CN106922459A - A kind of cultural method of agate red cherry - Google Patents

A kind of cultural method of agate red cherry Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106922459A
CN106922459A CN201511016884.0A CN201511016884A CN106922459A CN 106922459 A CN106922459 A CN 106922459A CN 201511016884 A CN201511016884 A CN 201511016884A CN 106922459 A CN106922459 A CN 106922459A
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China
Prior art keywords
branch
fruit
soil
tree
planting
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CN201511016884.0A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
周金忠
徐富军
刘健
丁昭斌
吴嵩
郑元红
牟东岭
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Nayong Wanshou Manaohonghong Cherry Co Ltd
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Nayong Wanshou Manaohonghong Cherry Co Ltd
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Application filed by Nayong Wanshou Manaohonghong Cherry Co Ltd filed Critical Nayong Wanshou Manaohonghong Cherry Co Ltd
Priority to CN201511016884.0A priority Critical patent/CN106922459A/en
Publication of CN106922459A publication Critical patent/CN106922459A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of cultural method of agate red cherry, the cultural method is comprised the following steps:Preparation, seedling planting, a work and sward, pruning, flower and fruit management and the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control before selection of seedling, planting density, Planting time, plant, the standardized production of agate red cherry is realized by this cultural method, the yield of cherry and quality is set to be effectively guaranteed, fruit quality is good, commercialized degree is high, and economic benefit is protected.

Description

A kind of cultural method of agate red cherry
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of cultural method of cherry, a kind of cultural method of agate red cherry is concretely related to.
Background technology
" agate red " cherry is the improved seeds of the seed selection from Bijie City sour cherry variation individual plant, and variety certification numbering is that fruit is examined in Guizhou Province【2011005】Number." agate red " cherry branch is sturdy, surface canescence, and orthostatic is strong, and opening degree is medium, and tree vigo(u)r is strong;Leaf color is dark green, oval, tapering, leaf carves shallow;Bud side is given birth to, floral white, every inflorescence little Hua 3~5, in raceme or fasciation shape;Fruit ellipse, pulp is thick, color it is scarlet it is beautiful, red in purple, shape such as agate thoroughly, mean fruit weight 4.3g, maximum single fruit weight 6.8g, color is purplish red gorgeous;Carpopodium 4.2cm long, fruit is difficult for drop-off;Fruit soluble solids content is 15.75%, soluble sugar 11.88%, titratable acid 7.5mol/100g, Catergen 2.578mg/100g, nutritious, sour-sweet moderate, local flavor is good, and quality is excellent, normal temperature lower storage period, the florescence continued 5-7 days up to 4 days, 50 days fruit development phases.
The plantation of traditional cherry can not formulate each link that corresponding production standard is come in specification Cherry Production, " living at the mercy of the elements " phenomenon is obvious, the yield and quality of cherry can not be effectively guaranteed, finally because technology is not in place, cause that fruit quality is poor, commercialized degree is low, economic benefit cannot be ensured.
The content of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide a kind of cultural method of agate red cherry, can not be effectively guaranteed with the yield and quality that solve the problems, such as existing cherry, fruit quality is poor, commercialized degree is low, economic benefit cannot be ensured.
To achieve these goals, the present invention is adopted the technical scheme that:A kind of cultural method of agate red cherry, the cultural method is comprised the following steps:
Selection of seedling:
Nursery stock requires thick more than the 0.8cm of stem, and 80cm high, shaping strip bud is full;Root system is good, has a 15cm big more than 3 long, disease-free, not damaged, without dehydrating phenomena, grafting plant, overhead layering seedling or horizontal press strip seedling without the harmful pest and disease damage of quarantine;
Planting density:
Seeding row spacing 2.5~5m × 3~4m;
Planting time:
The preferably autumn field planting of the good place of irrigation conditions;Winter is easily arid, windy, plant before the local spring nursery stock germination of irrigation conditions difference;
Prepare before plant:
Culture plan:Field is in the gentle hillside fields in level land using rectangle or square plant;Transplanted along horizontal tread in hillside fields;Level land building well, row is to being East and West direction;Hillside fields building well, goes to parallel with contour, while accomplishing along slope straight trip;
Soil prepares:Preceding crop stalk is first cleared up, planting pit or field planting trench are determined by the distance between rows and hills bracing wire of planning and designing, be that 0.6m excavates planting pit by each 0.8m of length and width, depth;Or by 0.8~10m wide, deep 0.6~0.8m, the field planting trench that length is walked depending on landform, the table soil for digging out, subsoil point put both sides;
Backfill before field planting:Often spread manuer in holes into 25~50kg of compost, bottom to 2/3 is inserted after being mixed with table soil, then will cheat raising with subsoil goes out 0.10~0.15m of earth's surface, and site preparation is completed for 3 months before field planting;
Seedling planting:
Seedling root is cleared up before field planting, wipe out injured root, it is then placed in soaking 1~2h of root in water, ABT rooting powder solution root dippings are used again, during plant shallow hole is dug on the planting pit for having backfilled, root system is set to extend in hole bottom naturally, table soil in small, broken bits is backfilled, and it is steady and sure, accomplish " three carry three trembles ", root system is set to be fully contacted with soil, the depth of planting is identical with the depth in nursery, and the requirement graft union of grafting is above the ground level 0.10~0.15m, and root water is filled with enough after field planting, and Moisture conservation is carried out to tree disk with plastic sheeting, and water in time;
It is fixed dry:Heading height natural open centre shape is 50cm, and free spindle is 60cm, there is 5~7 full buds under clip in 15cm~20cm;
Orchard is ploughed deeply:
