CN104025830A - Greenhouse cherry cultivation method - Google Patents

Greenhouse cherry cultivation method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104025830A
CN104025830A CN201310070367.6A CN201310070367A CN104025830A CN 104025830 A CN104025830 A CN 104025830A CN 201310070367 A CN201310070367 A CN 201310070367A CN 104025830 A CN104025830 A CN 104025830A
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fruit
temperature
booth
management
canopy
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CN201310070367.6A
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周菊芳
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周菊芳
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Abstract

A greenhouse cherry cultivation method is characterized by comprising four key links including temperature regulation and control, humidity regulation and control, flower and fruit management and management after film removal. The temperature regulation and control aims at temperature rise and is mainly that biological fuel is utilized to improve the soil temperature and promote air temperature rise. Temperature reduction is achieved by adopting natural ventilation and artificial ventilation methods. The humidity regulation and control aims at ventilation, and when air humidity is adjusted by changing the temperature, the air humidity is appropriately reduced, and the air temperature can be improved. Irrigation is performed in a greenhouse by adopting a fractional in-turn bunch irrigation so as to avoid overlarge air humidity caused by irrigation in the greenhouse, flower bud and fruit thinning is ordinarily performed before blooming, the fruit thinning is performed after physiological fruit drop, small fruits, malformed fruits and sagging fruits poor in coloring are removed. The management after film removal is a main link.

