CN102293138B - Greenhouse vegetable type culture method for grape - Google Patents

Greenhouse vegetable type culture method for grape Download PDF

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CN102293138B
CN102293138B CN201110234304A CN201110234304A CN102293138B CN 102293138 B CN102293138 B CN 102293138B CN 201110234304 A CN201110234304 A CN 201110234304A CN 201110234304 A CN201110234304 A CN 201110234304A CN 102293138 B CN102293138 B CN 102293138B
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grape
climing
time
growth
temperature
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CN201110234304A
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CN102293138A (en
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刘冠义
黄荣名
高东升
刘世杰
刘琦
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刘冠义
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Abstract

The invention discloses a greenhouse vegetable type culture method for grape, which comprises the steps of culture time, culture density, field planting ditch digging, small pit culture, planted exposed land management, management after greenhouse building, management after harvesting and the like. The greenhouse vegetable type culture method for grape has the advantages that the problems of small density and low yield, the problem of yield influence caused by variety replacement, the problems of low yield and poor quality caused by vine aging and the problem of unbalanced overground and underground growth are solved, simultaneously, the grape varieties can be changed every year according to requirements, branches in the greenhouse are all seasonable fresh branches and vines, the annual mother vine fruiting in each year is realized, the yield can not be influenced between years, and the acre yield reaches more than 4000kg.

Description

The booth cuisine cultivation method of grape

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of cultivation method of grape, specifically a kind of booth cuisine cultivation method of grape belongs to the viticulture field.

Background technology

Grape is claimed grape again, is Vitis (Vitis) defoliation liana, slaps lobately, and 3~5 lack and to split, and compound raceme is conical usually, and it is circular or oval mostly berry is, color and luster is different with kind.Its nutritive value is very high, can be made into must, raisins and wine.Grape is the deciduous fruit tree that distribution is the widest in the world, area under cultivation is maximum, output is maximum.Grape ranked seventh the position in Chinese fruit output.Provinces such as Xinjiang, China grape main product provinces and regions, Shandong, Hebei, Liaoning, Henan.Northern China adopts plant spring more, generally carries out the field field planting in mid or late April.With scraper the binder of grafting mouth outside is removed before the field planting totally, the nursery stock of planting is buried soil and causes the collar place and water sufficient field planting water, buries fine earth again nursery stock is buried a hill anti-the doing of preserving moisture, and it is germinateed ahead of time.

Grape branch cries climing again, divides that the result is climing, growth is climing, the result is female climing, the result climing give birth to the result female climing on, be sublateral shoot by what summer bud was taken out, comprise once, secondary, three sublateral shoots; Main modes of reproduction is cuttage and grafting; The time of planting is for falling leaves the back to rudiment.Grape be planted in ventilation, on the sunny side, well-drained fertile plot.Plant 1.5~3 meters of grape spacing in the rows, line-spacing 3~6 meter, mus of frame planted 37~148 strains; The pony set cultivating grape, 1~1.5 meter * 3 meters of seeding row spacings, mu is planted about 200 strains; 1.5~2 meters * 1.5~3 meters of pergola cultivation grape seeding row spacings, mu is planted 111~296 strains; The pergola grape seeding row spacing is 0.5~1.0 * 1.5~2.0 meters in the booth, and mu is planted 350~900 strains.Dig the planting pit of 80 * 80 ㎝ before planting earlier, or the field planting ditch that 80 ㎝ are wide, 80 ㎝ are dark, mu is executed 5000~10000 kilograms of farmyard manures, with the nursery stock of planting after the soil layering mixing backfill.

The general planting density that adopts of traditional greenhouse vine planting type is planted 350~900 strains for mu, and majority is the cultivation of hedge shelf structure; When large tracts of land is changed crops and change kind, cut down replanting more; Generally be that master, summer pruning are auxilliary with the winter pruning on the grape pruning rate, upgrading after the growth season fruit picking also is to stay 1~2 bud to return at the climing base portion of result to contract; Mostly the treatment technology of being completely cured of grape is to implement in the fall to combine fertilising to realize.