Building well Qian Quan gardens use sufficient organic fertilizer and plough deeply 60cm, or autumn and winter basal dressing is combined after field planting, and base manure is organic fertilizer, plough deeply year by year, reach within 3~5 years full garden and plough deeply vegetable soil, annual season of growth tillage and weeding 2~3 times, to increase orchard soil organic fertilizer and keeping tree disk soil moisture content, summer is with green manure, weeds and crop material overlay tree disk, 10~20cm of thickness, spreads soil, to keep humidity thereon, when autumn and winter applies, ploughs deeply with reference to base manure, grass will be covered and ploughed under in soil;
Between make and sward:
Make the crop more than long-stalked crop and water requirement between forbidding in orchard, treelet will stop tree disk, tree disk diameter should be greater than lm, between make with soybean, peanut, green manure or kidney bean, red bean is advisable, make clover between in the ranks advocating, Hairy vetch, common vetch green manure crop, by turning over, covering or retting method are transformed into the organic fertilizer of cherry orchard, the cherry orchard for having irrigation conditions advocates inter-row green covering system, frequent tillage and weeding in Qing Geng areas, loosing soil is kept without weeds, intertillage depth 5cm~10cm, improving straw mulching is advocated in tree disk, with sharp moisturizing, insulation, suppress weed growth, increase soil organic matter content;
Fertilizer management:
Annual basal dressing 1 time, based on organic fertilizer, autumn and winter is excuted a law using radial furrow or point is spreaded manuer in holes, treelet and first fruiting period tree apply 30~60kg/ of night soil plants or barnyard manure 125kg/ plants, result applies night soil or applies 60~90kg/ of barnyard manure plants by big tree, topdresses 2~3 times, spends preceding or fruit Growth spurt to topdress 1 time, apply night soil 30kg/ plants, or 1.5~2.0kg/ of urea plants;Thank to 1 400 times of amino acid compound trace element fertilizer liquid of spray after spending, to improve fruit-setting rate, increase single fruit weight, 60~75kg/ plants, or 0.5~1.0kg of urea plants of supplementary fertilizer are applied with the night soil for becoming thoroughly decomposed after fruit picking;
Water management:
In germination to before blooming, i.e., 2 months early and middle ten dayses pour 1 small water, before Xie Huahou to fruit maturation, that is mid or late Febuary, to April early and middle ten dayses, is watered 2~3 times, and topdressing and watering is combined 1 time after fruit picking, accelerates to play fertilizer efficiency, promote bud differentiation, before entering the winter, applied with reference to base manure and watered 1 time;
Pruning:
Tree-like to be typically chosen natural open centre shape or free spindle, natural open centre shape does 50cm high, non-stop layer trunk, full tree has 2~4 major branches, and spreading angle is 40 ° or so, 2~3 layers of side shoot are equipped with each major branch, 30cm is spaced, there are various types of fruit-bearing shoot clusters on side shoot, free spindle, does 50~60cm high, and 6~10, major branch for being equipped with single shaft extension is done at center, angle is opened a business almost into level, above raw large result branch group, the head that falls in time during pruning is happy, to control the height of tree;
Winter in pruning period point cuts and is cut 2 times with the summer, and the winter cuts, and is carried out to before germinateing within 2 months, and main method has cutting back, delays and put, bounce back or sparse branching, and the summer cuts, and is carried out during being stopped growing to branch in September after rudiment, and main method has bud picking, draws branch, pinching, turns round the tip or carve and hinder;
The treelet phase prunes
The treelet phase prunes to cultivate based on tree crown, the extension branch of emphasis major branch and secondary major branch carries out appropriate cutting back, promote major branch and secondary major branch top pumping nutrition branch, it is quick to form tree crown skeleton structure, in the pumping of middle and lower part, brachyplast, by pinching, draw the methods such as branch, promote it and form bud, result, then can carry out drawing branch to overstocked branch, intersection branch, parallel branch, vertical branch if any space ahead of time, the distribution of adjustment branch, rationally utilization, culture are fruit-bearing shoot cluster, conversely, suitably removing, good ventilation and penetrating light condition is created;
The best fruiting period prunes
The best fruiting period prunes the equilibrium relation for being mainly growth regulation and result, the timely retraction of major branch and secondary major branch is updated, to stimulate the continuous formation of nutrient growth and new fruit branch, reach control height of tree crown, prevent from being moved outside setting fruit position, rotation to fruit-bearing shoot cluster updates, 2~3 years raw branches are suitably bounced back, can not cutting back to strong 1 year raw branch of the growth golden mean of the Confucian school, but to the eugonic 1 year appropriate cutting back of raw branch, fruitful branch is formed with profit, avoid inner canopy baldness, to overstocked branch, intersect branch, parallel branch, vertical branch, sick branch, injured branch, very thin branch is removed, improve ventilation and penetrating light condition;
Declining period prunes
Declining period is pruned based on rejuvenating, and the bough to being moved outside weak, setting fruit position carries out retraction renewal, and it is new tree crown progressively to be cultivated using the strong branch of excessive growth of growth potential, when the season of growth updates bough, carried out preferably after fruit picking, now wound healing is fast and not gummosis, during early spring removal bough, stay stub, after bud is sprouted, then stub is sawed, while, rich water quality management should be strengthened, favourable tree vigo(u)r recovers;
Flower and fruit management:
Pre- frost protection
Early spring pours water, and arrives to pour water in time for first 3~5 days in low temperature, to prevent frost;
Fumigation, at the florescence in early spring, start fumigation when night temperature drop is to -2 DEG C, untill the sun is out, it is general with smog is larger, the slightly moist faggot of any is raw material, or carries out fumigation with frost prevention smoke agent, can less putting the principle of faggot by faggot, lower wind direction is put upwind more, general every mu of heap of orchard heap 4~5, per ㎏ of heap materials 25 or so;