Description

Booth cherry cultivation method
Technical field
The present invention relates to industrialized agriculture planting technology, be specially a kind of booth cherry cultivation method.
Background technology
Industrialized agriculture is the novel industry growing up along with agricultural modernization and rural area plant structural adjustment, is the effective means that traditional farming changes to the intensive agricultural of modernization.Become the new high-tech industry that world is greatly developed because it is high in technological content, the degree of Facility Agriculture Development becomes one of important symbol of weighing a country agricultural modernization level.In recent years, although Chinese industrialized agriculture has obtained very great development, but still there are a lot of problems.Industrialized agriculture is to utilize culture's facility, with regulatable technological means, implements the comprehensive regulation and control of production factors, for agro-ecology growth provides good environmental condition, implements highly efficient and productive modern agricultural production mode.It is the subjects such as integrated modern biotechnology, agricultural engineering, agricultural new material, has the modern agriculture of high added value, high benefit, high-tech content.Industrialized agriculture can be carried out in good time adjusting control according to crops integrated environment condition such as needed light, temperature, wet, gas, water, fertilizer, feed, refuse processing in process of growth; The latest scientific research of application agricultural and livestock breeding, adopts suitable agricultural engineering measure to control climatic environment in the certain limit of local space, is that agricultural realizes high yield, high-quality, efficient best mode.
Facility cultivation cherry listing early, high efficiency, outdoor cropping is ripe at the beginning of by the end of April to 5 month, 3 ~ 6 yuan/kg of unit price, and can reach 60 yuan/kg at the beginning of by the end of March to 4 month, price has improved 10 ~ 20 times.Meanwhile, greenhouse cultivation can overcome the insoluble low temperature during flowering freeze injury of outdoor cropping problem, stable yield, and better results.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to utilize industrialized agriculture implantation methods, manage from field selection, kind selection, dense planting, button canopy, booth management, removing film, improve booth cherry high-yield high-efficiency cultivation technology, to promote planting benefit.
To achieve these goals, the technical solution used in the present invention is specific as follows:
1, temperature adjusting
(1) heating is mainly in canopy, to be equipped with electric radiator device, utilizes ferment material to improve soil temperature, impels temperature to raise.Conventional ferment material is mainly fresh horsehit and fresh barnyard manure etc., and middle wine heat is manured into soil.Temperature of shed can not exceed 26 degree,
(2) cooling, must be aeration-cooling because the temperature in fine, illumination is sufficient noon booth is higher than the optimum temperature of cherry growth, mainly takes 2 kinds of methods of gravity-flow ventilation and artificial draft.
(3) antifreeze generation of getting during canopy enclosing cover straw screen or mat, cold current in canopy the methods such as the outer fumigation of canopy before heating water, frost and prevent freeze injury.
2, humidity regulation
Damp condition in booth, mainly comprises 2 aspects of air humidity and soil moisture.When manual adjustment damp condition, how soil moisture regulates by 2 measures such as ventilation and Controlled irrigation.
(1) when ventilation takes to change temperature conditioned air humidity, note suitably reducing air humidity, temperature can raise.When in canopy, relative moisture is 100%, 1 DEG C of the every rising of temperature, relative moisture reduces by 5%, in the temperature range of 5~10 DEG C, 1 DEG C of the every rising of temperature, relative moisture reduces by 3%~4%.When relative moisture is too large in booth, can take the method for ventilating to reduce air humidity.It should be noted that ventilation wet down is as the criterion not affect temperature of shed.
(2) pour water in booth irrigation should take gradation in turn the method for hole irrigation carry out, in order to avoid to cause in canopy that air humidity increases excessive because irrigating, or significantly reduce soil temperature because irrigating.
3, flower and fruit management
(1) dredging the thin flower bud of flower bud fruit thinning and generally before blooming, carry out, is mainly little Hua and the malformed flower removing on thin and delicate fruit branch, on every bouquet shape fruit branch, retains 2~3 full, healthy and strong buds.Fruit thinning generally carries out after physiological fallen fruit, fruitlet, malformed fruit and painted bad lower ghlory flower be removed.General 1 bouquet shape fruit branch stays 3~4 fruits, maximum 4~5.
(2) promote 1. priming leaf of fruit color: in rationally pruning, improvement hat, on the basis of ventilation and penetrating light condition, will block the blade removal of fruit bath light in the fruit color phase.Blade on fruit branch has important function to flower bud differentiation, must guard against priming leaf overweight.2. lay reflectorized material: the front 10~15d of fruit harvesting, lay reflex film under tree crown, to strengthen the bath light path degree of fruit, promotes fruit color.
(3) prevent dehiscent fruit: 1. stable soil water regime, at cherry fruit stone phase to the 2 Growth spurts, make the soil moisture content that 10~30cm is dark be stabilized in 12% left and right.2. spraying calcium salt before gathering.1 0.299% liquid calcium chloride of spraying weekly before fruit picking, sprays 3 times altogether, can increase the soluble solid content in fruit, reduces dehiscent fruit rate.
4, remove the administrative skill after film
After fruit harvesting, remove canopy film.Weeding in time, imposes composite fertilizer, and waters in time.To conscientiously carry out the summer management after fruit picking, remove upright, prosperous long shoot as far as possible.Take the method for pinching, control the growth force of branch of repeatedly growing well, make to set body and keep the golden mean of the Confucian school.Note carrying out control and the fertilizing in autumn of damage by disease and insect, to improve the stored nutrient level of tree body simultaneously.
5, autumn basal dressing
9-October (slow vegetative period of young sprout), autumn basal dressing, taking farmyard manure as main (treelet 25~30kg/ strain, sets greatly 60kg/ strain), mixed composite fertilizer or trace element in conjunction with expanding cave.After autumn basal dressing, should water in time, cover grass.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is from field selection, kind selection, dense planting, button canopy, booth management, manage removing film, improve booth cherry high-yield high-efficiency cultivation technology, to promote planting benefit, this method plantation is easy, easy to operate, manageability, is peasant programme, adjusts the good approach of pattern of farming.
Embodiment
Be described further in conjunction with certain planting base
Example 1, a kind of booth cherry cultivation method
1, field is selected
