CN105724106A - Rapid tea seedling culture method - Google Patents

Rapid tea seedling culture method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105724106A
CN105724106A CN201610132217.7A CN201610132217A CN105724106A CN 105724106 A CN105724106 A CN 105724106A CN 201610132217 A CN201610132217 A CN 201610132217A CN 105724106 A CN105724106 A CN 105724106A
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cutting
cuttage
garden
growth
seedling
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CN201610132217.7A
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Inventor
王裕杰
王滤婷
吴颖妍
王春红
吴德清
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Liyang Jinquan Ecological Science & Technology Park Co Ltd
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Liyang Jinquan Ecological Science & Technology Park Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201610132217.7A priority Critical patent/CN105724106A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • A01G13/02Protective coverings for plants; Coverings for the ground; Devices for laying-out or removing coverings
    • A01G13/0206Canopies, i.e. devices providing a roof above the plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • A01G13/02Protective coverings for plants; Coverings for the ground; Devices for laying-out or removing coverings
    • A01G13/0256Ground coverings
    • A01G13/0268Mats or sheets, e.g. nets or fabrics
    • A01G13/0275Films
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/02Receptacles, e.g. flower-pots or boxes; Glasses for cultivating flowers
    • A01G9/029Receptacles for seedlings
    • A01G9/0299Handling or transporting of soil blocks or seedlings
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/28Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture specially adapted for farming

Abstract

A rapid tea seedling culture method is characterized in that tea seedlings are produced in a factory through a cutting pool, shading is achieved through a covering mulching film and a plastic sunshade, cutting slips are cultured through axillary buds, and cutting and seedling culture are achieved through short slips.The method has the advantages of being low in cost, high in speed and good in quality.

Description

Camellia sinensis fast seedling-cultivating method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of agricultural technology, the seedling-raising technique in especially a kind of Folium Camelliae sinensis cultivation technique, specifically a kind of Camellia sinensis fast seedling-cultivating method.
Background technology
It is known that tea is one of current big beverage of the mankind three, drinking tea and be of value to the healthy of people, its Main Function is: excitement relieves tiredness, diuresis improving eyesight, and removing toxic substances is quenched the thirst, promoting digestion greasy, and benefit is thought to sleep less, has additional nutrients, opposing aging, and blood pressure lowering is lost weight, and strengthens blood vessel, presses down cancer.The famous little title of nutritionist Yu Ruo " tea is the best beverage that the Nature gives the mankind ".But recent years, Famous High-quality Tea developed rapidly, people pursue high-quality life, and new, good Cultivar replacing is regenerated very fast, in order to cater to people's demand, it is necessary to breed new kind Camellia sinensis soon and adapt to social development.Seize market in advance, increase economic benefit.
Nursery traditional at present adopts outdoor, two bud cuttages mostly, after 1 year or transplant again for 2 years, this method there is problems of by Seedling amount big, growth cycle is long, rich water, prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control difficulty are big, and seedling cost is high and difficult quality guarantee, is also easy to qualitative variation, therefore be badly in need of a kind of brand-new fast seedling growing technology to meet the needs of tea place cultivation, and industrial fast to breed be a kind of effective solution.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to mostly adopt natural cultivation for current tea shoot and existence Seedling amount is big, growth cycle is long, and rich water, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control are difficult big, and seedling cost is high and the problem of difficult quality guarantee, invents the Camellia sinensis fast seedling-cultivating method of a kind of factory management.
The technical scheme is that
A kind of Camellia sinensis fast seedling-cultivating method, be is characterized in that utilizing cuttage pond, it is achieved factorial praluction tea shoot, is shaded by covering with ground sheeting and plastics sunshade, cutting one axillary bud propagation, single-node cutting seed-raising, and it comprises the following steps:
First, nursery, cuttage pond is built;Select hillside fields or level land slightly gentle slope as nursery, cuttage pond land used, it is desirable to the pH value of soil is below 6.5, more than middle fertility;With ground, sunshade net top is installed selected, uses the advanced row degree of depth deep ploughing no less than 40 centimetres on the ground described, then excavate gutter, formation cuttage row of seedlings;
Secondly, seedbed is made;Seedlings plugging ridge carries out turning over of the degree of depth more than 20 centimetres again, requires after turning over that soil block is broken tiny, Land leveling;
3rd, on seedlings plugging ridge, the new yellow ground loam substrate opened up wasteland of more than layer overlay thickness 3cm, then suppresses solid with plank;
4th, water seedlings plugging ridge (seedbed) and cover upper agricultural mulching;
5th, clip cutting;About May in summer, it is pale red brown for selecting to stay foster young sprout middle and lower part at maternal plant garden, tissue starts lignifying, or semi-lignified, axillalry bud expands or sprouts, the intercepting cuttage branch that blade is ripe, during clip, branch cuts about 3-5cm, the thick 1-2mm of stem, from one axillalry bud of upper clip of transplanting, a piece of true leaf cutting;667m2Need 280-320 kilogram of fringe bar.