Flower and fruit thinning
Flower thinning spent in cherry rudiment before complex shears, remove unnecessary bud, the florescence each bud is stayed 2-3 health flower, remaining is removed, and fruit thinning is carried out according to the situation of bearing fruit, and removes fruitlet, the malformed fruit of hypoevolutism, and each bouquet shape fruit branch stays 3~4 fruits;
Prevent dehiscent fruit
In terms of soil management, the moisture stable of soil is kept, prevent soil from neglecting dry suddenly wet, before closing on maturation, it is impossible to pour water;
The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:
Red spider
Winter clear garden, orchard hangs flutters food mite, before germination, spray 3 °~5 ° lime sulfurs or strike off limb and stick up skin always, concentration is burnt, to eliminate mite source of surviving the winter, germination period, 3 °~5 ° lime sulfurs of spraying or 5% diesel oil emulsion, peak period of coming out of hibernation spray 0.3 °~0.5 ° lime sulfur, and white 1500~2000 times of liquid in Witter of growth period spray can spraying 1500~2000 times of liquid of red white double play when serious;
White peach scale
Winter carries out artificial wiper bark, eliminate female adult pest of being survived the winter on limb, then clear garden, and with the full garden spraying of 5 ° of lime sulfurs of Baume 1 time, budding period, then with 5 ° of Baume lime sulfur spraying 1 time, respectively hatch peak period for nymph, 25% time of spraying, 3000 times of liquid of missible oil, or 407% Le Siben missible oil, 1000 times of liquid;
Blade perforation disease
Rest period thorough cleaning orchard, cleaning fallen leaves burn, before germination, 4 °~5 ° lime sulfurs of spraying, and Xie Huahou and young sprout Growth spurt spray 2~3 70% Mancozebs, 600 times of liquid;
Bleeding disease
Applying organic manure, strengthens tree vigo(u)r, strengthens tree body resistance against diseases;Protection tree body, prevents freeze injury, the breach that day is burnt, insect pest or mechanical damage are caused;Field water is controlled, the big flood of great drought, field ponding, after the rain timely draining is prevented;After sick scar is shaved, with 10 parts of quick lime, 1 part of lime sulfur, 2 parts of salt, 0.3 part of vegetable oil add water and are tuned into after protective agent smears or shave sick scar, are smeared after being tempered with organic bactericide, yellow mud, are then wrapped with plastic sheeting.
A kind of specific prioritization scheme, it is further comprising the steps of:
Harvesting:
Collecting time, selects fine day morning 10:Before 00 or afternoon 16:After 00 fruit temperature it is relatively low, without dew when harvest;
Collecting method, the cherry maturity period is inconsistent, should harvest by stages and in groups, and the larger fruits of 45~60g are plucked by the 1st batch, and the 2nd batch plucks the smaller fruits of below 45g.
A kind of specific prioritization scheme, the harvesting standard requirement is as follows:
Carry out band handle and pluck harvesting, carpopodium band handle is nipped with thumb, forefinger and middle finger and takes fruit, the container in picking process can not be too big and it is necessary to built with soft lining, accomplishes to handle with care.
A kind of specific prioritization scheme, it is further comprising the steps of:
Classification packaging:
Cherry fruit after harvesting can not be placed under direct sunlight, and product should take back storehouse, strict selecting and being classified, reject sick decayed fruit, dehiscent fruit and fruit of damaging, grade specification cherry standard is pressed again, after being classified to size, color etc., by fresh fruit packaging label standard, cherry is mounted in the exquisite bamboo basket of the technique for having soft lining, surrounding ventilative or plastic crate carries out packaging and storing, every basket of 2.5kg, by after radiating, transporting in time, prevent product in transit from extruding, reduce loss.
A kind of specific prioritization scheme, in the planting density step, in the level land building well that soil layer is deep, fertility is first-class, distance between rows and hills 5m × 4m;The medium level land building well of soil fertility, distance between rows and hills 5m × 3m;Gentle slope ground building well, distance between rows and hills 4m × 3m;Mountain region or the poor plot building well of water and fertilizer condition, distance between rows and hills 2.5m × 3m.
A kind of specific prioritization scheme, in the field planting step, resident time is in late January to early Febuary.
A kind of specific prioritization scheme, before the plant in preparation process, field addressing is preferably selected in 1000~1600m of height above sea level, average temperature of the whole year >=12 DEG C, 700~1200mm of annual rainfall, PH6.0~7.5, communications and transportation is convenient, and irrigation and drainage are convenient, and level of ground water is low, be difficult product flood, thicker soil, the strong sandy loam of good permeability, moisture holding capacity and loam building well.
A kind of specific prioritization scheme, in the flower and fruit management step, also including preventing bird pest, in orchard can hang scarecrow or manufacture the beast of prey with plastics and hang on the tree, and be beaten drums and gongs in orchard, play bird proof device or set up bird prevention net, prevent bird pest.
By adopting the above-described technical solution, the invention has the characteristics that:
The standardized production of agate red cherry is realized by this cultural method, by formulating corresponding production standard come each link in specification Cherry Production, content includes soil management, fertilizer management, water management, pruning, flower and fruit management, main diseases and insect pests are prevented and treated, harvesting is packed with classification, production practices are proved, standardized cherry cultivation can greatly promote nutrient quality, managed by standardized production, cherry being capable of precocity fruiting, many results, the good fruit of knot, finally ensure itself orchard nutrient quality, so as to get bumper crops, stable yields, obtain significant economic benefit, the yield of cherry and quality is set to be effectively guaranteed, fruit quality is good, commercialized degree is high, economic benefit is protected.
