CN104285659B - Organic tea cultivation method - Google Patents

Organic tea cultivation method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104285659B
CN104285659B CN201410585446.5A CN201410585446A CN104285659B CN 104285659 B CN104285659 B CN 104285659B CN 201410585446 A CN201410585446 A CN 201410585446A CN 104285659 B CN104285659 B CN 104285659B
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tea
soil
tree
control
place
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CN104285659A (en
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王春红
潘云芳
吴德清
段贵生
潘卫平
王裕杰
潘晶
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LIYANG JINQUAN ECOLOGICAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY PARK CO., LTD.
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Liyang Jinquan Ecological Science & Technology Park Co Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01MCATCHING, TRAPPING OR SCARING OF ANIMALS; APPARATUS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF NOXIOUS ANIMALS OR NOXIOUS PLANTS
    • A01M1/00Stationary means for catching or killing insects
    • A01M1/02Stationary means for catching or killing insects with devices or substances, e.g. food, pheronones attracting the insects
    • A01M1/04Attracting insects by using illumination or colours
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01MCATCHING, TRAPPING OR SCARING OF ANIMALS; APPARATUS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF NOXIOUS ANIMALS OR NOXIOUS PLANTS
    • A01M99/00Subject matter not provided for in other groups of this subclass
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F5/00Fertilisers from distillery wastes, molasses, vinasses, sugar plant or similar wastes or residues, e.g. from waste originating from industrial processing of raw material of agricultural origin or derived products thereof
    • C05F5/002Solid waste from mechanical processing of material, e.g. seed coats, olive pits, almond shells, fruit residue, rice hulls

Abstract

A kind of organic tea cultivation method, is characterized in that it comprises base selection, construction of base, tea tree planting, fertilising, damage by disease and insect bionomic control and tea bush trimmer.Present invention achieves nuisanceless organic farming, meet national green environmental requirement, the tealeaves produced can meet the strictest detection of any developed country.The present invention creatively realizes nuisanceless worm of controlling, by discharging the resistance against diseases of fertilizer and rational layout raising tea tree by methods such as light trap, ladybug control and bird predations first.The green non-pollution tealeaves that the present invention produces has that mouthfeel is good, output is high, high yield durations can reach more than 50 years, and be far longer than 10 traditional annual periods, economic benefit is fairly obvious.

Description

Organic tea cultivation method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of agriculture production technology, the planting technology of especially a kind of tea tree, specifically a kind of organic tea cultivation method not using chemical fertilizer and chemical pesticide.
Background technology
At present, most of tea grower is in order to pursue high efficiency, chemistry fertilising is generally adopted to hasten parturition with agricultural chemicals deinsectization to improve the output of tealeaves, increase economic benefit, but use chemical fertilizer to make soil compaction, impel water and soil loss, affect the product tea amount of next year, can only by adding fertilizer amount, produce vicious circle, the quality and yield of tealeaves is declined, use agricultural chemicals deinsectization then can produce serious residue of pesticide, insect is developed immunity to drugs, tealeaves containing residue of pesticide can have a strong impact on the healthy of drinking person, regular channel sales and outlet cannot be carried out, affect the existence of tea grower, therefore invention one does not add chemical fertilizer, the novel tree plant cultivation method not using chemical agent to carry out pest control realizes sustainable development, meet the task of top priority of ecological, environmental protective requirement.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is the problem affecting environment and ecology for generally needing in existing tree plant cultivation process to use chemical fertilizer and agricultural chemicals, invention one does not add chemical fertilizer, does not use chemical agent to carry out the organic tea cultivation method of pest control.
