CN105532237A - Standardization planting technology of cold-highland-area aconitum vilmorimianum kom - Google Patents

Standardization planting technology of cold-highland-area aconitum vilmorimianum kom Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105532237A
CN105532237A CN201511007583.1A CN201511007583A CN105532237A CN 105532237 A CN105532237 A CN 105532237A CN 201511007583 A CN201511007583 A CN 201511007583A CN 105532237 A CN105532237 A CN 105532237A
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China
Prior art keywords
soil
root
moisture
disease
radix aconiti
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Inventor
字淑慧
沙本才
杨生超
沈勇
马慧祥
陈军文
张广辉
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Yunnan Agricultural University
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Yunnan Agricultural University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention discloses a standardization planting technology of cold-highland-area aconitum vilmorimianum kom. The standardization planting technology includes the steps of 1, planting area selecting; 2, soil preparing; 3, seed selecting; 4, standardization cultivating; 5, field managing; 6, disease and pest preventing; 7, harvesting. By means of the planting technology of cold-highland-area aconitum vilmorimianum kom, a regular effect and a reasonable effect are achieved, the yield can be increased, quality can be guaranteed, and high-quality raw materials can be provided.

Description

High and cold mountain area yellow radix aconiti agrestis standardized planting technology
Technical field
The present invention relates to yellow radix aconiti agrestis planting technology field, specifically the yellow radix aconiti agrestis standardized planting in a kind of high and cold mountain area technology.
Background technology
Yellow radix aconiti agrestis (formal name used at school: AconitumvilmorinianumKom.) another name: radix aconiti agrestis, large radix aconiti agrestis, vilmorin monkshood root (Yunnan), the Kunming rhizome of Chinese monkshood.Aconitum herbaceos perennial, the oval spherical or carrot shape of block root, stem is wound around, the hard papery of blade, pentagon, and inflorescence has 3 ~ 6 flowers; Bract is linear; Sepal hyacinthine, seed prismatic, only at the horizontal film wing of the close life of one side.8 ~ October blooms.Between raw height above sea level 2100 ~ 2500 meters in Shrubs of Mountainous Areas.Be distributed in the middle part of Chinese yunnan, Sichuan and WESTERN GUIZHOU.
Block root: bitter, pungent, temperature.There is severe toxicity.Expelling wind and clearing away cold, damp dispelling and pain relieving.For traumatic injury, rheumatalgia, brothers faint.
Radix aconiti agrestis is herbaceos perennial, and belong to happiness Wen Liang, happiness light, semi-humid crop, is afraid of high temperature and drought and damage caused by waterlogging most.Be grown on that year samming is not less than 15 ~ 16 DEG C, average annual precipitation is not less than 1100mm more, relative moisture reach more than 80% the high and cold area cooling, carry on the back shady semi-humid; Usual about 220 days breeding time of year.
In recent years, people adopt the method for the yellow radix aconiti agrestis of artificial planting in a large number, but due to provenance mix, planting environment difference is large, pick and process not, the reason such as technology is unreasonable, the yellow radix aconiti agrestis product quality of artificial planting is uneven, has a strong impact on the drug safety of yellow radix aconiti agrestis product.
Summary of the invention
In order to make up above deficiency, the invention provides a kind of normative and reasonable, can output be improved, guarantee quality, provide the high and cold mountain area yellow radix aconiti agrestis standardized planting technology of quality raw materials, to solve the problem in above-mentioned background technology.
Technical scheme of the present invention is:
A kind of high and cold mountain area yellow radix aconiti agrestis standardized planting technology, is characterized in that, comprise step:
1) planting area is selected
Select that ecotope is good, periphery is pollution-free source, meet the hillside of production of crude drugs condition, pour water meet GB5084, soil meets GB15618, air meets GB3095 specified standard;
Select red soil, sandy loam and grey soup soil, pH value is neutral or subacidity soil; Be planted in the high and cold area cooling, carry on the back shady semi-humid of height above sea level 1800 ~ 3200 meters, select low mountains and hills ground, the gradient 5 ~ 25 ° partly carry on the back shady semi-humid location on the sunny side, that soil moisture, soil layer are deep, the soil is porous is fertile, neutral or subacidity, salinity are convenient lower than the water source of 10%, can row can fill with, ground, the gentle slope plantation of illumination abundance;
2) wholely
Then after previous crops results in 10 ~ December, adopt tractor-ploughing or ox to plough plough, the degree of depth is 20 ~ 40 centimetres, and weeds a garden, make the abundant slaking of soil, increase fertility, reduce damage by disease and insect, copy pears before sowing again 2 times, weed a garden and tan by the sun a few days and play upturned soil, make soil fully even and fine, loose;
The principle of " early, meticulous " and " tractor-ploughing machine rake, Niu Gengniu rake " should be grasped in whole ground, leaks plough, leaks rake place and want manually to deep-cut in time in small, broken bits;
3) seed is selected
Select the new cadmium yellow radix aconiti agrestis of gathering in the crops then to survey raw block root to plant;
4) standardized cultivation
A. the sowing time
The best sowing joint time is at " the Beginning of Winter ", " slight snow " climate and other natural phenomena of a season, higher to sow output mid or late November to mid-December, all can affect output late too early or excessively; Also can or mid-April to 5 month at the beginning of sowing, output is lower;
B. seeding quantity
Every mu of 12000 ~ 13500 strains;
C. moisture in the soil is managed
Carry out reason moisture in the soil by the standard of the wide 70cm of the every moisture in the soil of East and West direction, high 20 ~ 30cm, furrow width 40cm, length is determined according to physical features; After having managed moisture in the soil, moisture in the soil face soil is hugged flat, and smash the large upturned soil in moisture in the soil face, make moisture in the soil face land smoothing, in small, broken bits, loose;
D. sow
To ditch in resonable good moisture in the soil face drilling, first well-rotted farmyard manure 1500kg/ mu and composite fertilizer's 30kg/ mu being mixed evenly executes in ditch, cover the fine earth that one deck 3 ~ 5cm is thick again, block radical bud eye is sowed upward in ditch, every ditch 2 row, wrong row sowing, large every trade apart from be 70cm (two moisture in the soil spacings), little every trade distance 20cm (every ditch 2 line space from), spacing in the rows 10 ~ 15cm, cover 5 ~ 8cm soil, plant according to the principle of " first sowing, bonnet fertilizer, again blinding " during sowing;
5) field management
A. ensure that seedling is neat
After planting, keep ground moistening, ensure to emerge neatly; Because Yunnan autumn and winter spring arid is comparatively serious, for ensureing to emerge neatly, after planting at moisture in the soil face stalks mulching or the thing that shelters from heat or light, keep soil moisture, in case of arid need water to ensure to emerge neatly; Progressively covering is removed after emerging.
