CN106386370B - Southern area cherry rain shelter cultivation method - Google Patents

Southern area cherry rain shelter cultivation method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106386370B
CN106386370B CN201611101010.XA CN201611101010A CN106386370B CN 106386370 B CN106386370 B CN 106386370B CN 201611101010 A CN201611101010 A CN 201611101010A CN 106386370 B CN106386370 B CN 106386370B
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rain
year
shelter
tree
fruit
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CN106386370A (en
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王坤刚
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Chongqing King Fruit Gardening Co Ltd
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Chongqing King Fruit Gardening Co Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilizing, sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • A01G13/02Protective coverings for plants; Coverings for the ground; Devices for laying-out or removing coverings
    • A01G13/0206Canopies, i.e. devices providing a roof above the plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • A01G13/02Protective coverings for plants; Coverings for the ground; Devices for laying-out or removing coverings
    • A01G13/0256Ground coverings
    • A01G13/0268Mats or sheets, e.g. nets or fabrics
    • A01G13/0275Films

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of southern area cherry rain shelter cultivation methods, include the following steps: 1) transplanted seedling tree;2) lew is set up;3) take shelter from rain the time: 31) tree body is taken shelter from rain: 5~10 days plant of Hua Qian carry out lew, and epiphragma work at the top of Hua Qian completion in 5 days carries out tree body and takes shelter from rain, removes cover film to September part after fruit picking;32) ground is taken shelter from rain: being carried out ground when fruit starts dyeing and is taken shelter from rain, silver reflective membrane is laid on ground, the range of the disk surrounding that leaves tree when no drip irrigation system 50cm is not covered, all standing when having drip irrigation system, remove ground when after fruit harvesting is complete without drip irrigation system to take shelter from rain film, not striping when having a drip irrigation system;4) moisture management after taking shelter from rain.The present invention uses rain shelter cultivation, carries out tree body afterwards before flowering and takes shelter from rain, can sufficiently pollinate when meeting rain at the florescence, promote to bear fruit, and taking shelter from rain in growth period progress tree body can be reduced disease;It carries out ground before and after fruit maturation to take shelter from rain, the generation of dehiscent fruit, improves the yield and quality when the maturity period can be effectively prevent to meet rain.

Description

Southern area cherry rain shelter cultivation method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of cherry cultural methods, more particularly, to a kind of southern area cherry rain shelter cultivation side Method.
Background technique
Cherry was generally bloomed at 2 months in southern area, and 4~May is mature.Due to morning of blooming, often have down in florescence Cold spell in spring or cloudy weather for several days running cause low output to influence to pollinate and bear fruit;In fructescence (4~May), positive value the end of spring and the beginning of summer, It is also southern first plum rain season, the climatic condition that the cherry maturity period continuously rains often occur makes so as to cause dehiscent fruit Fruit loses commodity value, and even No kernels or seeds are gathered, as in a year of scarcity by serious person.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is to solve the above-mentioned problems, provides a kind of southern area cherry rain shelter cultivation side Method, it is therefore intended that dehiscent fruit problem caused by shedding caused by avoiding the florescence overcast and rainy and maturity period cloudy weather for several days running.
To achieve the goals above, the present invention adopts the following technical scheme: a kind of southern area cherry rain shelter cultivation Method, which comprises the steps of:
1) transplanted seedling tree;
2) lew is set up;
3) it takes shelter from rain the time:
31) tree body is taken shelter from rain
Setting lew at preceding 5~10 days plant is spent, epiphragma work at the top of Hua Qian completion in 5 days carries out tree body and takes shelter from rain, fruit picking Remove tree body cover film to September part afterwards;
32) ground is taken shelter from rain
It carries out ground when fruit starts coloring to take shelter from rain, ground laying silver reflective membrane, ground all standing when having drip irrigation system, Except the range of plant tree disk surrounding 50cm is not covered when no drip irrigation system, remaining ground and gutter all standing, and control external rain Water enters gutter, after fruit harvesting is complete, has and ground is not gone to take shelter from rain film when drip irrigation system, and when no drip irrigation system removes ground and keeps away Rain film;
4) moisture management after taking shelter from rain
When ground is taken shelter from rain, irrigation method are as follows: (a) wilts when noon discovery plant leaf, to just should suitably water at night, pours Water is so that plant can restore subject to normally to second day dusk blade;Alternatively, (b) when water capacity is lower than maximum water-holding capacity 50% when should just water, watering should at dusk or morning carry out, irrigation amount so that water capacity control in maximum water-holding capacity 50%~70% between subject to;Fruit maturation picking time keeps appropriate arid to improve the quality and storage tolerance of fruit, is close to Late blade can restore normally not have to pour water, and on the contrary then water, irrigation amount can restore normal with second day dusk blade of plant Subject to.