Technical scheme of the present invention is:
A kind of organic tea cultivation method, is characterized in that it comprises base selection, construction of base, tea tree planting, fertilising, damage by disease and insect bionomic control and tea bush trimmer, wherein:
Described base is selected to refer to:
Selection mountain shape is high, precipitous dangerous mountain, in a northerly direction; Soil is advisable with the easy-weathering stone sandy loam of gas permeability, and temperature is-8 DEG C to 38 DEG C;
Described construction of base comprises:
(1) rational roadnet is set around selected base, comprises main stem, by-path and ground slubbing; Main stem will be connected with the main line of communication, is convenient to mechanical transport;
(2) water conservancy system of Erecting and improving, because tea place is built in high mountain will do multiplely naturally connect rain water reservoir, ditch system is supporting, build isolating trenches, longitudinal furrow, traverse furrow and the retaining pool, will be provided with the retaining pond for biological deinsectization that area is not less than integral basis ground area 5% in base;
(3) tea place surrounding or the afforestation of vacant lot, tea place; The surrounding in tea place should build shelter forest, main roads, irrigation canals and ditches both sides plantation street tree;
(4) in tea place should the fragrant camphor tree of intercropping, sweet osmanthus class mobile jib obviously, degree of shading is moderate, the seeds that should not infect damage by disease and insect; In order to improve quality and yield, tea tree tea place will be built forest network and arrange; Set up defences and protect a forest, major-minor is alternate, establishes a master tape every 300 meters, establishes a secondary forestry band, major forest width 15 meters, secondary woods width 2 meters for 150 meters; Seeds: fragrant camphor tree, beech tree and shank relative; Street tree is planted; Main by-path both sides, plant trees in drain ditch; Tree of shading is planted to prevent severe winter (less than-8 DEG C) and high temperature (38 DEG C) extreme temperature to the injury of tea tree in the block of garden;
Described tea tree planting comprises:
(1) ditch wholely; Tea place answers contour to open up wasteland;
(2) adopt the two strain bar of single file mode of planting to plant, plantation furrow width (30 ~ 40) cm, dark (20 ~ 30) cm, abolishes and sticks to the pan layer, vegetable soil;
(3) should apply fertilizer to the subsoil before plantation; Execute soya-bean cake 3-5 kilogram every mu, a point layer 2-4 applies, and the base fertilizer degree of depth is at (20 ~ 30) cm at every turn.
(4) plant; The old tea place of plantation in the past, should plough deeply new soil; During tea shoot field planting, tea shoot root system is from more than base fertilizer 10cm, and collar is from soil table distance about 3-5cm; During cultivation seedling, a hand pinches tea shoot, the pool, the cave spud that an other hand is being accomplished fluently digs darker, seedling is positioned in little soil pit, covers into half soil, then little sapling is upwards mentioned gently, root system is allowed to unfold, again soil is tracked tramping, later earthing again, again track tramping the new soil of tea shoot surrounding, earthing again, tamps root with hoe; Treat that the whole field planting of a line tea seedling is good, check; Both feet adopt the both sides at seedling, adopt in a road, and after the soil on tea shoot both sides tracks tramping, two fingers are clutched tea shoot and are unable to lift; After having planted tea shoot, drawing water toward mountain top with high-pressure pump at once, to irrigate tea capable; Later hilling successively: with spud from every row top plane 1-2 centimetre wide, the soil of 5 cm thicks, to lower often row tea tree limit, goes round and begins again; There is strawman work to pull out, can not prevent and treat with chemical drugs;
(5) after tea shoot field planting, water sufficient normal root water, and prune, height is to stay (7 ~ 8) sheet leaf to be advisable; Short pinching is adopted;
Described fertilising comprises soil management and tea place fertilising, and improved the soil conservation water-holding capacity in tea place by regular hilling measure, tea bush trimmer branches and leaves also garden carry out fertilizing soil; Prohibit the use soil chemistry modifying agent; Tea place fertilization principle is according to soil physico-chemical property, tea tree habit, estimated output, tea making type and weather conditions, the principle of a small amount of many fertilises, spring not handy any fertilizer, first time topdress pluck in spring then terminate after by the end of April ~ the first tenday period of a month in May, based on cake fertilizer, trench digging applies, more than fertilization depth 20cm, with every 667m 2execute colza cake and be no less than 80kg, second time fertilising is ditched in annual season in the beginning of autumn and is applied, ditch depth about 15cm, every 667m 2execute colza cake and be no less than 60kg,
Described damage by disease and insect bionomic control refers to:
Adhere to putting prevention first, the principle of integrated control, strict control uses chemical pesticide, advocates cultural control, physical control and biological control; Cultural control, by harvesting, pruning, the capable hilling of tea and tea place deep ploughing measure, reduces the generation of diseases and pests of tea tree; Physical control utilizes the taxis of insect, traps and kills; Or with worm worm, throw in pest natural enemy in a large number; Utilize manual method management of weeds;
Described tea bush trimmer refers to:
Annual pruning once, is carried out after spring tea is terminated;
Adopt that sizing is pruned respectively according to the age of tree of tea tree, growing way and pruning object, light pruning and deepling prune; (20 centimetres high, and deficiency can be pinched and be adopted) is pruned in sizing, and annual clip improves 3cm; Light pruning, is advisable to cut off last year summer shoot in principle;
Trimming leaf is stayed in tea place, in order to fertilizing soil; Sick branch bar and thick dry branch should clear out of garden.
