CN103636454B - Double-cropping cultivation method of grapes - Google Patents

Double-cropping cultivation method of grapes Download PDF

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CN103636454B
CN103636454B CN201310698364.7A CN201310698364A CN103636454B CN 103636454 B CN103636454 B CN 103636454B CN 201310698364 A CN201310698364 A CN 201310698364A CN 103636454 B CN103636454 B CN 103636454B
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fruit
pinching
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bud
grape
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任学平
孟庆林
郑宝辉
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Abstract

The invention discloses a double-cropping cultivation method of grapes. The method comprises routine management in an open field during a culturing and growing period, temperature, humidity, lighting and nutrient and water management in a sunlight greenhouse, growth regulation and control of branches, leaves, flowers, fruits and roots, as well as routine cultivation and management techniques. Premature grape varieties with fast flower bud differentiation, strong repeated fruiting capability, high and stable yield and high disease resistance are selected; trimming, bud promotion, as well as pinching and lateral shoot processing of first-crop fruit and second-crop fruit are performed for matching; lateral shoot processing and spike determination management are performed on the second-crop fruit; and more than two times of fruiting in one year is achieved through a comprehensive management technology of forced pinching and lateral shoot processing. According to the method, grapes are cultivated in semiarid areas in western part of Liaoning province in the north, two times of fruiting in one year are achieved, a use mode for land cultivation of the grapes in the north is changed, and the grape yield is increased by more than two times; the land use capability is doubled, and appreciation of land value is maximized; and product quality, yield, economic benefit and safety of the grapes are better than the grapes cultivated under natural conditions and in a traditional sunlight greenhouse.

Description

The cultivation method of grape 1 year knot twice fruit
Technical field
The present invention relates to the production technical field of cultivation of grape, particularly the cultivation method of a kind of grape 1 year knot twice fruit.
Background technology
Western part of Asia area, grape original producton location, most of vineyard is distributed between north latitude 20 ~ 52 degree and between 30 ~ 45 degree, south latitude in the world, and the overwhelming majority on the Northern Hemisphere.Chinese Grape is many between north latitude 30 ~ 43 degree.Grape industry has significant progress in China in recent years, and area under cultivation is large, and output is high.Because grape is uniquely can the fruit tree of several times a year result in deciduous fruit tree, but reasonably do not utilized in production, all do not have match technology means to promote both at home and abroad.The habit of Appropriate application grape several times a year result, can increase the yield per unit area, and extends and regulates the fresh fruit supply phase, increasing the economic benefit of greenhouse culture.
Utilize the existing research of the summer bud second fruiting technology of same strain grape branches and tendrils, but the commodity of the fruit quality of summer bud second fruiting is poor, the output of two times result is on the low side, and per mu yield only has about 1000Kg, and economic benefit only slightly improves than traditional plastic greenhouse culture technique; The problems such as regrowth hair grape not only yields poorly, and it is irregular to there is rudiment, fruit quality difference, and region poor repeatability, in other region, cultivation is difficult to reach expection object ripe more than a year, and therefore this technology is not widely applied always." Agriculture in Xinjiang science and technology " the 3rd phase in 2008 " the branches and tendrils management of a Turfan greenhouse controlling " literary composition is pointed out: the branches and tendrils management of greenhouse controlling " comprises and promotes rudiment, bud picking, the thin tip, flower thinning sequence and inflorescence shaping etc.Wherein promote rudiment, namely promote in greenhouse culture that grape shifts to an earlier date rudiment, sends out branch, blooms, result, maturation, to gather, and promote that grape shifts to an earlier date the core of rudiment to only have early rudiment could be early ripe, generally start to heat up in mid-December, force grape to terminate dormancy; And the major measure of rudiment in advance takes off curtain to heat up.But this technology also falls flat, therefore also fail to be widely applied.How to utilize open country or sun glasshouse to produce grape at 1 year twice and can obtain higher output and benefit again, and can, in the viticulture new technology of Spring Festival Table Grape listing, be the technical barrier produced Table Grape, improve land utilization rate, increase farmers' income all the time.
Summary of the invention
The present invention seeks to overcome prior art Problems existing, the cultivation method of a kind of grape 1 year knot twice fruit is provided.