The present invention is further detailed with reference to specific embodiment.
Specific embodiment
Embodiment:Reference document with bearing date every for following file in the present embodiment, only institute's version with bearing date are applied to the present embodiment, and every reference document without bearing date, its latest edition is applied to the present embodiment.
The major experiment standards of GB 4285
GB 6000-1999 Major Tree Species Planteds seedling quality is classified
GB/T 8321 (all parts) agricultural chemicals reasonable application
The agricultural product security quality Pollution-free Fruit safety requirements of GB/T 18406.2-2001
The requirement of the agricultural product security quality Pollution-free Fruits of GB/T 18407.2-2001 home environment
NY/T 496-2010 fertilizer reasonable application general rules
The non-polluted farm product Fertilizer application criterions of DB 52/471
NY/T 1778-2009 fresh fruit packaging labels
NY/T 2302-2013 agricultural product grade specification cherries
A kind of cultural method of agate red cherry, the cultural method is comprised the following steps:
Selection of seedling:
Nursery stock requires thick more than the 0.8cm of stem, and 80cm high, shaping strip bud is full;Root system is good, has a 15cm big more than 3 long, disease-free, not damaged, without dehydrating phenomena, and grafting plant, overhead layering seedling or horizontal press strip seedling without the harmful pest and disease damage of quarantine, seedling quality meet the regulation of GB 6000-1999;
Planting density:
Seeding row spacing 2.5~5m × 3~4m;In the planting density step, in the level land building well that soil layer is deep, fertility is first-class, distance between rows and hills 5m × 4m;The medium level land building well of soil fertility, distance between rows and hills 5m × 3m;Gentle slope ground building well, distance between rows and hills 4m × 3m;Mountain region or the poor plot building well of water and fertilizer condition, distance between rows and hills 2.5m × 3m.
Planting time:
The preferably autumn field planting of the good place of irrigation conditions;Winter is easily arid, windy, plant before the local spring nursery stock germination of irrigation conditions difference, and typically in late January to early Febuary, field planting is preferred;
Prepare before plant:
Culture plan:Field is in the gentle hillside fields in level land using rectangle or square plant;Transplanted along horizontal tread in hillside fields;Level land building well, row is to being East and West direction;Hillside fields building well, goes to parallel with contour, while accomplishing along slope straight trip;
Soil prepares:Preceding crop stalk is first cleared up, planting pit or field planting trench are determined by the distance between rows and hills bracing wire of planning and designing, be that 0.6m excavates planting pit by each 0.8m of length and width, depth;Or by 0.8~10m wide, deep 0.6~0.8m, the field planting trench that length is walked depending on landform, the table soil for digging out, subsoil point put both sides;
Backfill before field planting:Often spread manuer in holes into 25~50kg of compost, bottom to 2/3 is inserted after being mixed with table soil, then will cheat raising with subsoil goes out 0.10~0.15m of earth's surface, and site preparation is completed for 3 months before field planting;
Seedling planting:
Seedling root is cleared up before field planting, wipe out injured root, it is then placed in soaking 1~2h of root in water, ABT rooting powder solution root dippings are used again, during plant shallow hole is dug on the planting pit for having backfilled, root system is set to extend in hole bottom naturally, table soil in small, broken bits is backfilled, and it is steady and sure, accomplish " three carry three trembles ", root system is set to be fully contacted with soil, the depth of planting is identical with the depth in nursery, and the requirement graft union of grafting is above the ground level 0.10~0.15m, and root water is filled with enough after field planting, and Moisture conservation is carried out to tree disk with plastic sheeting, and water in time;
It is fixed dry:Heading height natural open centre shape is 50cm, and free spindle is 60cm, there is 5~7 full buds under clip in 15cm~20cm;
Orchard is ploughed deeply:
Building well Qian Quan gardens use sufficient organic fertilizer and plough deeply 60cm, or autumn and winter basal dressing is combined after field planting, and base manure is organic fertilizer, plough deeply year by year, reach within 3~5 years full garden and plough deeply vegetable soil, annual season of growth tillage and weeding 2~3 times, to increase orchard soil organic fertilizer and keeping tree disk soil moisture content, summer is with green manure, weeds and crop material overlay tree disk, 10~20cm of thickness, spreads soil, to keep humidity thereon, when autumn and winter applies, ploughs deeply with reference to base manure, grass will be covered and ploughed under in soil;
Between make and sward:
Make the crop more than long-stalked crop and water requirement between forbidding in orchard, treelet will stop tree disk, tree disk diameter should be greater than lm, between make with soybean, peanut, green manure or kidney bean, red bean is advisable, make clover between in the ranks advocating, Hairy vetch, common vetch green manure crop, by turning over, covering or retting method are transformed into the organic fertilizer of cherry orchard, the cherry orchard for having irrigation conditions advocates inter-row green covering system, frequent tillage and weeding in Qing Geng areas, loosing soil is kept without weeds, intertillage depth 5cm~10cm, improving straw mulching is advocated in tree disk, with sharp moisturizing, insulation, suppress weed growth, increase soil organic matter content;
Fertilizer management:
Adhere to the fertilization principle of " based on organic fertilizer, supplemented by chemical fertilizer ", to keep or increase soil fertility and soil microbial activities, the fertilizer applied should meet NY/T 496-2010 standards.
