CN103299818A - Pollution-free autumn watermelon culturing method - Google Patents

Pollution-free autumn watermelon culturing method Download PDF

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CN103299818A
CN103299818A CN2013102816791A CN201310281679A CN103299818A CN 103299818 A CN103299818 A CN 103299818A CN 2013102816791 A CN2013102816791 A CN 2013102816791A CN 201310281679 A CN201310281679 A CN 201310281679A CN 103299818 A CN103299818 A CN 103299818A
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melon
watermelon
climing
autumn
time
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蒋广洁
刘慎台
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Abstract

The invention relates to a pollution-free autumn watermelon culturing method which comprises the following steps: selecting a land, carrying out land preparation and applying a fertilizer; selecting suitable varieties; sowing seeds and culturing seedlings; carrying out field planting and covering a mulching film; carrying out field management; carrying out harvesting and storage. The method disclosed by the invention can be suitable for areas of which the geographical conditions are not over 5,500 DEG C of year accumulated temperature more than or equal to 0 DEG C, such as areas like Shandong ; the areas have relative a small amount of precipitation, and thus, the autumn watermelons have high quality and high yield. The autumn watermelons cultured by the method can be harvested before the Mid-autumn Festival and the National Day; not only is high yield obtained, but also more importantly, the economic benefits are greatly improved; as seen from market analysis, the Mid-autumn Festival and the National Day belong to the watermelon supply slack season, and thus, the watermelons have high price and are salable.

Description

A kind of nuisanceless autumn cultivating watermelon method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of cultivation method of watermelon, relate in particular to a kind of nuisanceless autumn cultivating watermelon method.
Background technology
Watermelon is a kind of fruit that consumers in general like very much, and is nutritious, local flavor and health quality better.Enhancing along with the raising of people's living standard and food security consciousness more and more is subjected to consumer's welcome, particularly " National Day " and " mid-autumn " festival marketplace in great demand to the autumn watermelon, and market potential is huge.At present, the autumn watermelon mainly is distributed in year 〉=0 ℃ of accumulated temperature area more than 5500 ℃, owing to be subjected to rainwater influence on the high side, inferior quality stores and transports the flesh that easily collapses; Year 〉=watermelon of the area plantation of 0 ℃ of accumulated temperature≤4000 ℃ mostly is autumn and winter stubble protections ground and postpones cultivation; the cost height; the culture technique difficulty is big; sugar content is on the low side; and price height; the consumer group is little, therefore greatly develops the market demand blank that the autumn watermelon can be filled up " National Day ", " mid-autumn " binodal front and back.
Summary of the invention
The nuisanceless autumn cultivating watermelon method that the purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of high-quality, high yield.
For achieving the above object, the technical solution used in the present invention is:
A kind of nuisanceless autumn cultivating watermelon method is characterized in that, comprises the steps:
Step 1: choosing ground and site preparation and fertilization;
1) choosing ground and crops for rotation;
(1) soil: select near the water source, the plot that can irritate, can arrange is best with the plot that has certain slope, forbids to select easily waterlogging ground, chaor;
(2) crops for rotation: select preceding crop not plant wheat field or the vegetable plot of melon more than 7 years;
2) site preparation and fertilization;
In time ploughing and sun the earth which has been ploughed up in preceding crop results back, transplants that to hold up with wooden ploughs four ploughs in preceding 10 days be furrow, forms line-spacing 1.6m, height and be 15-20cm, widely be the little high furrow of 75cm, and the grade is excavated the drain ditch then again, and ridging applies fertilizer; Its method is: at first handle ground with 1000 times 70% thiophanate methyl and carry out disinfection, the farmyard manure of mu row replacement simultaneously 2000kg, N 16.9kg, P 2O 513.8kg, K 2O 12.5kg makes base manure;
Step 2: select suitable kind;
Select disease-resistant, high temperature resistant, anti-high humidity, easy seat melon and the good kind of yielding ability;