The object of the invention is to be realized by following technical proposals: the cultivation method of a kind of grape 1 year knot twice fruit, comprise the temperature in outdoor cropping Routine Management in vegetative period, sun glasshouse, humidity, illumination, rich water quality management, the regulation and control of branches and leaves flowers and fruits root growth and conventional cultivation administrative skill, it is characterized in that: select flower bud differentiation fast, repeatedly strong, the stable high yield of bearing capacity, the early-ripening grape kind that premunition is strong, coordinate the comprehensive management technology of pruning short bud, repeatedly pinching and pair and slightly processing, its cultivation method is:
1) bud picking surely slightly: outdoor cropping is annual April, January, from greenhouse, intensification reached 15 ~ 23 DEG C at 30 ~ 40 days in greenhouse culture, grape bud starts bud picking and determines slightly when starting to sprout, erase when bud expands exhibition page sprout accessory bud, geminate teeth, weak bud and overstocked bud, carry out determining slightly according to output when newly slightly growing to 4-5cm, remove overstocked branch slightly, slightly weak, grape branches and tendrils are controlled equably in frame face, and remove tendril at any time;
2) just stubble fruit pinching and pair slightly process: bud picking 20 ~ 25 days is after a while initial bloom stage surely, now pinching is carried out to the fruit bearing shoot of first stubble fruit or vegetative shoot, selection result branch or vegetative shoot pinching are according to its growing way, with the selection pinching that growing way is strong, more than the fruit bearing shoot inflorescence of first stubble fruit stay 6 ~ 8 leaf pinching; Vegetative shoot carries out pinching with intensity and rugosity, and enriching shoot is climing stays 10 ~ 12 leaf pinching, and middle branch stays 7 ~ 9 leaf pinching, and weak branch stays 5 ~ 7 leaf pinching; Pair on result branches and tendrils is slightly all erased, and only stays two, the top pairs slightly as sprouting hibernaculum, and first batch of fruit is gathered after 3 ~ 4 months from cultivation beginning;
3) pinching of second batch of fruit and pair slightly process: just stubble fruit bearing shoot pinching 15 ~ 20 days, when first stubble fruit grain length is to beans size, 2 pairs removing top pumping are sent, and newly send 1 ~ 2 hibernaculum topmost will sprout knot second batch of fruit, and first batch of fruit and second batch of fruit interval of gathering is 60 ~ 80 days;
If what just select during the pinching of stubble fruit is vegetative shoot pinching, just three to four leaf cutting backs are stayed in the vegetative shoot pinching of bearing basal shoot after 15 ~ 20 days, first, second hibernaculum after 5 ~ 8 days under clip starts to sprout, the branch sprouted ties second batch of fruit, for warmer climate, sublateral shoot is repeatedly sprouted, and utilizes sublateral shoot 1 year can repeatedly result;
4) second batch of fruit pair sends management: after the hibernaculum sprouting of knot second batch of fruit, each eye comprises the bud of more than 2, has main bud and accessory bud, removes accessory bud, retains main bud; The branch of knot second batch of fruit also carries out pinching before spending, and more than inflorescence stay the pinching repeatedly of three to four leaves, pair below inflorescence is sent and all erased;
5) fringe is determined: according to grapevine seedling size and tree vigo(u)r power, heavily spike number is determined according to load capacity and average fringe, first batch of every per mu yield of fruit controls at 2500 ~ 3000kg, and second batch of fruit controls at 1500 ~ 2000kg, with second time output for first time output 40 ~ 50% design stay fringe.
The described method of sublateral shoot several times a year result that utilizes is: the early-ripening grape kind selecting bearing capacity strong 15 ~ 20 days before flowering, and after staying 4 ~ 6 leaf pinching to fruit bearing shoot, 1 ~ 2 sublateral shoot is sprouted on short top, and all the other are erased, and makes it to form inflorescence initial body; 1 ~ 2 leaf pinching is by force stayed during sublateral shoot length 5 ~ 6 leaves; There is again secondary sublateral shoot after pinching, stay 1 pinching when long 3 ~ 4 leaves; Three times sublateral shoot processes equally, and through repeatedly pinching process, sublateral shoot can several times a year result.