6th, control cutting density, line-spacing is with 3~4cm, and spacing in the rows can hide with blade and be stacked as principle, uses water infiltration of taking root to bury part fringe bar, controls 667m2Cuttage number is less than 500,000 strains;During cuttage, thumb and forefinger are clamped in the petiole place insertion soil of cutting upper end, and bud-leaf handle exposes soil face, after hemistich cuttage is good, walks along cutting for the palm, by the soil compaction near cutting, make cutting and soil be fully contacted, and during cutting, blade should arrange with the wind;Want limit hilling, while water, while shade;
7th, utilize the sunshade net top on nursery, cuttage pond to carry out sunshade in time, reduce solar irradiation and moisture evaporation;
8th, at the cuttage initial stage, the non-tissue regeneration promoting root of cutting, soil to be kept often to moisten, control water capacity 75%~95%;After cuttage in 40 days, every day respectively waters once sooner or later, and rainy day, cloudy day can not water or water less;After cutting seedling preliminarily forms root system, starting to topdress, initial stage fertilising is light, grows up enriching gradually with nursery stock later, and water fertilizing mixed by chemical fertilizer, early stage fertilising aqueous solution of urea, during to tea shoot length to about 9cm, and concentration of fertilizer raising two times, within every 6-8 days, apply fertilizer once;Control worm weeding in time, branch and leaf children is tender for tea shoot, easily there is pest and disease damage, with copper sulfate, carbendazol wettable powder controlling disease, blended preventing and treating simultaneously tea aphid, smaller green leaf hopper, tea geometrid, at these insect pest Growth seasons it is noted that running check, it has been found that after should spray medicine preventing and treating in time, it has been found that weeds to be pulled out in time;Sprout long tea shoot when cutting axillalry bud and grow 1-2 sheet leaf, when tip cutting grows 2 young leaves, outdoor foster, increase illumination, short seedling grows up, and at this moment cuttage Chi Zheyangwangding and surrounding to change aperture 2-3 millimeter white Sunshade film into and wrap up pest control comprehensively, stops that outside insect pest enters nursery;When height of seedling reaches more than 20cm, and well developed root system branch and leaf number is many, garden namely can be gone out, cuttage in summer can go out garden by the end of November, as condition does not allow out garden, then can be selected in and spring, summer or autumn go out garden, corresponding can go out garden and fail the tea shoot in garden because planting season is not inconsistent, just can beta pruning cuttage, with seedling.
Described cuttage cutting is hung oneself the tea shoot that maternal plant garden is cultivated, and the maternal cultivation of maternal plant garden includes:
(1) tree vigo(u)r is cultivated;Newly-built maternal plant garden must through deepling prune, and at liftoff 15cm place, level is cut, when level is pruned, it should be noted that removes withe to increase the ventilation and penetrating light of tree crown, makes nutrient concentrate, and favourable top young sprout grows to cultivate sturdy fringe bar;
(2) water and fertilizer management;Tea place as the water and fertilizer management level requirement ratio of maternal plant garden is high, owing to foster fringe maternal plant garden is after deepling prune, nutrient consumption is many, must there is more sufficient fertilizer, only supplement maternal plant garden Camellia sinensis by these means of applying fertilizer to restore normal growth after cutting required nutrient substance, all make fertilizer with rapeseed cake, under Camellia sinensis, open shallow ridges spread fertilizer over the fields, at basal dressing at the beginning of 2 months, at the beginning of 5 months, spraying fertilizer is once by the end of July;Per hectare maternal plant garden can cut fringe 1.5 ten thousand-2 ten thousand kilograms, can for the ground cuttage of 1-2 hectare Seedling;
(3) prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control;Maternal plant garden is after the degree of depth is pruned, and cause of disease and insect population radix decline to some extent;But owing to maternal plant garden is not adopted, stayed foster branch, Camellia sinensis growing way is prosperous, and branch and leaf are luxuriant, and the tender juice of leaf is many, it is appreciated that occur in a little pest and disease damages;The pest and disease damage of maternal plant garden not only hampers the growth of elite stand young sprout, and more seriously the branch with pest and disease damage can be propagated by breeding and go to other place, and therefore maternal plant garden it must be particularly noted that observing and predicting and inspection of pest and disease damage, accomplishes timely preventing and treating;