Tea shoot plantation will should be newly planted in easy-weathering stone seam when base is selected.
Described artificial trapping refers to the phototaxis utilizing moth, in the pool of the biological deinsectization of tea place lowest part, light source is set, caused by moth in pool and make it overboard, utilize the moth that the fish predation in pool is overboard, the quantity that minimizing moth lays eggs on tea tree carries out killing of aphid.
Described input pest natural enemy refers to and utilizes ladybug to carry out biological deinsectization, first ladybug is tamed, first catch Pediobius foveolatus and feed with aphid common in tealeaves, tea geometrid and blue or green worm, tea place is put into after ladybug is adapted to, namely offspring after its breeding has the biological nature of specially eating budworm, tea geometrid and blue or green worm, according to the reproductive characteristic of tea place area and ladybug, the ladybug specially eating budworm, tea geometrid and blue or green worm selecting the ladybug of right quantity just can breed in 1 year to meet the demands, realizes the biological control of the maximum insect pest of tea tree.
The described extermination of disease and insect pest also comprises animal control, utilize bird, control that sparrow carries out insect, specific practice be winter bird, sparrow food rare time throw in cereal at tea place periphery, make bird, sparrow generation food source dependence, when in spring tea place, insect pest occurs, bird can preferentially catch the insect of getting in tea place, thus realizes animal control.
Beneficial effect of the present invention:
Present invention achieves nuisanceless organic farming, meet national green environmental requirement, the tealeaves produced can meet the strictest detection of any developed country.
The present invention creatively realizes nuisanceless worm of controlling, by discharging the resistance against diseases of fertilizer and rational layout raising tea tree by methods such as light trap, ladybug control and bird predations first.
The green non-pollution tealeaves that the present invention produces has that mouthfeel is good, output is high, high yield durations can reach more than 50 years, and be far longer than 10 traditional annual periods, economic benefit is fairly obvious.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment, the present invention is further illustrated.
A kind of organic tea cultivation method, it comprises base selection, construction of base, tea tree planting, fertilising, damage by disease and insect bionomic control and tea bush trimmer, wherein:
Described base is selected to refer to:
Selection mountain shape is high, precipitous dangerous mountain, in a northerly direction; Soil is advisable with the easy-weathering stone sandy loam of gas permeability, and temperature is-8 DEG C to 38 DEG C;
Described construction of base comprises:
(1) rational roadnet is set around selected base, comprises main stem, by-path and ground slubbing; Main stem will be connected with the main line of communication, is convenient to mechanical transport;
(2) water conservancy system of Erecting and improving, because tea place is built in high mountain will do multiplely naturally connect rain water reservoir, ditch system is supporting, build isolating trenches, longitudinal furrow, traverse furrow and the retaining pool, will be provided with at base lowest part the pool for biological deinsectization that an area is not less than integral basis ground area 1%;
(3) tea place surrounding or the afforestation of vacant lot, tea place; The surrounding in tea place should build shelter forest, main roads, irrigation canals and ditches both sides plantation street tree;
(4) in tea place should the fragrant camphor tree of intercropping, sweet osmanthus class mobile jib obviously, degree of shading is moderate, the seeds that should not infect damage by disease and insect; In order to improve quality and yield, tea tree tea place will be built forest network and arrange; Set up defences and protect a forest, major-minor is alternate, establishes a master tape every 300 meters, establishes a secondary forestry band, major forest width 15 meters, secondary woods width 2 meters for 150 meters; Seeds: sweet osmanthus, fragrant camphor tree, beech tree and shank relative; Street tree is planted; Main by-path both sides, plant trees in drain ditch; Plant in the block of garden and shade tree (as: Liriodendron chinense, paulownia etc.) to prevent severe winter (less than-8 DEG C) and high temperature (38 DEG C) extreme temperature to the injury of tea tree;
Described tea tree planting comprises:
(1) ditch wholely; Tea place answers contour to open up wasteland;
(2) adopt the two strain 150cm × 15cm bar of single file mode of planting to plant, plantation furrow width (30 ~ 40) cm, dark (20 ~ 30) cm, abolishes and sticks to the pan layer, vegetable soil;
(3) should apply fertilizer to the subsoil before plantation; Execute soya-bean cake 3-5 kilogram every mu, Pei Shi NPK composite fertilizer 7.5kg at every turn; Divide layer 2-4 to apply, the base fertilizer degree of depth is at (20 ~ 30) cm.