Described flower bud differentiation is fast, and repeatedly strong, the stable high yield of bearing capacity, the early-ripening grape kind that premunition is strong are Venus seedless, seedless, the seedless Cold boiled chicken heart in Audi Asia, 87-1 class early-maturing variety.
The present invention is sun glasshouse's cultivating grape 1 year knot twice fruit, artificial fallen leaves can be adopted to force and to sprout young sprout knot twice fruit then: in first time fruit picking 8 ~ September after 15 ~ 20 days, branches and tendrils are sprayed to lime sulfur or 1 ~ 5% penta sodium pentachlorophenate of 3 ~ 5 Baume degrees, make leaf abscission, make to sprout young sprout then, yield positive results, at early and middle ten days fruit maturation in December.
The present inventor utilizes 13 Greenhouses to plant grape for 2002, Second Year grape in the full bearing period starts the grapevine knot regrowth hair fruit cultivation experiments of having carried out 3 years, explore the efficiency cultivation technology for high of grape 1 year results 2 fruits, significantly enhance yield per unit area and economic benefit.Within 2005, utilize 26.5 mu of ground, 9 vineyaries start the technical management measures testing grape 1 year knot twice fruit.
Open country grape first time fruit is gathered for 7 the end of month, and second time fruit is gathered for 9 the end of month, selects flower bud differentiation fast simultaneously, repeatedly strong, the stable high yield of bearing capacity, the early-ripening grape kind that premunition is strong.The collecting time of Greenhouse twice fruit can carry out Stochastic choice with market, first time can 5,6,7, design of gathering by the moon, for the second time can 11,12, January gathers design; Can gather in 20 ~ May 10 April by first batch of fruit the earliest, average every per mu yield 2426kg, second batch of fruit was gathered 10 ~ 25 June, on average every mu of (666.7m 2) output 1032kg, increase economic benefit 3 ~ 4 times than outdoor cropping, only tying one batch of fruit than greenhouse increases economic benefit 8300 yuan.
Grape is cultivated in northern Semiarid Areas of Western Liaoning Province by the present invention, realizes 1 year knot, twice fruit, changes northern area soil cultivating grape occupation mode, make vintage improve more than two times; Land utilization rate doubles, and realizes the maximization of land increment; The quality of product, output, benefit and safety aspect are all better than the grape of cultivation and the cultivation of traditional sun glasshouse under natural conditions.
Embodiment
Below by way of embodiment, the invention will be further described.
One, greenhouse standard
Long 70 ~ the 80m of booth thing, wall body brick soil structure, thickness is 1.5m; Canopy face framework of steel reinforcement, rise 3.2 ~ 3.5m; Greenhouse controlling planting furrow is apart from according to 2.5m, and every bar ditch carries two row, little line-spacing 0.8 × 0.5m, north and south row to, ditching fertilising is planted.
Two, outdoor cropping standard and planting technique
Open country grape planting furrow is apart from 3.0m, and every bar ditch carries two row, little line-spacing 0.8 × 0.5m, north and south row to, ditching fertilising is planted.
1, the ditching of whole ground with use sufficient base fertilizer: the ditching of whole ground.Before planting, level land, by the row determined to and line-spacing, dig planting furrow, furrow width 80 ~ 100 centimetres, ditch depth 60 ~ 80 centimetres.Should note table soil and cubsoil pile up separately during ditching.Use sufficient base fertilizer, execute decomposed manure 3000 ~ 4000 kilograms for every mu, 100 kilograms, phosphate fertilizer.Base fertilizer is granted in planting furrow, divides two-layer executing, and clay fertilizer combines, and cubsoil fills in bottom, and table soil fills in furrow face.
2, optimum period of planting March early and middle ten days and temperature go up to grape rudiment first half of the month for planting optimum period.
3, seeding row spacing is large, and the kind of the growing way golden mean of the Confucian school should adopt diesis V-arrangement.
4, method for planting: dig shallow cave according to the distance between rows and hills determined, nursery stock is vertically put into cave, makes root system full extension in cave, is uniformly distributed; During ridging, first by half earth culture on root system, then nursery stock is up carried gently, soil is fully entered between root system, then will remain on earth culture, track tramping having peace of mind, water permeable.