(4) flowers and fruits are removed;The reproductive growth of plant is with to nourish and grow be conflicting, there is the relation of mutually suppression, after deep pruning the good maternal plant garden of water and fertilizer management generally nourish and grow preponderate, alabastrum few, but also occur some alabastrums, bud, add nutrient consumption, weaken people's shoot and leaf growth, affect the matter of cutting, with the cutting of alabastrum bud, the survival rate of cutting seedling and the quality of seedling can be directly affected after cuttage, therefore, maternal plant garden is once there is alabastrum, young fruit, and the heart is extractd in time;The method removing flowers and fruits has two kinds: one to be manual removal;Two is spray ethylene agent to suppress flowers and fruits growth, causes fruit drop;
(5) top is plucked in time;The Maturity of cutting and the survival rate relation of cutting seedling are also very close, and whether shoot maturation, shows whether growth stops, and whether bud is formed, and it is brown whether branch reddens from below to up, i.e. lignifying and semi-lignified;Ripe branch, the material abundance of inner accumulation, cuttage easily survives, and growth vigor is obvious;When fertility level is good, in summer and autumn, the sustainable growth of young sprout, if without plucking top, slowly, the tender stem accounting for growth branch 10%~20% cannot utilize young sprout lignifying;Therefore must pluck top, it is suppressed that apical growth advantage in good time, force young sprout to stop growing, promote the lignifying of tender shoots;Topping Time, selects 10~15 days before cutting fringe, to ensure existing certain new-tip length, can make again the basic lignifying of young sprout;
(6) Appropriate application growth hormone;Auxin energy hestening rooting, at clip fringe bar first 2 days, with every mu of 2,4-D solution spraying 10~15 kilograms of 500ppm to effectively facilitate the growth of root system development and young sprout blade.
Described sunshade net rises 2.2 meters, and surrounding is ventilated, can according to weather, temperature, rain or shine, wind direction automatically opens up or shuts.
When the tea shoot in nursery suppresses apical growth advantage to pluck top when going out the garden time and do not go out garden in time, young sprout is forced to stop growing, promote the lignifying of twig, to meet the demand with seedling, pluck the top time, it is typically chosen in before cutting fringe 7-10 days and is preferred, to ensure existing certain new-tip length, tea shoot twig lignifying can be made again;Growth hormone within 7-8 days before clip cutting, should be sprayed simultaneously and promote root of hair effect;Cut fringe height and both provided cutting at more than tea shoot 20cm place clip branch, do not affect again tea shoot outplanting rate.
Described gutter includes the shallow gutter of excavation between the deep gutter of nursery, cuttage pond surrounding excavation and ridge, should be through between deep gutter and shallow gutter, at least should install grid cover plate on shallow gutter additional, in order to staff's walking and operation.
Described deep draining ditch depth 80 centimetres, wide 50 centimetres.
Beneficial effects of the present invention:
(1) present invention can significantly improve cuttage survival rate and outplanting rate, fast seedling growing adopts yellow ground loam to be substrate, and growth hormone sprays maternal plant garden and covering with ground sheeting and improves ground temperature, and sunshade net shades the key technology such as uniformly, making rapid breeding method survival rate 99%, outplanting rate reaches more than 97%.
(2) rapid breeding method of the present invention adopts covering with ground sheeting, can suppress weed growth, reduces moisture evaporation, greatly reduces management recruitment.Comparing with conventional method, every mu is reduced management recruitment 70 work, reduces wage of management 7000 yuan/mu, reduce and produce into wood 6100 yuan/mu, have dropped 27.1%, so that the remarkable in economical benefits of nursery improves, every mu can have a net increase of income 10558 yuan, increases by 64.7%, and its economic benefit is very considerable.
(3) rapid breeding method of the present invention solves normal cutting propagation for a long time in the garden time, is greatly shortened breeding cycle, especially cuttage pond cladding process, only has 156 days in the garden time, shortens 4 months than conventional method, avoids many loaded down with trivial details management simultaneously.Greatly reduce maternal plant garden and cultivate cost, accelerate tea shoot breeding process, early exploitation, be early benefited.Advance improved tea variety process, be conducive to Tea Industry modernization construction.
(4) present invention can also realize with seedling: makes full use of the resource in nursery, save into wood, Speedup of reproduction and breeding speed, plug cost low, survival rate and maternal plant garden cutting are suitable, breed garden amount big, with the nursery stock of seedling with and maternal plant can normally go out garden, solving the contradiction that early raw high-quality improved tea variety maternal plant garden is not enough, economic benefit and social benefit are notable.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with embodiment, the present invention is further illustrated.