Annual basal dressing 1 time, based on organic fertilizer, autumn and winter is excuted a law using radial furrow or point is spreaded manuer in holes, treelet and first fruiting period tree apply 30~60kg/ of night soil plants or barnyard manure 125kg/ plants, result applies night soil or applies 60~90kg/ of barnyard manure plants by big tree, topdresses 2~3 times, spends preceding or fruit Growth spurt to topdress 1 time, apply night soil 30kg/ plants, or 1.5~2.0kg/ of urea plants;Thank to 1 400 times of amino acid compound trace element fertilizer liquid of spray after spending, to improve fruit-setting rate, increase single fruit weight, 60~75kg/ plants, or 0.5~1.0kg of urea plants of supplementary fertilizer are applied with the night soil for becoming thoroughly decomposed after fruit picking;
Water management:
In germination to before blooming, i.e., 2 months early and middle ten dayses pour 1 small water, before Xie Huahou to fruit maturation, that is mid or late Febuary, to April early and middle ten dayses, is watered 2~3 times, and topdressing and watering is combined 1 time after fruit picking, accelerates to play fertilizer efficiency, promote bud differentiation, before entering the winter, applied with reference to base manure and watered 1 time;
Pruning:
Tree-like to be typically chosen natural open centre shape or free spindle, natural open centre shape does 50cm high, non-stop layer trunk, full tree has 2~4 major branches, and spreading angle is 40 ° or so, 2~3 layers of side shoot are equipped with each major branch, 30cm is spaced, there are various types of fruit-bearing shoot clusters on side shoot, free spindle, does 50~60cm high, and 6~10, major branch for being equipped with single shaft extension is done at center, angle is opened a business almost into level, above raw large result branch group, the head that falls in time during pruning is happy, to control the height of tree;
Winter in pruning period point cuts and is cut 2 times with the summer, and the winter cuts, and is carried out to before germinateing within 2 months, and main method has cutting back, delays and put, bounce back or sparse branching, and the summer cuts, and is carried out during being stopped growing to branch in September after rudiment, and main method has bud picking, draws branch, pinching, turns round the tip or carve and hinder;
The treelet phase prunes
The treelet phase prunes to cultivate based on tree crown, the extension branch of emphasis major branch and secondary major branch carries out appropriate cutting back, promote major branch and secondary major branch top pumping nutrition branch, it is quick to form tree crown skeleton structure, in the pumping of middle and lower part, brachyplast, by pinching, draw the methods such as branch, promote it and form bud, result, then can carry out drawing branch to overstocked branch, intersection branch, parallel branch, vertical branch if any space ahead of time, the distribution of adjustment branch, rationally utilization, culture are fruit-bearing shoot cluster, conversely, suitably removing, good ventilation and penetrating light condition is created;
The best fruiting period prunes
The best fruiting period prunes the equilibrium relation for being mainly growth regulation and result, the timely retraction of major branch and secondary major branch is updated, to stimulate the continuous formation of nutrient growth and new fruit branch, reach control height of tree crown, prevent from being moved outside setting fruit position, rotation to fruit-bearing shoot cluster updates, 2~3 years raw branches are suitably bounced back, can not cutting back to strong 1 year raw branch of the growth golden mean of the Confucian school, but to the eugonic 1 year appropriate cutting back of raw branch, fruitful branch is formed with profit, avoid inner canopy baldness, to overstocked branch, intersect branch, parallel branch, vertical branch, sick branch, injured branch, very thin branch is removed, improve ventilation and penetrating light condition;
Declining period prunes
Declining period is pruned based on rejuvenating, and the bough to being moved outside weak, setting fruit position carries out retraction renewal, and it is new tree crown progressively to be cultivated using the strong branch of excessive growth of growth potential, when the season of growth updates bough, carried out preferably after fruit picking, now wound healing is fast and not gummosis, during early spring removal bough, stay stub, after bud is sprouted, then stub is sawed, while, rich water quality management should be strengthened, favourable tree vigo(u)r recovers;
Flower and fruit management:
Pre- frost protection
Early spring pours water, and arrives to pour water in time for first 3~5 days in low temperature, to prevent frost;
Fumigation, at the florescence in early spring, start fumigation when night temperature drop is to -2 DEG C, untill the sun is out, it is general with smog is larger, the slightly moist faggot of any is raw material, or carries out fumigation with frost prevention smoke agent, can less putting the principle of faggot by faggot, lower wind direction is put upwind more, general every mu of heap of orchard heap 4~5, per ㎏ of heap materials 25 or so;
Flower and fruit thinning
Flower thinning spent in cherry rudiment before complex shears, remove unnecessary bud, the florescence each bud is stayed 2-3 health flower, remaining is removed, and fruit thinning is carried out according to the situation of bearing fruit, and removes fruitlet, the malformed fruit of hypoevolutism, and each bouquet shape fruit branch stays 3~4 fruits;
Prevent dehiscent fruit
In terms of soil management, the moisture stable of soil is kept, prevent soil from neglecting dry suddenly wet, before closing on maturation, it is impossible to pour water;
Prevent bird pest
Can hang scarecrow or manufacture the beast of prey with plastics in orchard and hang on the tree, be beaten drums and gongs in orchard, play bird proof device or set up bird prevention net, prevent bird pest;
The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:
Red spider
Winter clear garden, orchard hangs flutters food mite, before germination, spray 3 °~5 ° lime sulfurs or strike off limb and stick up skin always, concentration is burnt, to eliminate mite source of surviving the winter, germination period, 3 °~5 ° lime sulfurs of spraying or 5% diesel oil emulsion, peak period of coming out of hibernation spray 0.3 °~0.5 ° lime sulfur, and white 1500~2000 times of liquid in Witter of growth period spray can spraying 1500~2000 times of liquid of red white double play when serious;
White peach scale
Winter carries out artificial wiper bark, eliminate female adult pest of being survived the winter on limb, then clear garden, and with the full garden spraying of 5 ° of lime sulfurs of Baume 1 time, budding period, then with 5 ° of Baume lime sulfur spraying 1 time, respectively hatch peak period for nymph, 25% time of spraying, 3000 times of liquid of missible oil, or 407% Le Siben missible oil, 1000 times of liquid;
Blade perforation disease
Rest period thorough cleaning orchard, cleaning fallen leaves burn, before germination, 4 °~5 ° lime sulfurs of spraying, and Xie Huahou and young sprout Growth spurt spray 2~3 70% Mancozebs, 600 times of liquid;
Bleeding disease
Applying organic manure, strengthens tree vigo(u)r, strengthens tree body resistance against diseases;Protection tree body, prevents freeze injury, the breach that day is burnt, insect pest or mechanical damage are caused;Field water is controlled, the big flood of great drought, field ponding, after the rain timely draining is prevented;After sick scar is shaved, with 10 parts of quick lime, 1 part of lime sulfur, 2 parts of salt, 0.3 part of vegetable oil add water and are tuned into after protective agent smears or shave sick scar, are smeared after being tempered with organic bactericide, yellow mud, are then wrapped with plastic sheeting.