Three, grape variety
Different grape variety repeatedly bearing capacity and first batch of fruit harvest time has certain difference, mid-early maturity Franco-american should be selected, because their flower bud differentiation are fast, repeatedly bearing capacity is strong, stable high yield, premunition are strong, as early-ripening grape kinds such as Venus seedless, seedless, the seedless Cold boiled chicken heart in Audi Asia, 87-1.
Four, posture is cultivated
1, single hedge frame: in south-north direction, a line grape one hedge frame.Hedge frame height is 1.6 ~ 2 meters, frame pull-up 4 road iron wire, and per pass iron wire is at a distance of 0.5 meter.First iron wire should apart from ground 0.6 ~ 0.8 meter, can alleviate the susceptible degree of this road iron wire blade, fruit like this.
2, frame: canopy face is parallel to the ground, at a distance of about 4 meters between mast, at overhead about 1.8 meters places, be 40 centimetres of cloth iron wire grids by the length of side in length and breadth, the mast of periphery answers outward-dipping about 30 °, and fixes with iron wire.
3, diesis V-type frame: entablature 100 ~ 110 centimetres, prick on the mast of overhead 160 centimeters, sill 60 ~ 65 centimetres, prick on the mast of overhead 110 centimeters, make a call in an aperture at twice crossbeam from limit 5 centimeters, through respectively drawing one iron wire from hole; Draw twice bottom iron wire on overhead 80 centimeters mast both sides, form the posture of diesis six road iron wire.
4, messenger wire can be adopted in greenhouse to draw to hold up, reduce shading.
Five, administrative skill is pruned in cultivation
1, bud picking surely slightly: outdoor cropping is annual April, greenhouse culture heated up from greenhouse and reaches 18 ~ 23 DEG C at about 1 month at the beginning of 1 month, grape bud starts bud picking and determines slightly when starting to sprout, generally erase when bud expands exhibition page sprout accessory bud, geminate teeth, weak bud and overstocked bud, when newly slightly growing to about 5cm according to output carry out fixed slightly, remove overstocked branch slightly, slightly weak, grape branches and tendrils are controlled equably in frame face, and remove tendril at any time.
2, just stubble fruit pinching and pair slightly process: bud picking 20 ~ 25 days is after a while initial bloom stage surely, now pinching is carried out to the fruit bearing shoot of first stubble fruit or vegetative shoot (also claiming the preparation branch i.e. fruit bearing shoot of second batch of fruit), selection result branch or vegetative shoot pinching are according to its growing way, with the selection pinching that growing way is strong, more than the fruit bearing shoot inflorescence of first stubble fruit stay 6 ~ 8 leaf pinching; Vegetative shoot carries out pinching with intensity and rugosity, and enriching shoot is climing stays 10 ~ 12 leaf pinching, and middle branch stays 7 ~ 9 leaf pinching, and weak branch stays 5 ~ 7 leaf pinching; For ensureing that first batch of fruit bears fruit well, the pair on result branches and tendrils is slightly all erased, and only stays two, the top pairs slightly as sprouting hibernaculum; First batch of fruit is gathered after 3 ~ 4 months from cultivation beginning.Usual open country grape just really gather at 7 the end of month by stubble fruit i.e. first time, and second time fruit is gathered for 9 the end of month; The collecting time of twice, greenhouse fruit can carry out Stochastic choice with market, first time can by 5,6,7, design of gathering by the moon, for the second time can by 11,12, January gathers design; First batch of fruit can be gathered the earliest between 20 ~ May 10 April.