Step 3: sow, grow seedlings;
1) sowing time determines;
Be best sowing time according to pushing away before picking time about 75 days, how with sowing in-20 days on the 15th July, grow seedlings, transplant at the beginning of by the end of July-8 month;
2) grow seedlings;
(1) prepare in the seedbed: sowing selects high land to do the seedbed, every 666.7m near the melon patch the previous day 2Need the about 12m in seedbed 2Seedling nutritious soil can sieve with 6 parts fertile in land for growing field crops soil, 4 parts of mixing of barnyard manure of ripe corruption, every cubic metre of nutrition soil adds the n-p-k three elements composite fertilizer 3kg of 1.5% phoxim granule 0.5kg, 50% carbendazol wettable powder 100g, 15:15:15 again, fully mix, add water then and be modulated into pasty state, insert the seedbed, thickness is 8cm, it is square to be divided into 10 * 10cm with blade again, add a little fine sand at knife-edge part, become the nutrition clod, one in each sowing cave, nutrition clod central point, the degree of depth is 0.5cm, and is good with fortifield village around the seedbed;
(2) sowing;
1. seed treatment: before the sowing seed tanned by the sun 1 day in the sun and selected, use 55 ℃-60 ℃ hot water to scald kind then, and constantly stir, kept 10 minutes, and when treating that water temperature is down to 30 ℃, soaked seed 4-6 hours, to wash the melon kind repeatedly by rubbing with the hands during seed soaking, be attached to the mucus of the surface of the seed until flush away; Or with 10% trisodium phosphate solution seed soaking 20 minutes, soaked seed again 4-6 hours after cleaning with clear water;
2. sowing: melon kind of every sowing bunch planting, earthing 0.5-1cm is thick, spreads fertilizer over the fields the insect protected of thimet granule then around the seedbed;
3. shade and preserve moisture: after planting extract green grass or with on the straw mat tiling seedbed, when having treated that 1/3 melon kind top soil is emerged, take covering away;
4. seedbed management: a, plug in bow and cover gauze and be equipped with that film is rainproof keeps away aphid, the bed of growing seedlings is plugged in bow and is covered the above gauze of 20 orders and prevent aphid; Running into the rainy day will plug in bow overlay film scaffolding and keep off the rain, and opens behind the fine day again, and takes the anti-melon seedling of Hua Liang with sunshade net or grass and be exposed to the sun above the seedbed; B, watering are in time sprinkled water one time morning with watering can; C, insect protected diseases prevention, the one, anti-eliminate aphis, aulacophora femoralis,, aphid lice fire-fighting red with Imidacloprid, the four seasons eliminates aphis, and more wants attention control for aulacophora femoralis, the stifling or artificial trapping of general with medicament; The 2nd, prevent and treat damping off, 800 times of liquid controls of available 70% thiophanate methyl; D, grasp seedling age, when 12-15 days seedling age phases, three leaves can play transplantation of seedlings wholeheartedly the time;
Step 4: field planting and covering with plastic film;
1) field planting;
(1) flattens the furrow face: dig a cave with picking for a short time every 50-55cm after keeping off flat furrow face with rake;
(2) lifting field planting: during lifting, do not hinder root as far as possible, seedling is put down gently in planting pit, and suitably enclosed soil around;
(3) water: the back earthing leveling that bails is watered in every cave;
2) covering with plastic film;
After the autumn watermelon was transplanted, covering with plastic film was immediately accomplished to strain, is covered completely, compacting, makes the film close proximity to ground;
Step 5: field management;
1) hoes up weeds;
Want timely cultivation uproot after the autumn watermelon field planting, require dark hoe 2-3 times, accomplish melon loosing soil in the ranks, no weeds;
2) two climing or three climing trainings;
The autumn watermelon is taken out climing back at the branches and tendrils of 2-3 stalwartnesses of melon root selection, climbs climing direction according to will the seeking unification of the climing configuration of field seedling of climing spacing 15-20cm; When melon climing length to 6-7 slice leaf, begin to keep down the vines of a creeping plant in fine afternoon, all can carry out bright pressure with clod, clod or branch card, fixing complicated and confused; Keep down the vines of a creeping plant once every 7-8 leaves later on, when keeping down the vines of a creeping plant, will all extract the climing side shoot that grows of melon and tendril, prune with the scissors that speckle with thiophanate methyl solution; Should note the position of female flower when keeping down the vines of a creeping plant, below reserving female flower, with grass the climing pad of melon be risen, keep down the vines of a creeping plant forwardly then;
