying an encapsulant layer, such as those shown in FIGS. 1-5 by known means including injection molding. A method for injection molding an encapsulant layer that can be adapted, as would be understood by one of ordinary skill in the art upon reading this disclosure, for the present embodiments is described in U.S. Patent App. Pub. No. 2010/0232129 (“the '129 Publication”), the disclosure of which has been incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. In general, encapsulant layer can be molded onto assembly 10″ by placing the assembly in a mold sized to receive assembly 10″ therein and sized to form a cavity therein that is, essentially, a negative of the desired shape for encapsulant layer 50 (similar to what is shown in FIG. 10 of the '129 Publication). A dielectric material is then injected into the cavity through a port to fill the mold cavity such that first surface 22 of substrate 20, edge surfaces 46 of metal elements 40, and any exposed portions of bond metal masses 41 or conductive elements 30 are covered by the dielectric material and such that the dielectric material fills the cavity to form the desired shape of encapsulant layer 50. Additionally, it may be desired for encapsulant layer 50 to also cover microelectronic element 60, as shown in FIG. 1.
  • The mold (such as mold 420 in FIG. 10 of the '129 Publication) used in forming the encapsulant layer 50 can cover end surfaces 42 so that the end surfaces remain exposed at a surface of encapsulant layer 50. The embodiment of mold 420 shown in FIG. 10 of the '129 Publication includes a raised central portion that is suitable for making an encapsulant layer as shown in FIG. 5 with a higher major surface 352 a over first region 26 of substrate 20. Other embodiments of a mold can include a substantially continuous major surface for making an encapsulant layer 50 as shown in FIG. 1. Further, the upper surface of the mold can include a plurality of indentations over the areas of the metal elements to form a package of the type shown in FIG. 4 having raised platform portions 256 in the area of metal elements 240.
  • An encapsulant layer 150 similar to the one shown in FIG. 3 can be formed by including projections in the mold that correspond to the desired location for holes 154 that extend to and cover ends 142 of metal elements 140. Alternatively, encapsulant layer 150 can be formed using a mold having a substantially planar surface that corresponds to surface 152. This method will form a layer of encapsulant material that covers ends 142 of metal elements 140 that can be chemically or mechanically removed in a subsequent step that can include, for example, laser etching. Similarly, the encapsulant layer configurations shown in FIG. 1, 6 or 7 can be made that covers ends 42,442,552 of metal elements 40,440,540 that is then etched down to the desired level that exposes ends 42,442,542. An encapsulant layer according to FIGS. 4 and 5 can be made in a similar manner as well, including etching down the portion of the encapsulant layer 250 that forms major surface 252, while leaving platform projections 256, (FIG. 4) or by etching down the portion of encapsulant layer 350 that forms the lower major surface 352 b of FIG. 5.
  • In an alternative embodiment, encapsulant layer 50 is formed in stages. For example, encapsulant layer 50 can be formed in a first stage wherein it is made to substantially cover the portion of first surface 22 that lies within the second region 28 of the substrate 20, also extending along edge surface 46 and covering any otherwise uncovered portions of bond metal masses 41 and conductive elements 30. In a subsequent step, a second portion of encapsulant layer 50 can be formed over the portion of the first surface 22 that lies within first region 26 of substrate 20. This second portion, for example, can cover microelectronic element 60, which can be affixed on substrate 20 either before the first molding stage for encapsulant layer 50 or thereafter.
  • An additional method step can be completed to form conductive projections 340 having an anchoring features such as that shown in FIG. 6. This step can include etching conductive projections 40 such as those shown in FIG. 12 in an assembly such as 10″ from above end surface 42. By applying a mask layer on end surface 42 and etching away a part of the metal element 40 below end surface 42, the shape of solid metal portion 340 b in FIG. 6 can be achieved. Further methods for achieving conductive projections are described in U.S. Patent App. Pub No. 2008/003402 and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/838,974, the disclosures of which have been incorporated by reference.