A kind of Camellia sinensis fast seedling-cultivating method, it includes:
(1) management of maternal plant garden
1, tree vigo(u)r is cultivated
The cultivation of tree vigo(u)r is a most important ring in maternal plant garden management work.Newly-built maternal plant garden must through deepling prune, and at liftoff 15cm place, level is cut, when level is pruned, it should be noted that removes withe to increase the ventilation and penetrating light of tree crown, makes nutrient concentrate, and favourable top young sprout grows to cultivate sturdy fringe bar.
2, water and fertilizer management
Tea place as the water and fertilizer management level requirement ratio of single node cutting maternal plant garden is high, owing to foster fringe maternal plant garden is after deepling prune, nutrient consumption is many, must there is more sufficient fertilizer, only supplement maternal plant garden Camellia sinensis by these means of applying fertilizer to restore normal growth after cutting required nutrient substance, execute 40 kilograms of carbamide for general every mu every time, and the phosphorus potash fertilizer adding suitable reason mixes and stirs, the present invention all makees fertilizer with rapeseed cake, under Camellia sinensis, open shallow ridges spread fertilizer over the fields, time at basal dressing at the beginning of 2 months, at the beginning of 5 months, by the end of July and spraying fertilizer once.Per hectare maternal plant garden can cut fringe 1.5 ten thousand-2 ten thousand kilograms, is available for the ground cuttage of 1-2 hectare Seedling.
3, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:
Cutting maternal plant garden is after the degree of depth is pruned, and cause of disease and insect population radix decline to some extent.But owing to maternal plant garden is not adopted, stayed foster branch, particularly high in fertile training management level, Camellia sinensis growing way is prosperous, and branch and leaf are luxuriant, in the maternal plant garden that the tender juice of leaf is many, it is appreciated that occur in a little pest and disease damages.What often occur has tea geometrid, tea shoot, Homona cqffearia, smaller green leaf hopper, demodicid mite class etc..The pest and disease damage of maternal plant garden not only hampers the growth of elite stand young sprout, more seriously the branch with pest and disease damage can be propagated by breeding and go to other place, therefore maternal plant garden it must be particularly noted that observing and predicting and inspection of pest and disease damage, accomplish timely preventing and treating, adopt corresponding medicine to prevent and treat for different pest and disease damages.
4, flowers and fruits are removed:
The reproductive growth of plant, with to nourish and grow be conflicting, also exists the relation of suppression mutually.After deep pruning the good maternal plant garden of water and fertilizer management generally nourish and grow preponderate, alabastrum few.But also occur some alabastrums, bud, add nutrient consumption, weaken shoot and leaf growth, affect the quality of cutting, with the cutting of alabastrum bud, the survival rate of cutting seedling and the quality of seedling after cuttage, can be directly affected.Therefore, maternal plant garden, once there is alabastrum, young fruit, should be extractd in time.The method removing flowers and fruits has two kinds: one to be manual removal;Two is spray 500ppm ethylene agent to suppress flowers and fruits growth, causes fruit drop.
5, top is plucked in time:
The Maturity of cutting and the survival rate relation of cutting seedling are also very close, and whether shoot maturation, shows whether growth stops, and whether bud is formed, and it is brown whether branch reddens from below to up, i.e. lignifying and semi-lignified.Ripe branch, the material abundance of inner accumulation, cuttage easily survives, and growth vigor is obvious.When fertility level is good, in summer and autumn, the sustainable growth of young sprout, if without plucking top, slowly, the tender stem accounting for growth branch 10%~20% cannot utilize young sprout lignifying.Therefore must pluck top, it is suppressed that apical growth advantage in good time, force young sprout to stop growing, promote the lignifying of tender shoots.Topping Time, is typically chosen in before cutting fringe 10~15 days and is preferred, and to ensure existing certain new-tip length, can make again the basic lignifying of young sprout.
6, the Appropriate application of growth hormone:
Auxin processes cutting energy hestening rooting, test shows, use heteroauxing, gibberellins, 2, 4-D, the auximones such as production increasing agent, Camellia sinensis cutting base portion is dipped in dipping and painting, root system development can be promoted and improve survival rate, but this method processes very difficult, inefficiency, the 2 of 500ppm is sprayed on foster fringe elite stand so can adopt, 4-D solution, effectively facilitate and send out root system development, the growth of the young sprout blade of aerial parts is also obviously promoted effect, this method is easy, it is typically in clip fringe bar first 2 days, spray 10~15 kilograms of medicinal liquids with every mu to be advisable.