Shortcoming in traditional viticulture mode mainly contains:

The one, planting density is little; Under the situation that drops into facility (greenhouse by solar heat), fund a large amount of; 1 year equifinality of little density individual plant, but owing to can not form the climing amount of rational mother, the climing amount of result, thereby can not form high output in 1 year; Even if can form high output on the 3rd year, but the eye amount is many, branch is many, stay climing length to influence pruning owing to individual plant stays;

The 2nd, during variety rotation, need cut down former grape and plant new grape variety again, can delay output like this and increase cost; If leaning on conventional grafting method to realize changing kind can make amount of growth irregular or breeding time of short-range missile cause female climing amount, the climing quantity not sufficient of result again and delay output;

The 3rd, the pruning rate that needs winter is big, wasted biological yield; And the while is stopped female climing amount again; Otherwise will influence second annual production; Final lean on old climing result cause yielding poorly, of poor quality, contract even if stay 1~2 bud to return at the climing base portion of result after the fruit picking, also can cause result female climing breeding time of next year short or the climing rank of one's old mother is many, the position extension of bearing fruit;

The 4th, have simultaneously that root system is aging, absorbing capacity weak, hibernaculum forms not full shortcoming, bearing capacity also becomes to reducing, and prunes branches and tendrils after the serious fruit picking and is not completely cured and suffocates grape.

Summary of the invention

The objective of the invention is to: the booth cuisine cultivation method that a kind of grape is provided; This method solved the problem that density yields poorly for a short time, delay on problem, vine shoot aging cause yielding poorly ropy problem, the vineland of output because of variety rotation and the underground unbalanced problem of growth; Can annually change grape variety as required simultaneously and be seasonable shoot, newly climing in the canopy; Realized being every year the climing result of annual mother; Do not delay output between year, per mu yield reaches more than 4000 kilograms.

Technical scheme of the present invention is:

The booth cuisine cultivation method of grape may further comprise the steps:

One, kind is selected

Select that chilling requirement is low, fruit growth period is short, percentage of fertile fruit is high, grain is big, fringe is tight, look gorgeous, quality better, commodity be good; The endoadaptation property is strong in the greenhouse; The kind that cultivate on suitable protection ground, principal item comprise the capital show, the capital is inferior, early Fu Luosha, Ju Feng, big grain purple in June are carried, vowed to Sheng Gaomo, family too No. eight, green grass or young crops.

Two, soil melioration

Heavily sticking or the stronger soil of grittiness are mixed sand or mixed sticking improvement, break underground fluid-tight haftplatte layer and mud; Applying organic manure; Plough deeply in conjunction with soil, every mu applies decomposed dung 6000~8000kg or the chicken manure 3000~4000kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, so that improve soil structure; Form the liquid manure gas thermal environment of coordinating; Be beneficial to the grape root system growth, and fertilizer can strengthen the buffer capacity of soil, the generation of the prevention soil salinization.

Three, plant the time

Cultivate annual mid-February to mid-June, and required nursery stock comprises cuttage seeding, grafting, nutrient cup seedling, nutrient cup band Ye Lvmiao; Utilization through facility plastic greenhouse:, then be cultivation in first batch of dish need be changed crops around the Spring Festival if be originally 1 year two batches of vegetables; If the new general spring of canopy plants relatively good; If be originally 1 year vegetables of one batch, then generally just should change crops June, cultivation when changing crops June is so answer concrete condition specifically to treat according to farming and for the purpose of practicing thrift.

Four, planting system

1, viticultural density

The big or small row cultivation of employing, 1 meter of big every trade distance, 0.5 meter of little every trade distance, 0.35~0.4 meter of spacing in the rows are planted about 2300 strains for every mu;

Perhaps employing waits line-spacing to plant 1 meter of line-spacing, 0.3~0.4 meter of spacing in the rows, every mu of 1668~2223 strains of planting.