  • FIGS. 14-16 show steps of a method that adapts the method described above and shown in FIGS. 10-13 to form the microelectronic assembly 410 shown in FIG. 7. In this method, metal elements 440 are formed on first surface 482 of carrier 480 removably affixed thereto and bond metal masses 441 are formed as solder bumps 441′ affixed on metal elements 440. As shown in FIG. 14, subassembly 412 is aligned over substrate 420 having conductive elements 430 exposed at first surface 422 thereof such that solder bumps 441′ are aligned with corresponding ones of the conductive elements 430 and such that first surface 482 of carrier 480 faces first surface 422 of substrate 420.
  • As shown in FIG. 15, metal elements 440 are affixed on conductive elements 430 by heating solder bumps 441′ to reflow the solder. Once reflown, the surface tension of the solder along with the wicking of the solder along the conductive elements 430 causes the solder bumps to form the substantially cylindrical shape of the bond metal masses 441 shown in FIG. 15. Subsequently, carrier 480 is removed, as discussed above with respect to FIG. 12, and the resulting microelectronic assembly 410″ is further finished, which can be done according to the steps discussed above with respect to FIGS. 12 and 13.
  • FIGS. 17-22 show an additional or alternative method for making microelectronic assembly 410 shown in FIG. 7. In this method, a substantially rigid metal layer 484 is formed on first surface 482 of carrier 480. A solder mask layer 486 is then formed over rigid metal layer 484. Holes 488 are formed, either during formation of the solder mask layer 486 or are patterned therein after its formation. Holes 488 are formed over portions of rigid metal layer 484 that are designated to subsequently form metal elements 440. Solder bumps 441′ are deposited within holes 488 so that holes 488 act as a partial mold to give bumps 441′ a substantially cylindrical shape along at least a portion thereof.
  • As shown in FIG. 19, subassembly 412 is aligned above substrate 420 such that solder bumps 441′ align with corresponding ones of the conductive elements 430 exposed at first surface 422. As an alternative, solder mask layer 486 can be removed, either by chemical or mechanical means, and solid metal layer 484 can be etched, for example using laser etching or the like, to form metal elements 440, resulting in a subassembly similar to subassembly 412 shown in FIG. 14, except with substantially cylindrical portions formed therein by the holes 488 of solder mask layer 486.
  • As shown in FIG. 20, solder bumps 441′ are then reflown by applying heat thereto. This forms solder bumps 441′ into bond metal masses 441 and affixes metal elements 440 to conductive elements 430. Carrier 480 is then selectively removed, such as by mechanical processing or etching, leaving behind mask portions 480′ above solid metal layer 484. An etching process is then applied to solid metal layer 484 into separate metal elements 440, as shown in FIG. 21. Mask portions 480′ are then removed exposing end surfaces 442. Solder mask layer 486 can then be removed, as shown in FIG. 22, or can be left in place to form part of encapsulant layer 450. The resulting assembly 410″ is then finished in accordance with selected ones of the steps described above.
  • Further alternative steps are shown in FIGS. 23-25 for making a microelectronic assembly 410, as shown in FIG. 7. In these steps, solder bumps 441′ are formed on conductive portions 430, with metal elements 440 formed on carrier 480, either as individual elements (FIG. 23) or within a solid metal layer 484 (FIG. 25). Solder bumps 441′ are then reflown to form bond metal masses 441. As shown in FIG. 25, a solder mask layer 486 having corresponding holes 488 formed therein can also be applied over solid metal layer 484 to act as a mold to give bond metal portions 440 a a substantially cylindrical shape. After reflow, the structure shown in FIG. 25 will be substantially similar to the structure shown in FIG. 20 and can be finished according to the steps described with respect thereto. The carrier 480 shown in FIG. 24 can be removed resulting in a structure similar to that of FIG. 16 and can be finished according to the steps described with respect thereto.
  • The structures discussed above can be utilized in construction of diverse electronic systems. For example, a system 513 in accordance with a further embodiment of the invention includes microelectronic assembly 510 as described above in conjunction with other electronic components 514 and 515. In the example depicted, component 514 is a semiconductor chip whereas component 515 is a display screen, but any other components can be used. Of course, although only two additional components are depicted in FIG. 26 for clarity of illustration, the system may include any number of such components. The microelectronic assembly 510 as described above may be, for example, a microelectronic assembly as discussed above in connection with FIG. 1, or a structure incorporating plural microelectronic assemblies as discussed with reference to FIG. 2. Assembly 510 can further include any one of the embodiments described in FIGS. 3-25. In a further variant, multiple variations may be provided, and any number of such structures may be used.