As preferred: step 1) transplanted seedling tree in the following way:
Setting up for lew is combined with transplanted seedling tree density, and transplanted seedling tree density is 4m × 2m, i.e. line-spacing 4m, spacing in the rows 2m is opened the gutter of deep 40cm, width 40cm, the wide 3.6m in compartment face by ditch heart 4m before planting seedling, and the soil of ditch is put among the face of compartment, makes compartment Face is arc-shaped, then digs planting pit by the distance of 2m at the center in compartment face, planting pit length and width is 50cm deeply, is layered pressure in cave Enter decomposed chicken manure or pig manure, in conjunction with application phosphate fertilizer, every 667m2Apply Chicken dung 2000kg, calcium superphosphate 100kg, backfill After soil, then etc. 12~20 talentes plant seedlings, select high 60cm or more, the strong sprout field planting of ground diameter 1cm or more.
As preferred: step 2) sets up lew in the following way:
Transplanted seedling tree First Year is not provided with lew, lew is arranged after transplanted seedling tree second year fruiting, lew is suitable Row is set up, and lew includes several cross brackets, and bracket direct motion is alongst arranged, the column of bracket is galvanized steel Pipe, cross-arm, roof bow, top support beam are coating steel pipe, and cross-arm setting is arranged on column top, and along width direction, The top of column is arranged in roof bow, and arranges along width direction, and top support beam is arranged at the top of column, and along length Direction arrangement is spent, several bamboo chip supporting beams are set in top support beam, the two sides of bracket are respectively set a plastics steel wire and are used for Fixed bamboo chip and the cooperation clamping film of taking shelter from rain surely of bamboo.
As preferred: cherry kind be crow Pi Yingtao, red prince wife or south morning red cherry.
As preferred: cultivating seedlings:
The downy cherry fruit or the sharp red cherry of mouth selected in cherry do stock, are sowed with seed bar ditch cultivating seedlings November current year Rootstock seedling is cultivated, cultivating seedlings the next winter grafted on stock, then covered with Small plastic shed December, cultivating seedlings the In March, 3 removes arched shed, and nursery stock is allowed to grow naturally, but should reinforce insect pest preventing and controlling, and cultivating seedlings third year is by the end of December or nursery stock is trained Educate in January, the 4th progress nursery stock transplanting.
As preferred: shaping:
The training of layer shape is dredged using coronule, transplanted seedling tree First Year early spring stays short cut of 60cm to do surely nursery stock, lower part of erasing The bud of 30cm retains all buds of top 30cm, makees shaping strip;
After young sprout is grown, selects and remain 4 branches being evenly distributed and make first layer major branch, pinching is carried out in 20~30cm, is inspired Branch, pinching inspires branch again when branch 20cm;
Pillar is set to top tip to help directly, makes its vertical growth, and training Incubation Center is dry;To the side of more upright major branch support or drawing Method adjusts crotch angle, is allowed to do into 70 degree of angle with center, transplanted seedling tree second year early spring, dry to center to stay 60cm short It cuts, young sprout is selected and remain after growing to be evenly distributed and three branch intersected with first layer major branch are trained second layer major branch, by last year Method handled, while adjusting crotch angle, be allowed to do into 70 degree of angle with center, and to center it is dry help it is straight;Nursery stock It transplants early spring in third year, it is dry to center to stay 60cm is short to cut, select and remain two branch trainings relatively symmetrical and with the dislocation growth of lower layer's major branch Form third layer major branch;Center is dry to help growing straight long, and the 4th year early spring wiped out center and do, and shaping is completed.