B. Rational Irrigation
Yellow radix aconiti agrestis is afraid of that drought is afraid of flood again, in order to ensure emerge neat and healthy healthy and strong growth breeding time, according to weather condition and soil moisture content, should irrigate and water drainage in good time, keeping soil moisture content about 70%, guarantee stable and high yields;
E. topdress in good time
First time imposes is emerging 20 ~ 30 days, when seedling has 6 ~ 8 leaves, according to " concentration is rare; number of times wants many; amount of application wants large " principle, impose the stable dung water or night soil that fully become thoroughly decomposed, be watered 50 kilograms with 8 ~ 10 kilograms of liquid dungs or 0.8 kg urea and water and execute, improve seedling strong, accelerate cauline leaf and grow fast and strengthens resistance;
Second time is topdressed in plant strain growth to 0.8 ~ 1.2 meter, blooms first 20 days, with 2 ‰ urea, 1.5 ‰ potassium dihydrogen phosphate be watered the root watering and impose on plant, add the agricultural chemicals of desinsection and sterilization, the nutrient of guarantee block root expanding stage and the infringement of prevention and elimination of disease and pests simultaneously;
F. inserted link is fought
First time fertilising carries out inserted link in conjunction with during intertill and clean tillage, inserts a long rod of 1.8 ~ 2.2 meters or bamboo pole along the every 50cm in moisture in the soil face, every mu of inserted link 180 ~ 220; Utilize preliminary seedling balled transplanting to fill the gaps with seedlings, during guarantee inserted link, Miao Qimiao is complete simultaneously;
Yellow radix aconiti agrestis is climbing plant, and be necessary for and carry out inserted link built ability high yield, generally in first time, fertilising carries out inserted link in conjunction with intertill and clean tillage, and as found diseased plant during inserted link, should extract plant and burn, utilize preliminary seedling balled transplanting, the time is urgent;
G. intertill and clean tillage
Yellow radix aconiti agrestis belongs to deep rooted plant, and in conjunction with fertilising, according to yellow radix aconiti agrestis growing state, the principle of " first deep ploughing, rear shallow plowing is far deep ploughed, closely ploughed shallowly " carries out intertill and clean tillage.Carry out first time ridging in conjunction with fertilising before general built, promote adventive root growth; Combine second time fertilising before blooming carrying out once, promote that block root is grown rapidly in a short time to expand, for control rainwater invades root, reduce ground temperature and reduce root rot generation, promote that block root expands, when topdressing, the soil in ditch is hugged and make adult fish antiform into plant root, rainy season set, weeds are easy to growth, should weeding in time, retentively without weeds, ditch is without ponding;
H. bind and prune
Should accomplish " without crow flower, strain crow liquid bud " for obtaining higher output, generally start pinching when the existing thunder of plant, pinching length is 20 ~ 40 centimetres, substantially completes to when blooming; Plant after pinching, grows axillalry bud or axillalry bud fruit should be extractd at any time, does not want damaged blade or plant Lao Ye during bud picking, ensures that leaf photosynthesis is normally carried out;
6) extermination of disease and insect pest
Implement the plant protection policy of " putting prevention first, integrated control ", priority application biology and physical control technology, use chemical pesticide control damage by disease and insect, science selects high-efficiency low-toxicity, less-persistent pesticide, and optimum period suits the medicine to the illness dispenser, and the high poison of forbidding, persistent pesticide are applied on asparagus; Major experiment should meet the requirement of GB4285, and agricultural chemicals reasonable employment should meet the requirement of GB8321;
A. main diseases and insect pests
Yellow radix aconiti agrestis Major Diseases is powdery mildew, powdery mildew, root rot and root knot nematode disease;
B. control principle
Put prevention first, integrated control, based on cultural control, physical control, biological control, chemical control is auxiliary;
C. cultural control
Select disease-resistant variety to improve yellow radix aconiti agrestis disease resistance, by crop rotation during plantation, use well-rotted farmyard manure, reduce disease worm source, apply fertilizers scientifically, control nitrogenous fertilizer and use, nurturing staff; Rational close planting, inserted link built are to keep field ventilation and penetrating light; Strengthen intertill and clean tillage, rationally liquid manure, the rationally agronomic measures such as to interrupt that binds and improve plant growing way, strengthen plant disease resistance;
D. physical control
Ted soil and use ash, carrying out ash seed dressing, trapping lamp to block root, colour table is trapped and killed;
E. biological control
Active protection usability lure also uses the anti-radix aconiti agrestis insect of harnessing the Yellow River of biopesticide;
F. chemical control
Downy mildew: spray prevention with 1:1:200 bordeaux mixture doubly; Foliage-spray control is carried out with carbendazim 500 ~ 800 times of liquid of 25% or 40% efosite, 40% ethylphosphorus lead, 25% metalaxyl, 50% thiophanate methyl during first morbidity;
Powdery mildew: with 25% triadimefon or 50% thiophanate methyl etc., spray control by 1:500 to 800 times of liquid;
Root rot: with 50% carbendazim, 500 times of liquid or 20% thiophanate methyl, 500 times of liquid irrigating roots or spraying;
Root knot nematode disease: when whole ground, spreads manuer in holes with ploughing under after 5% Nemacur 10kg/ mu ditch spread in soil or when transplanting; During morbidity, fill with root with after 1.8% abamectin emulsifiable concentrate dilution 1000 ~ 1500 times;
Cutworm: doubly spray the side of a pond with decis 1:2000 or squirt soil table with 37.5 ~ 50 milliliter of 48% Le Siben missible oil with being watered 50 liters;
Above medical treatment performs in strict accordance with the regulation of GB4285 and GB/T8321;
7) gather
A. the time
In 11 ~ December then, gather in the crops when field plant acrial part more than 70% is withered;
B. excavate
According to moisture in the soil face, the length direction along reason moisture in the soil excavates from every dead furrow both sides, eliminates the cauline leaf on block root, fibrous root and earth after digging out; Do not injure block root when excavating, namely go mouldy in order to avoid undressed, remove fibrous root and earth as early as possible after digging out, put and spread airing out in the cool, and be divided into large, medium and small three classes according to block root weight.
As preferred technical scheme, described step 1) select planting area, select the mountain area and the upper level that are planted in height above sea level 2200 ~ 2600 meters; Sunny, deep, loose, fertile, the well-drained area of soil layer.
As preferred technical scheme, described planting area previous crops is potato and buckwheat, rape plot.
As preferred technical scheme, described planting area previous crops crop is paddy rice, corn, vegetables, wheat.
As preferred technical scheme, described step 3) select when selecting seed seed selection without damage by disease and insect, compared with uprightly, bifurcated is few, the block root seeing lover, be of moderate size.
As preferred technical scheme, described step 4) in standardized cultivation, sowing quantity varies in size according to fresh piece of root and different, and block root weight is greater than 25 grams for macrospecies, and seeding quantity is 140 ~ 160 kgs/acre; Block root weight is 20 ~ 25 grams is middle kind, and seeding quantity is 110 ~ 130 kgs/acre; Block root weight is less than 20 grams for microspecies, and seeding quantity is 95 ~ 105 kg/mu.
As preferred technical scheme, described step 5) in field management, binding prunes carries out 2 pinching and bud picking, and the axillalry bud grown fruit, breeds as provenance after can gathering.
As preferred technical scheme, described step 6) in the extermination of disease and insect pest, described biopesticide is " BT " and " Ai Lvshi " white muscardine fungi.
As preferred technical scheme, described step 7) gather, be describedly divided into large, medium and small three classes according to block root weight, be wherein greatly greater than 25 grams, in be 20 ~ 25 grams, little of being less than 20 grams.
As preferred technical scheme, described large and middle piece of root can as merchandise sales, and fritter root is as next year seed or sell as provenance.