(2) fast seedling growing technology
Fast seedling growing technology is to utilize cuttage pond, and factorial praluction tea shoot is shaded by covering with ground sheeting and plastics sunshade, with an axillary bud propagation, does not need blade and axillalry bud below, and traditional method needs to breed tea shoot with two buds (two joints), and the partial blade that buries removes.The single-node cutting seed-raising technology of Ben Faken has saving of labor and economizes this, and rapidly and efficiently feature can be saved the cutting bar of half, be dropped this effect up to 50%.Key points for operation are:
1, the selection of cuttage pond nursery lot:
Batch production (indoor) cuttage pond: should build on hillside fields or slightly gentle slope, level land, south-north direction, thing begins to rehearse, and (between ridge gutter in ditch, ditch depth 80 centimetres, wide 50 centimetres), surrounding will have gutter, the gutter 10-20 centimetre deeper in draining between ridge of surrounding, width should reach 1.00 meters.Surrounding builds 3.1 meters of wide roads so that the walking of Work machine, and shading shed is high 2.2 meters, middle with several stations post, surrounding ventilation.Ceiling installs automatization's sunshade net top, at any time according to weather, temperature, rain or shine, wind direction automatically opens up or shuts.Transplant seedlings out from cuttage pond and only need to shift to an earlier date 2 hours irrigation waters to cuttage pond, stand in passageway and directly count Seedling just.Within a lot of hours in advance, watering Seedling ground not necessarily like other tea, irrigate and lift seedlings, new method is saved the plenty of time, has cement track dress Seedling, fortune to need goods and materials convenient between ridge, and substrate is dried and reusable in cement (aisle) ground.Cuttage pond water conservation, soil moisture conservation, fertilizer conservation, insulation etc. is better.
The soil of suitable Camellia sinensis nursery, it is desirable in acid pH value less than 6.5, more than middle fertility, soil thickness is moderate, requires there is water source, it is also possible to use tap water near the physical features of cuttage pond.Position is better by light effect with Chao Nan or the southeast, is never located at air port.
2, seedbed makes:
Ploughing soil twice, first time deep 41cm, second time ploughs deeply 20cm when bedding (ridge, lower same), wants soil block broken after ploughing, and ground is put down.The direction East and West direction of furrow as well, long 18m, wide 1.0m, furrow width 52cm.
3, substrate is selected:
In the furrow face layer overlay thickness 3cm yellow ground loam substrate newly opened up wasteland, then suppress solid with plank, because forming root with cutting portion root and the substrate cutting base portion healing directly contacted being differentiated to form root again, in agglutination, cell decomposes in a large number, if substrate now exists a large amount of microorganism, then callus corruption is easily made to affect and take root.In addition it is also necessary to certain moisture content and permeability, what so could keep cutting survives the differentiation with root.Cutting medium is made better with the yellow ground soil that newly breaks fresh ground.
4, covering with ground sheeting:
Covering upper agricultural mulching after watering seedbed again and set level whole being close to, surrounding wet soil is closed, and during whole furrow, two ends must slightly below centre, it is to avoid middle hydrops.The surrounding in nursery wants drainage trenching, and the certain distance in ditch sets a water-retention cave, it is simple to water in seedbed.Also can water by direct tap water.Covering with ground sheeting, added Sunshade film, there is water conservation burring, greatly reduce recruitment.But covering with ground sheeting is it should be noted that shade and necessarily can not leak screening, covering with ground sheeting and seedbed require to be close to, and cutting and base contact are wanted fully, otherwise to affect survival rate.Because covering with ground sheeting can improve ground temperature to more than 25 DEG C, adding that Sunshade film improves ground temperature 3-20 DEG C, make cutting Rooting percent do sth. in advance 8-30 days, cuttage pond all can carry out throughout the year simultaneously, expands and breeds speed.
5, the clip of cuttage fringe:
Being typically in about May in summer, stay foster young sprout middle and lower part to be pale red brown at foster fringe maternal plant garden, tissue starts lignifying, or semi-lignified, internal organs bud expands or sprouts, blade maturation, just being intercepting cuttage branch, cut fringe cuttage, branch cuts about more than 3-5cm, the thick 1--2mm of stem, from one axillalry bud of upper clip of transplanting, a piece of true leaf, without the cutting of internode (" two one "), two axillalry buds of traditional method, two true leaves, having internode to be about 4-5cm, otch is 45 degree.The present invention: otch be 45 degree or 180 degree all right, petiole stays stake 1 ~ 1.5mm, notes upper and lower polarity, the big mouth of shears upward, cut towards leaf direction by angle, then raw always tender can, fineness degree is as far as possible long, does not pitch branch, and bud is removed, general 667m2Need about more than 300 kilograms fringe bars.