  • Microelectronic assembly 510 and components 514 and 515 are mounted in a common housing 516, schematically depicted in broken lines, and are electrically interconnected with one another as necessary to form the desired circuit. In the exemplary system shown, the system includes a circuit panel 517 such as a flexible printed circuit board, and the circuit panel includes numerous conductors 518, of which only one is depicted in FIG. 26, interconnecting the components with one another. However, this is merely exemplary; any suitable structure for making electrical connections can be used.
  • The housing 516 is depicted as a portable housing of the type usable, for example, in a cellular telephone or personal digital assistant, and screen 515 is exposed at the surface of the housing. Where microelectronic assembly 510 includes a light-sensitive element such as an imaging chip, a lens 519 or other optical device also may be provided for routing light to the structure. Again, the simplified system shown in FIG. 26 is merely exemplary; other systems, including systems commonly regarded as fixed structures, such as desktop computers, routers and the like can be made using the structures discussed above.
  • Although the invention herein has been described with reference to particular embodiments, it is to be understood that these embodiments are merely illustrative of the principles and applications of the present invention. It is therefore to be understood that numerous modifications may be made to the illustrative embodiments and that other arrangements may be devised without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims.

Claims (48)

  1. 1. A microelectronic package comprising:
    a substrate having a first region and a second region, the substrate having a first surface and a second surface remote from the first surface;
    at least one microelectronic element overlying the first region on the first surface;
    first electrically conductive elements exposed at one of the first surface and the second surface of the substrate within the second region, at least some of the first conductive elements electrically connected to the at least one microelectronic element;
    substantially rigid metal elements overlying the first conductive elements and having end surfaces remote therefrom;
    a bond metal joining the metal elements with the first conductive elements; and
    a molded dielectric layer overlying at least the second region of the substrate and having a surface remote from the substrate, wherein the end surfaces of the metal elements are at least partially exposed at the surface of the molded dielectric layer.
  2. 2. The microelectronic package of claim 1, wherein at least some of the first conductive elements are exposed at the second surface of the substrate within the second region and the molded dielectric layer overlies at least the second surface.
  3. 3. The microelectronic package of claim 1, wherein the first conductive elements are exposed at the first surface of the substrate within the second region and the molded dielectric layer overlies at least the first surface.
  4. 4. The microelectronic package of claim 3, further including second conductive elements exposed at the second surface of the substrate and electrically connected with at least some of the first conductive elements.
  5. 5. The microelectronic package of claim 1, wherein a first one of the metal elements is adapted for carrying a first signal electric potential and a second one of the metal elements is adapted for simultaneously carrying a second electric potential, said second electric potential being different from said first signal electric potential.
  6. 6. The microelectronic package of claim 1, wherein the molded dielectric layer overlies said microelectronic element.
  7. 7. The microelectronic package of claim 1, wherein the molded dielectric layer has a first height above the first region and a second height above the second region, the first height being different from the second height.
  8. 8. The microelectronic package of claim 7, wherein the first height is greater than the second height.
  9. 9. The microelectronic package of claim 1, wherein the end surfaces of the metal elements are coplanar with the surface of the molded dielectric layer.
  10. 10. The microelectronic package of claim 9, further including conductive pads exposed at the surface of the molded dielectric layer and electrically connected with the metal elements.
  11. 11. The microelectronic package of claim 1, wherein the end surfaces of the metal elements are positioned between the first surface of the substrate and the surface of the molded dielectric layer, and wherein the molded dielectric layer has holes formed therein extending from the outside surface to expose the end surfaces of the metal elements.
  12. 12. The microelectronic package of claim 1, wherein the molded dielectric layer has a major surface overlying at least the second region of the substrate, and the end surfaces of the metal elements project above the major surface.
  13. 13. The microelectronic package of claim 1, wherein the metal elements taper from greater widths at the end surfaces in a direction towards the first conductive elements.
  14. 14. The microelectronic package of claim 13, wherein the metal elements have surfaces of revolution about an axis.
  15. 15. The microelectronic package of claim 1, wherein the metal elements are cylindrical in shape.