Owing to have employed technique scheme, a kind of high and cold mountain area of the present invention yellow radix aconiti agrestis standardized planting technology, comprises step: 1) select planting area, selects red soil, sandy loam and grey soup soil, and pH value is neutral or subacidity soil; Be planted in the high and cold area cooling, carry on the back shady semi-humid of height above sea level 1800 ~ 3200 meters, select low mountains and hills ground, the gradient 5 ~ 25 ° partly carry on the back shady semi-humid location on the sunny side, that soil moisture, soil layer are deep, the soil is porous is fertile, neutral or subacidity, salinity are convenient lower than the water source of 10%, can row can fill with, ground, the gentle slope plantation of illumination abundance; 2) wholely, then after previous crops results in 10 ~ December, adopt tractor-ploughing or ox to plough plough, the degree of depth is 20 ~ 40 centimetres, and weed a garden, make the abundant slaking of soil, increase fertility, reduce damage by disease and insect, copy pears before sowing again 2 times, weed a garden and tan by the sun a few days and play upturned soil, make soil fully even and fine, loose; 3) select seed, select the new cadmium yellow radix aconiti agrestis of gathering in the crops then to survey raw block root and plant; 4) standardized cultivation, a. sowing time, sowing at the beginning of mid or late November to mid-December or mid-April to 5 month; B. seeding quantity, every mu of 12000 ~ 13500 strains; C. manage moisture in the soil, carry out reason moisture in the soil by the standard of the wide 70cm of the every moisture in the soil of East and West direction, high 20 ~ 30cm, furrow width 40cm; After having managed moisture in the soil, moisture in the soil face soil is hugged flat, and smash the large upturned soil in moisture in the soil face, make moisture in the soil face land smoothing, in small, broken bits, loose; D. sow, to ditch in resonable good moisture in the soil face drilling, well-rotted farmyard manure 1500kg/ mu and composite fertilizer 30kg/ mu will be used, execute in ditch after mix is even, then cover the thick fine earth of one deck 3 ~ 5cm, eye is sowed upward in ditch, every ditch 2 row, large every trade apart from be 70cm (two moisture in the soil spacings), little every trade distance 20cm (every ditch 2 line space from), spacing in the rows 10 ~ 15cm, covers; 5) field management, a. ensures that seedling is neat, after planting, keeps ground moistening, ensures to emerge neatly; B. Rational Irrigation, according to weather condition and soil moisture content, irrigates and water drainage in good time, keeps soil moisture content about 70%; E. topdress, first time imposes and is emerging 20 ~ 30 days in good time, when seedling has 6 ~ 8 leaves, imposes the stable dung water or night soil that fully become thoroughly decomposed, is watered 50 kilograms waters and execute with 8 ~ 10 kilograms of liquid dungs or 0.8 kg urea; Second time is topdressed in plant strain growth to 0.8 ~ 1.2 meter, blooms first 20 days, with 2 ‰ urea, 1.5 ‰ potassium dihydrogen phosphate be watered the root watering and impose on plant, add the agricultural chemicals of desinsection and sterilization, the nutrient of guarantee block root expanding stage and the infringement of prevention and elimination of disease and pests simultaneously; F. inserted link is fought, and first time fertilising carries out inserted link in conjunction with during intertill and clean tillage, inserts a long rod of 1.8 ~ 2.2 meters or bamboo pole along the every 50cm in moisture in the soil face, every mu of inserted link 180 ~ 220; Utilize preliminary seedling balled transplanting to fill the gaps with seedlings, during guarantee inserted link, Miao Qimiao is complete simultaneously; ; G. intertill and clean tillage, carries out first time ridging in conjunction with fertilising before built, promotes adventive root growth; Combine second time fertilising before blooming carrying out once, promote that block root is grown rapidly in a short time to expand, for control rainwater invades root, reduce ground temperature and reduce root rot generation, promote that block root expands, when topdressing, the soil in ditch is hugged and make adult fish antiform into plant root, rainy season set, weeds are easy to growth, should weeding in time, retentively without weeds, ditch is without ponding; H. bind and prune, start pinching when the existing thunder of plant, pinching length is 20 ~ 40 centimetres, substantially completes to when blooming; Plant after pinching, grows axillalry bud or axillalry bud fruit should be extractd at any time, does not want damaged blade or plant Lao Ye during bud picking, ensures that leaf photosynthesis is normally carried out; 6) extermination of disease and insect pest, uses chemical pesticide control damage by disease and insect, and science selects high-efficiency low-toxicity, less-persistent pesticide, and optimum period suits the medicine to the illness dispenser; A. main diseases and insect pests, yellow radix aconiti agrestis Major Diseases is powdery mildew, powdery mildew, root rot and root knot nematode disease; B. control principle, puts prevention first, integrated control, and based on cultural control, physical control, biological control, chemical control is auxiliary; C. cultural control, selects disease-resistant variety to improve yellow radix aconiti agrestis disease resistance, by crop rotation during plantation, uses well-rotted farmyard manure, reduces disease worm source, apply fertilizers scientifically, and controls nitrogenous fertilizer and uses, nurturing staff; Rational close planting, inserted link built are to keep field ventilation and penetrating light; Strengthen intertill and clean tillage, rationally liquid manure, the rationally agronomic measures such as to interrupt that binds and improve plant growing way, strengthen plant disease resistance; D. physical control, teds soil and uses ash, carries out ash seed dressing, trapping lamp to block root, and colour table is trapped and killed; E. biological control, active protection usability lure also uses the anti-radix aconiti agrestis insect of harnessing the Yellow River of biopesticide; F. chemical control, downy mildew: spray prevention with 1:1:200 bordeaux mixture doubly; Foliage-spray control is carried out with carbendazim 500-800 times of liquid of 25% or 40% efosite, 40% ethylphosphorus lead, 25% metalaxyl, 50% thiophanate methyl during first morbidity; Powdery mildew: with 25% triadimefon or 50% thiophanate methyl etc., spray control by 1:500 to 800 times of liquid; Root rot: with 50% carbendazim, 500 times of liquid or 20% thiophanate methyl, 500 times of liquid irrigating roots or spraying; Root knot nematode disease: when whole ground, spreads manuer in holes with ploughing under after 5% Nemacur 10kg/ mu ditch spread in soil or when transplanting; During morbidity, fill with root with after 1.8% abamectin emulsifiable concentrate dilution 1000 ~ 1500 times; Cutworm: doubly spray the side of a pond with decis 1:2000 or squirt soil table with 37.5 ~ 50 milliliter of 48% Le Siben missible oil with being watered 50 liters; 7) gather, a. time, in 11 ~ December then, gather in the crops when field plant acrial part 70% is withered; B. excavate, according to moisture in the soil face, the length direction along reason moisture in the soil excavates from every dead furrow both sides, eliminates the cauline leaf on block root, fibrous root and earth after digging out; Do not injure block root when excavating, namely go mouldy in order to avoid undressed, remove fibrous root and earth as early as possible after digging out, put and spread airing out in the cool, and be divided into large, medium and small three classes according to block root weight; Present invention achieves normative and reasonable, can output be improved, guarantee quality, provide the high and cold mountain area of quality raw materials yellow radix aconiti agrestis planting technology.
Embodiment
A kind of high and cold mountain area yellow radix aconiti agrestis standardized planting technology, comprises step:
1) planting area is selected
Select red soil, sandy loam and grey soup soil, pH value is neutral or subacidity soil; Be planted in the high and cold area cooling, carry on the back shady semi-humid of height above sea level 1800 ~ 3200 meters, select low mountains and hills ground, the gradient 5 ~ 25 ° partly carry on the back shady semi-humid location on the sunny side, that soil moisture, soil layer are deep, the soil is porous is fertile, neutral or subacidity, salinity are convenient lower than the water source of 10%, can row can fill with, ground, the gentle slope plantation of illumination abundance;
2) wholely
Then after previous crops results in 10 ~ December, adopt tractor-ploughing or ox to plough plough, the degree of depth is 20 ~ 40 centimetres, and weeds a garden, make the abundant slaking of soil, increase fertility, reduce damage by disease and insect, copy pears before sowing again 2 times, weed a garden and tan by the sun a few days and play upturned soil, make soil fully even and fine, loose;
3) seed is selected
Select the new cadmium yellow radix aconiti agrestis of gathering in the crops then to survey raw block root to plant;
4) standardized cultivation
A. the sowing time
Sowing at the beginning of mid or late November to mid-December or mid-April to 5 month;
B. seeding quantity
Every mu of 12000 ~ 13500 strains;
C. moisture in the soil is managed