As preferred: trimming:
Transplanted seedling tree first arrives third year, in addition to shaping, is trimming upper light pruning, in more pinching in Growing season i.e. 4~July, is promoting Brachyplast is sent out, to promote bud differentiation;
Overstocked branch is suitably removed when winter pruning, Duo Liuzhong brachyplast stays 20~30cm is short to cut long shoot, inspires branch;
After transplanted seedling tree third year, since flower amount increases, to carry out when winter pruning that weight is short to be cut to long shoot in part, inspire Nutrition branch will suitably bounce back to the long shoot excessively stretched in the ranks, make the ventilation and penetrating light band in the ranks retaining 1m.
As preferred: fertilising:
Transplanted seedling tree First Year fertilizing method: the principle applied using Bao Shiqin applies fertilizer for the first time, after early spring germination with urine Based on element, in conjunction with potassium dihydrogen phosphate, to be applied with clear water, ratio is water: urea: potassium dihydrogen phosphate=200:1:1, every plant is applied 2kg, Every 10 days 1 time, with the increase of tree crown, fertilizer application amount suitably increases, until in June, can increase to strain and apply the rich water 5kg prepared, 7 below the moon Stop in ten days with fertilizer, for the year can forming portion potted flower bud, early September basal dressing is primary, dig the fertilising of symmetrical bar ditch at the both ends of tree body, Decomposed pig chicken manure water 30kg, calcium superphosphate 0.5kg are applied in ditch depth 50cm, ditch long 100cm, 30~40cm of furrow width, strain, and winter carries out one The intertillage of the garden Ci Quan;
Transplanted seedling tree second year fertilizing method: transplanted seedling tree second year whole year applies fertilizer 3 times, and first germinates inferior to early spring It is preceding to apply by the end of January, it is applied with Chicken dung water combination urea, potassium sulfate trench digging, mu applies Chicken dung water 1000kg, urea 40kg, potassium sulfate 20kg apply fertilizer after adopting at the end of April, after fruit picking at the beginning of 5 months for the second time, and based on urea, Jia Shuichong is applied, combinable Watering carries out together, can also carry out trickle irrigation application, mu applies urea 20kg, and Jia Shuichong is applied;Third inferior in September, the middle ten days basal dressing, Mainly based on organic fertilizer, it is applied in conjunction with phosphate fertilizer, method is with First Year base manure method, but fertilizer application amount will increase, and applies decomposed pig chicken per acre Liquid dung 3000kg, calcium superphosphate 150kg, winter carry out primary full garden intertillage;
Transplanted seedling tree third year fertilizing method: transplanted seedling tree third year fertilizing method and time and transplanted seedling tree second year phase Together, but fertilizer application amount will increase, and increase Potassium Fertilizer, i.e. mu applies urea 50kg, potassium sulfate 40kg, Chicken dung by the end of January for the first time Water 1500kg, pours application of applying or ditch, and second is primary inferior to top dressing after fruit picking, and mu applies urea 30kg, potassium sulfate 10kg, in conjunction with pouring Water applies, third time basal dressing, applies decomposed pig chicken manure water 4000kg per acre, calcium superphosphate 150kg, winter is to the primary full garden of progress Intertillage;
Later each year fertilization time and dose are identical as transplanted seedling tree third year;
Foliage dressing and fruit retention: the florescence sprays boron fertilizer to improve fruit-setting rate, combines when young fruit period is administered and carries out foliage-spray phosphorus Acid dihydride potassium, amino acid solution, to improve fruit quality.