(4) plant; The old tea place of plantation in the past, should plough deeply new soil; During tea shoot field planting, tea shoot root system is from more than base fertilizer 10cm, and collar is from soil table distance about 3-5cm; During cultivation seedling, a hand pinches tea shoot, the pool, the cave spud that an other hand is being accomplished fluently digs darker, seedling is positioned in little soil pit, covers into half soil, then little sapling is upwards mentioned gently, root system is allowed to unfold, again soil is tracked tramping, later earthing again, again track tramping the new soil of tea shoot surrounding, earthing again, tamps root with hoe; Treat that the whole field planting of a line tea seedling is good, check; Both feet adopt the both sides at seedling, adopt in a road, and after the soil on tea shoot both sides tracks tramping, two fingers are clutched tea shoot and are unable to lift; After having planted tea shoot, drawing water toward mountain top with high-pressure pump at once, to irrigate tea capable; Later hilling successively: with spud from every row top plane 1-2 centimetre wide, the soil of 5 cm thicks, to lower often row tea tree limit, goes round and begins again; There is strawman work to pull out, can not prevent and treat with chemical drugs;
(5) after tea shoot field planting, water sufficient normal root water, and prune, height is to stay (7 ~ 8) sheet leaf to be advisable; Short pinching is adopted;
Described fertilising comprises soil management and tea place fertilising, and improved the soil conservation water-holding capacity in tea place by regular hilling measure, tea bush trimmer branches and leaves also garden carry out fertilizing soil; Prohibit the use soil chemistry modifying agent; Tea place fertilization principle is according to soil physico-chemical property, tea tree habit, estimated output, tea making type and weather conditions, the principle of a small amount of many fertilises, spring not handy any fertilizer, particularly nitrogenous fertilizer vernalization; First time topdress pluck in spring then terminate after by the end of April ~ the first tenday period of a month in May, based on cake fertilizer (soya-bean cake or dish cake), trench digging applies, more than fertilization depth 20cm, with every 667m 2execute colza cake and be no less than 80kg, second time fertilising is ditched in annual season in the beginning of autumn and is applied, ditch depth about 15cm, every 667m 2execute colza cake and be no less than 60kg.
Described damage by disease and insect bionomic control refers to:
Adhere to putting prevention first, the principle of integrated control, strict control uses chemical pesticide, advocates cultural control, physical control and biological control; Cultural control, by harvesting, pruning, the capable hilling of tea and tea place deep ploughing measure, reduces the generation of diseases and pests of tea tree; Physical control utilizes the taxis of insect, traps and kills; Or with worm worm, throw in pest natural enemy in a large number; Utilize manual method management of weeds; Described trapping refers to the phototaxis utilizing moth, in the pool of the biological deinsectization in tea place, light source is set, caused by moth in pool and make it overboard, utilize the moth that the fish predation in pool is overboard, the quantity that minimizing moth lays eggs on tea tree carries out killing of aphid.Described input pest natural enemy refers to and utilizes ladybug to carry out biological deinsectization, first ladybug is tamed, first catch Pediobius foveolatus and feed with aphid common in tealeaves, tea geometrid and blue or green worm, tea place is put into after ladybug is adapted to, namely offspring after its breeding has the biological nature of specially eating budworm, tea geometrid and blue or green worm, according to the reproductive characteristic of tea place area and ladybug, the ladybug specially eating budworm, tea geometrid and blue or green worm selecting the ladybug of right quantity just can breed in 1 year to meet the demands, realizes the biological control of the maximum insect pest of tea tree.The described extermination of disease and insect pest also comprises animal control, utilize bird, control that sparrow carries out insect, specific practice throws in cereal when winter, sparrow food was rare at tea place periphery, make bird, sparrow generation food source dependence, when in spring tea place, insect pest occurs, bird, sparrow can preferentially catch the insect of getting in tea place, thus realize animal control.