6, cottage method:
Cutting density, line-spacing is with 3~4cm, and spacing in the rows can hide with blade and be stacked as principle, uses the concentration of mark allusion quotation board 3721 model 2% water infiltration of taking root to bury part fringe bar, general 667m2Can insert at most about 500,000 strains;During cuttage, thumb and forefinger clamp the petiole place of cutting upper end, generally insert in soil by 3/4ths, and bud-leaf handle exposes soil face, after hemistich cuttage is good, walk along cutting for the palm, by the soil compaction near cutting, making cutting and soil be fully contacted, during cutting, blade should arrange with the wind;Want limit hilling, while water, while shade.
7, automatic shrinked plastic sunshade net shades: take 2.2 meters high stainless piling bar frames by each row seedbed, and with wide 2m, light transmittance is that 25% plastics sunshade net shades, and reduces solar irradiation and moisture evaporation.The conventional wolf dustpan grass of cutting seedling or straw screen or mat that tradition is conventional are in the light, its method complex operation, often cross because of straw screen or mat and dredge or overstocked even leak screening, affect cuttage survival rate.And utilizing automatic shrinked plastic sunshade net (can designed, designed or directly from market purchasing, only need two motors, unreels, a rolling, and several rotating shafts can realize), shaded effect is uniform, and convenient management, production cost is low.
8, the management of cutting seedling: (1) cuttage initial stage, the non-tissue regeneration promoting root of cutting, soil to be kept often to moisten, keep water capacity 75%~95% as well.In general slotting latter 40 days, every day respectively waters once sooner or later, and rainy day, cloudy day can not water or water less.(2) after cutting seedling preliminarily forms root system, starting to topdress, initial stage fertilising is light, growing up enriching gradually with nursery stock, water fertilizing mixed by chemical fertilizer later, and early stage is topdressed the aqueous solution of urea with 0.5%, to tea shoot grow to about 9cm time (aerial parts), concentration of fertilizer improve two times, within every 7 days, execute once.(3) worm weeding is controlled in time, branch and leaf children is tender for tea shoot, easily there is pest and disease damage, spray 50 times of copper sulfate, 50% carbendazol wettable powder 500 times, controlling disease: the insect pests such as simultaneously blended preventing and treating tea aphid, smaller green leaf hopper, tea geometrid, at these insect pest Growth seasons it is noted that running check, it has been found that after should spray medicine preventing and treating in time: find that weeds to be pulled out in time.(4) sprouting long tea shoot when cutting axillalry bud and grow 1-2 sheet leaf, when tip cutting grows 2 young leaves, can outdoor breed, increase illumination, short seedling grows up.At this moment cuttage pond ceiling and surrounding to change aperture 2-3 millimeter white Sunshade film into and wrap up pest control comprehensively, stops that outside insect pest (such as moth class) enters nursery effect very good!!White Sunshade film has no effect on Camellia sinensis and water, fertilizer, air and heat, dew, sunlight etc. is absorbed.When height of seedling reaches more than 20cm to by the end of November to the beginning of spring, it is preferred to moving Seedling the beginning of spring, survival rate is high, garden can be gone out and transplant.
(3) go out garden and with seedling technology in good time
When tea shoot length to 25cm, when well developed root system branch and leaf number is many, namely can go out garden.Cuttage in summer can go out garden by the end of November, as condition does not allow out garden, then can be selected in and spring, summer or autumn go out garden, and correspondence can go out garden and fail the tea shoot in garden because planting season is not inconsistent, just can beta pruning cuttage, with seedling.
Answer during with seedling:
1, top is plucked in time: the Maturity of cutting is very close with the survival rate relation of cutting seedling, whether shoot maturation, it is mainly manifested in whether branch wants lignifying and semi-lignified, particularly with seedling, its tea shoot young sprout growth vigor is obvious, if without plucking top, young sprout lignifying is slow, and the twig accounting for growth branch about 20% cannot utilize.Therefore must pluck suitable in time, it is suppressed that apical growth advantage, force young sprout to stop growing, promote the lignifying of twig, pluck the top time, be typically chosen in before cutting fringe 7-10 days and be preferred, to ensure that existing certain new-tip length can make the basic lignifying of tea shoot twig.
2, spraying growth hormone: before clip cutting 7-8 days, spray the production increasing agent of 80ppm and 2, the 4-D solution of 500ppm, have and better promote the growth of the young sprout blade of tea shoot is also had root of hair effect obvious facilitation, every mu sprays about 200 kilograms medicinal liquids and is advisable.This method dipping in cutting base portion than with hormone is easy, and effect is obvious.
3, fringe height is cut: be typically in more than tea shoot 20cm and locate clip branch, so, both provided cutting, and do not affected again tea shoot outplanting rate.