As preferred: the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:
Using putting prevention first, the strategy of integrated control, winter sprays 3 degree of Baume of the clear garden of lime sulfur, and when early spring rudiment opens Begin pre- disease-resistant, to prevent eliminating aphis, oriental fruit months, shothole disease, young fruit period attention control brown rot, anthraenose.
Compared with prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects: the present invention to use rain shelter cultivation, successfully solves flower Dehiscent fruit problem caused by shedding caused by phase is overcast and rainy and maturity period cloudy weather for several days running.Tree body is carried out afterwards before flowering to take shelter from rain, it can be at the florescence It sufficiently pollinates when meeting rain, promotes to bear fruit, disease can be reduced by taking shelter from rain in growth period progress tree body;In the maturity period in conjunction with progress Ground is taken shelter from rain, the generation of dehiscent fruit when the maturity period can be effectively prevent to meet rain, to improve the yield and quality.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is lew support schematic diagram in southern area cherry rain shelter cultivation method in embodiment.
Fig. 2 is shaping schematic diagram in southern area cherry rain shelter cultivation method in embodiment.
The ground E, 1 gutter, 21 columns, 22 cross-arms, 23 top support beams, 24 roof bows, 25 bamboo chip supporting beams, 26 modelings Expect steel wire.
Specific embodiment
One, variety selection: selection crow Pi Yingtao, red prince wife, the early red cherry in south etc. adapt to the cherry kind of southern area It is advisable.
Two, cultivating seedlings: the downy cherry fruit or the sharp red cherry of mouth selected in cherry do stock, in (nursery stock training in November current year Educate First Year November) it is sowed with seed bar ditch, cultivating seedlings the next winter (December) is grafted, is then covered with Small plastic shed Lid, removes arched shed, allows nursery stock to grow naturally, but should reinforce insect pest preventing and controlling March in cultivating seedlings third year, cultivating seedlings third year By the end of December or the 4th year January of cultivating seedlings carry out nursery stock transplanting.
Three, it takes shelter from rain
1) transplanted seedling tree and density: setting up for lew must be combined with transplanted seedling tree density.Transplanted seedling tree density is 4m × 2m, i.e. line-spacing 4m, spacing in the rows 2m.It plants and opens the gutter of deep 40cm, width 40cm before seedling by ditch heart 4m, the wide 3.6m in compartment face, ditch Soil is put among the face of compartment, keeps compartment face arc-shaped, then digs planting pit by the distance of 2m at the center in compartment face.Planting pit length and width, It is deeply 50cm, layering is pressed into decomposed chicken manure or pig manure in cave, in conjunction with phosphate fertilizer is applied, can apply Chicken dung per acre 2000kg, calcium superphosphate 100kg.After backfilled with earth, then etc. 12~20 talent plant seedlings.Select high 60cm or more, ground diameter 1cm or more Strong sprout field planting.
2) set up lew: transplanted seedling tree First Year can be not provided with lew, just set before transplanted seedling tree second year is bloomed Set lew.Lew direct motion is set up, and using cross bracket, every 4m founds 1, branch.The major branch column (column) of cross frame is straight The coating steel pipe of diameter 5cm, cross-arm, roof bow, the coating steel pipe that top support beam is diameter 3cm.Remaining branch beam is referred to as bamboo chip, For supporting film of taking shelter from rain.Film of taking shelter from rain respectively is fixed with a plastics steel wire cooperation bamboo folder in the left and right ends of bracket, which can With reference to the prior art, other modes can also be used, be capable of fixing film of taking shelter from rain.
3) it takes shelter from rain the time
31) tree body is taken shelter from rain: it carries out lew (skeleton) within 5~10 days before spending, epiphragma work at the top of Hua Qian completion in 5 days, into Row tree body is taken shelter from rain, and can be reduced the disease etc. of tree body branches and leaves and young fruit, be removed tree body cover film to September part after fruit picking, rainyly Area's striping is preferably a little later.