Reason moisture in the soil is carried out by the standard of the wide 70cm of the every moisture in the soil of East and West direction, high 20 ~ 30cm, furrow width 40cm; After having managed moisture in the soil, moisture in the soil face soil is hugged flat, and smash the large upturned soil in moisture in the soil face, make moisture in the soil face land smoothing, in small, broken bits, loose;
D. sow
To ditch in resonable good moisture in the soil face drilling, well-rotted farmyard manure 1500kg/ mu and composite fertilizer 30kg/ mu will be used, execute in ditch after mix is even, cover the fine earth that one deck 3 ~ 5cm is thick again, eye is sowed upward in ditch, every ditch 2 row, large every trade distance is 70cm, little every trade, apart from 20cm, spacing in the rows 10 ~ 15cm, covers;
5) field management
A. ensure that seedling is neat
After planting, keep ground moistening, ensure to emerge neatly;
B. Rational Irrigation
According to weather condition and soil moisture content, irrigate and water drainage in good time, keep soil moisture content about 70%;
E. topdress in good time
First time imposes and is emerging 20 ~ 30 days, when seedling has 6 ~ 8 leaves, imposes the stable dung water or night soil that fully become thoroughly decomposed, is watered 50 kilograms waters and execute with 8 ~ 10 kilograms of liquid dungs or 0.8 kg urea;
Second time is topdressed in plant strain growth to 0.8 ~ 1.2 meter, blooms first 20 days, with 2 ‰ urea, 1.5 ‰ potassium dihydrogen phosphate be watered the root watering and impose on plant, add the agricultural chemicals of desinsection and sterilization, the nutrient of guarantee block root expanding stage and the infringement of prevention and elimination of disease and pests simultaneously;
F. inserted link is fought
First time fertilising carries out inserted link in conjunction with during intertill and clean tillage, inserts a long rod of 1.8 ~ 2.2 meters or bamboo pole along the every 50cm in moisture in the soil face, every mu of inserted link 180 ~ 220; Utilize preliminary seedling balled transplanting to fill the gaps with seedlings, during guarantee inserted link, Miao Qimiao is complete simultaneously;
G. intertill and clean tillage
Carry out first time ridging in conjunction with fertilising before built, promote adventive root growth; Combine second time fertilising before blooming carrying out once, promote that block root is grown rapidly in a short time to expand, for control rainwater invades root, reduce ground temperature and reduce root rot generation, promote that block root expands, when topdressing, the soil in ditch is hugged and make adult fish antiform into plant root, rainy season set, weeds are easy to growth, should weeding in time, retentively without weeds, ditch is without ponding;
H. bind and prune
Start pinching when the existing thunder of plant, pinching length is 20 ~ 40 centimetres, substantially completes to when blooming; Plant after pinching, grows axillalry bud or axillalry bud fruit should be extractd at any time, does not want damaged blade or plant Lao Ye during bud picking, ensures that leaf photosynthesis is normally carried out;
6) extermination of disease and insect pest
Use chemical pesticide control damage by disease and insect, science selects high-efficiency low-toxicity, less-persistent pesticide, and optimum period suits the medicine to the illness dispenser;
A. main diseases and insect pests
Yellow radix aconiti agrestis Major Diseases is powdery mildew, powdery mildew, root rot and root knot nematode disease;
B. control principle
Put prevention first, integrated control, based on cultural control, physical control, biological control, chemical control is auxiliary;
C. cultural control
Select disease-resistant variety to improve yellow radix aconiti agrestis disease resistance, by crop rotation during plantation, use well-rotted farmyard manure, reduce disease worm source, apply fertilizers scientifically, control nitrogenous fertilizer and use, nurturing staff; Rational close planting, inserted link built are to keep field ventilation and penetrating light; Strengthen intertill and clean tillage, rationally liquid manure, the rationally agronomic measures such as to interrupt that binds and improve plant growing way, strengthen plant disease resistance;
D. physical control
Ted soil and use ash, carrying out ash seed dressing, trapping lamp to block root, colour table is trapped and killed;
E. biological control
Active protection usability lure also uses the anti-radix aconiti agrestis insect of harnessing the Yellow River of biopesticide;
F. chemical control
Downy mildew: spray prevention with 1:1:200 bordeaux mixture doubly; Foliage-spray control is carried out with carbendazim 500 ~ 800 times of liquid of 25% or 40% efosite, 40% ethylphosphorus lead, 25% metalaxyl, 50% thiophanate methyl during first morbidity;
Powdery mildew: with 25% triadimefon or 50% thiophanate methyl etc., spray control by 1:500 to 800 times of liquid;
Root rot: with 50% carbendazim, 500 times of liquid or 20% thiophanate methyl, 500 times of liquid irrigating roots or spraying;
Root knot nematode disease: when whole ground, spreads manuer in holes with ploughing under after 5% Nemacur 10kg/ mu ditch spread in soil or when transplanting; During morbidity, fill with root with after 1.8% abamectin emulsifiable concentrate dilution 1000 ~ 1500 times;
Cutworm: doubly spray the side of a pond with decis 1:2000 or squirt soil table with 37.5 ~ 50 milliliter of 48% Le Siben missible oil with being watered 50 liters;
7) gather
A. the time
In 11 ~ December then, gather in the crops when field plant acrial part 70% is withered;
B. excavate
According to moisture in the soil face, the length direction along reason moisture in the soil excavates from every dead furrow both sides, eliminates the cauline leaf on block root, fibrous root and earth after digging out; Do not injure block root when excavating, namely go mouldy in order to avoid undressed, remove fibrous root and earth as early as possible after digging out, put and spread airing out in the cool, and be divided into large, medium and small three classes according to block root weight.
Described step 1) select planting area, select the mountain area and the upper level that are planted in height above sea level 2200 ~ 2600 meters; Sunny, deep, loose, fertile, the well-drained area of soil layer.
Described planting area previous crops is potato and buckwheat, rape plot.
Described planting area previous crops crop is paddy rice, corn, vegetables, wheat.
Described step 3) select when selecting seed seed selection without damage by disease and insect, compared with uprightly, bifurcated is few, the block root seeing lover, be of moderate size.
Described step 4) in standardized cultivation, sowing quantity varies in size according to fresh piece of root and different, and block root weight is greater than 25 grams for macrospecies, and seeding quantity is 140 ~ 160 kgs/acre; Block root weight is 20 ~ 25 grams is middle kind, and seeding quantity is 110 ~ 130 kgs/acre; Block root weight is less than 20 grams for microspecies, and seeding quantity is 95 ~ 105 kg/mu.
Described step 5) in field management, binding prunes carries out 2 pinching and bud picking, and the axillalry bud grown fruit, breeds as provenance after can gathering.
Described step 6) in the extermination of disease and insect pest, described biopesticide is " BT " and " Ai Lvshi " white muscardine fungi.
Described step 7) gather, be describedly divided into large, medium and small three classes according to block root weight, be wherein greatly greater than 25 grams, in be 20 ~ 25 grams, little for being less than 20 grams.
Described large and middle piece of root can as merchandise sales, and fritter root is as next year seed or sell as provenance.
The present invention is set forth further below in conjunction with specific embodiment.
Embodiment one:
A kind of high and cold mountain area yellow radix aconiti agrestis standardized planting technology, comprises step:
1) planting area is selected
Select red soil, sandy loam and grey soup soil, pH value is neutral or subacidity soil; Be planted in the high and cold area cooling, carry on the back shady semi-humid of height above sea level 1800 meters, select low mountains and hills ground, the gradient 5 ° partly carry on the back shady semi-humid location on the sunny side, that soil moisture, soil layer are deep, the soil is porous is fertile, neutral or subacidity, salinity are convenient lower than the water source of 10%, can row can fill with, ground, the gentle slope plantation of illumination abundance;
2) wholely
Then after previous crops results in 10 ~ December, adopt tractor-ploughing or ox to plough plough, the degree of depth is 20 centimetres, and weeds a garden, make the abundant slaking of soil, increase fertility, reduce damage by disease and insect, copy pears before sowing again 2 times, weed a garden and tan by the sun a few days and play upturned soil, make soil fully even and fine, loose;
3) seed is selected
Select the new cadmium yellow radix aconiti agrestis of gathering in the crops then to survey raw block root to plant;
4) standardized cultivation
A. the sowing time
Mid or late November is to mid-December;
B. seeding quantity
Every mu of 12000 strains;
C. moisture in the soil is managed
Reason moisture in the soil is carried out by the standard of the wide 70cm of the every moisture in the soil of East and West direction, high 20cm, furrow width 40cm; After having managed moisture in the soil, moisture in the soil face soil is hugged flat, and smash the large upturned soil in moisture in the soil face, make moisture in the soil face land smoothing, in small, broken bits, loose;