Described tea bush trimmer refers to:
Annual pruning once, is carried out after spring tea is terminated;
Adopt that sizing is pruned respectively according to the age of tree of tea tree, growing way and pruning object, light pruning and deepling prune; (20 centimetres high, and deficiency can be pinched and be adopted) is pruned in sizing, and annual clip improves 3cm; Light pruning, is advisable to cut off last year summer shoot in principle;
Trimming leaf is stayed in tea place, in order to fertilizing soil; Sick branch bar and thick dry branch should clear out of garden.
Tea shoot plantation will should be newly planted in easy-weathering stone seam when base is selected.
Below in conjunction with an example, the present invention is further illustrated.
Jin Quan garden mountain shape is grand, and mound mountains in a range rise and fall, and forest drips kingfisher, grows green and fresh, and in length and breadth, with the humid air, fertile soil, organic matter enrich river stream, are the ground of the ideal of growth of tea plant.Ecological tea garden four seasons cloud and mist curls up, and surrounding scrub forest surrounds.Garden finds that a tea tree is tender especially golden yellow, and by branch cutting, quality is special.Its No. 1, white leaf in Anji, source, its quality surpasses it, and also surpass the yellow tea in Anji, name is called No. 1, Tianshan Mountains Jin Quan.The characteristic and speciality of it mountain gold spring No. 1: the new ending newly grown spring is divided into tender golden yellow again like light yellow, after slowly whole strain to tenderize golden yellow, its look more bright-coloured compared with other tea is pleasing.Vein is emerald green, and summer and autumn is green, and fine hair is medium, two leaves and a bud weighs 13.5 grams, and bud-leaf fertility is medium, and it is very strong that leaf of sprouting then holds tender property, yield poorly, spring tea amino acid content 8.5-13.9%, the yellow tea in Anji is containing 6.19-13%, the white tea in Anji is containing 5.0-10.0%(Zhejiang University, middle tea institute) it is applicable to green tea processed, the dry tea made, the more aobvious tender golden yellow of color and luster, delicate fragrance is lasting, and like a white clouds in cup for infusing and steeping, flavour is fresh especially refreshing, at the bottom of leaf, beautiful white, as clear as crystal bright, has much characteristic!
A kind of sky mountain gold spring No. 1 organic white tea cultivation method, it comprises base selection, construction of base, tea tree planting, fertilising, damage by disease and insect bionomic control, tea bush trimmer and harvesting.
1. base is selected
1.1 Site environment conditions should meet the requirement of local environment standard.
1.2 should select mountain shape high, more precipitous dangerous mountain, and in a northerly direction, long is better.Level land and depression must not be selected.
1.3 soil are advisable with the easy-weathering stone sandy loam of gas permeability.New cultivation tea shoot length is relatively good in easy-weathering stone seam.
1.4 Annual lowest climate temperature are-8 DEG C, and the maximum air temperature is 38 DEG C.
2. construction of base
2.1 arrange rational roadnet according to base, comprise main stem, by-path and ground slubbing.Main stem will be connected with the main line of communication, is convenient to mechanical transport.
The water conservancy system of 2.2 Erecting and improvings, because tea place is built in high mountain will do multiplely naturally connect rain water reservoir, as: put a large water vat every one section, accomplishing can accumulation of energy row.Ditch system is supporting, mainly comprises isolating trenches, longitudinal furrow, traverse furrow and the retaining pool.The biology trapping retaining pond of the tea place gross area 5% should be not less than at tea place design area in order to realize biological control.
2.3 tea place surroundings or the afforestation of vacant lot, tea place.The surrounding in tea place should build shelter forest, main roads, irrigation canals and ditches both sides plantation street tree.