Be chosen in leeward on the sunny side, subterranean water level is low, be difficult for long-pending waterlogging, soil layer is deep, good permeability, water holding capacity are strong, sandy loam or the gravelly loam Shang Jian garden of pH value 6.0~7.5.
2, kind is selected
Large cherry facility cultivation kind should be taking the less early-maturing variety of chilling requirement as main, as red light, early large fruit, Zhifu are red etc.Also can taking early-maturing variety under main prerequisite, suitably select good medium variety morning, as pioneer, beautiful early, Italy is early red etc., to extend the listing phase.
Selecting in main breed, configure consistent with the main breed florescence or approach, pollination affinity by force, the pollinated variety of high yield, high-quality.Pollination ratio is 1: 4.Should be every 2~4 row main breeds, lining out 1 row pollinated variety.
3 rational close planting
Cherry is planted and is generally divided into that the winter plants and 2 periods of spring cultivation.Windy, arid place in the winter time, the winter plants the easy dehydration of nursery stock and drains, and is lowered into motility rate.Therefore, can plant spring.Spring plants and should be after soil thaws before nursery stock germinates, carry out, generally with March early and middle ten days the most suitable.In order to obtain higher economic benefit, generally to carry out rational close planting [3].On the soil of medium fertility, seeding row spacing should adopt 4m × 4m or 4m × 5m, and 510~630 strains/hm2 plants.In order to strengthen the lighting performance of booth, should adopt north and south row to.
4 button canopies
Booth cherry facility cultivation has high input, cost is high, and in order to shorten reciprocation cycle, the age of tree of carrying out facility cultivation booth cherry is preferably in more than 5 years, and stable yield is at 7500kg/hm2.Otherwise benefit is not obvious, the investment repayment phase is long.The requirement of low temperature amount of cherry is generally 7.2 DEG C of following 1440h.General dormancy place early, button canopy early, gather early.While selling as main purpose taking morning, can start to detain in December canopy.5 booth administrative skills
5.1 temperature adjusting
5.1.1 heat.Be mainly in canopy, to be equipped with electric radiator device, utilize ferment material to improve soil temperature, impel temperature to raise.Conventional ferment material is mainly fresh horsehit and fresh barnyard manure etc., and middle wine heat is manured into soil.
5.1.2 cooling.Because the temperature in fine, illumination is sufficient noon booth is higher than the optimum temperature of cherry growth, must be aeration-cooling, mainly take 2 kinds of methods of gravity-flow ventilation and artificial draft.
5.1.3 antifreeze.Can take during canopy enclosing cover straw screen or mat, cold current in canopy the methods such as the outer fumigation of canopy before heating water, frost to prevent the generation of freeze injury.
5.2 humidity regulation
Damp condition in booth, mainly comprises 2 aspects of air humidity and soil moisture.When manual adjustment damp condition, how soil moisture regulates by 2 measures such as ventilation and Controlled irrigation.
5.2.1 ventilation.While taking to change temperature conditioned air humidity, note suitably reducing air humidity, temperature [4] can raise.When in canopy, relative moisture is 100%, 1 DEG C of the every rising of temperature, relative moisture reduces by 5%, in the temperature range of 5 ~ 10 DEG C, 1 DEG C of the every rising of temperature, relative moisture reduces by 3%~4%.When relative moisture is too large in booth, can take the method for ventilating to reduce air humidity.It should be noted that ventilation wet down is as the criterion not affect temperature of shed.
5.2.2 pour water.In booth irrigation should take gradation in turn the method for hole irrigation carry out, in order to avoid to cause in canopy that air humidity increases excessive because irrigating, or significantly reduce soil temperature because irrigating.
5.3 flower and fruit management
5.3.1 dredge flower bud fruit thinning.Thin flower bud generally carries out before blooming, and is mainly little Hua and the malformed flower removing on thin and delicate fruit branch, on every bouquet shape fruit branch, retains 2~3 full, healthy and strong buds [5].Fruit thinning generally carries out after physiological fallen fruit, fruitlet, malformed fruit and painted bad lower ghlory flower be removed.General 1 bouquet shape fruit branch stays 3 ~ 4 fruits, maximum 4 ~ 5.
5.3.2 promote fruit color.1. priming leaf.In rationally pruning, improvement hat, on the basis of ventilation and penetrating light condition, will block the blade removal of fruit bath light in the fruit color phase.Blade on fruit branch has important function to flower bud differentiation, must guard against priming leaf overweight.2. lay reflectorized material.Front 10 ~ the 15d of fruit harvesting, lay reflex film under tree crown, to strengthen the bath light path degree of fruit, promotes fruit color.
5.3.3 prevent dehiscent fruit.1. stable soil water regime.At cherry fruit stone phase to the 2 Growth spurts, make the soil moisture content that 10~30cm is dark be stabilized in 12% left and right.2. spraying calcium salt before gathering.1 0.299% liquid calcium chloride of spraying weekly before fruit picking, sprays 3 times altogether, can increase the soluble solid content in fruit, reduces dehiscent fruit rate.
6 remove the administrative skill after film
After fruit harvesting, remove canopy film.Weeding in time, imposes composite fertilizer, and waters in time.When rainfall is larger, note garden internal drainage, prevent damage caused by waterlogging [6].To conscientiously carry out the summer management after fruit picking, remove upright, prosperous long shoot as far as possible.Take the method for pinching, control the growth force of branch of repeatedly growing well, make to set body and keep the golden mean of the Confucian school.Note carrying out control and the fertilizing in autumn of damage by disease and insect, to improve the stored nutrient level of tree body simultaneously.
6.1 the extermination of disease and insect pest
Early or mid June (bud form phase) is is mainly prevented and treated the insect pests such as red neck longicorn, scale insect, two spotted spider mite and leaf diseases, gummosis etc.Mainly prevent and treat insect pest and the leaf diseases such as oriental moth, boat-shaped caterpillar, oriental fruit moth in late June to August (young sprout vegetative period).
6.2 autumn basal dressings
9-October (slow vegetative period of young sprout), autumn basal dressing, taking farmyard manure as main (treelet 25 ~ 30kg/ strain, sets greatly 60kg/ strain), can mix appropriate composite fertilizer or trace element in conjunction with expanding cave.After autumn basal dressing, should water in time, cover grass.
Protect blade November (vegetative storage phase) and be the now work of most important, most critical.Want attention control early defoliation disease, in good time, water in right amount, prevent arid.Note the variation of weather, grasp the leaf fall period, within first 1 week, can spray 5% urea liquid what fall leaves, to increase tree body nutrient accumulation.
The invention reside in from field selection, kind selection, dense planting, button canopy, booth management, manage removing film, improve booth cherry high-yield high-efficiency cultivation technology, to promote planting benefit, benefit has improved 56%.