32) ground is taken shelter from rain: fruit starts the ground dyeing (coloring) Shi Jinhang and takes shelter from rain, and is laid with silver reflective membrane on ground, main The distance for covering gutter and 1.5 meters of surrounding controls other rainwater and penetrates into soil.The range of the disk surrounding that leaves tree 50cm is not Lid, in order to pour water, have a drip irrigation system can all standing.Ground is carried out with reflective membrane to take shelter from rain, and can prevent rainy day rainwater from penetrating into ground Face reduces rainy day soil moisture, effectively prevent the generation of dehiscent fruit, and can increase tree body illumination, improves fruit quality, reduces disease And the generation of crop smothering.Remove ground after fruit harvesting is complete to take shelter from rain film, have a drip irrigation system can not striping.
33) moisture management after taking shelter from rain: when ground is taken shelter from rain, such as becoming a fine day too long, soil drought, can pass through trickle irrigation or micro- spray etc. Mode is poured water, suitably increase soil moisture, and standard of specifically pouring water is wilted with noon discovery blade, to just should suitably watering at night, It such as carries out that Soil K+adsorption is best often with instrument, should just water when water capacity is lower than the 50% of maximum water-holding capacity, water It should be carried out in the dusk or morning, it is unsuitable too many every time, it so that water capacity is controlled between the 50%~70% of maximum water-holding capacity. In addition, preferably keeping appropriate arid in fruit maturation picking time, the quality and storage tolerance of fruit can be improved, as long as dusk blade It can restore normally not have to pour water.
Four, pruning
1, shaping: the training of layer shape is dredged using coronule, transplanted seedling tree First Year early spring stays short cut of 60cm to do surely nursery stock, erases The bud of lower part 30cm retains all buds of top 30cm, makees shaping strip.After young sprout is grown, selects and remain 4 branches being evenly distributed and make the One layer of major branch (primary lateral branches), pinching is carried out in 20~30cm, inspires branch, and pinching inspires branch again when branch 20cm.It is right Top tip sets pillar and helps directly, makes its vertical growth, and training Incubation Center is dry.To the support of more upright major branch (primary lateral branches), drawing etc. Method adjusts crotch angle, is allowed to do into the angle of 70 or so degree with center.It is transplanted seedling tree second year early spring, dry to center to stay 60cm is short to be cut, and young sprout is selected and remain after growing to be evenly distributed and three branch intersected with first layer major branch are trained second layer major branch, It is handled by the method for last year, while adjusting crotch angle, be allowed to do into the angle of 70 or so degree with center, and dry to center It helps straight.It is early spring in transplanted seedling tree third year, dry to center to stay 60cm is short to cut, it selects and remain two and relatively symmetrically and with the dislocation of lower layer's major branch grows Branch be trained third layer major branch.Center is dry to help growing straight long, and the 4th year early spring wiped out center and do, and shaping is completed.
2, trim: the treelet stage (transplanted seedling tree first arrives third year) is trimming upper light pruning, in Growing season in addition to shaping (4~July) more pinching, inspire brachyplast, to promote bud differentiation.Overstocked branch is suitably removed when winter pruning, Duo Liuzhong brachyplast is right Long shoot stays 20~30cm is short to cut, and inspires branch.After transplanted seedling tree third year, since flower amount increases, when winter pruning, will be to part Middle long shoot (long 20~30cm or more) carries out that weight is short to be cut, and inspires nutrition branch, to crossing long shoot and suitably to bounce back in the ranks is stretched to, makes to go Between retain 1m ventilation and penetrating light band.
Five, fertilizing management
1, transplanted seedling tree First Year fertilizing method: the principle applied using Bao Shiqin.Fertilizer for the first time is applied after early spring germination, with Based on urea, in conjunction with potassium dihydrogen phosphate, applied with clear water, ratio is water: urea: potassium dihydrogen phosphate=200:1:1, every plant is applied 2kg, every 10 days 1 time, with the increase of tree crown, fertilizer application amount suitably increases, until June, can increase to strain and apply the rich water 5kg prepared, and 7 The last ten-days period moon can stop using fertilizer, for the year can forming portion potted flower bud.Early September basal dressing is primary, digs symmetrical item at the both ends of tree body Decomposed pig chicken manure water 30kg, calcium superphosphate 0.5kg are applied in ditch fertilising, ditch depth 50cm or so, long 100cm, wide 30~40cm, strain.Winter Ji Jinhang once full garden intertillage.