D. sow
To ditch in resonable good moisture in the soil face drilling, well-rotted farmyard manure 1500kg/ mu and composite fertilizer 30kg/ mu will be used, mix evenly after execute in ditch, then cover the thick fine earth of one deck 3cm, sowed upward in ditch by eye, every ditch 2 row, large every trade distance is 70cm, little every trade, apart from 20cm, spacing in the rows 10cm, covers;
5) field management
A. ensure that seedling is neat
After planting, keep ground moistening, ensure to emerge neatly;
B. Rational Irrigation
According to weather condition and soil moisture content, irrigate and water drainage in good time, keep soil moisture content about 70%;
E. topdress in good time
First time imposes and is emerging 20 ~ 300 days, when seedling has 6 ~ 8 leaves, imposes the stable dung water or night soil that fully become thoroughly decomposed, is watered 50 kilograms waters and execute with 8 ~ 10 kilograms of liquid dungs or 0.8 kg urea;
Second time is topdressed at plant strain growth to 0.8 meter, blooms first 20 days, with 2 ‰ urea, 1.5 ‰ potassium dihydrogen phosphate be watered the root watering and impose on plant, add the agricultural chemicals of desinsection and sterilization, the nutrient of guarantee block root expanding stage and the infringement of prevention and elimination of disease and pests simultaneously;
F. inserted link is fought
First time fertilising carries out inserted link in conjunction with during intertill and clean tillage, inserts a long rod of 1.8 ~ 2.2 meters or bamboo pole along the every 50cm in moisture in the soil face, every mu of inserted link 180 ~ 220; Utilize preliminary seedling balled transplanting to fill the gaps with seedlings, during guarantee inserted link, Miao Qimiao is complete simultaneously;
G. intertill and clean tillage
Carry out first time ridging in conjunction with fertilising before built, promote adventive root growth; Combine second time fertilising before blooming carrying out once, promote that block root is grown rapidly in a short time to expand, for control rainwater invades root, reduce ground temperature and reduce root rot generation, promote that block root expands, when topdressing, the soil in ditch is hugged and make adult fish antiform into plant root, rainy season set, weeds are easy to growth, should weeding in time, retentively without weeds, ditch is without ponding;
H. bind and prune
Start pinching when the existing thunder of plant, pinching length is 20 centimetres, substantially completes to when blooming; Plant after pinching, grows axillalry bud or axillalry bud fruit should be extractd at any time, does not want damaged blade or plant Lao Ye during bud picking, ensures that leaf photosynthesis is normally carried out;
6) extermination of disease and insect pest
Use chemical pesticide control damage by disease and insect, science selects high-efficiency low-toxicity, less-persistent pesticide, and optimum period suits the medicine to the illness dispenser;
A. main diseases and insect pests
Yellow radix aconiti agrestis Major Diseases is powdery mildew, powdery mildew, root rot and root knot nematode disease;
B. control principle
Put prevention first, integrated control, based on cultural control, physical control, biological control, chemical control is auxiliary;
C. cultural control
Select disease-resistant variety to improve yellow radix aconiti agrestis disease resistance, by crop rotation during plantation, use well-rotted farmyard manure, reduce disease worm source, apply fertilizers scientifically, control nitrogenous fertilizer and use, nurturing staff; Rational close planting, inserted link built are to keep field ventilation and penetrating light; Strengthen intertill and clean tillage, rationally liquid manure, the rationally agronomic measures such as to interrupt that binds and improve plant growing way, strengthen plant disease resistance;
D. physical control
Ted soil and use ash, carrying out ash seed dressing, trapping lamp to block root, colour table is trapped and killed;
E. biological control
Active protection usability lure also uses the anti-radix aconiti agrestis insect of harnessing the Yellow River of biopesticide;
F. chemical control
Downy mildew: spray prevention with 1:1:200 bordeaux mixture doubly; Foliage-spray control is carried out with carbendazim 500 times of liquid of 25% or 40% efosite, 40% ethylphosphorus lead, 25% metalaxyl, 50% thiophanate methyl during first morbidity;
Powdery mildew: with 25% triadimefon or 50% thiophanate methyl etc., spray control by 1:500 times of liquid;
Root rot: with 50% carbendazim, 500 times of liquid or 20% thiophanate methyl, 500 times of liquid irrigating roots or spraying;
Root knot nematode disease: when whole ground, spreads manuer in holes with ploughing under after 5% Nemacur 10kg/ mu ditch spread in soil or when transplanting; During morbidity, after diluting 1000 times with 1.8% abamectin emulsifiable concentrate, fill with root;
Cutworm: doubly spray the side of a pond with decis 1:2000 or squirt soil table with 37.5 milliliter of 48% Le Siben missible oil with being watered 50 liters;
7) gather
A. the time
In 11 ~ December then, gather in the crops when field plant acrial part 70% is withered;
B. excavate
According to moisture in the soil face, the length direction along reason moisture in the soil excavates from every dead furrow both sides, eliminates the cauline leaf on block root, fibrous root and earth after digging out; Do not injure block root when excavating, namely go mouldy in order to avoid undressed, remove fibrous root and earth as early as possible after digging out, put and spread airing out in the cool, and be divided into large, medium and small three classes according to block root weight.
Described planting area previous crops crop is paddy rice, corn, vegetables, wheat.
Described step 3) select when selecting seed seed selection without damage by disease and insect, compared with uprightly, bifurcated is few, the block root seeing lover, be of moderate size.
Described step 4) in standardized cultivation, sowing quantity varies in size according to fresh piece of root and different, and block root weight is greater than 25 grams for macrospecies, and seeding quantity is 140 kgs/acre; Block root weight is 20 grams is middle kind, and seeding quantity is 110 kgs/acre; Block root weight is less than 20 grams for microspecies, and seeding quantity is 95 kgs/acre.
Described step 5) in field management, binding prunes carries out 2 pinching and bud picking, and the axillalry bud grown fruit, breeds as provenance after can gathering.
Described step 6) in the extermination of disease and insect pest, described biopesticide is " BT " and " Ai Lvshi " white muscardine fungi.
Described step 7) gather, be describedly divided into large, medium and small three classes according to block root weight, be wherein greatly greater than 25 grams, in be 20 ~ 25 grams, little for being less than 20 grams.
Described large and middle piece of root can as merchandise sales, and fritter root is as next year seed or sell as provenance.
Embodiment two:
A kind of high and cold mountain area yellow radix aconiti agrestis standardized planting technology, comprises step:
1) planting area is selected
Select red soil, sandy loam and grey soup soil, pH value is neutral or subacidity soil; That soil moisture, soil layer are deep, the soil is porous is fertile, neutral or subacidity, salinity are convenient lower than the water source of 10%, can arrange and can fill with, and plants to the gentle slope of illumination abundance;
2) wholely
Then after previous crops results in 10 ~ December, adopt tractor-ploughing or ox to plough plough, the degree of depth is 30 centimetres, and weeds a garden, make the abundant slaking of soil, increase fertility, reduce damage by disease and insect, copy pears before sowing again 2 times, weed a garden and tan by the sun a few days and play upturned soil, make soil fully even and fine, loose;
3) seed is selected
Select the new cadmium yellow radix aconiti agrestis of gathering in the crops then to survey raw block root to plant;
4) standardized cultivation
A. the sowing time
Sowing at the beginning of mid-April to 5 month;
B. seeding quantity
Every mu of 13000 strains;
C. moisture in the soil is managed
Reason moisture in the soil is carried out by the standard of the wide 70cm of the every moisture in the soil of East and West direction, high 250cm, furrow width 40cm; After having managed moisture in the soil, moisture in the soil face soil is hugged flat, and smash the large upturned soil in moisture in the soil face, make moisture in the soil face land smoothing, in small, broken bits, loose;
D. sow
To ditch in resonable good moisture in the soil face drilling, well-rotted farmyard manure 1500kg/ mu and composite fertilizer 30kg/ mu will be used, mix evenly after execute in ditch, then cover the thick fine earth of one deck 4cm, sowed upward in ditch by eye, every ditch 2 row, large every trade distance is 70cm, little every trade, apart from 20cm, spacing in the rows 12cm, covers;
5) field management
A. ensure that seedling is neat
After planting, keep ground moistening, ensure to emerge neatly;
B. Rational Irrigation
According to weather condition and soil moisture content, irrigate and water drainage in good time, keep soil moisture content about 70%;
E. topdress in good time
First time imposes and is emerging 20 ~ 30 days, when seedling has 6 ~ 8 leaves, imposes the stable dung water or night soil that fully become thoroughly decomposed, is watered 50 kilograms waters and execute with 8 ~ 10 kilograms of liquid dungs or 0.8 kg urea;