3) artificial pollination;
Choose open male flower on the same day, extract petal, exposed stamen, another have gentle hands gently holds up the female flower carpopodium, with stamen friction gently on the column cap of female flower of male flower, pollen is evenly scattered on the column cap then; The pollination date stamp is carried out simultaneously in the pollination back on pollination joint position, the next afternoon checks the effect of artificial pollination, if the crooked sagging growth of female flower carpopodium, the ovary bottom begins to contact to earth, and shows to pollinate successfully; If the female flower carpopodium still makes progress or still extends straight forward, and is the performance of not awarding powder in general, note notice plate or other mark on this plant of cleaning this moment, need reselect female flower, pollinate again;
4) protection melon knob;
Win a slice castor-oil plant blade after the pollination or stick with paste a paper casing on ovary;
5) select melon and stay melon;
Long during to the egg size when the melon knob, choose the second or the 3rd melon knob and stay melon, extract the melon knob not just, grow watermelon less than normal, one in melon is stayed in every strain;
6) plant regulation and control;
When running into plant excessive growth, adopt the manual method regulation and control, namely behind main climing growing point 5-8cm place with hand squeeze hinder melon climing or the climing replication of melon around a circle, delay the climing growth rate of melon, impel female flower growth, the raising bearing pumpkin rate;
7) topdress and water;
When melon enters expanding stage, after melon, spread manuer in holes fertilizer once in a joint place, the general every mu of K that topdresses 2O 5kg, N 4.6kg; If run into arid and water, gathering should stop to water in preceding 10 days, and note watering at every turn or rain after the field do not want ponding;
8) prevention and elimination of disease and pests;
(1) diseases prevention: watermelon is taken out climing back and was prevented one time for 500 times with 50% carbendazim every 5-7 days; Particularly after the heavy rain, more must play bactericide one time, prevent the generation of various diseases; In time pull out when finding to wither diseased plant, or water with 500 times of watermelon successive planting agents; Virus disease is mixed with a few seed manure medicines such as leaflet enemy, virus of A, ZhiBingLing(SIC) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate or is prevented and treated with the sterilization prestige; Watermelon enters the growth later stage, and attention control watermelon anthrax, leaf blight are answered in day cyclostrophic cold, generally with 400 times of 70% mancozebs or 600 times of liquid controls of 75% tpn, every mu of medication 50-60kg;
(2) insect protected: the autumn watermelon take out climing back on the occasion of 8, September, also be that the Sheng of melon thin,tough silk snout moth's larva is sent out the phase, generation overlap is serious, must before three ages, seize the opportunity and thoroughly prevent and treat, general with fast spirit extremely, pyrethrin pesticide control, control in per 5-7 days a time, emphasis sprays the reverse side of Lao Ye; Aphid is the virus disease communication media, also is the primary pest of harm watermelon, must thoroughly prevent and treat, generally with Imidacloprid, Avermectin, ten thousand spirits, medicament sprays control such as the four seasons are red, the aphid lice disappears; When finding Americal rice leaf miner, 2000 times of liquid of Ah Ba Ding of spray 1.8%; Noting gathers did not spray insecticide in preceding 15 days;
Step 6: results and storage;
When the watermelon fruit reaches the commodity maturation, should in time gather in the crops; If storage can be selected medium well watermelon, gently remove and put down gently, and with 500 times of carbendazol submergences one time, airing is placed on the shady and cool ventilation place and stacks, and highly is advisable with 2-3 layers; When it cyclostrophic is cool, note insulation; Generally when 5 ℃ of left and right sides, can store about 30 days; Storage period wants running check whether mashed melon is arranged, and finds back processing in time.