2, transplanted seedling tree second year fertilizing method: transplanted seedling tree second year whole year applies fertilizer 3 times.First sends out inferior to early spring It applies before bud, is applied with Chicken dung water combination urea, potassium sulfate trench digging (by the end of January).Mu applies Chicken dung water 1000kg, urea 40kg, potassium sulfate 20kg.Apply fertilizer after adopting at the end of April, after fruit picking at the beginning of 5 months for the second time, based on urea, Jia Shuichong is applied, combinable Watering carries out together, can also carry out trickle irrigation application, mu applies urea 20kg or so.Third inferior in September, the middle ten days basal dressing, to have Based on machine fertilizer, applied in conjunction with phosphate fertilizer, method is with transplanted seedling tree First Year base manure method, but fertilizer application amount will increase, and apply per acre decomposed Pig chicken manure water 3000kg, calcium superphosphate 150kg.Winter carries out primary full garden intertillage.
3, transplanted seedling tree third year fertilizing method: transplanted seedling tree third year fertilizing method and time and transplanted seedling tree second year It is identical, but fertilizer application amount will increase, and increase Potassium Fertilizer.Mu applies urea 50kg, potassium sulfate 40kg, decomposed chicken (by the end of January) for the first time Liquid dung 1500kg can pour application of applying or ditch.Second is primary inferior to top dressing after fruit picking, and mu applies urea 30kg or so, potassium sulfate 10kg is applied in conjunction with watering.Third time basal dressing applies decomposed pig chicken manure water 4000kg, calcium superphosphate 150kg per acre.Winter pair Carry out primary full garden intertillage.Later each year fertilization time and dose are identical as transplanted seedling tree third year.
4, in florescence spray boron fertilizer etc., fruit-setting rate foliage dressing and fruit retention: can be improved.It is combined when young fruit period is administered and carries out blade face Potassium dihydrogen phosphate, amino acid solution etc. are sprayed, fruit quality can be improved.
Six, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: using and put prevention first, the strategy of integrated control.The lime sulfur that winter sprays 3 degree of Baume is clear Garden, when early spring rudiment, start pre- disease-resistant, it is mainly anti-eliminate aphis, oriental fruit months, shothole disease, young fruit period attention control brown rot Disease, anthraenose etc..
The foregoing is merely the preferred embodiment of the present invention, protection scope of the present invention is not limited in above-mentioned embodiment party Formula, all technical solutions for belonging to the principle of the invention all belong to the scope of protection of the present invention.For those skilled in the art and Speech, several improvement carried out without departing from the principles of the present invention, these improvement also should be regarded as protection model of the invention It encloses.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of southern area cherry rain shelter cultivation method, which comprises the steps of:
1) transplanted seedling tree;
2) lew is set up;
3) it takes shelter from rain the time:
31) tree body is taken shelter from rain
Setting lew at preceding 5~10 days plant is spent, epiphragma work at the top of Hua Qian completion in 5 days carries out tree body and takes shelter from rain, after fruit picking extremely September part removes tree body cover film;
32) ground is taken shelter from rain
It carries out ground when fruit starts coloring to take shelter from rain, ground is laid with silver reflective membrane, ground all standing when having drip irrigation system, no drop Except the range of plant tree disk surrounding 50cm is not covered when fill system, remaining ground and gutter all standing, and control external rainwater into Enter gutter, after fruit harvesting is complete, has and ground is not gone to take shelter from rain film when drip irrigation system, when no drip irrigation system removes ground and takes shelter from rain Film;
4) moisture management after taking shelter from rain
When ground is taken shelter from rain, irrigation method are as follows: (a) wilts when noon discovery plant leaf, to just should suitably watering at night, irrigation amount So that plant can restore subject to normally to second day dusk blade;Alternatively, (b) when water capacity is lower than maximum water-holding capacity It should just water when 50%, watering should be carried out in the dusk or morning, and irrigation amount is so that water capacity is controlled in maximum water-holding capacity Subject between 50%~70%;Fruit maturation picking time keeps appropriate arid to improve the quality and storage tolerance of fruit, at dusk Blade can restore normally not have to pour water, on the contrary then water, irrigation amount can be restored with second day dusk blade of plant be normally It is quasi-;