2, dig the field planting ditch: combine soil melioration; Dig 80 centimetres wide, 60 centimetres dark field planting ditches, and every mu apply 3~6 tons of the fertilizers becoming thoroughly decomposed and the superphosphate of double centner, with the fully backfill behind the mixing of topsoil and middle level soil; And it is real to water depositing in water, notes not breaking original soil layer during backfill;

3, vesicle is planted: to backfill and water the real planting furrow of depositing in water, dig the vesicle of 30 centimetres of 30 cm x, 30 cm x and plant; Before the field planting, nursery stock is soaked diel or dips mud with clear water; To the suitable cutting back of root system especially main root, be completely cured and have one's hair trimmed, put into vesicle then; Make root system in the cave to around fully stretch, the backfill fine earth is filled to a half; Root soil is connected airtight; Banket again to ground flat, be as the criterion concordant of vestige that the degree of depth is printed with the nursery stock original soil with ground, and after riding in fact, water field planting water; Stay 3~4 full buds to carry out doing tree-like employing hedge wall type surely after the field planting.

Five, plant back open country management

1, rich water quality management

Water, cover mulch film behind the seedling planting, the whole growth season water that waters 3~4 times, 6, respectively topdress 1 time July, each every strain chases after urea 25~50 grams, and with short seedling growth, can chase after less early stage, and the later stage is some more, waters immediately after the fertilising; Get into August, execute phosphorus, potash fertilizer according to growing state; Carry out the autumn basal dressing September, 50 kilograms of 3~4 tons of every mu of organic fertilizers, 50 kilograms of potassium sulphates and sulfuric acid diamines; Whole growth season for promoting seedling growth and flower bud differentiation, is carried out the continuous several times top dressing, and every at a distance from 10~15 days 1 time, nitrogenous fertilizer and phosphorus potash fertilizer are used concentration 0.3~0.5% at interval.

2, pruning

Under normal operation, carry out pinching when young sprout grows to height 0.4~0.5 meter the time, the sublateral shoot of regrowth stays 2 leaf pinching, and unnecessary sublateral shoot stays the pinching of a slice leaf; In order to make nursery stock in second annual bearing and many results, in time set up support, pull on iron wire, draw that bolting tree is climing to make it upright or tiltedly go up growth, such shoot growth is full to be enriched, the growth of avoiding letting alone crawling on the ground;

Carrying out the winter behind the grapevine seedling fallen leaves cuts: grow weak, complicated and confused less or very thin plant, carry out the short cane pruning of 4~5 buds at the near surface place; The healthy and strong branches and tendrils of the growth golden mean of the Confucian school stay 40 centimetres, cut and be left to strong bud, and level is strapped in the both sides of the first road iron wire; Keep on the result mother is climing as far as possible and give birth to full sturdy hibernaculum, lay the foundation for getting bumper crops behind the button canopy.

Six, the button canopy is handled

Behind the grape fallen leaves, nocturnal temperature is detained canopy, and is covered straw screen or mat in the time of 0 ℃~10 ℃; Cover straw screen or mat, shading daytime, open the mouth that leaks informaton night, let the canopy room temperature reduce; Close all air ports daytime and keep low temperature; Through 30~40 days low temperature precooling, to satisfy grape to the low temperature demand.

Seven, manage behind the button canopy

1, breaks the processing of sleeping with calcium cyanamide behind the button canopy: per 1 kilogram of calcium cyanamide; Put in the container for 5 kilograms with 40~50 ℃ warm water; Stirred 1~2 hour, and before the use, selected its top solution and add a small amount of sticker and smear complicated and confused sprout; After smearing the direct motion of grape branches and tendrils put and be attached to ground and cover that plastic film is preserved moisture and heat up gradually, can not be too fast; Grape germinateed than undressed 20~25 days in advance after calcium cyanamide is handled;

2, rich water quality management

To do not have autumn organic fertilizer or the tree body is more weak executes fertilizer 1 time, smooth tree dish back irritate 1 time permeable, increase soil and airborne humidity are beneficial to rudiment; After treating that ground is dried slightly,, improve ground temperature, make root system and aerial growth harmonious with mulch film mulched ground face; During overlay film, under film, lay drip irrigation pipe, adopt irrigation under film in growth season, to reduce humidity in the air, the generation that alleviates disease;

Every mu of grape of bud sprouting period imposes 50 kilograms of NPKs (15 * 15 * 15);

During the fruit development, the rich water requirement is bigger, strengthens rich water quality management: under the sufficient condition of base manure, begin from young fruit period, every urea that sprayed 1 time 0.3% at a distance from 7 days adds the intermixture of 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, sprays 2~3 times altogether, or sprays foliage fertilizer such as Gao Meishi; Not enough like base fertilizer, behind fallen flowers, execute compound diammonium hydrogen phosphate fertilizer, impose 50 kilograms of potassium sulphate fertilizers in conjunction with watering every mu;