It is not year 〉=0 ℃ of accumulated temperature area more than 5500 ℃ that the method for the invention goes for geographical conditions, the area in similar Shandong for example, and these regional precipitation are less relatively, so the quality better of autumn watermelon, the output height.
Autumn watermelon by this method cultivation, can before " midautumn " and " National Day " two big red-letter days, gather, the output height of Huo Deing not only, the more important thing is that economic benefit improves greatly, from market analysis, belong to watermelon in " midautumn " and " National Day " two big red-letter days and supply dull season, so price is higher and be in great demand.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment the present invention is further described:
A kind of nuisanceless autumn cultivating watermelon method comprises the steps:
Step 1: choosing ground and site preparation and fertilization;
1) choosing ground and crops for rotation;
(1) soil: select near the water source, the plot that can irritate, can arrange is best with the plot that has certain slope, forbids to select easily waterlogging ground, chaor;
(2) crops for rotation: select preceding crop not plant wheat field or the vegetable plot of melon more than 7 years;
2) site preparation and fertilization;
In time ploughing and sun the earth which has been ploughed up in preceding crop results back, transplants that to hold up with wooden ploughs four ploughs in preceding 10 days be furrow, forms line-spacing 1.6m, height and be 15-20cm, widely be the little high furrow of 75cm, and the grade is excavated the drain ditch then again, and ridging applies fertilizer; Its method is: at first handle ground with 1000 times 70% thiophanate methyl and carry out disinfection, the farmyard manure of mu row replacement simultaneously 2000kg, N 16.9kg, P 2O 513.8kg, K 2O 12.5kg makes base manure;
Step 2: select suitable kind;
Select disease-resistant, high temperature resistant, anti-high humidity, easy seat melon and the good kind of yielding ability;
Step 3: sow, grow seedlings;
1) sowing time determines;
Be best sowing time according to pushing away before picking time about 75 days, how with sowing in-20 days on the 15th July, grow seedlings, transplant at the beginning of by the end of July-8 month;
2) grow seedlings;
(1) prepare in the seedbed: sowing selects high land to do the seedbed, every 666.7m near the melon patch the previous day 2Need the about 12m in seedbed 2Seedling nutritious soil can sieve with 6 parts fertile in land for growing field crops soil, 4 parts of mixing of barnyard manure of ripe corruption, every cubic metre of nutrition soil adds the n-p-k three elements composite fertilizer 3kg of 1.5% phoxim granule 0.5kg, 50% carbendazol wettable powder 100g, 15:15:15 again, fully mix, add water then and be modulated into pasty state, insert the seedbed, thickness is 8cm, it is square to be divided into 10 * 10cm with blade again, add a little fine sand at knife-edge part, become the nutrition clod, one in each sowing cave, nutrition clod central point, the degree of depth is 0.5cm, and is good with fortifield village around the seedbed;
(2) sowing;
1. seed treatment: before the sowing seed tanned by the sun 1 day in the sun and selected, use 55 ℃-60 ℃ hot water to scald kind then, and constantly stir, kept 10 minutes, and when treating that water temperature is down to 30 ℃, soaked seed 4-6 hours, to wash the melon kind repeatedly by rubbing with the hands during seed soaking, be attached to the mucus of the surface of the seed until flush away; Or with 10% trisodium phosphate solution seed soaking 20 minutes, soaked seed again 4-6 hours after cleaning with clear water;
2. sowing: melon kind of every sowing bunch planting, earthing 0.5-1cm is thick, spreads fertilizer over the fields the insect protected of thimet granule then around the seedbed;
3. shade and preserve moisture: after planting extract green grass or with on the straw mat tiling seedbed, when having treated that 1/3 melon kind top soil is emerged, take covering away;
4. seedbed management: a, plug in bow and cover gauze and be equipped with that film is rainproof keeps away aphid, the bed of growing seedlings is plugged in bow and is covered the above gauze of 20 orders and prevent aphid; Running into the rainy day will plug in bow overlay film scaffolding and keep off the rain, and opens behind the fine day again, and takes the anti-melon seedling of Hua Liang with sunshade net or grass and be exposed to the sun above the seedbed; B, watering are in time sprinkled water one time morning with watering can; C, insect protected diseases prevention, the one, anti-eliminate aphis, aulacophora femoralis,, aphid lice fire-fighting red with Imidacloprid, the four seasons eliminates aphis, and more wants attention control for aulacophora femoralis, the stifling or artificial trapping of general with medicament; The 2nd, prevent and treat damping off, 800 times of liquid controls of available 70% thiophanate methyl; D, grasp seedling age, when 12-15 days seedling age phases, three leaves can play transplantation of seedlings wholeheartedly the time;