Step 1) transplanted seedling tree is in the following way:
Setting up for lew is combined with transplanted seedling tree density, and transplanted seedling tree density is 4m × 2m, i.e. line-spacing 4m, spacing in the rows 2m, is planted The gutter of deep 40cm, width 40cm, the wide 3.6m in compartment face are opened before seedling by ditch heart 4m, the soil of ditch is put among the face of compartment, makes the compartment face be in Then arc digs planting pit by the distance of 2m at the center in compartment face, planting pit length and width is 50cm deeply, and layering indentation is rotten in cave Ripe chicken manure or pig manure, in conjunction with application phosphate fertilizer, every 667m2Apply Chicken dung 2000kg, calcium superphosphate 100kg, backfilled with earth Afterwards, then etc. 12~20 talentes plant seedlings, select high 60cm or more, the strong sprout field planting of ground diameter 1cm or more;
Step 2) sets up lew in the following way:
Transplanted seedling tree First Year is not provided with lew, and lew is arranged after transplanted seedling tree second year fruiting, and lew direct motion is set Vertical, lew includes several cross brackets, and bracket direct motion is alongst arranged, the column of bracket is coating steel pipe, horizontal Load, roof bow, top support beam are coating steel pipe, and cross-arm setting arranges that top is curved on column top, and along width direction The top of column is arranged in beam, and arranges along width direction, and top support beam is arranged at the top of column, and alongst It arranges, several bamboo chip supporting beams are arranged in top support beam, and a plastics steel wire is respectively set for fixing bamboo in the two sides of bracket Piece and the cooperation clamping film of taking shelter from rain surely of bamboo.
2. cherry rain shelter cultivation method in southern area according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: cherry kind For black Pi Yingtao, the early red cherry of red prince wife or south.
3. cherry rain shelter cultivation method in southern area according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: cultivating seedlings:
The downy cherry fruit or the sharp red cherry of mouth selected in cherry do stock, are sowed and are cultivated with seed bar ditch cultivating seedlings November current year Rootstock seedling, cultivating seedlings the next winter are grafted on stock, then covered with Small plastic shed December, cultivating seedlings third year March removes arched shed, and nursery stock is allowed to grow naturally, but should reinforce insect pest preventing and controlling, and cultivating seedlings third year is by the end of December or cultivating seedlings In January, 4 carries out nursery stock transplanting.
4. cherry rain shelter cultivation method in southern area according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: shaping:
The training of layer shape is dredged using coronule, transplanted seedling tree First Year early spring stays short cut of 60cm to do surely nursery stock, erases lower part 30cm's Bud retains all buds of top 30cm, makees shaping strip;
After young sprout is grown, selects and remain 4 branches being evenly distributed and makees first layer major branch, pinching is carried out in 20~30cm, inspires branch, Pinching inspires branch again when branch 20cm;
Pillar is set to top tip to help directly, makes its vertical growth, and training Incubation Center is dry;To the method tune of more upright major branch support or drawing Whole crotch angle is allowed to do into 70 degree of angle with center, transplanted seedling tree second year early spring, dry to center to stay 60cm is short to cut, newly The tip is selected and remain after growing to be evenly distributed and three branch intersected with first layer major branch are trained second layer major branch, by the method for last year It is handled, while adjusting crotch angle, be allowed to do into 70 degree of angle with center, and help directly center is dry;Transplanted seedling tree It is 3 year early spring, dry to center to stay 60cm is short to cut, select and remain two it is relatively symmetrical and be trained the with the branch of lower layer's major branch dislocation growth Three layers of major branch;Center is dry to help growing straight long, and the 4th year early spring wiped out center and do, and shaping is completed.