Harvesting:
Collecting time, selects fine day morning 10:Before 00 or afternoon 16:After 00 fruit temperature it is relatively low, without dew when harvest;
Collecting method, the cherry maturity period is inconsistent, should harvest by stages and in groups, and the larger fruits of 45~60g are plucked by the 1st batch, and the 2nd batch plucks the smaller fruits of below 45g.
The harvesting standard requirement is as follows:
Carry out band handle and pluck harvesting, carpopodium band handle is nipped with thumb, forefinger and middle finger and takes fruit, the container in picking process can not be too big and it is necessary to built with soft lining, accomplishes to handle with care.
Classification packaging:
Cherry fruit after harvesting can not be placed under direct sunlight, and product should take back storehouse, strict selecting and being classified, reject sick decayed fruit, dehiscent fruit and fruit of damaging, grade specification cherry standard is pressed again, after being classified to size, color etc., by fresh fruit packaging label standard, cherry is mounted in the exquisite bamboo basket of the technique for having soft lining, surrounding ventilative or plastic crate carries out packaging and storing, every basket of 2.5kg, by after radiating, transporting in time, prevent product in transit from extruding, reduce loss.
Grade specification cherry standard is NY/T 2302-2013, and fresh fruit packaging label standard is NY/T 1778-2009.
Before the plant in preparation process, field addressing is preferably selected in 1000~1600m of height above sea level, average temperature of the whole year >=12 DEG C, 700~1200mm of annual rainfall, PH6.0~7.5, communications and transportation is convenient, irrigation and drainage are convenient, and level of ground water is low, be difficult product flood, thicker soil, the strong sandy loam of good permeability, moisture holding capacity and loam building well, garden location environmental quality should meet the regulation of GB/T 18407.2-2001.

Claims (8)

1. a kind of cultural method of agate red cherry, it is characterised in that:The cultural method is comprised the following steps:
Selection of seedling:
Nursery stock requires thick more than the 0.8cm of stem, and 80cm high, shaping strip bud is full;Root system is good, has a 15cm big more than 3 long, disease-free, not damaged, without dehydrating phenomena, grafting plant, overhead layering seedling or horizontal press strip seedling without the harmful pest and disease damage of quarantine;
Planting density:
Seeding row spacing 2.5~5m × 3~4m;
Planting time:
The preferably autumn field planting of the good place of irrigation conditions;Winter is easily arid, windy, plant before the local spring nursery stock germination of irrigation conditions difference;
Prepare before plant:
Culture plan:Field is in the gentle hillside fields in level land using rectangle or square plant;Transplanted along horizontal tread in hillside fields;Level land building well, row is to being East and West direction;Hillside fields building well, goes to parallel with contour, while accomplishing along slope straight trip;
Soil prepares:Preceding crop stalk is first cleared up, planting pit or field planting trench are determined by the distance between rows and hills bracing wire of planning and designing, be that 0.6m excavates planting pit by each 0.8m of length and width, depth;Or by 0.8~10m wide, deep 0.6~0.8m, the field planting trench that length is walked depending on landform, the table soil for digging out, subsoil point put both sides;
Backfill before field planting:Often spread manuer in holes into 25~50kg of compost, bottom to 2/3 is inserted after being mixed with table soil, then will cheat raising with subsoil goes out 0.10~0.15m of earth's surface, and site preparation is completed for 3 months before field planting;
Seedling planting:
Seedling root is cleared up before field planting, wipe out injured root, it is then placed in soaking 1~2h of root in water, ABT rooting powder solution root dippings are used again, during plant shallow hole is dug on the planting pit for having backfilled, root system is set to extend in hole bottom naturally, table soil in small, broken bits is backfilled, and it is steady and sure, accomplish " three carry three trembles ", root system is set to be fully contacted with soil, the depth of planting is identical with the depth in nursery, and the requirement graft union of grafting is above the ground level 0.10~0.15m, and root water is filled with enough after field planting, and Moisture conservation is carried out to tree disk with plastic sheeting, and water in time;
It is fixed dry:Heading height natural open centre shape is 50cm, and free spindle is 60cm, there is 5~7 full buds under clip in 15cm~20cm;
Orchard is ploughed deeply:
Building well Qian Quan gardens use sufficient organic fertilizer and plough deeply 60cm, or autumn and winter basal dressing is combined after field planting, and base manure is organic fertilizer, plough deeply year by year, reach within 3~5 years full garden and plough deeply vegetable soil, annual season of growth tillage and weeding 2~3 times, to increase orchard soil organic fertilizer and keeping tree disk soil moisture content, summer is with green manure, weeds and crop material overlay tree disk, 10~20cm of thickness, spreads soil, to keep humidity thereon, when autumn and winter applies, ploughs deeply with reference to base manure, grass will be covered and ploughed under in soil;
Between make and sward:
Make the crop more than long-stalked crop and water requirement between forbidding in orchard, treelet will stop tree disk, tree disk diameter should be greater than lm, between make with soybean, peanut, green manure or kidney bean, red bean is advisable, make clover between in the ranks advocating, Hairy vetch, common vetch green manure crop, by turning over, covering or retting method are transformed into the organic fertilizer of cherry orchard, the cherry orchard for having irrigation conditions advocates inter-row green covering system, frequent tillage and weeding in Qing Geng areas, loosing soil is kept without weeds, intertillage depth 5cm~10cm, improving straw mulching is advocated in tree disk, with sharp moisturizing, insulation, suppress weed growth, increase soil organic matter content;