3, stay preparation branch, grafting kind

After detaining canopy January; Reservation semi-lignified that the grape basal growth goes out new climing on through green cleft grafting grafting grape variety; And the growth after this new varieties grafting healing also all will be grown more than time breeding time of open country grape, and there therefore have enough growth times to grow the preliminary result mother to be climing; Early stage, the climing growth of other result before June was preponderated; And carrying output; June after former grape variety is gathered, climing the returning of the old kind of result contracted; Be about to female climing complete the dredging of former kind result and remove, only stay that the preparation of grafting kind is climing to let its quick growth, the new link of returning of kind has just realized like this.Other management is managed according to the grape of conventional greenhouse by solar heat, and will gather in the crops the grape of another kind in June, second, has realized changing kind between year and does not influence output.

4, temperature adjusting

The button canopy slowly heats up after satisfying the low temperature demand, should make temperature be controlled at 15~17 ℃ in preceding 3~5 days, and 8 o'clock later every mornings were opened straw screen or mat, makes the canopy chamber see that light heats up, and covers the straw screen or mat insulation at 4 o'clock in afternoon; Before the rudiment, night, the minimum air temperature was controlled at 5~7 ℃, and daytime, maximum temperature was 30 ℃; Rudiment to the florescence, night low temperature at 7~15 ℃, daytime, maximum temperature was 24~28 ℃, 20~25 ℃ of thermophilics; Night at florescence, minimum temperature was 10~15 ℃, and daytime, maximum temperature was 30 ℃, and 22~26 ℃ of thermophilics are beneficial to the pollination fertilization; Berry expanding stage daytime temperature is no more than 30 ℃; Berry is painted to remain on 25~30 ℃ to daytime in maturing stage, about 15 ℃ of nights, and 12~15 ℃ of day and night temperatures, it is painted to help berry;

5, humidity regulation

Budding period to inflorescence stretches out the phase, and canopy chamber relative air humidity is controlled at 80~90%; Inflorescence stretches out the back relative air humidity and is controlled at about 70%; Florescence is kept relative air humidity 50%~60%, is beneficial to anther dehiscence and pollen sheds, and overdrying can influence bears fruit; Other, relative air humidity was controlled at about 60% in period;

6, flower and fruit management

The method that the raising fruit-setting rate is taked comprises:

⑴ the prosperous length of control shoot: the as a result tip strong to growth potential, before spending, the tip on inflorescence top is turned round the tip, or stay 5~6 Da Ye pinching, improve fruit-setting rate;

⑵ spray boron fertilizer: to the boric acid or 0.2% borax soln of blade, inflorescence spray cloth 1 time 0.2~0.3%, every spray 1 time at a distance from about 5 days is sprayed 2~3 times altogether continuously before spending;

⑶ spray gibberellin: full-bloom stage is dipped inflorescence or spraying with 20~40 gram/kilogram Gibberellins solution, can not only improve fruit-setting rate, and can also do sth. in advance about 15 days ripe.

Eight, adopt the back management

1, the processing rich water quality management of being completely cured

Combine June the pruning application in time of branches and tendrils to accomplish the processing of being completely cured after the fruit picking, impose small amount of nitrogen phosphorus potassium NPK and mix biological organic fertilizer for 50 kilograms, notice that quantity can not too much and combine to water; Carry out top dressing simultaneously, the urea of spray 0.3% adds 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, whenever at a distance from spray in 5~7 days 1 time, continuous 4~5 times;

2, adopting the back prunes, bounces back and upgrade

After grape booth button film heated up, it was climing climing as preparation to keep the sprig that the grape basal growth goes out, June the result female climing return contract dredge remove climing always; To staying preparation to accelerate to prepare climing growth again during climing place, like this, climing just to grow into the mother as a result in 1 year climing to former preparation after autumn; Realize new climing result fully; And do not stay carry disease germs old climing in, damage by disease and insect is just few in the facility, lays the foundation for producing pollution-free food.