In 2.4 tea places should mobile jib such as intercropping fragrant camphor tree, sweet osmanthus etc. obviously, degree of shading is moderate, the seeds that should not infect damage by disease and insect.And the high and low black shade of all wanting of yellow tea temperature, this tree is not.But in order to improve quality and yield, this tea tree tea place will be built forest network and arrange.Set up defences and protect a forest, major-minor is alternate.Establish a major-minor band every 300 meters, establish a secondary forestry band, major forest width 15 meters, secondary woods width 2 meters for 150 meters.Seeds: the street trees such as fragrant camphor tree, beech tree, shank relative are planted.Main by-path both sides, plants trees in the places such as drain ditch.Tree of shading is planted in the block of garden.As: Liriodendron chinense, paulownia etc., shade mainly for severe winter (less than-8 DEG C) and high temperature (38 DEG C) above extreme temperature.
3. tea tree planting
3.1 ditch wholely
3.2 tea places answer contour to open up wasteland, and according to the different gradients and landform, select corresponding period, method and construction technology.
3.2.1 adopt the two strain 150cm × 15cm bar of single file mode of planting to plant, plantation furrow width (30 ~ 40) cm, dark (20 ~ 30) cm, abolishes and sticks to the pan layer, vegetable soil.
3.2.2 plant before planting and should apply fertilizer to the subsoil, with principle of having many meals but little food at eath.Each fertilising 10-20 kilogram of every mu of layering applies, and the base fertilizer degree of depth is at (20 ~ 30) cm.
Plant for 3.3 kinds
The old tea place of plantation in the past, should plough deeply new soil.
3.3.1, during tea shoot field planting, tea shoot root system is from more than base fertilizer 10cm, and collar is from soil table distance about 3-5cm.Plantation sky mountain gold spring No. 1 tea tree method: during cultivation seedling, a hand pinches tea shoot, the pool, the cave spud that an other hand is being accomplished fluently digs darker, seedling is positioned in little soil pit, covers into half soil, then little sapling is upwards mentioned gently, root system is allowed to unfold, again soil is tracked tramping, later earthing again, again track tramping the new soil of tea shoot surrounding, earthing again, tamps root with hoe.Treat that the whole field planting of a line tea seedling is good, check.Both feet adopt the both sides at seedling, adopt in a road, and after the soil on tea shoot both sides tracks tramping, two fingers are clutched tea shoot and are unable to lift.After having planted tea shoot, drawing water toward mountain top with high-pressure pump at once, to irrigate tea capable.Later hilling successively.Specific as follows: with spud from every row top plane 1-2 centimetre wide, the soil of 5 cm thicks, to lower often row tea tree limit, goes round and begins again.Pull out by strawman work, must not chemical drugs control.
3.3.2 after tea shoot field planting, water sufficient normal root water, and prune, height is to stay (7 ~ 8) sheet leaf to be advisable.Short pinching is adopted.
4, tea garden management
4.1 soil management
4.1.1 the measure such as hilling improves the soil conservation water-holding capacity in tea place, tea bush trimmer branches and leaves also garden.
4.1.2 fertilizing soil and preventing erosion, prohibits the use soil chemistry modifying agent.
4.2 tea place fertilisings
4.2.1 fertilization principle
According to conditions such as soil physico-chemical property, sky mountain gold spring No. 1 tea tree habit, estimated output, tea making type and weathers, eat the principle of fertilizer on a small quantity more.Spring not handy any fertilizer,
4.2.2 fertilizer nutrient
4.2.3 time and method
4.2.3.1 first time fertilizer, in spring then pluck terminate after by the end of April ~ the first tenday period of a month in May, based on cake fertilizer, trench digging applies, more than fertilization depth 20cm.General every 667m 2execute colza cake 100kg(and must not be less than 80 kilograms),
4.2.3.2 second time fertilizer, annual autumn trench digging applies, ditch depth about 15cm, every 667m 2execute colza cake 80(and be no less than 60 kilograms) kg,
4.3 disease, worm, prevention and control of weeds
4.3.1 control principle
Adhere to putting prevention first, the principle of integrated control, physical control and biological control.
4.3.2 cultural control
By agricultural measures such as harvesting, pruning, the capable hilling of tea, tea place deep ploughings, reduce the generation of diseases and pests of tea tree.
4.3.3 physical control
4.3.3.1 utilize the taxis of insect, carry out light trap.Or with worm worm, throw in pest natural enemy in a large number.Example: ladybug eats aphid, throws in ladybug more.Or utilize bird to carry out predation insect.