Advantage with seedling: make full use of the resource in nursery, save into wood, Speedup of reproduction and breeding speed, plug cost low, survival rate and maternal plant garden cutting are suitable, breed garden amount big, with the nursery stock of seedling with and maternal plant can normally go out garden, solving the contradiction that early raw high-quality improved tea variety maternal plant garden is not enough, economic benefit and social benefit are notable.
Part that the present invention does not relate to is all same as the prior art maybe can adopt prior art to be realized.

Claims (6)

1. a Camellia sinensis fast seedling-cultivating method, is characterized in that utilizing cuttage pond, it is achieved factorial praluction tea shoot, is shaded by covering with ground sheeting and plastics sunshade, cutting one axillary bud propagation, single-node cutting seed-raising, and it comprises the following steps:
First, nursery, cuttage pond is built;Select hillside fields or level land slightly gentle slope as nursery, cuttage pond land used, it is desirable to the pH value of soil is below 6.5, more than middle fertility;With ground, sunshade net top is installed selected, uses the advanced row degree of depth deep ploughing no less than 40 centimetres on the ground described, then excavate gutter, formation cuttage row of seedlings;
Secondly, seedbed is made;Carrying out turning over of the degree of depth more than 20 centimetres again on seedlings plugging ridge, require that soil block is broken after turning over, soil directly dries tiling, Land leveling;
3rd, on seedlings plugging ridge, the new yellow ground loam substrate opened up wasteland of more than layer overlay thickness 3cm, then suppresses solid with plank;
4th, water seedlings plugging ridge (seedbed) and cover upper agricultural mulching;
5th, clip cutting;About May in summer, it is pale red brown for selecting to stay foster young sprout middle and lower part at maternal plant garden, tissue starts lignifying, or semi-lignified, axillalry bud expands or sprouts, the intercepting cuttage branch that blade is ripe, during clip, branch cuts about 3-5cm, the thick 1-2mm of stem, from one axillalry bud of upper clip of transplanting, a piece of true leaf makes cutting;667m2Need 280-320 kilogram of fringe bar;
6th, control cutting density, line-spacing is with 3~4cm, and spacing in the rows can hide with blade and be stacked as principle, uses water infiltration of taking root to bury part fringe bar, controls 667m2Cuttage number is less than 500,000 strains;During cuttage, thumb and forefinger are clamped in the petiole place insertion soil of cutting upper end, and bud-leaf handle exposes soil face, after hemistich cuttage is good, walks along cutting for the palm, by the soil compaction near cutting, make cutting and soil be fully contacted, and during cutting, blade should arrange with the wind;Want limit hilling, while water, while shade;
7th, utilize the sunshade net top on nursery, cuttage pond to carry out sunshade in time, reduce solar irradiation and moisture evaporation;
8th, at the cuttage initial stage, the non-tissue regeneration promoting root of cutting, soil to be kept often to moisten, control water capacity 75%~95%;After cuttage in 40 days, every day respectively waters once sooner or later, and rainy day, cloudy day can not water or water less;After cutting seedling preliminarily forms root system, starting to topdress, initial stage fertilising is light, grows up enriching gradually with nursery stock later, and water fertilizing mixed by chemical fertilizer, early stage fertilising aqueous solution of urea, during to tea shoot length to about 9cm, and concentration of fertilizer raising two times, within every 6-8 days, apply fertilizer once;Control worm weeding in time, branch and leaf children is tender for tea shoot, easily there is pest and disease damage, with copper sulfate, carbendazol wettable powder controlling disease, blended preventing and treating simultaneously tea aphid, smaller green leaf hopper, tea geometrid, at these insect pest Growth seasons it is noted that running check, it has been found that after should spray medicine preventing and treating in time, it has been found that weeds to be pulled out in time;Sprout long tea shoot when cutting axillalry bud and grow 1-2 sheet leaf, when tip cutting grows 2 young leaves, outdoor foster, increase illumination, short seedling grows up, and at this moment cuttage Chi Zheyangwangding and surrounding to change aperture 2-3 millimeter white Sunshade film into and wrap up pest control comprehensively, stops that outside insect pest enters nursery;When height of seedling reaches more than 20cm, and well developed root system branch and leaf number is many, garden namely can be gone out, cuttage in summer can go out garden by the end of November, as condition does not allow out garden, then can be selected in and spring, summer or autumn go out garden, corresponding can go out garden and fail the tea shoot in garden because planting season is not inconsistent, just can beta pruning cuttage, with seedling.