Step 4: field planting and covering with plastic film;
1) field planting;
(1) flattens the furrow face: dig a cave with picking for a short time every 50-55cm after keeping off flat furrow face with rake;
(2) lifting field planting: during lifting, do not hinder root as far as possible, seedling is put down gently in planting pit, and suitably enclosed soil around;
(3) water: the back earthing leveling that bails is watered in every cave;
2) covering with plastic film;
After the autumn watermelon was transplanted, covering with plastic film was immediately accomplished to strain, is covered completely, compacting, makes the film close proximity to ground;
Step 5: field management;
1) hoes up weeds;
Want timely cultivation uproot after the autumn watermelon field planting, require dark hoe 2-3 times, accomplish melon loosing soil in the ranks, no weeds;
2) two climing or three climing trainings;
The autumn watermelon is taken out climing back at the branches and tendrils of 2-3 stalwartnesses of melon root selection, climbs climing direction according to will the seeking unification of the climing configuration of field seedling of climing spacing 15-20cm; When melon climing length to 6-7 slice leaf, begin to keep down the vines of a creeping plant in fine afternoon, all can carry out bright pressure with clod, clod or branch card, fixing complicated and confused; Keep down the vines of a creeping plant once every 7-8 leaves later on, when keeping down the vines of a creeping plant, will all extract the climing side shoot that grows of melon and tendril, prune with the scissors that speckle with thiophanate methyl solution; Should note the position of female flower when keeping down the vines of a creeping plant, below reserving female flower, with grass the climing pad of melon be risen, keep down the vines of a creeping plant forwardly then;
3) artificial pollination;
Choose open male flower on the same day, extract petal, exposed stamen, another have gentle hands gently holds up the female flower carpopodium, with stamen friction gently on the column cap of female flower of male flower, pollen is evenly scattered on the column cap then; The pollination date stamp is carried out simultaneously in the pollination back on pollination joint position, the next afternoon checks the effect of artificial pollination, if the crooked sagging growth of female flower carpopodium, the ovary bottom begins to contact to earth, and shows to pollinate successfully; If the female flower carpopodium still makes progress or still extends straight forward, and is the performance of not awarding powder in general, note notice plate or other mark on this plant of cleaning this moment, need reselect female flower, pollinate again;
4) protection melon knob;
Win a slice castor-oil plant blade after the pollination or stick with paste a paper casing on ovary;
5) select melon and stay melon;
Long during to the egg size when the melon knob, choose the second or the 3rd melon knob and stay melon, extract the melon knob not just, grow watermelon less than normal, one in melon is stayed in every strain;
6) plant regulation and control;
When running into plant excessive growth, adopt the manual method regulation and control, namely behind main climing growing point 5-8cm place with hand squeeze hinder melon climing or the climing replication of melon around a circle, delay the climing growth rate of melon, impel female flower growth, the raising bearing pumpkin rate;
7) topdress and water;
When melon enters expanding stage, after melon, spread manuer in holes fertilizer once in a joint place, the general every mu of K that topdresses 2O 5kg, N 4.6kg; If run into arid and water, gathering should stop to water in preceding 10 days, and note watering at every turn or rain after the field do not want ponding;
8) prevention and elimination of disease and pests;