4.3.3.2 utilize manual method management of weeds.
4.4 tea bush trimmer
4.4.1 annual 1 time, carry out after spring tea is terminated.
4.4.2 adopt that sizing is pruned respectively according to the age of tree of tea tree, growing way and pruning object, light pruning and deepling prune.(20 centimetres high, and deficiency can be pinched and be adopted) is pruned in sizing, and annual clip improves 3cm; Light pruning, is advisable to cut off last year summer shoot in principle.
4.4.3 trimming leaf is stayed in tea place, in order to fertilizing soil.Sick branch bar and thick dry branch should clear out of garden.
5. leaf picking and harvesting approach
5.1 pluck principle
According to growth of tea plant characteristic and the dry tea of processing to the requirement of fresh leaf, follow to adopt and stay combinations, measure matter and take into account and because of the principle of garden suiting measures to different conditions, pluck according to standard in good time.
5.1.2 plucking time
One bud one leaf, two leaves are carried out, leaf look starts when turning light yellow to pluck.
5.1.3 harvesting approach
Results: manually pluck.
5.1.4 requirement is plucked
Carry by hand and adopting, keep bud-leaf complete, fresh uniform, must not smooth out with the fingers to adopt and grab and adopt.
5.1.5 instrument is held
Adopt clean, performance of ventilating is good bamboo weaving, mesh tea basket or the fresh leaf of basket basket splendid attire.Cloth bag must not be used, plastic sack holds; Fresh leaf directly delivers to processing factory.
The part that the present invention does not relate to prior art that maybe can adopt all same as the prior art is realized.

Claims (5)

1. an organic tea cultivation method, is characterized in that it comprises base selection, construction of base, tea tree planting, fertilising, damage by disease and insect bionomic control and tea bush trimmer, wherein:
Described base is selected to refer to:
Selection mountain shape is high, precipitous dangerous mountain, in a northerly direction; Soil is advisable with the easy-weathering stone sandy loam of gas permeability, and temperature is-8 DEG C to 38 DEG C;
Described construction of base comprises:
(1) rational roadnet is set around selected base, comprises main stem, by-path and ground slubbing; Main stem will be connected with the main line of communication, is convenient to mechanical transport;
(2) water conservancy system of Erecting and improving, because tea place is built in high mountain will do multiplely naturally connect rain water reservoir, ditch system is supporting, build isolating trenches, longitudinal furrow, traverse furrow and the retaining pool, will be provided with at base lowest part the pool for biological deinsectization that an area is not less than integral basis ground area 5%;
(3) tea place surrounding or the afforestation of vacant lot, tea place; The surrounding in tea place should build shelter forest, main roads, irrigation canals and ditches both sides plantation street tree;
(4) in tea place should the fragrant camphor tree of intercropping, sweet osmanthus class mobile jib obviously, degree of shading is moderate, the seeds that should not infect damage by disease and insect; In order to improve quality and yield, tea tree tea place will be built forest network and arrange; Set up defences and protect a forest, major-minor is alternate, establishes a master tape every 300 meters, establishes a secondary forestry band, major forest width 15 meters, secondary woods width 2 meters for 150 meters; Seeds: fragrant camphor tree, beech tree and shank relative; Street tree is planted; Main by-path both sides, plant trees in drain ditch; Tree of shading is planted to prevent less than-8 DEG C severe winters and 38 DEG C of high temperature to the injury of tea tree in the block of garden;
Described tea tree planting comprises:
(1) ditch wholely; Tea place answers contour to open up wasteland;
(2) adopt the two strain bar of single file mode of planting to plant, plantation furrow width 30 ~ 40cm, dark 20 ~ 30cm, abolishes and sticks to the pan layer, vegetable soil;
(3) should apply fertilizer to the subsoil before plantation; Execute soya-bean cake 3-5 kilogram every mu, Pei Shi NPK composite fertilizer 7.5kg at every turn; Divide layer 2-4 to apply, the base fertilizer degree of depth is at 20 ~ 30cm;