  16. 16. The microelectronic package of claim 1, wherein the metal elements include a base region adjacent the bond metal and a tip region, adjacent to the end, and wherein each of the rigid metal elements has an axis and a circumferential surface which slopes toward or away from the axis in the vertical direction along the axis, such that the slope of the circumferential wall changes abruptly at a boundary between the tip region and the base region.
  17. 17. The microelectronic package of claim 1, wherein the metal elements consist essentially of a material selected from the group consisting of copper, nickel, gold, and any combination thereof.
  18. 18. The microelectronic package of claim 17, wherein the bond metal has a melting temperature below 300° C.
  19. 19. The microelectronic package of claim 1, wherein a height of the metal elements extend through at least 60% of the thickness of the molded dielectric layer overlying at least the second region of the substrate.
  20. 20. The microelectronic package of claim 1, wherein a height of the bond metal extends through at least 60% of the thickness of the molded dielectric layer overlying at least the second region of the substrate.
  21. 21. The microelectronic package of claim 20, wherein the metal elements are pads.
  22. 22. The microelectronic package of claim 1, further including a second substrate disposed on the outside surface of the molded dielectric layer and second conductive pads exposed at a surface of the second substrate and electrically connected to the end surfaces of the metal elements.
  23. 23. A microelectronic assembly, comprising:
    a first microelectronic package according to claim 1; and
    a second microelectronic package including an outer surface having a plurality of connection elements exposed at a surface thereof and a microelectronic element electrically connected to the connection elements;
    wherein at least a portion of the outer surface of the second microelectronic package overlies at least a portion of the surface of the molded dielectric layer and the connection elements of the second microelectronic package are electrically and mechanically connected to the end surfaces of the conductive projections of the first microelectronic package.
  24. 24. A microelectronic package comprising:
    a substrate having a first surface and a second surface remote from the first surface;
    a microelectronic element overlying the second surface;
    first electrically conductive pads exposed at the first surface of the substrate within the second region, at least some of the first conductive pads electrically connected to the microelectronic element; and
    substantially rigid metal elements overlying the first conductive elements and having end surfaces remote therefrom;
    a bond metal joining the metal elements with the first conductive elements; and
    a dielectric encapsulant layer overlying at least the second regions of the first surface, wherein the first and second conductive projections have end surfaces remote from the second region and are at least partially exposed at a surface of the dielectric encapsulant layer.
  25. 25. A method for making a microelectronic package, comprising:
    providing a microelectronic assembly including a first substrate having a first surface with a plurality of electrically conductive elements exposed thereon, a carrier having a second surface spaced apart from the first surface of the substrate, and a plurality of substantially rigid metal elements extending from the carrier and joined to the conductive elements; and
    removing the carrier from the microelectronic assembly, thereby exposing contact surfaces of respective ones of the plurality of metal elements remote from the first conductive pads.
  26. 26. The method of claim 25, further comprising, prior to the step of removing the carrier, injecting a dielectric material between the first and second surfaces and around the conductive projections to form a molded dielectric layer.
  27. 27. The method of claim 25, wherein each of the plurality of metal elements are joined to respective ones of the conductive elements through a bond metal.
  28. 28. The method of claim 25, wherein the step of removing the carrier includes at least one of etching, lapping or peeling the carrier.
  29. 29. The method of claim 25, further including forming the microelectronic subassembly from a first subassembly including the first substrate and the conductive elements and a second subassembly including the carrier and the metal elements, wherein the metal elements exposed first surfaces remote from the second surface, and wherein the microelectronic assembly is formed by attaching the first surfaces of the metal elements to the conductive elements of the second subassembly.
  30. 30. The method of claim 29, wherein the step of forming the first microelectronic assembly includes attaching at least the first surfaces of the metal elements to the conductive pads of the second assembly by forming a plurality of masses of a bonding metal that are affixed to the first surfaces of the conductive projections and to respective ones of the conductive elements such that at least a portion of the bonding metal is disposed between the first surfaces and the conductive elements.
  31. 31. The method of claim 30, wherein the bonding metal masses are formed by depositing solder on one of the group consisting of the conductive projections and the conductive elements.