Second time is topdressed at plant strain growth to 1 meter, blooms first 20 days, with 2 ‰ urea, 1.5 ‰ potassium dihydrogen phosphate be watered the root watering and impose on plant, add the agricultural chemicals of desinsection and sterilization, the nutrient of guarantee block root expanding stage and the infringement of prevention and elimination of disease and pests simultaneously;
F. inserted link is fought
First time fertilising carries out inserted link in conjunction with during intertill and clean tillage, inserts a long rod of 1.8 ~ 2.2 meters or bamboo pole along the every 50cm in moisture in the soil face, every mu of inserted link 180 ~ 220; Utilize preliminary seedling balled transplanting to fill the gaps with seedlings, during guarantee inserted link, Miao Qimiao is complete simultaneously;
G. intertill and clean tillage
Carry out first time ridging in conjunction with fertilising before built, promote adventive root growth; Combine second time fertilising before blooming carrying out once, promote that block root is grown rapidly in a short time to expand, for control rainwater invades root, reduce ground temperature and reduce root rot generation, promote that block root expands, when topdressing, the soil in ditch is hugged and make adult fish antiform into plant root, rainy season set, weeds are easy to growth, should weeding in time, retentively without weeds, ditch is without ponding;
H. bind and prune
Start pinching when the existing thunder of plant, pinching length is 30 centimetres, substantially completes to when blooming; Plant after pinching, grows axillalry bud or axillalry bud fruit should be extractd at any time, does not want damaged blade or plant Lao Ye during bud picking, ensures that leaf photosynthesis is normally carried out;
6) extermination of disease and insect pest
Use chemical pesticide control damage by disease and insect, science selects high-efficiency low-toxicity, less-persistent pesticide, and optimum period suits the medicine to the illness dispenser;
A. main diseases and insect pests
Yellow radix aconiti agrestis Major Diseases is powdery mildew, powdery mildew, root rot and root knot nematode disease;
B. control principle
Put prevention first, integrated control, based on cultural control, physical control, biological control, chemical control is auxiliary;
C. cultural control
Select disease-resistant variety to improve yellow radix aconiti agrestis disease resistance, by crop rotation during plantation, use well-rotted farmyard manure, reduce disease worm source, apply fertilizers scientifically, control nitrogenous fertilizer and use, nurturing staff; Rational close planting, inserted link built are to keep field ventilation and penetrating light; Strengthen intertill and clean tillage, rationally liquid manure, the rationally agronomic measures such as to interrupt that binds and improve plant growing way, strengthen plant disease resistance;
D. physical control
Ted soil and use ash, carrying out ash seed dressing, trapping lamp to block root, colour table is trapped and killed;
E. biological control
Active protection usability lure also uses the anti-radix aconiti agrestis insect of harnessing the Yellow River of biopesticide;
F. chemical control
Downy mildew: spray prevention with 1:1:200 bordeaux mixture doubly; Foliage-spray control is carried out with carbendazim 700 times of liquid of 25% or 40% efosite, 40% ethylphosphorus lead, 25% metalaxyl, 50% thiophanate methyl during first morbidity;
Powdery mildew: with 25% triadimefon or 50% thiophanate methyl etc., spray control by 1:700 times of liquid;
Root rot: with 50% carbendazim, 500 times of liquid or 20% thiophanate methyl, 500 times of liquid irrigating roots or spraying;
Root knot nematode disease: when whole ground, spreads manuer in holes with ploughing under after 5% Nemacur 10kg/ mu ditch spread in soil or when transplanting; During morbidity, after diluting 1200 times with 1.8% abamectin emulsifiable concentrate, fill with root;
Cutworm: doubly spray the side of a pond with decis 1:2000 or squirt soil table with 45 milliliter of 48% Le Siben missible oil with being watered 50 liters;
7) gather
A. the time
In 11 ~ December then, gather in the crops when field plant acrial part 70% is withered;
B. excavate
According to moisture in the soil face, the length direction along reason moisture in the soil excavates from every dead furrow both sides, eliminates the cauline leaf on block root, fibrous root and earth after digging out; Do not injure block root when excavating, namely go mouldy in order to avoid undressed, remove fibrous root and earth as early as possible after digging out, put and spread airing out in the cool, and be divided into large, medium and small three classes according to block root weight.
Described step 1) select planting area, select the mountain area and the upper level that are planted in height above sea level 2200 ~ 2600 meters; Sunny, deep, loose, fertile, the well-drained area of soil layer.
Described planting area previous crops is potato and buckwheat, rape plot.
Described planting area previous crops crop is paddy rice, corn, vegetables, wheat.
Described step 3) select when selecting seed seed selection without damage by disease and insect, compared with uprightly, bifurcated is few, the block root seeing lover, be of moderate size.
Described step 4) in standardized cultivation, sowing quantity varies in size according to fresh piece of root and different, and block root weight is greater than 25 grams for macrospecies, and seeding quantity is 150 kgs/acre; Block root weight is 20 ~ 25 grams is middle kind, and seeding quantity is 120 kg/mu; Block root weight is less than 20 grams for microspecies, and seeding quantity is 100 kgs/acre.
Described step 5) in field management, binding prunes carries out 2 pinching and bud picking, and the axillalry bud grown fruit, breeds as provenance after can gathering.
Described step 6) in the extermination of disease and insect pest, described biopesticide is " BT " and " Ai Lvshi " white muscardine fungi.
Described step 7) gather, be describedly divided into large, medium and small three classes according to block root weight, be wherein greatly greater than 25 grams, in be 20 ~ 25 grams, little for being less than 20 grams.
Described large and middle piece of root can as merchandise sales, and fritter root is as next year seed or sell as provenance.
Embodiment three:
A kind of high and cold mountain area yellow radix aconiti agrestis standardized planting technology, comprises step:
1) planting area is selected
Select red soil, sandy loam and grey soup soil, pH value is neutral or subacidity soil; Be planted in the high and cold area cooling, carry on the back shady semi-humid of At 3200 m Above Sea-level, select low mountains and hills ground, the gradient 25 ° partly carry on the back shady semi-humid location on the sunny side, that soil moisture, soil layer are deep, the soil is porous is fertile, neutral or subacidity, salinity are convenient lower than the water source of 10%, can row can fill with, ground, the gentle slope plantation of illumination abundance;
2) wholely
Then after previous crops results in 10 ~ December, adopt tractor-ploughing or ox to plough plough, the degree of depth is 20 ~ 40 centimetres, and weeds a garden, make the abundant slaking of soil, increase fertility, reduce damage by disease and insect, copy pears before sowing again 2 times, weed a garden and tan by the sun a few days and play upturned soil, make soil fully even and fine, loose;
3) seed is selected
Select the new cadmium yellow radix aconiti agrestis of gathering in the crops then to survey raw block root to plant;
4) standardized cultivation
A. the sowing time
Mid or late November is to mid-December;
B. seeding quantity
Every mu of 13500 strains;
C. moisture in the soil is managed
Reason moisture in the soil is carried out by the standard of the wide 70cm of the every moisture in the soil of East and West direction, high 30cm, furrow width 40cm; After having managed moisture in the soil, moisture in the soil face soil is hugged flat, and smash the large upturned soil in moisture in the soil face, make moisture in the soil face land smoothing, in small, broken bits, loose;
D. sow
To ditch in resonable good moisture in the soil face drilling, well-rotted farmyard manure 1500kg/ mu and composite fertilizer 30kg/ mu will be used, execute in ditch after mix is even, cover the fine earth that one deck 3 ~ 5cm is thick again, eye is sowed upward in ditch, every ditch 2 row, large every trade distance is 70cm, little every trade, apart from 20cm, spacing in the rows 15cm, covers;
5) field management
A. ensure that seedling is neat
After planting, keep ground moistening, ensure to emerge neatly;
B. Rational Irrigation
According to weather condition and soil moisture content, irrigate and water drainage in good time, keep soil moisture content about 70%;
E. topdress in good time
First time imposes and is emerging 20 ~ 30 days, when seedling has 6 ~ 8 leaves, imposes the stable dung water or night soil that fully become thoroughly decomposed, is watered 50 kilograms waters and execute with 8 ~ 10 kilograms of liquid dungs or 0.8 kg urea;
Second time is topdressed at plant strain growth to 1.2 meter, blooms first 20 days, with 2 ‰ urea, 1.5 ‰ potassium dihydrogen phosphate be watered the root watering and impose on plant, add the agricultural chemicals of desinsection and sterilization, the nutrient of guarantee block root expanding stage and the infringement of prevention and elimination of disease and pests simultaneously;
F. inserted link is fought