The technical indicator of grape booth cuisine cultivation method of the present invention; The one, mu is planted grape strain number and is reached 2300 strains; Realized density and the management similar that greenhouse by solar heat grape dish is the same with vegetables, the technical measures juxtaposition, the division of labor is clear and definite; Every strain grape has been sent out branch and divided two types February: one type for the result climing, another kind of for the base portion reservation climing---can keep or grafting, go June to stay always and newly change crops; The 2nd, the full garden of grape variety complete stool is changed June and accomplishes; These new varieties be February, greenhouse by solar heat Central Plains grape base portion sent then semi-lignified reserve new climing on green cleft grafting grafting; Remove after ripe harvesting of former grape variety in June like this that mother is climing as a result, the result is climing and only keep new grape variety; This is climing to be that the mother as a result of next year grape is climing, and a collection of just grape at normal growth is the same as newly having planted; The 3rd, it is main cutting with the summer from the pruning rate; Having realized the result of grape, female climing to be annual mother as a result climing; Promptly June grape maturity pluck the back and cut off through the summer that mother is climing as a result, the result is climing, the reservation of reserving when staying grape the to germinate length of overgrowing, this is climing, and to become the mother as a result of next year climing; Therefore be new climing result every year, the same as the grape of newly planting; The 4th, effectively use the treatment technology of being completely cured, also be simultaneously in order to cooperate deepling prune of June, the method for employing is exactly to carry out underground fertilising June, and purpose makes underground ground growth balance exactly, makes the robust growth of follow-up grape, for grape good harvest in the coming year lays the first stone.

Advantage of the present invention comprise following some:

1, solved the problem that density yields poorly for a short time: mu is planted density and is reached 2300 strains; Every strain simultaneously utilizes that 2 results are climing just to be formed mu 4600 climing to bear fruit, reserve 1 preparation climing as the grape of newly having planted 2300 strains; Per mu yield reaches 4000 kilograms, has improved economic benefit;

2, having solved variety rotation delays output and form problem: it is to cut down replanting or head is changed in grafting that general grape is changed method that kind takes, and first method needs the cycle long, loses time, and has the propagation etc. of soil-borne disease insect pest; If second method takes also to exist year phenomenon as a result not by conventional method, thereby influences economic benefit; Method of the present invention is carried out the green branch cleft grafting grafting kind of new grape variety in February according to demand, and does not need replanting, removes former kind June and keeps new varieties, when having realized variety rotation and do not influence output;

3, solved that vine shoot aging yields poorly, ropy problem: newly realized that the result is new female climing every year through climing the returning of grape preparation; All be that annual mother as a result is climing; Removed mother is climing as a result, the result is climing after June, grape maturity was gathered; It is climing to keep the preparation of reserving when grape germinates, or it is climing to make the grape variety of grafting on this is climing continue to grow into the mother as a result of next year, thereby makes the result be annual female climing every year; Simultaneously, the fringe grain of grape, fringe shape neat, output is high, quality is good, has improved economic benefit;

4, solved on the vineland and the unbalanced problem of underground growth:, guaranteed the normal growth of the new branches and tendrils of grape on the ground through the application pruning of going up ordinatedly of underground fertilizer practice of the processing of being completely cured, June.

Embodiment

Below the preferred embodiments of the present invention are described, should be appreciated that preferred embodiment described herein only is used for explanation and explains the present invention, and be not used in qualification the present invention.

Except as otherwise noted, the percentage that is adopted among the present invention is percetage by weight.

The booth cuisine cultivation of grape:

One, kind is selected

Principal item comprises the capital show, the capital is inferior, early Fu Luosha, Ju Feng, big grain purple in June are carried, vowed to Sheng Gaomo, family too No. eight, green grass or young crops.

Two, soil melioration

Heavily sticking or the stronger soil of grittiness are mixed sand or mixed sticking improvement, break underground fluid-tight haftplatte layer and mud; Applying organic manure is ploughed deeply in conjunction with soil, and every mu applies decomposed dung 6000~8000kg or the chicken manure 3000~4000kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed.

Three, plant the time

Cultivate annual mid-February to mid-June, and the nursery stock of planting comprises cuttage seeding, grafting, nutrient cup seedling, nutrient cup band Ye Lvmiao.