Claims (6)

1. a booth cherry cultivation method is characterized in that comprising temperature adjusting, humidity regulation, flower and fruit management, removes four key links of management after film.
2. a kind of temperature adjusting of booth cherry cultivation method is that (1) heats is to be mainly to utilize ferment material to improve soil temperature, impels temperature to raise as claimed in claim 1; (2) cooling is to take gravity-flow ventilation and 2 kinds of methods of artificial draft; (3) antifreeze is to take during canopy enclosing cover straw screen or mat, cold current in canopy the methods such as the outer fumigation of canopy before heating water, frost to prevent the generation of freeze injury.
3. a kind of humidity regulation of booth cherry cultivation method is that (1) ventilation is while taking to change temperature conditioned air humidity as claimed in claim 1, note suitably reducing air humidity, and temperature can raise; When in canopy, relative moisture is 100%, 1 DEG C of the every rising of temperature, relative moisture reduces by 5%, in the temperature range of 5~10 DEG C, 1 DEG C of the every rising of temperature, relative moisture reduces by 3%~4%; When relative moisture is too large in booth, can take the method for ventilating to reduce air humidity, it should be noted that ventilation wet down is as the criterion not affect temperature of shed; (2) pour water be in booth irrigation should take gradation in turn the method for hole irrigation carry out, in order to avoid to cause in canopy that air humidity increases excessive because irrigating, or significantly reduce soil temperature because irrigating.
4. a kind of flower and fruit management of booth cherry cultivation method is as claimed in claim 1
(1) dredging flower bud fruit thinning is to dredge flower bud generally before blooming, to carry out, and is mainly little Hua and the malformed flower removing on thin and delicate fruit branch, on every bouquet shape fruit branch, retains 2~3 full, healthy and strong buds; Fruit thinning generally carries out after physiological fallen fruit, fruitlet, malformed fruit and painted bad lower ghlory flower be removed; General 1 bouquet shape fruit branch stays 3~4 fruits, maximum 4~5;
(2) promote 1. priming leaf of fruit color: in rationally pruning, improvement hat, on the basis of ventilation and penetrating light condition, will block the blade removal of fruit bath light in the fruit color phase; Blade on fruit branch has important function to flower bud differentiation, must guard against priming leaf overweight; 2. lay reflectorized material: front 10~15 d of fruit harvesting, lay reflex film under tree crown, to strengthen the bath light path degree of fruit, promotes fruit color;
(3) prevent dehiscent fruit: 1. stable soil water regime, at cherry fruit stone phase to the 2 Growth spurts, make the soil moisture content that 10~30 cm are dark be stabilized in 12% left and right.2. spraying calcium salt before gathering.1 0.299% liquid calcium chloride of spraying weekly before fruit picking, sprays 3 times altogether, can increase the soluble solid content in fruit, reduces dehiscent fruit rate.
5. a kind of management of removing after film of booth cherry cultivation method is after fruit harvesting as claimed in claim 1, removes canopy film.Weeding in time, imposes composite fertilizer, and waters in time; To conscientiously carry out the summer management after fruit picking, remove upright, prosperous long shoot as far as possible; Take the method for pinching, control the growth force of branch of repeatedly growing well, make to set body and keep the golden mean of the Confucian school; Note carrying out control and the fertilizing in autumn of damage by disease and insect, to improve the stored nutrient level of tree body simultaneously.
6. a kind of autumn basal dressing of booth cherry cultivation method is that 9~October (slow vegetative period of young sprout) is in conjunction with expanding cave as claimed in claim 1, autumn basal dressing, taking farmyard manure as main (treelet 25~30 kg/ strains, large tree 60 kg/ strains), mix composite fertilizer or trace element, after autumn basal dressing, should water in time, cover grass.
CN201310070367.6A 2013-03-05 2013-03-05 Greenhouse cherry cultivation method Pending CN104025830A (en)