Fertilizer management:
Annual basal dressing 1 time, based on organic fertilizer, autumn and winter is excuted a law using radial furrow or point is spreaded manuer in holes, treelet and first fruiting period tree apply 30~60kg/ of night soil plants or barnyard manure 125kg/ plants, result applies night soil or applies 60~90kg/ of barnyard manure plants by big tree, topdresses 2~3 times, spends preceding or fruit Growth spurt to topdress 1 time, apply night soil 30kg/ plants, or 1.5~2.0kg/ of urea plants;Thank to 1 400 times of amino acid compound trace element fertilizer liquid of spray after spending, to improve fruit-setting rate, increase single fruit weight, 60~75kg/ plants, or 0.5~1.0kg of urea plants of supplementary fertilizer are applied with the night soil for becoming thoroughly decomposed after fruit picking;
Water management:
In germination to before blooming, i.e., 2 months early and middle ten dayses pour 1 small water, before Xie Huahou to fruit maturation, that is mid or late Febuary, to April early and middle ten dayses, is watered 2~3 times, and topdressing and watering is combined 1 time after fruit picking, accelerates to play fertilizer efficiency, promote bud differentiation, before entering the winter, applied with reference to base manure and watered 1 time;
Pruning:
Tree-like to be typically chosen natural open centre shape or free spindle, natural open centre shape does 50cm high, non-stop layer trunk, full tree has 2~4 major branches, and spreading angle is 40 ° or so, 2~3 layers of side shoot are equipped with each major branch, 30cm is spaced, there are various types of fruit-bearing shoot clusters on side shoot, free spindle, does 50~60cm high, and 6~10, major branch for being equipped with single shaft extension is done at center, angle is opened a business almost into level, above raw large result branch group, the head that falls in time during pruning is happy, to control the height of tree;
Winter in pruning period point cuts and is cut 2 times with the summer, and the winter cuts, and is carried out to before germinateing within 2 months, and main method has cutting back, delays and put, bounce back or sparse branching, and the summer cuts, and is carried out during being stopped growing to branch in September after rudiment, and main method has bud picking, draws branch, pinching, turns round the tip or carve and hinder;
The treelet phase prunes
The treelet phase prunes to cultivate based on tree crown, the extension branch of emphasis major branch and secondary major branch carries out appropriate cutting back, promote major branch and secondary major branch top pumping nutrition branch, it is quick to form tree crown skeleton structure, in the pumping of middle and lower part, brachyplast, by pinching, draw the methods such as branch, promote it and form bud, result, then can carry out drawing branch to overstocked branch, intersection branch, parallel branch, vertical branch if any space ahead of time, the distribution of adjustment branch, rationally utilization, culture are fruit-bearing shoot cluster, conversely, suitably removing, good ventilation and penetrating light condition is created;
The best fruiting period prunes
The best fruiting period prunes the equilibrium relation for being mainly growth regulation and result, the timely retraction of major branch and secondary major branch is updated, to stimulate the continuous formation of nutrient growth and new fruit branch, reach control height of tree crown, prevent from being moved outside setting fruit position, rotation to fruit-bearing shoot cluster updates, 2~3 years raw branches are suitably bounced back, can not cutting back to strong 1 year raw branch of the growth golden mean of the Confucian school, but to the eugonic 1 year appropriate cutting back of raw branch, fruitful branch is formed with profit, avoid inner canopy baldness, to overstocked branch, intersect branch, parallel branch, vertical branch, sick branch, injured branch, very thin branch is removed, improve ventilation and penetrating light condition;
Declining period prunes
Declining period is pruned based on rejuvenating, and the bough to being moved outside weak, setting fruit position carries out retraction renewal, and it is new tree crown progressively to be cultivated using the strong branch of excessive growth of growth potential, when the season of growth updates bough, carried out preferably after fruit picking, now wound healing is fast and not gummosis, during early spring removal bough, stay stub, after bud is sprouted, then stub is sawed, while, rich water quality management should be strengthened, favourable tree vigo(u)r recovers;
Flower and fruit management:
Pre- frost protection
Early spring pours water, and arrives to pour water in time for first 3~5 days in low temperature, to prevent frost;
Fumigation, at the florescence in early spring, start fumigation when night temperature drop is to -2 DEG C, untill the sun is out, it is general with smog is larger, the slightly moist faggot of any is raw material, or carries out fumigation with frost prevention smoke agent, can less putting the principle of faggot by faggot, lower wind direction is put upwind more, general every mu of heap of orchard heap 4~5, per ㎏ of heap materials 25 or so;
Flower and fruit thinning
Flower thinning spent in cherry rudiment before complex shears, remove unnecessary bud, the florescence each bud is stayed 2-3 health flower, remaining is removed, and fruit thinning is carried out according to the situation of bearing fruit, and removes fruitlet, the malformed fruit of hypoevolutism, and each bouquet shape fruit branch stays 3~4 fruits;