(4) plant; The old tea place of plantation in the past, should plough deeply new soil; During tea shoot field planting, tea shoot root system is from more than base fertilizer 10cm, and collar is from soil table distance 3-5cm; During cultivation seedling, a hand pinches tea shoot, the pool, the cave spud that an other hand is being accomplished fluently digs darker, seedling is positioned in little soil pit, covers into half soil, then little sapling is upwards mentioned gently, root system is allowed to unfold, again soil is tracked tramping, later earthing again, again track tramping the new soil of tea shoot surrounding, earthing again, tamps root with hoe; Treat that the whole field planting of a line tea seedling is good, check; Both feet adopt the both sides at seedling, adopt in a road, and the soil on tea shoot both sides is adopted tightly, and two fingers are clutched tea shoot and are unable to lift; After having planted tea shoot, drawing water toward mountain top with high-pressure pump at once, to irrigate tea capable; Later hilling successively: with spud from every row top plane 1-2 centimetre wide, the soil of 5 cm thicks, to lower often row tea tree limit, goes round and begins again; There is strawman work to pull out, can not prevent and treat with chemical drugs;
(5) after tea shoot field planting, water sufficient normal root water, and prune, height is to stay 7 ~ 8 leaves to be advisable; Short pinching is adopted;
Described fertilising comprises soil management and tea place fertilising, and improved the soil conservation water-holding capacity in tea place by regular hilling measure, tea bush trimmer branches and leaves also garden carry out fertilizing soil; Prohibit the use soil chemistry modifying agent; Tea place fertilization principle is according to soil physico-chemical property, tea tree habit, estimated output, tea making type and weather conditions, the principle of a small amount of many fertilises, first time topdress pluck in spring then terminate after by the end of April ~ the first tenday period of a month in May, based on cake fertilizer, trench digging applies, more than fertilization depth 20cm, with every 667m 2execute colza cake and be no less than 80kg, second time fertilising is ditched in annual season in the beginning of autumn and is applied, ditch depth about 15cm, every 667m 2execute colza cake and be no less than 60kg, described damage by disease and insect bionomic control refers to: adhere to putting prevention first, the principle of integrated control, and strict control uses chemical pesticide, advocates cultural control, physical control and biological control; Cultural control, by harvesting, pruning, the capable hilling of tea and tea place deep ploughing measure, reduces the generation of diseases and pests of tea tree; Physical control utilizes the taxis of insect, traps and kills; Or with worm worm, throw in pest natural enemy in a large number; Utilize manual method management of weeds;
Described tea bush trimmer refers to: annual pruning once, is carried out after spring tea is terminated; Adopt that sizing is pruned respectively according to the age of tree of tea tree, growing way and pruning object, light pruning and deepling prune; Sizing pruning 20 centimetres is high, and deficiency then adopts to pinch and adopts, and annual clip improves 3cm; Light pruning, is advisable to cut off last year summer shoot in principle; Trimming leaf is stayed in tea place, in order to fertilizing soil; Sick branch bar and thick dry branch should clear out of garden.
2. method according to claim 1, will should newly plant tea shoot plantation in easy-weathering stone seam when it is characterized in that base is selected.
3. method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that described trapping refers to the phototaxis utilizing moth, in the pool of the biological deinsectization of tea place lowest part, light source is set, moth is caused in pool and make it overboard, utilize the moth that the fish predation in pool is overboard, reduce the quantity that moth lays eggs on tea tree.
4. method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that described input pest natural enemy refers to utilizes ladybug to carry out biological deinsectization, first ladybug is tamed, first catch Pediobius foveolatus and feed with aphid tea geometrid common in tealeaves and blue or green worm, tea place is put into after ladybug is adapted to, namely offspring after its breeding has and specially eats budworm, the biological nature of tea geometrid and blue or green worm, according to the reproductive characteristic of tea place area and ladybug, select right quantity ladybug children just can breed in 1 year can meet the demands specially eat budworm, the ladybug of tea geometrid and blue or green worm, realize the biological control of the maximum insect pest of tea tree.
5. method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that described damage by disease and insect bionomic control also comprises animal control, sparrow is utilized to carry out the control of insect, specific practice throws in cereal when winter, sparrow food was rare at tea place periphery, sparrow is made to produce food source dependence, when in spring tea place, insect pest occurs, sparrow can preferentially catch the insect of getting in tea place, thus realizes animal control.
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