Four, planting system

1, viticultural density

The big or small row cultivation of employing, 1 meter of big every trade distance, 0.5 meter of little every trade distance, 0.35~0.4 meter of spacing in the rows, every mu of 2300 strains of planting;

Line-spacings such as employing are planted, 1 meter of line-spacing, 0.3~0.4 meter of spacing in the rows, every mu of 1668~2223 strains of planting.

2, dig the field planting ditch: dig 80 centimetres wide, 60 centimetres dark field planting ditches, and every mu apply 3~6 tons of fertilizers and the double centner superphosphate that becomes thoroughly decomposed, with the fully backfill behind the mixing of topsoil and middle level soil, and it is real to water depositing in water.

3, vesicle is planted: to backfill and water the real planting furrow of depositing in water, dig the vesicle of 30 centimetres of 30 cm x, 30 cm x and plant; Stay 3~4 full buds to carry out doing tree-like employing hedge wall type surely after the field planting.

Five, plant back open country management

1, rich water quality management

The bonnet mulch film that waters behind the seedling planting, the whole growth season water that waters 3~4 times, 6, respectively topdress 1 time July, each every strain chases after urea 25~50 grams; Get into August, execute carbamate additives for low phosphorus, potash fertilizer according to growing state; Carry out the autumn basal dressing September, 50 kilograms of 3~4 tons of every mu of organic fertilizers, 50 kilograms of potassium sulphates and sulfuric acid diamines; Whole growth season for promoting seedling growth and flower bud differentiation, is carried out the continuous several times top dressing, and every at a distance from 10~15 days 1 time, nitrogenous fertilizer (for example urea) is used concentration 0.3~0.5% with phosphorus potash fertilizer (for example potassium dihydrogen phosphate) at interval.

2, pruning

When young sprout grows to about 0.4~0.5 meter of the first road iron wire, carry out pinching, the regrowth sublateral shoot stays 2 leaf pinching, and unnecessary sublateral shoot stays the pinching of a slice leaf;

Carrying out the winter behind the grapevine seedling fallen leaves cuts: grow weak, complicated and confused less or very thin plant, carry out the short cane pruning of 4~5 buds at the near surface place; The healthy and strong branches and tendrils of the growth golden mean of the Confucian school stay 40 centimetres, cut and be left to strong bud, and level is strapped in the both sides of the first road iron wire; Keep on the result mother is climing as far as possible and give birth to full sturdy hibernaculum, lay the foundation for getting bumper crops behind the button canopy.

Six, the button canopy is handled

Behind the grape fallen leaves, nocturnal temperature is detained canopy, and is covered straw screen or mat in the time of 0 ℃~10 ℃; Cover straw screen or mat, shading daytime, open the mouth that leaks informaton night, let the canopy room temperature reduce; Close all air ports daytime and keep low temperature; Through 30~40 days low temperature precooling, to satisfy grape to the low temperature demand.

Seven, manage behind the button canopy

1, break the processing of sleeping with calcium cyanamide (being nitrolim) behind the button canopy: per 1 kilogram of calcium cyanamide, put in the container for 5 kilograms with 40~50 ℃ warm water, stirred 1~2 hour, spread upon on the complicated and confused sprout;

2, rich water quality management

To do not have autumn organic fertilizer or the tree body is more weak executes fertilizer 1 time, smooth tree dish back irritate 1 time permeable, treat that ground is dried slightly after, with mulch film mulched ground face, during overlay film, laying drip irrigation pipe under film;

Every mu of grape of bud sprouting period imposes 50 kilograms of nitrogen phosphorus potassium NPKs;

During the fruit development, under the sufficient condition of base manure, begin from young fruit period, every urea that sprayed 1 time 0.3% at a distance from 7 days adds the intermixture of 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, sprays 2~3 times altogether, or sprays foliage fertilizer such as Gao Meishi; Not enough like base fertilizer, behind fallen flowers, execute compound diammonium hydrogen phosphate fertilizer, impose 50 kilograms of potassium sulphate fertilizers in conjunction with watering every mu;

3, stay preparation branch, grafting kind

Behind the button canopy, new climing the going up of the reservation semi-lignified that February, the grape basal growth went out through green branch cleft grafting grafting grape variety, June, climing the returning of the old kind of result contracted, and female climing complete the dredging of old kind result removed, and only stayed the preparation of grafting kind climing;