Six, the administrative skill of grape second time result is facilitated
1, the pinching of second batch of fruit and pair slightly process: when really grain length is to beans size for first stubble fruit bearing shoot pinching about 15 days, just stubble, 2 pairs removing top pumping are sent, newly send 1 ~ 2 hibernaculum topmost will sprout knot second batch of fruit, first batch of fruit and second batch of fruit interval of gathering is 60 ~ 80 days;
If 2 what select when the pinching of first stubble fruit is vegetative shoot pinching, just three to four leaf cutting backs are stayed in the vegetative shoot pinching of bearing basal shoot after 15 days, first, second hibernaculum after about 5 days under clip starts to sprout, the branch knot second time fruit sprouted, for warmer climate, sublateral shoot is repeatedly sprouted, and utilizes sublateral shoot 1 year can repeatedly result;
3, the technology of sublateral shoot several times a year result: west of Liaoning district warmer climate, vegetative period is long, bud tool prematurity, and sublateral shoot is repeatedly sprouted, and inflorescence initial body is easily formed, and can bring out grape several times a year result.Sublateral shoot 1 year caulocarpic method of energy is utilized to be: the early-ripening grape kind selecting bearing capacity strong, select kind as Ju Feng, white banana etc., 15 ~ 20 days before flowering, after 4 ~ 6 leaf pinching are stayed to fruit bearing shoot, 1 ~ 2 sublateral shoot is sprouted on short top, all the other are erased, and make it to form inflorescence (result fringe) initial body; 1 ~ 2 leaf pinching is by force stayed during sublateral shoot length 5 ~ 6 leaves; There is again secondary sublateral shoot after pinching, stay 1 pinching when long 3 ~ 4 leaves; Three times sublateral shoot processes equally, and through repeatedly pinching process, sublateral shoot can several times a year result.
4, second batch of fruit pair sends management: after the hibernaculum sprouting of knot second batch of fruit, each eye comprises the bud of more than 2, has main bud and accessory bud, removes accessory bud, retains main bud; The branch of knot second batch of fruit also carries out pinching before spending, and more than inflorescence stay the pinching repeatedly of three to four leaves, pair below inflorescence is sent and all erased.
5, fringe is determined: according to grapevine seedling size and tree vigo(u)r power, heavily determine spike number according to load capacity and average fringe, general first batch of every per mu yield of fruit controls at 2500 ~ 3000kg, and second batch of fruit controls at 1500 ~ 2000kg.For the seedless Cold boiled chicken heart and Venus seedless, five or six fringes are stayed in the first batch of every strain of fruit of the Cold boiled chicken heart in the full bearing period, and second batch of fruit stays four or five fringes; Venus seedless first batch of fruit stays seven or eight fringes, and second batch of fruit stays five or six fringes; If stay fruit too much fruit ear diminish, quality declines, shoot maturation degree difference by lower for impact annual production, generally with second time output 40 ~ 50% designing and stay fringe for first time output.
Seven, artificial fallen leaves force and sprout young sprout year knot twice fruit then
Sun glasshouse's cultivating grape 1 year knot twice fruit, artificial fallen leaves can be adopted to force and to sprout young sprout knot twice fruit then, artificial fallen leaves are tied twice fruit then and must be implemented in sun glasshouse, concrete grammar is: in first time fruit picking 8 ~ September after 15 ~ 20 days, prunes pinching by force or branches and tendrils is sprayed to lime sulfur or 1 ~ 5% penta sodium pentachlorophenate of 3 ~ 5 Baume degrees, make leaf abscission, now because temperature is very high, make to sprout young sprout then, yield positive results, at early and middle ten days fruit maturation in December; Grape 1 year second fruiting, particularly second batch of fruit florescence intersect with first batch of fruit and grow, and this phase fertilizer requirement comparatively greatly, should be supplemented nitrogenous fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer in time, make rich water quality management catch up with growth demand in time.
Eight, HORMONE TREATMENT
Nutrient for plants, can further improve vintage and quality, according to biological property and the physilogical characteristics of grape, uses 4 ~ 5 economic benefit the bests in the good vineyard of normal time managerial skills, uses be respectively the period of nutrient for plants with four times:
1st time: young sprout vegetative period, supplement the nutrients, impel floral organ to reach full growth, reduce incomplete flower, overcome floral organ because nutrient is not enough, depauperation and cause colored and unreal or severe detachment, lay a solid foundation for improving fruit-setting rate.
2nd time: flowering stage, grape full-bloom stage 30-40mg/L gibberellin or the grand leaching fruit ear of ratio effect, spend within latter 20 days, spray fruit ear more once, remove fruitlet grain, adjustment fruit intergranular distance, makes fruit grain be evenly distributed simultaneously, general large fringe fruit stays about 80, middle fringe fruit stays about 60, and small ear fruit stays about 50, can increase fruit ear and improve output, strengthen pollination and fertility simultaneously, can fruit-setting rate be significantly improved, especially to the pollen tube growth kind such as huge peak slowly, act on more obvious.But should note dredging in time and remove too much fruit grain, make whole fruit ear fruit grain evenly neat.