(1) diseases prevention: watermelon is taken out climing back and was prevented one time for 500 times with 50% carbendazim every 5-7 days; Particularly after the heavy rain, more must play bactericide one time, prevent the generation of various diseases; In time pull out when finding to wither diseased plant, or water with 500 times of watermelon successive planting agents; Virus disease is mixed with a few seed manure medicines such as leaflet enemy, virus of A, ZhiBingLing(SIC) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate or is prevented and treated with the sterilization prestige; Watermelon enters the growth later stage, and attention control watermelon anthrax, leaf blight are answered in day cyclostrophic cold, generally with 400 times of 70% mancozebs or 600 times of liquid controls of 75% tpn, every mu of medication 50-60kg;
(2) insect protected: the autumn watermelon take out climing back on the occasion of 8, September, also be that the Sheng of melon thin,tough silk snout moth's larva is sent out the phase, generation overlap is serious, must before three ages, seize the opportunity and thoroughly prevent and treat, general with fast spirit extremely, pyrethrin pesticide control, control in per 5-7 days a time, emphasis sprays the reverse side of Lao Ye; Aphid is the virus disease communication media, also is the primary pest of harm watermelon, must thoroughly prevent and treat, generally with Imidacloprid, Avermectin, ten thousand spirits, medicament sprays control such as the four seasons are red, the aphid lice disappears; When finding Americal rice leaf miner, 2000 times of liquid of Ah Ba Ding of spray 1.8%; Noting gathers did not spray insecticide in preceding 15 days;
Step 6: results and storage;
When the watermelon fruit reaches the commodity maturation, should in time gather in the crops; If storage can be selected medium well watermelon, gently remove and put down gently, and with 500 times of carbendazol submergences one time, airing is placed on the shady and cool ventilation place and stacks, and highly is advisable with 2-3 layers; When it cyclostrophic is cool, note insulation; Generally when 5 ℃ of left and right sides, can store about 30 days; Storage period wants running check whether mashed melon is arranged, and finds back processing in time.
Embodiment recited above is described preferred embodiment of the present invention; be not that the spirit and scope of the present invention are limited; under the prerequisite that does not break away from design concept of the present invention; common engineers and technicians make technical scheme of the present invention in this area various modification and improvement; all should fall into protection scope of the present invention; the technology contents that the present invention asks for protection all is documented in claims.
The present invention has introduced measures such as the choosing ground site preparation and fertilization, kind selection, seedling raising and transplanting, plastic mulching, field management, timely collecting of autumn cultivating watermelon.The present invention is applicable under the autumn cultivation condition, every 666.7m2(mu) output 2500-3000kg cultivating watermelon, be specifically introduced below.
1, choosing ground and site preparation and fertilization.
1.1 choosing ground and crops for rotation.
1.1.1 soil: the autumn watermelon requires not tight to soil, be advisable with loam, and sandy loam is best, select near the water source, the plot that can irritate, can arrange is best with the plot that has certain slope, forbid to select easily waterlogging ground, chaor plantation, but also should note having a good transport service, easily keep an eye on.
1.1.2 crops for rotation: select preceding crop not plant wheat field or the vegetable plot of melon more than 7 years.
1.2 site preparation and fertilization.
In time ploughing and sun the earth which has been ploughed up in preceding crop results back, transplants that to hold up with wooden ploughs four ploughs in preceding 10 days be furrow, forms line-spacing 1.6m, height and be 15-20cm, widely be the little high furrow of 75cm, and the grade is excavated the drain ditch then again, and ridging applies fertilizer.Its method is: at first handle ground with 1000 times 70% thiophanate methyl and carry out disinfection, the farmyard manure of mu row replacement simultaneously 2000kg, N 16.9kg, P 2O 513.8kg, K 2O 12.5kg makes base manure.
2, select suitable kind.
The autumn culture watermelon, its growing environment condition and spring sowing watermelon are on the contrary, are difficult to the seat melon under high temperature, the super-humid conditions, so will select disease-resistant, high temperature resistant, anti-high humidity, easy seat melon and the good kind of yielding ability.Assorted No. seven, especially big disease-resistant Jinzhongguanlong are the most suitable to facts have proved Zheng.