4, temperature adjusting

Slowly heat up after satisfying the low temperature demand behind the button canopy, preceding 3~5 weather temperature controls are opened straw screen or mat at 15~17 ℃ about later 8 o'clock every mornings, cover the straw screen or mat insulation about at 4 o'clock in afternoon; Before the rudiment, night, the minimum air temperature was controlled at 5~7 ℃, and daytime, maximum temperature can reach 30 ℃; Rudiment to the florescence, night low temperature at 7~15 ℃, daytime, maximum temperature was 24~28 ℃, 20~25 ℃ of thermophilics; Night at florescence, minimum temperature was more than 10~15 ℃, and daytime, the highest temperature was no more than 30 ℃, 22~26 ℃ of thermophilics; Berry expanding stage daytime temperature can not be above 30 ℃; Berry is painted to remain on 25~30 ℃ to daytime in maturing stage, about 15 ℃ of nights, 12~15 ℃ of day and night temperatures;

5, humidity regulation

Budding period to inflorescence stretches out the phase, and canopy chamber relative air humidity is controlled at 80~90%; Inflorescence stretches out the back relative air humidity and is controlled at about 70%; Florescence is kept relative air humidity 50%~60%; Other, relative air humidity was controlled at about 60% in period;

6, flower and fruit management

Improve the method for fruit-setting rate:

⑴ the prosperous length of control shoot: the as a result tip strong to growth potential, before spending, the tip on inflorescence top is turned round the tip, or stay 5~6 Da Ye pinching, improve fruit-setting rate;

⑵ spray boron fertilizer: to the boric acid or 0.2% borax soln of blade, inflorescence spray cloth 1 time 0.2~0.3%, every spray 1 time at a distance from about 5 days is sprayed 2~3 times altogether continuously before spending;

⑶ spray gibberellin: full-bloom stage is dipped inflorescence or spraying with 20~40 gram/kilogram Gibberellins solution;

Eight, adopt the back management

1, be completely cured processing, rich water quality management

Impose small amount of nitrogen phosphorus potassium NPK and mix biological organic fertilizer for 50 kilograms June after the fruit picking, and combine to water; Carry out top dressing simultaneously, the urea of spray 0.3% adds 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, whenever at a distance from spray in 5~7 days 1 time, continuous 4~5 times;

2, adopting the back prunes, bounces back and upgrade

After grape booth button film heated up, it was climing climing as preparation to keep the sprig that the grape basal growth goes out, June the result female climing return to contract to dredge remove the old climing climing growth of accelerating again to prepare when staying the climing place of preparation.

Result: realized that through adopting said method mu plants density and reach 2300 strains; And variety rotation (capital show, capital is inferior, early a kind of in Fu Luosha, Ju Feng, the big grain purple in June carried, vowed to Sheng Gaomo, family too No. eight, green grass or young crops; Be replaced by that capital show, capital are inferior, early the another kind in Fu Luosha, Ju Feng, the big grain purple in June is carried, vowed to Sheng Gaomo, family too No. eight, green grass or young crops) time and do not influence annual output; It is annual that the result is female climing every year, and per mu yield reaches 4000 kilograms.

What should explain at last is: the above is merely the preferred embodiments of the present invention; Be not limited to the present invention; Although the present invention has been carried out detailed explanation with reference to previous embodiment; For a person skilled in the art, it still can be made amendment to the technical scheme that aforementioned each embodiment put down in writing, and perhaps part technical characterictic wherein is equal to replacement.All within spirit of the present invention and principle, any modification of being done, be equal to replacement, improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (5)