First time fertilising carries out inserted link in conjunction with during intertill and clean tillage, inserts a long rod of 1.8 ~ 2.2 meters or bamboo pole along the every 50cm in moisture in the soil face, every mu of inserted link 180 ~ 220; Utilize preliminary seedling balled transplanting to fill the gaps with seedlings, during guarantee inserted link, Miao Qimiao is complete simultaneously;
G. intertill and clean tillage
Carry out first time ridging in conjunction with fertilising before built, promote adventive root growth; Combine second time fertilising before blooming carrying out once, promote that block root is grown rapidly in a short time to expand, for control rainwater invades root, reduce ground temperature and reduce root rot generation, promote that block root expands, when topdressing, the soil in ditch is hugged and make adult fish antiform into plant root, rainy season set, weeds are easy to growth, should weeding in time, retentively without weeds, ditch is without ponding;
H. bind and prune
Start pinching when the existing thunder of plant, pinching length is 40 centimetres, substantially completes to when blooming; Plant after pinching, grows axillalry bud or axillalry bud fruit should be extractd at any time, does not want damaged blade or plant Lao Ye during bud picking, ensures that leaf photosynthesis is normally carried out;
6) extermination of disease and insect pest
Use chemical pesticide control damage by disease and insect, science selects high-efficiency low-toxicity, less-persistent pesticide, and optimum period suits the medicine to the illness dispenser;
A. main diseases and insect pests
Yellow radix aconiti agrestis Major Diseases is powdery mildew, powdery mildew, root rot and root knot nematode disease;
B. control principle
Put prevention first, integrated control, based on cultural control, physical control, biological control, chemical control is auxiliary;
C. cultural control
Select disease-resistant variety to improve yellow radix aconiti agrestis disease resistance, by crop rotation during plantation, use well-rotted farmyard manure, reduce disease worm source, apply fertilizers scientifically, control nitrogenous fertilizer and use, nurturing staff; Rational close planting, inserted link built are to keep field ventilation and penetrating light; Strengthen intertill and clean tillage, rationally liquid manure, the rationally agronomic measures such as to interrupt that binds and improve plant growing way, strengthen plant disease resistance;
D. physical control
Ted soil and use ash, carrying out ash seed dressing, trapping lamp to block root, colour table is trapped and killed;
E. biological control
Active protection usability lure also uses the anti-radix aconiti agrestis insect of harnessing the Yellow River of biopesticide;
F. chemical control
Downy mildew: spray prevention with 1:1:200 bordeaux mixture doubly; Foliage-spray control is carried out with carbendazim 800 times of liquid of 25% or 40% efosite, 40% ethylphosphorus lead, 25% metalaxyl, 50% thiophanate methyl during first morbidity;
Powdery mildew: with 25% triadimefon or 50% thiophanate methyl etc., spray control by 1:800 times of liquid;
Root rot: with 50% carbendazim, 500 times of liquid or 20% thiophanate methyl, 500 times of liquid irrigating roots or spraying;
Root knot nematode disease: when whole ground, spreads manuer in holes with ploughing under after 5% Nemacur 10kg/ mu ditch spread in soil or when transplanting; During morbidity, after diluting 1500 times with 1.8% abamectin emulsifiable concentrate, fill with root;
Cutworm: doubly spray the side of a pond with decis 1:2000 or squirt soil table with 50 milliliter of 48% Le Siben missible oil with being watered 50 liters;
7) gather
A. the time
In 11 ~ December then, gather in the crops when field plant acrial part 70% is withered;
B. excavate
According to moisture in the soil face, the length direction along reason moisture in the soil excavates from every dead furrow both sides, eliminates the cauline leaf on block root, fibrous root and earth after digging out; Do not injure block root when excavating, namely go mouldy in order to avoid undressed, remove fibrous root and earth as early as possible after digging out, put and spread airing out in the cool, and be divided into large, medium and small three classes according to block root weight.
Described planting area previous crops is potato and buckwheat, rape plot.
Described planting area previous crops crop is paddy rice, corn, vegetables, wheat.
Described step 3) select when selecting seed seed selection without damage by disease and insect, compared with uprightly, bifurcated is few, the block root seeing lover, be of moderate size.
Described step 4) in standardized cultivation, sowing quantity varies in size according to fresh piece of root and different, and block root weight is greater than 25 grams for macrospecies, and seeding quantity is 160 kgs/acre; Block root weight is 20 ~ 25 grams is middle kind, and seeding quantity is 130 kgs/acre; Block root weight is less than 20 grams for microspecies, and seeding quantity is 105 kg/mu.
Described step 5) in field management, binding prunes carries out 2 pinching and bud picking, and the axillalry bud grown fruit, breeds as provenance after can gathering.
Described step 6) in the extermination of disease and insect pest, described biopesticide is " BT " and " Ai Lvshi " white muscardine fungi.
Described step 7) gather, be describedly divided into large, medium and small three classes according to block root weight, be wherein greatly greater than 25 grams, in be 20 ~ 25 grams, little for being less than 20 grams.
Described large and middle piece of root can as merchandise sales, and fritter root is as next year seed or sell as provenance.
More than show and describe general principle of the present invention, principal character and advantage of the present invention.The technical staff of the industry should understand; the present invention is not restricted to the described embodiments; what describe in above-described embodiment and specification just illustrates principle of the present invention; without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention; the present invention also has various changes and modifications, and these changes and improvements all fall in the claimed scope of the invention.Application claims protection domain is defined by appending claims and equivalent thereof.

Claims (10)

1. the yellow radix aconiti agrestis standardized planting in a high and cold mountain area technology, is characterized in that, comprise step:
1) planting area is selected
Select red soil, sandy loam and grey soup soil, pH value is neutral or subacidity soil; Be planted in the high and cold area cooling, carry on the back shady semi-humid of height above sea level 1800 ~ 3200 meters, select low mountains and hills ground, the gradient 5 ~ 25 ° partly carry on the back shady semi-humid location on the sunny side, that soil moisture, soil layer are deep, the soil is porous is fertile, neutral or subacidity, salinity are convenient lower than the water source of 10%, can row can fill with, ground, the gentle slope plantation of illumination abundance;
2) wholely
Then after previous crops results in 10 ~ December, adopt tractor-ploughing or ox to plough plough, the degree of depth is 20 ~ 40 centimetres, and weeds a garden, make the abundant slaking of soil, increase fertility, reduce damage by disease and insect, copy pears before sowing again 2 times, weed a garden and tan by the sun a few days and play upturned soil, make soil fully even and fine, loose;
3) seed is selected
Select the new cadmium yellow radix aconiti agrestis of gathering in the crops then to survey raw block root to plant;
4) standardized cultivation
A. the sowing time
Sowing at the beginning of mid or late November to mid-December or mid-April to 5 month;
B. seeding quantity
Every mu of 12000 ~ 13500 strains;
C. moisture in the soil is managed
Reason moisture in the soil is carried out by the standard of the wide 70cm of the every moisture in the soil of East and West direction, high 20 ~ 30cm, furrow width 40cm; After having managed moisture in the soil, moisture in the soil face soil is hugged flat, and smash the large upturned soil in moisture in the soil face, make moisture in the soil face land smoothing, in small, broken bits, loose;
D. sow
To ditch in resonable good moisture in the soil face drilling, first by well-rotted farmyard manure 1500kg/ mu and composite fertilizer 30kg/ mu, execute in ditch after mix is even, then cover the thick fine earth of one deck 3 ~ 5cm, then block radical bud eye is sowed upward in ditch, every ditch 2 row, wrong row sowing, large every trade is apart from being 70cm, and little every trade is apart from 20cm, spacing in the rows 10 ~ 15cm, last mulching soil 5 ~ 8cm;
5) field management
A. ensure that seedling is neat
After planting, keep ground moistening degree in 50 ~ 60% water content, ensure to emerge required moisture, be beneficial to and emerge neatly;
B. Rational Irrigation
After emerging, according to weather condition and soil moisture content, irrigate and water drainage, keep soil moisture content about 70%, excess moisture easily causes root rot in good time, and very few being unfavorable for grows;
E. topdress in good time
First time imposes and is emerging 20 ~ 30 days, when seedling has 6 ~ 8 leaves, imposes the stable dung water or night soil that fully become thoroughly decomposed, is watered 50 kilograms waters and execute with 8 ~ 10 kilograms of liquid dungs or 0.8 kg urea;