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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104285697A (en) * 2014-09-28 2015-01-21 赵青娇 Method for accelerating reddening of fruits of guinea peppers through light source
CN105027962A (en) * 2015-09-08 2015-11-11 洱源县印象林果庄园有限公司 Root and crown controlling cultivation method for large cherry trees
CN106234126A (en) * 2016-08-09 2016-12-21 贵州中魁农业(集团)泽美园林绿化有限公司 The cultural method of booth Fructus Pruni pseudocerasi
CN106386370A (en) * 2016-12-05 2017-02-15 重庆果之王园艺有限公司 Rain-sheltering cultivation method of Chinese cherries in southern China
CN106613619A (en) * 2016-10-13 2017-05-10 合肥润雨农业科技有限公司 Method for preventing cherry fruit cracking
CN106941992A (en) * 2017-02-17 2017-07-14 金寨胜达农业科技有限公司 A kind of method for improving cherry percentage of fertile fruit
CN107996249A (en) * 2017-12-08 2018-05-08 阜阳市鸿业生态农业科技有限公司 A kind of administrative skill after peach fruit harvesting
CN111183846A (en) * 2020-01-21 2020-05-22 南京信息工程大学 Regulation and control method for improving sugar content of southern facility grape fruits
CN111919657A (en) * 2020-09-16 2020-11-13 河北垣道农业开发有限公司 Greenhouse ecological cherry cultivation method

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104285697A (en) * 2014-09-28 2015-01-21 赵青娇 Method for accelerating reddening of fruits of guinea peppers through light source
CN105027962A (en) * 2015-09-08 2015-11-11 洱源县印象林果庄园有限公司 Root and crown controlling cultivation method for large cherry trees
CN105027962B (en) * 2015-09-08 2017-05-03 洱源县印象林果庄园有限公司 Root and crown controlling cultivation method for large cherry trees
CN106234126A (en) * 2016-08-09 2016-12-21 贵州中魁农业(集团)泽美园林绿化有限公司 The cultural method of booth Fructus Pruni pseudocerasi
CN106613619A (en) * 2016-10-13 2017-05-10 合肥润雨农业科技有限公司 Method for preventing cherry fruit cracking
CN106386370A (en) * 2016-12-05 2017-02-15 重庆果之王园艺有限公司 Rain-sheltering cultivation method of Chinese cherries in southern China
CN106941992A (en) * 2017-02-17 2017-07-14 金寨胜达农业科技有限公司 A kind of method for improving cherry percentage of fertile fruit
CN107996249A (en) * 2017-12-08 2018-05-08 阜阳市鸿业生态农业科技有限公司 A kind of administrative skill after peach fruit harvesting
CN111183846A (en) * 2020-01-21 2020-05-22 南京信息工程大学 Regulation and control method for improving sugar content of southern facility grape fruits
CN111919657A (en) * 2020-09-16 2020-11-13 河北垣道农业开发有限公司 Greenhouse ecological cherry cultivation method

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