1. the booth cuisine cultivation method of grape is characterized in that, may further comprise the steps:
(1) plant the time: cultivate annual mid-February to mid-June;
(2) planting density
The big or small row cultivation of employing, 1 meter of big every trade distance, 0.5 meter of little every trade distance, 0.35~0.4 meter of spacing in the rows;
Perhaps employing waits line-spacing to plant 1 meter of line-spacing, 0.3~0.4 meter of spacing in the rows;
(3) dig the field planting ditch: dig 80 centimetres wide, 60 centimetres dark field planting ditches;
(4) vesicle is planted: the vesicle that digs 30 * 30 * 30 centimetres is planted, and stays 3~4 full buds to carry out doing surely after planting;
(5) plant back open country management
The a rich water quality management: the whole growth season water that waters 3~4 times, 6, respectively topdress 1 time July, each every strain chases after urea 25~50 grams, gets into August, executes phosphorus potash fertilizer; Autumn in September basal dressing, the whole growth season top dressing, every at a distance from 10~15 days 1 time;
The b pruning: young sprout grows to height pinching 0.4~0.5 meter the time, and the sublateral shoot of regrowth stays 2 leaf pinching, and unnecessary sublateral shoot stays the pinching of a slice leaf; Carrying out the winter behind the grapevine seedling fallen leaves cuts;
(6) the button canopy is handled: behind the grape fallen leaves, nocturnal temperature was detained canopy in the time of 0 ℃~10 ℃, through 30~40 days low temperature precooling;
(7) manage behind the button canopy
Break the processing of sleeping with calcium cyanamide behind a button canopy:
The b rich water quality management: to the tree body more weak execute fertilizer 1 time, smooth tree dish back filling 1 time is permeable; The bud sprouting period imposes NPK;
C stays preparation branch, grafting kind: January behind the button canopy; Reservation semi-lignified that the grape basal growth goes out new climing on through green cleft grafting grafting grape variety; Remove female climing complete the dredging of former kind result June after former grape variety is gathered, and the preparation that only keeps the grafting kind is climing;
The d temperature adjusting: the button canopy slowly heats up after satisfying the low temperature demand, and preceding 3~5 weather temperature controls are at 15~17 ℃; Before the rudiment, night, the minimum air temperature was controlled at 5~7 ℃, and daytime, maximum temperature was 30 ℃; Rudiment to the florescence, night low temperature at 7~15 ℃, daytime, maximum temperature was 24~28 ℃; Night at florescence, minimum temperature was 10~15 ℃, and daytime, maximum temperature was 30 ℃; 30 ℃ of the berry expanding stage maximum air temperatures on daytime; Berry is painted to remain on 25~30 ℃ to daytime in maturing stage, 15 ℃ of nights, 12~15 ℃ of day and night temperatures;
The e humidity regulation: budding period to inflorescence stretches out the phase, and canopy chamber relative air humidity is controlled at 80~90%, and inflorescence stretches out the back relative air humidity and is controlled at 65~75%, and the florescence is kept relative air humidity 50%~60%, and other, relative air humidity was controlled at 60% in period;
F flower and fruit management: improve the method that fruit-setting rate takes and comprise: the prosperous length of control shoot, spray boron fertilizer and add gibberellin;
(8) adopt the back management
A be completely cured processing, rich water quality management: combine the pruning of branches and tendrils to apply fertilizer after the fruit picking and accomplish the processing of being completely cured, impose azophoska, carry out top dressing simultaneously;
B adopts that prune the back, retraction upgrades: in January behind the button canopy, it is climing climing as preparation to keep the sprig that the grape basal growth goes out, June the result female climing return to contract to dredge remove climingly always, accelerate to prepare climing growth when staying the climing place of preparation again.
2. the booth cuisine cultivation method of grape according to claim 1; It is characterized in that: the broken method of handling of sleeping of described calcium cyanamide is: per 1 kilogram of calcium cyanamide, put in the container for 5 kilograms with 40~50 ℃ warm water, and stirred 1~2 hour; Before the use, choose layer solution and spread upon on the complicated and confused sprout.
3. the booth cuisine cultivation method of grape according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the prosperous rectangular method of described control shoot is: the as a result tip strong to growth potential, before spending, the tip on inflorescence top is turned round the tip, or stay 5~6 Da Ye pinching.
4. the booth cuisine cultivation method of grape according to claim 1; It is characterized in that: described spray boron fertilizer method is: before spending to the boric acid or 0.2% borax soln of blade, inflorescence spray cloth 1 time 0.2~0.3%; Whenever at a distance from about 5 days, spray 1 time, spray 2~3 times continuously altogether.
5. the booth cuisine cultivation method of grape according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the described gibberellin method that adds is: full-bloom stage is dipped inflorescence or spraying with 20~40 gram/kilogram Gibberellins solution.
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