  32. 32. The method of claim 25, wherein the microelectronic assembly further includes a microelectronic element affixed on the substrate and electronically connected to at least some of the conductive elements.
  33. 33. The method of claim 32, wherein the microelectronic element is included in the microelectronic assembly by a step of affixing the microelectronic element on the first substrate carried out prior to the step of removing the carrier.
  34. 34. The method of claim 32, wherein the first surface of the first substrate includes first and second regions, the conductive elements being exposed at the first surface within the first region and the microelectronic element being attached on the first surface within the second region, the method further including molding a dielectric layer over the first and second regions of the first surface and at least a portion of said microelectronic element, wherein the molded dielectric layer includes an outer surface, and wherein the contact surfaces of the metal elements are exposed at the outer surface of the molded dielectric layer.
  35. 35. The method of claim 25, further comprising affixing a microelectronic element to the first substrate and electronically connecting the microelectronic element to at least some of the conductive elements after the step of removing the carrier.
  36. 36. The method of claim 35, wherein the first surface of the first substrate includes first and second regions, the conductive elements being exposed at the first surface within the first region and the microelectronic element being attached on the first surface within the second region, and wherein the molded dielectric layer is formed in a first dielectric layer portion and a second dielectric layer portion by the steps of:
    forming the first dielectric layer portion over the first region of the first surface prior to the step of attaching the microelectronic element; and
    forming the second dielectric layer portion over the second region of the first surface after the step of attaching the microelectronic element.
  37. 37. The method of claim 29, wherein the second subassembly is formed by a method including the step of forming the metal elements on the second surface of the carrier.
  38. 38. The method of claim 37, wherein the step of forming the metal elements includes selectively etching a metal layer on a carrier such that selected portions of the metal layer form the metal elements.
  39. 39. The method of claim 37, wherein the first subassembly is formed including the steps of affixing a rigid metal layer to the second surface, depositing masses of a bonding metal along selected portions of the rigid metal layer such that first surfaces are defined on the masses of the bonding metal, and removing areas of the rigid metal layer outside of the selected portions thereof.
  40. 40. The method of claim 39 wherein the steps of forming the first subassembly further include the step of depositing a mask layer over the rigid metal layer, the mask layer having a plurality of openings therethrough that expose the selected portions of the metal layer, and wherein the step of depositing masses of the bonding metal includes depositing the masses within the openings.
  41. 41. The method of claim 40, further including the step of removing the mask layer.
  42. 42. The method of claim 40, wherein the mask layer acts as at least a portion of an encapsulant layer after the step of transferring the conductive projections.
  43. 43. The method of claim 39, wherein the step of attaching the conductive projections includes heating the masses of the bonding metal.
  44. 44. The method of claim 25, wherein the microelectronic assembly is formed by the steps of:
    depositing a plurality of masses of a bonding metal on the conductive elements; and
    affixing a structure to the plurality of masses, the structure including the carrier and a rigid metal layer, such that the plurality of masses are exposed at selected areas of the rigid metal layer that form the first conductive projections.
  45. 45. The method of claim 44 further including the step of removing the rigid metal layer outside of the selected areas.
  46. 46. A method for making a microelectronic assembly, comprising:
    aligning first surfaces of rigid metal elements contained in a first microelectronic subassembly with respective conductive elements exposed at first surface of a second microelectronic subassembly, wherein the first microelectronic subassembly includes a first substrate and a plurality of the metal elements removably affixed to the substrate at second surfaces thereof, the first surfaces being remote therefrom;
    transferring the metal elements to the second microelectronic subassembly by attaching the first surfaces of the metal elements to the conductive elements of the second microelectronic subassembly and detaching the conductive projections from the first substrate, thereby exposing contact surfaces of the second microelectronic subassembly on the conductive projections remote from the conductive pads; and
    attaching a microelectronic element on the second microelectronic subassembly, thereby forming a microelectronic assembly, and electronically connecting the microelectronic element to the conductive pads.
  47. 47. A system comprising a microelectronic assembly according to any one of claim 1 or 26 and one or more other electronic components electrically connected to the microelectronic assembly.
  48. 48. A system as claimed in claim 47, further comprising a housing, said microelectronic assembly and said other electronic components being mounted to said housing.
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