Prevent dehiscent fruit
In terms of soil management, the moisture stable of soil is kept, prevent soil from neglecting dry suddenly wet, before closing on maturation, it is impossible to pour water;
The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:
Red spider
Winter clear garden, orchard hangs flutters food mite, before germination, spray 3 °~5 ° lime sulfurs or strike off limb and stick up skin always, concentration is burnt, to eliminate mite source of surviving the winter, germination period, 3 °~5 ° lime sulfurs of spraying or 5% diesel oil emulsion, peak period of coming out of hibernation spray 0.3 °~0.5 ° lime sulfur, and white 1500~2000 times of liquid in Witter of growth period spray can spraying 1500~2000 times of liquid of red white double play when serious;
White peach scale
Winter carries out artificial wiper bark, eliminate female adult pest of being survived the winter on limb, then clear garden, and with the full garden spraying of 5 ° of lime sulfurs of Baume 1 time, budding period, then with 5 ° of Baume lime sulfur spraying 1 time, respectively hatch peak period for nymph, 25% time of spraying, 3000 times of liquid of missible oil, or 407% Le Siben missible oil, 1000 times of liquid;
Blade perforation disease
Rest period thorough cleaning orchard, cleaning fallen leaves burn, before germination, 4 °~5 ° lime sulfurs of spraying, and Xie Huahou and young sprout Growth spurt spray 2~3 70% Mancozebs, 600 times of liquid;
Bleeding disease
Applying organic manure, strengthens tree vigo(u)r, strengthens tree body resistance against diseases;Protection tree body, prevents freeze injury, the breach that day is burnt, insect pest or mechanical damage are caused;Field water is controlled, the big flood of great drought, field ponding, after the rain timely draining is prevented;After sick scar is shaved, with 10 parts of quick lime, 1 part of lime sulfur, 2 parts of salt, 0.3 part of vegetable oil add water and are tuned into after protective agent smears or shave sick scar, are smeared after being tempered with organic bactericide, yellow mud, are then wrapped with plastic sheeting.
2. the cultural method of a kind of agate red cherry according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:It is further comprising the steps of:
Harvesting:
Collecting time, selects fine day morning 10:Before 00 or afternoon 16:After 00 fruit temperature it is relatively low, without dew when harvest;
Collecting method, the cherry maturity period is inconsistent, should harvest by stages and in groups, and the larger fruits of 45~60g are plucked by the 1st batch, and the 2nd batch plucks the smaller fruits of below 45g.
3. the cultural method of a kind of agate red cherry according to claim 2, it is characterised in that:The harvesting standard requirement is as follows:
Carry out band handle and pluck harvesting, carpopodium band handle is nipped with thumb, forefinger and middle finger and takes fruit, the container in picking process can not be too big and it is necessary to built with soft lining, accomplishes to handle with care.
4. the cultural method of a kind of agate red cherry according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:It is further comprising the steps of:
Classification packaging:
Cherry fruit after harvesting can not be placed under direct sunlight, and product should take back storehouse, strict selecting and being classified, reject sick decayed fruit, dehiscent fruit and fruit of damaging, grade specification cherry standard is pressed again, after being classified to size, color etc., by fresh fruit packaging label standard, cherry is mounted in the exquisite bamboo basket of the technique for having soft lining, surrounding ventilative or plastic crate carries out packaging and storing, every basket of 2.5kg, by after radiating, transporting in time, prevent product in transit from extruding, reduce loss.
5. according to a kind of cultural method of one of claim 1-4 described agate red cherry, it is characterised in that:In the planting density step, in the level land building well that soil layer is deep, fertility is first-class, distance between rows and hills 5m × 4m;The medium level land building well of soil fertility, distance between rows and hills 5m × 3m;Gentle slope ground building well, distance between rows and hills 4m × 3m;Mountain region or the poor plot building well of water and fertilizer condition, distance between rows and hills 2.5m × 3m.
6. according to a kind of cultural method of one of claim 1-4 described agate red cherry, it is characterised in that:In the field planting step, resident time is in late January to early Febuary.
7. the cultural method of a kind of agate red cherry as described in one of claim 1-4, it is characterised in that:Before the plant in preparation process, field addressing is preferably selected in 1000~1600m of height above sea level, average temperature of the whole year >=12 DEG C, 700~1200mm of annual rainfall, PH6.0~7.5, communications and transportation is convenient, irrigation and drainage are convenient, level of ground water is low, be difficult product flood, thicker soil, the strong sandy loam of good permeability, moisture holding capacity and loam building well.
8. the cultural method of a kind of agate red cherry as described in one of claim 1-4, it is characterised in that:In the flower and fruit management step, also including preventing bird pest, in orchard can hang scarecrow or manufacture the beast of prey with plastics and hang on the tree, be beaten drums and gongs in orchard, play bird proof device or set up bird prevention net, prevent bird pest.
CN201511016884.0A 2015-12-30 2015-12-30 A kind of cultural method of agate red cherry Pending CN106922459A (en)

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CN109042018A (en) * 2018-08-06 2018-12-21 塔里木大学 A kind of transformation shaping methods of jujube tree
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Application publication date: 20170707