3rd time: the Berry Growth phase, this one-phase is the critical period forming seed output and quality, two expand peak period use, improve the physiological function of blade, accelerate light and speed, promote the accumulation of photosynthetic product in fruit grain, conversion, impel fruit grain early to expand, early painted, early ripe, reach the object of high yield, precocity, high-quality.
The 4th: berry maturing stage, uses when grape is for plucking, can Delaying Leaf-Senescence, and make it keep higher physiological function, postpone fallen leaves, make branch fully ripe, tree vigo(u)r is recovered, and this is particularly important to high yield garden, weak arboretum.For ensureing that secondary grape is gathered in time, second batch of fruit application HORMONE TREATMENT is identical with first batch of fruit, and the ethrel that can spray 1000 times before gathering accelerates the ripening.
Nine, granule fruit prevention
Anti-upper grape produces granule fruit following methods:
1, the florescence strengthens rich water quality management: ensure that the beginning spends rear " critical period of nutrition of bearing fruit " and " seed development critical period of nutrition " to have sufficient nutrient.
2, florescence pollination: at grape initial bloom stage to full-bloom stage, every spray in 7 days 1 0.2% borax soln, connects spray 2 ~ 3 times, promotes that pollen tube calabash sends out, improve insemination rate.
3, strengthen the summer to cut: carry out fruit bearing shoot pinching to full-bloom stage, whole sides sublateral shoot of simultaneously erasing at beginning flower, only stay 1, top sublateral shoot, after 7 days, stay 1 ~ 2 leaf pinching to top sublateral shoot again, if sprout 2 sublateral shoots again, erase in time.
4, artificial pinch of fringe point: pluck 1/5 ~ 1/4 of Hua Sui in 2 ~ 3 days before flowering; Spend first 5 ~ 7 days, carrying out along while fringe, removing, by the secondary fringe of cob base portion, pinches the fringe point of 1/3 ~ 1/5 according to fruit ear size before spending.
Ten, rich water quality management and other
Because grape needs potash fertilizer higher than other fruit tree, generally often producing 100kg fresh fruit needs purity nitrogen 0.5kg, pure phosphorus 0.5kg, potassium 1.1kg.Particularly the grape second batch fruit florescence intersects with first batch of fruit and grows, and this phase fertilizer requirement comparatively greatly, should supplement nitrogenous fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer, generally every mu of (667m in time 2) mend and execute urea 30 ~ 40kg, diammonium phosphate 15 ~ 20kg; After second batch of fruit is gathered, execute high-quality farmyard manure 5000 ~ 8000kg for every mu, pour water immediately after each fertilising.
The extermination of disease and insect pest with put prevention first, the lime sulfur of each spray 3 ~ 5 Baume degrees Be, notes the integrated control of other phenophase damage by disease and insect of grape and safe pest controlling simultaneously, after second batch of fruit is gathered, should remain on less than 7 DEG C dormancy 700 hours before dormancy and before heating up.