2. method according to claim 1, is characterized in that the tea shoot that described cuttage cutting is cultivated to maternal plant garden of hanging oneself, and the maternal cultivation of maternal plant garden includes:
(1) tree vigo(u)r is cultivated;Newly-built maternal plant garden must through deepling prune, and at liftoff 15cm place, level is cut, when level is pruned, it should be noted that removes withe to increase the ventilation and penetrating light of tree crown, makes nutrient concentrate, and favourable top young sprout grows to cultivate sturdy fringe bar;
(2) water and fertilizer management;Tea place as the water and fertilizer management level requirement ratio of maternal plant garden is high, owing to foster fringe maternal plant garden is after deepling prune, nutrient consumption is many, must there is more sufficient fertilizer, only supplement maternal plant garden Camellia sinensis by these means of applying fertilizer to restore normal growth after cutting required nutrient substance, all make fertilizer with rapeseed cake, under Camellia sinensis, open shallow ridges spread fertilizer over the fields, at basal dressing at the beginning of 2 months, at the beginning of 5 months, spraying fertilizer is once by the end of July;Per hectare maternal plant garden can cut fringe 1.5 ten thousand-2 ten thousand kilograms, can for the ground cuttage of 1-2 hectare Seedling;
(3) prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control;Maternal plant garden is after the degree of depth is pruned, and cause of disease and insect population radix decline to some extent;But owing to maternal plant garden is not adopted, stayed foster branch, Camellia sinensis growing way is prosperous, and branch and leaf are luxuriant, and the tender juice of leaf is many, it is appreciated that occur in a little pest and disease damages;The pest and disease damage of maternal plant garden not only hampers the growth of elite stand young sprout, and more seriously the branch with pest and disease damage can be propagated by breeding and go to other place, and therefore maternal plant garden it must be particularly noted that observing and predicting and inspection of pest and disease damage, accomplishes timely preventing and treating;
(4) flowers and fruits are removed;The reproductive growth of plant is with to nourish and grow be conflicting, there is the relation of mutually suppression, after deep pruning the good maternal plant garden of water and fertilizer management generally nourish and grow preponderate, alabastrum few, but also occur some alabastrums, bud, add nutrient consumption, weaken shoot and leaf growth, affect the quality of cutting, with the cutting of alabastrum bud, the survival rate of cutting seedling and the quality of seedling can be directly affected after cuttage, therefore, maternal plant garden is once there is alabastrum, young fruit, and the heart is extractd in time;The method removing flowers and fruits has two kinds: one to be manual removal;Two is spray ethylene agent to suppress flowers and fruits growth, causes fruit drop;
(5) top is plucked in time;The Maturity of cutting and the survival rate relation of cutting seedling are also very close, and whether shoot maturation, shows whether growth stops, and whether bud is formed, and it is brown whether branch reddens from below to up, i.e. lignifying and semi-lignified;Ripe branch, the material abundance of inner accumulation, cuttage easily survives, and growth vigor is obvious;When fertility level is good, in summer and autumn, the sustainable growth of young sprout, if without plucking top, slowly, the tender stem accounting for growth branch 10%~20% cannot utilize young sprout lignifying;Therefore must pluck top, it is suppressed that apical growth advantage in good time, force young sprout to stop growing, promote the lignifying of tender shoots;Topping Time, selects 10~15 days before cutting fringe, to ensure existing certain new-tip length, can make again the basic lignifying of young sprout;
(6) Appropriate application growth hormone;Auxin energy hestening rooting, at clip fringe bar first 2 days, with every mu of 2,4-D solution spraying 10~15 kilograms of 500ppm to effectively facilitate the growth of root system development and young sprout blade.
3. method according to claim 1, is characterized in that described sunshade net rises 2.2 meters, and surrounding is ventilated, can according to weather, temperature, rain or shine, wind direction automatically opens up or shuts.
4. method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that when the tea shoot in nursery suppresses apical growth advantage to pluck top when going out the garden time and do not go out garden in time, young sprout is forced to stop growing, promote the lignifying of twig, to meet the demand with seedling, pluck the top time, be typically chosen in before cutting fringe 7-10 days and be preferred, to ensure existing certain new-tip length, tea shoot twig lignifying can be made again;Growth hormone within 7-8 days before clip cutting, should be sprayed simultaneously and promote root of hair effect;Cut fringe height and both provided cutting at more than tea shoot 20cm place clip branch, do not affect again tea shoot outplanting rate.
5. method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that described gutter includes the shallow gutter of excavation between the deep gutter of nursery, cuttage pond surrounding excavation and ridge, should be through between deep gutter and shallow gutter, at least should install grid cover plate on shallow gutter additional, in order to staff's walking and operation.
6. method according to claim 5, is characterized in that described deep draining ditch depth 80 centimetres, wide 50 centimetres.
CN201610132217.7A 2016-03-09 2016-03-09 Rapid tea seedling culture method Pending CN105724106A (en)

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