3, sow, grow seedlings.
3.1 determining of sowing time.
Plantation autumn watermelon, not only to obtain high yield, the more important thing is and to increase economic efficiency, from market analysis, belong to watermelon supply dull season in " midautumn " and " National Day " two big red-letter days, price is higher and be in great demand, so should be the best sowing time sowing time according to pushing away before picking time about 75 days, the project district many with sowing in-20 days on the 15th July, grow seedlings, transplant at the beginning of by the end of July-8 month.
3.2 grow seedlings.
3.2.1 prepare in the seedbed: sowing selects high land to do the seedbed, every 666.7m near the melon patch the previous day 2Need the about 12m in seedbed 2, i.e. the wide 1.2m in seedbed, long 10m.Seedling nutritious soil can be with 6 parts in fertile land for growing field crops soil, 4 parts of mixing of the barnyard manure of ripe corruption are sieved, every cubic metre of nutrition soil adds 1.5% phoxim granule 0.5kg again, 50% carbendazol wettable powder 100g, the n-p-k three elements composite fertilizer 3kg of 15:15:15, fully mix, add water then and be modulated into pasty state, insert the seedbed, thickness is 8cm, it is square to be divided into 10 * 10cm with blade again, add a little fine sand at knife-edge part, become the nutrition clod, with pointing one in bunch plating cave, the degree of depth is that 0.5cm(notes plane 5-8cm) above Ground, seedbed, and is good with fortifield village around the seedbed in each nutrition clod central authorities.
3.2.2 sowing.
1. seed treatment: before the sowing seed tanned by the sun 1 day in the sun and selected, use 55 ℃-60 ℃ hot water to scald kind then, and constantly stir, kept 10 minutes, and when treating that water temperature is down to 30 ℃, soaked seed 4-6 hours, to wash the melon kind repeatedly by rubbing with the hands during seed soaking, be attached to the mucus of the surface of the seed until flush away.Also the seed soaking of available 10% trisodium phosphate solution is 20 minutes, soaks seed 4-6 hours after cleaning with clear water again, can prevent virus disease.
2. sowing: melon kind of every sowing bunch planting, earthing 0.5-1cm is thick, spreads fertilizer over the fields the insect protected of thimet granule then around the seedbed.
3. shade and preserve moisture: since when sowing temperature height, evaporation discharge big, it is easily dry and cracked to broadcast seedbed, back table soil, causes the melon seedling difficulty of being unearthed, and therefore will shade and preserve moisture, and is conducive to the melon seedling and is unearthed.Its method is after planting to extract green grass or with on the straw mat tiling seedbed, when having treated that 1/3 melon kind top soil is emerged (after planting 3 day time approximately), takes covering away.
4. seedbed management: a, plug in bow and cover gauze and be equipped with that film is rainproof keeps away aphid.The bed of growing seedlings will be plugged in bow and cover the anti-aphid of the above gauze of 20 orders.Summer, heavy rain often took place, and prevent definitely that rainwater from entering the seedbed.Run into such weather and will in time plug in bow overlay film scaffolding and keep off the rain, open again behind the fine day, and above the seedbed, take the anti-melon seedling of Hua Liang with sunshade net or grass and be exposed to the sun.B, watering in time.Because the sweltering heat in summer may cause the dry and cracked lack of water of bed surface, available watering can was sprinkled water one time morning, but noted necessarily can not irritating big flood.C, insect protected diseases prevention.The one, anti-eliminate aphis, aulacophora femoralis,, aphid lice fire-fighting red with Imidacloprid, the four seasons eliminates aphis; More want attention control for aulacophora femoralis, the stifling or artificial trapping of general with medicament.The 2nd, prevent and treat damping off, 800 times of liquid controls of available 70% thiophanate methyl.D, grasp seedling age.When 12-15 days seedling age phases, three leaves can play transplantation of seedlings wholeheartedly the time.
4, field planting and covering with plastic film.
4.1 field planting.