Claims (4)

1. the cultivation method of a grape 1 year knot twice fruit, comprise the temperature in outdoor cropping Routine Management in vegetative period, sun glasshouse, humidity, illumination, rich water quality management, the regulation and control of branches and leaves flowers and fruits root growth and conventional cultivation administrative skill, it is characterized in that: select flower bud differentiation fast, repeatedly strong, the stable high yield of bearing capacity, the early-ripening grape kind that premunition is strong, coordinate the comprehensive management technology of pruning short bud, repeatedly pinching and sublateral shoot process, its cultivation method is:
1) tip is determined in bud picking: outdoor cropping is annual April, January, from greenhouse, intensification reached 15 ~ 23 DEG C at 30 ~ 40 days in greenhouse culture, grape bud starts bud picking and determines the tip when starting to sprout, bud expand Zhan Yeshi erase sprout accessory bud, geminate teeth, weak bud and overstocked bud, young sprout carries out determining the tip according to output when growing to 4-5cm, remove overstocked branch, the weak tip, grape branches and tendrils are controlled equably in frame face, and removes tendril at any time;
2) just stubble fruit pinching and sublateral shoot process: 20 ~ 25 days be initial bloom stage after the tip is determined in bud picking, now pinching is carried out to the fruit bearing shoot of first stubble fruit or vegetative shoot, selection result branch or vegetative shoot pinching are according to its growing way, with the selection pinching that growing way is strong, more than the fruit bearing shoot inflorescence of first stubble fruit stay 6 ~ 8 leaf pinching; Vegetative shoot carries out pinching with intensity and rugosity, and enriching shoot is climing stays 10 ~ 12 leaf pinching, and middle branch stays 7 ~ 9 leaf pinching, and weak branch stays 5 ~ 7 leaf pinching; Sublateral shoot on result branches and tendrils is all erased, and only stays two sublateral shoots in the top as sprouting hibernaculum, and first batch of fruit is gathered after 3 ~ 4 months from cultivation beginning;
3) pinching of second batch of fruit and sublateral shoot process: just stubble fruit bearing shoot pinching 15 ~ 20 days, when first stubble fruit grain length is to beans size, remove 2 sublateral shoots of top pumping, young sprout 1 ~ 2 hibernaculum topmost will sprout knot second batch of fruit, and first batch of fruit and second batch of fruit interval of gathering is 60 ~ 80 days;
If what just select during the pinching of stubble fruit is vegetative shoot pinching, just three to four leaf cutting backs are stayed in the vegetative shoot pinching of bearing basal shoot after 15 ~ 20 days, first, second hibernaculum after 5 ~ 8 days under clip starts to sprout, the branch sprouted ties second batch of fruit, for warmer climate, sublateral shoot is repeatedly sprouted, and utilizes sublateral shoot 1 year can repeatedly result;
4) second batch of fruit sublateral shoot management: after the hibernaculum sprouting of knot second batch of fruit, each eye comprises the bud of more than 2, has main bud and accessory bud, removes accessory bud, retains main bud; The branch of knot second batch of fruit also carries out pinching before spending, and more than inflorescence stay the pinching repeatedly of three to four leaves, the following sublateral shoot of inflorescence is all erased;
5) fringe is determined: according to grapevine seedling size and tree vigo(u)r power, heavily spike number is determined according to load capacity and average fringe, first batch of every per mu yield of fruit controls at 2500 ~ 3000kg, and second batch of fruit controls at 1500 ~ 2000kg, with second time output for first time output 40 ~ 50% design stay fringe.
2. the cultivation method of grape according to claim 11 year knot twice fruit, it is characterized in that: the described method of sublateral shoot several times a year result that utilizes is: the early-ripening grape kind selecting bearing capacity strong 15 ~ 20 days before flowering, after 4 ~ 6 leaf pinching are stayed to fruit bearing shoot, 1 ~ 2 sublateral shoot is sprouted on short top, all the other are erased, and make it to form inflorescence initial body; 1 ~ 2 leaf pinching is by force stayed during sublateral shoot length 5 ~ 6 leaves; There is again secondary sublateral shoot after pinching, stay 1 pinching when long 3 ~ 4 leaves; Three times sublateral shoot processes equally, and through repeatedly pinching process, sublateral shoot can several times a year result.
3. the cultivation method of grape according to claim 11 year knot twice fruit, it is characterized in that: described flower bud differentiation is fast, repeatedly strong, the stable high yield of bearing capacity, the early-ripening grape kind that premunition is strong are Venus seedless, seedless, the seedless Cold boiled chicken heart in Audi Asia, 87-1 class early-maturing variety.
4. the cultivation method of grape according to claim 11 year knot twice fruit, it is characterized in that: sun glasshouse's cultivating grape 1 year knot twice fruit, adopt artificial fallen leaves to force and sprout young sprout knot twice fruit then: in first time fruit picking 8 ~ September after 15 ~ 20 days, branches and tendrils are sprayed to lime sulfur or 1 ~ 5% penta sodium pentachlorophenate of 3 ~ 5 Baume degrees, make leaf abscission, make to sprout young sprout then, yield positive results, at early and middle ten days fruit maturation in December.
CN201310698364.7A 2013-12-10 2013-12-10 Double-cropping cultivation method of grapes Expired - Fee Related CN103636454B (en)

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