5. cherry rain shelter cultivation method in southern area according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: trimming:
Transplanted seedling tree first arrives third year, in addition to shaping, inspires short trimming upper light pruning in more pinching in Growing season i.e. 4~July Branch, to promote bud differentiation;
Overstocked branch is suitably removed when winter pruning, Duo Liuzhong brachyplast stays 20~30cm is short to cut long shoot, inspires branch;
After transplanted seedling tree third year, since flower amount increases, to carry out when winter pruning that weight is short to be cut to long shoot in part, inspire nutrition Branch will suitably bounce back to the long shoot excessively stretched in the ranks, make the ventilation and penetrating light band in the ranks retaining 1m.
6. cherry rain shelter cultivation method in southern area according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: fertilising:
Transplanted seedling tree First Year fertilizing method: the principle applied using Bao Shiqin is applied fertilizer for the first time after early spring germination, is with urea It is main, in conjunction with potassium dihydrogen phosphate, to be applied with clear water, ratio is water: urea: potassium dihydrogen phosphate=200:1:1, and every plant is applied 2kg, every 10 It 1 time, with the increase of tree crown, fertilizer application amount suitably increases, until in June, can increase to strain and apply the rich water 5kg prepared, late July stops Only with fertilizer, for the year can forming portion potted flower bud, early September basal dressing is primary, digs the fertilising of symmetrical bar ditch, ditch depth at the both ends of tree body Decomposed pig chicken manure water 30kg, calcium superphosphate 0.5kg are applied in 50cm, ditch long 100cm, 30~40cm of furrow width, strain, and winter carries out primary complete Garden intertillage;
Transplanted seedling tree second year fertilizing method: transplanted seedling tree second year whole year applies fertilizer 3 times, and first is inferior to before early spring germination i.e. It applies, is applied with Chicken dung water combination urea, potassium sulfate trench digging by the end of January, mu applies Chicken dung water 1000kg, urea 40kg, Potassium sulfate 20kg applies fertilizer after adopting at the end of April, after fruit picking at the beginning of 5 months for the second time, and based on urea, Jia Shuichong is applied, in combination with watering one It rises and carries out, trickle irrigation application can also be carried out, mu applies urea 20kg, and Jia Shuichong is applied;Third inferior in September, the middle ten days basal dressing, with organic Based on fertilizer, applied in conjunction with phosphate fertilizer, method is with First Year base manure method, but fertilizer application amount will increase, and applies decomposed pig chicken manure water per acre 3000kg, calcium superphosphate 150kg, winter carry out primary full garden intertillage;
Transplanted seedling tree third year fertilizing method: transplanted seedling tree third year fertilizing method and the time it is identical as transplanted seedling tree second year, But fertilizer application amount will increase, and increase Potassium Fertilizer, i.e. mu applies urea 50kg, potassium sulfate 40kg, Chicken dung water by the end of January for the first time 1500kg pours application of applying or ditch, and second is primary inferior to top dressing after fruit picking, and mu applies urea 30kg, potassium sulfate 10kg, in conjunction with watering It applies, third time basal dressing, applies decomposed pig chicken manure water 4000kg, calcium superphosphate 150kg, winter Quan Yuanzhong primary to progress per acre It ploughs;
Later each year fertilization time and dose are identical as transplanted seedling tree third year;
Foliage dressing and fruit retention: the florescence sprays boron fertilizer to improve fruit-setting rate, combines when young fruit period is administered and carries out foliage-spray di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate Hydrogen potassium, amino acid solution, to improve fruit quality.
7. cherry rain shelter cultivation method in southern area according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:
Using putting prevention first, the strategy of integrated control, winter sprays 3 degree of Baume of the clear garden of lime sulfur, and when early spring rudiment starts pre- Disease-resistant, to prevent eliminating aphis, oriental fruit months, shothole disease, young fruit period attention control brown rot, anthraenose.
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