Second time is topdressed in plant strain growth to 0.8 ~ 1.2 meter, blooms first 20 days, with 2 ‰ urea, 1.5 ‰ potassium dihydrogen phosphate be watered the root watering and impose on plant, add the agricultural chemicals of desinsection and sterilization, the nutrient of guarantee block root expanding stage and the infringement of prevention and elimination of disease and pests simultaneously;
F. inserted link is fought
First time fertilising carries out inserted link in conjunction with during intertill and clean tillage, inserts a long rod of 1.8 ~ 2.2 meters or bamboo pole along the every 50cm in moisture in the soil face, every mu of inserted link 180 ~ 220; Utilize preliminary seedling balled transplanting to fill the gaps with seedlings, during guarantee inserted link, Miao Qimiao is complete simultaneously;
G. intertill and clean tillage
Carry out first time ridging and weeding in conjunction with fertilising before built, promote adventive root growth; Combine second time fertilising before blooming carrying out once, promote that block root is grown rapidly in a short time to expand, for control rainwater invades root, reduce ground temperature and reduce root rot generation, promote that block root expands, when topdressing, the soil in ditch is hugged and make adult fish antiform into plant root, rainy season set, weeds are easy to growth, should weeding in time, retentively without weeds, ditch is without ponding;
H. bind and prune
Start pinching when the existing thunder of plant, pinching length is 20 ~ 40 centimetres, substantially completes to when blooming; Plant after pinching, grows axillalry bud or axillalry bud fruit should be extractd at any time, does not want damaged blade or plant Lao Ye during bud picking, ensures that leaf photosynthesis is normally carried out;
6) extermination of disease and insect pest
Use chemical pesticide control damage by disease and insect, science selects high-efficiency low-toxicity, less-persistent pesticide, and optimum period suits the medicine to the illness dispenser;
A. main diseases and insect pests
Yellow radix aconiti agrestis Major Diseases is powdery mildew, powdery mildew, root rot and root knot nematode disease;
B. control principle
Put prevention first, integrated control, based on cultural control, physical control, biological control, chemical control is auxiliary;
C. cultural control
Select disease-resistant variety to improve yellow radix aconiti agrestis disease resistance, by crop rotation during plantation, use well-rotted farmyard manure, reduce disease worm source, apply fertilizers scientifically, control nitrogenous fertilizer and use, nurturing staff; Rational close planting, inserted link built are to keep field ventilation and penetrating light; Strengthen intertill and clean tillage, rationally liquid manure, the rationally agronomic measures such as to interrupt that binds and improve plant growing way, strengthen plant disease resistance;
D. physical control
Ted soil and use ash, carrying out ash seed dressing, trapping lamp to block root, colour table is trapped and killed;
E. biological control
Active protection usability lure also uses the anti-radix aconiti agrestis insect of harnessing the Yellow River of biopesticide;
F. chemical control
Downy mildew: spray prevention with 1:1:200 bordeaux mixture doubly; Foliage-spray control is carried out with carbendazim 500 ~ 800 times of liquid of 25% or 40% efosite, 40% ethylphosphorus lead, 25% metalaxyl, 50% thiophanate methyl during first morbidity;
Powdery mildew: with 25% triadimefon or 50% thiophanate methyl etc., spray control by 1:500 to 800 times of liquid;
Root rot: with 50% carbendazim, 500 times of liquid or 20% thiophanate methyl, 500 times of liquid irrigating roots or spraying;
Root knot nematode disease: when whole ground, spreads manuer in holes with ploughing under after 5% Nemacur 10kg/ mu ditch spread in soil or when transplanting; During morbidity, fill with root with after 1.8% abamectin emulsifiable concentrate dilution 1000 ~ 1500 times;
Cutworm: doubly spray the side of a pond with decis 1:2000 or squirt soil table with 37.5 ~ 50 milliliter of 48% Le Siben missible oil with being watered 50 liters;
7) gather
A. the time
In 11 ~ December then, gather in the crops when field plant acrial part more than 70% is withered;
B. excavate
According to moisture in the soil face, excavate from every dead furrow both sides along reason moisture in the soil length direction, when excavating, do not injure block root, namely go mouldy in order to avoid undressed, remove fibrous root and earth as early as possible after digging out, put and spread airing out in the cool, and be divided into large, medium and small three classes according to block root weight.
2. high and cold mountain area as claimed in claim 1 yellow radix aconiti agrestis standardized planting technology, is characterized in that: described step 1) select planting area, select the mountain area and the upper level that are planted in height above sea level 2200 ~ 2600 meters; Sunny, deep, loose, fertile, the well-drained area of soil layer.
3. the yellow radix aconiti agrestis standardized planting in high and cold mountain area as claimed in claim 2 technology, is characterized in that: described planting area previous crops is potato and buckwheat, rape plot.
4. high and cold mountain area as claimed in claim 1 yellow radix aconiti agrestis standardized planting technology, is characterized in that: described planting area previous crops crop is paddy rice, corn, vegetables, wheat.
5. the yellow radix aconiti agrestis standardized planting in high and cold mountain area as claimed in claim 1 technology, is characterized in that: described step 3) select when selecting seed seed selection without damage by disease and insect, compared with uprightly, bifurcated is few, the block root seeing lover, be of moderate size.
6. high and cold mountain area as claimed in claim 1 yellow radix aconiti agrestis standardized planting technology, it is characterized in that: described step 4) in standardized cultivation, sowing quantity varies in size according to fresh piece of root and different, and block root weight is greater than 25 grams for macrospecies, and seeding quantity is 140 ~ 160 kgs/acre; Block root weight is 20 ~ 25 grams is middle kind, and seeding quantity is 110 ~ 130 kgs/acre; Block root weight is less than 20 grams for microspecies, and seeding quantity is 95 ~ 105 kg/mu.
7. the yellow radix aconiti agrestis standardized planting in high and cold mountain area as claimed in claim 1 technology, is characterized in that: described step 5) in field management, binding prunes carries out 2 pinching and bud picking, and the axillalry bud grown fruit, breeds as provenance after can gathering.
8. the yellow radix aconiti agrestis standardized planting in high and cold mountain area as claimed in claim 1 technology, is characterized in that: described step 6) in the extermination of disease and insect pest, described biopesticide is " BT " and " Ai Lvshi " white muscardine fungi.
9. high and cold mountain area as claimed in claim 1 yellow radix aconiti agrestis standardized planting technology, it is characterized in that: described step 7) gather, be describedly divided into large, medium and small three classes according to block root weight, be wherein greatly greater than 25 grams, in be 20 ~ 25 grams, little of being less than 20 grams.
10. the yellow radix aconiti agrestis standardized planting in high and cold mountain area as claimed in claim 9 technology, is characterized in that: described large and middle piece of root can as merchandise sales, and fritter root is as next year seed or sell as provenance.
CN201511007583.1A 2015-12-29 2015-12-29 Standardization planting technology of cold-highland-area aconitum vilmorimianum kom Pending CN105532237A (en)

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CN106358654A (en) * 2016-08-25 2017-02-01 北京华邈中药工程技术开发中心 Method for improving stability of content of drug effective ingredients in aconitum kusnezoff radices
CN106613274A (en) * 2017-01-04 2017-05-10 内蒙古农业大学 Seedling raising method achieved by means of aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb. seeds
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CN109496743A (en) * 2018-11-26 2019-03-22 竹山县神康车湾中药材种植专业合作社 Monkshood high-yield planting method
CN111972194A (en) * 2020-08-31 2020-11-24 江苏水木农景股份有限公司 Method for treating root rot of apocarya

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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107439167A (en) * 2016-05-30 2017-12-08 宣威市禾佳种植基地 A kind of cultural method of Radix Delphinii Yunnanensis
CN106034668A (en) * 2016-06-15 2016-10-26 云南特高农业科技发展有限公司 Planting method of aconiti kusnezoffii
CN106134913A (en) * 2016-08-11 2016-11-23 维西腾云中药材种养殖有限公司 A kind of implantation methods of Radix Aconiti Kusnezoffii
CN106358654A (en) * 2016-08-25 2017-02-01 北京华邈中药工程技术开发中心 Method for improving stability of content of drug effective ingredients in aconitum kusnezoff radices
CN108371013A (en) * 2016-11-08 2018-08-07 丽江老百姓药材生物开发有限公司 A kind of root tuber implantation methods of extremely frigid zones radix aconiti agrestis
CN106613274A (en) * 2017-01-04 2017-05-10 内蒙古农业大学 Seedling raising method achieved by means of aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb. seeds
CN109220662A (en) * 2017-05-04 2019-01-18 玉龙县鲁甸山芸药业有限责任公司 A kind of monkshood implantation methods
CN109496743A (en) * 2018-11-26 2019-03-22 竹山县神康车湾中药材种植专业合作社 Monkshood high-yield planting method
CN111972194A (en) * 2020-08-31 2020-11-24 江苏水木农景股份有限公司 Method for treating root rot of apocarya

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