1. flatten the furrow face: dig a cave with picking for a short time every 50-55cm after keeping off flat furrow face with rake.
2. lifting field planting: during lifting, do not hinder root as far as possible, seedling is put down gently in planting pit, and suitably enclosed soil around.
3. water: the back earthing leveling that bails is watered in every cave.
4.2 covering with plastic film.
After the autumn watermelon is transplanted, covering with plastic film (with the silver gray film for well) immediately.Specific practice is generally operated by four-player, one people is at preceding lay mulch film, one people aims at mulch film and draws one "T"-shaped mouthful with blade directly over the watermelon seedling, and the melon seedling drawn out from "T"-shaped mouthful, other two people are respectively at furrow both sides soil pressure mulch film, accomplish to strain, cover completely, compacting, make the film close proximity to ground, with non-ironing seedling.
5, field management.
5.1 hoe up weeds.
Want timely cultivation uproot after the autumn watermelon field planting, require dark hoe 2-3 times, accomplish melon loosing soil in the ranks, no weeds.
5.2 two climing or three climing trainings.
It is climing that the autumn watermelon is taken out the reason of will in time pruning after climing, namely selects the branches and tendrils of 2-3 stalwartnesses at the melon root, climbs climing direction according to will the seeking unification of the climing configuration of field seedling of climing spacing 15-20cm.When melon climing length to 6-7 slice leaf, begin to keep down the vines of a creeping plant in fine afternoon, all can carry out bright pressure with clod, clod or branch card, fixing branches and tendrils prevent that wind from blowing, and to promote that adventive root takes place, forbid dark pressure; Keep down the vines of a creeping plant once every 7-8 leaves later on, when keeping down the vines of a creeping plant, will all extract the climing side shoot that grows of melon and tendril; Attention can not be pinched with hand, uses the scissors training that speckles with thiophanate methyl solution, the infection of disease prevention so in advance; Should note the position of female flower when keeping down the vines of a creeping plant, below reserving female flower, with grass the climing pad of melon be risen that keep down the vines of a creeping plant forwardly then, like this, female flower is overhead high, can reduce the influence that spattered by the muddy water dirt because of rainfall.
5.3 artificial pollination.
Pollen was ripe when the male melon of autumn watermelon was open, had the pollination ability; Should in time select the high female flower of healthy and strong maturity to carry out during pollination, the female flower ratio that general ovary hypertrophy, slyness, surperficial fine hair gather is easier to bear fruit, and has the tendency that develops into big melon.After blooming, carry out artificial pollination in 7-9 o'clock of every morning.Method is to choose open male flower on the same day, extracts petal, exposed stamen, and another have gentle hands gently holds up the female flower carpopodium, with stamen friction gently on the column cap of female flower of male flower, pollen is evenly scattered on the column cap then.Every male flower is awarded 2-3 female flowers.The pollination date stamp is carried out simultaneously in the pollination back on pollination joint position, in order to determine maturing stage and the suitable picking time of melon, the next afternoon can check the effect of artificial pollination, if the crooked sagging growth of female flower carpopodium, the ovary bottom begins to contact to earth, and shows to pollinate successfully; If the female flower carpopodium still makes progress or still extends straight forward, and is the performance of not awarding powder in general, note notice plate or other mark on this plant of cleaning this moment, need reselect female flower, pollinate again.
5.4 protection melon knob.
The autumn watermelon blooms, during the seat melon, often run into strong wind and heavy rain weather, note protecting the melon knob, with the chemical defence melon.Its method is to win a slice castor-oil plant blade or stick with paste a paper casing after the pollination to get final product in ovary.
5.5 select melon and stay melon.
Long during to the egg size when the melon knob, optional melon stays melon, generally chooses the second or the 3rd melon knob and stays melon, extract the melon knob not just, grow watermelon less than normal, one in melon is stayed in every strain.
5.6 plant regulation and control.
When running into plant excessive growth, can adopt manual method regulation and control, namely behind main climing growing point 5-8cm place with hand crowded hinder melon climing or the climing replication of melon around a circle, can delay the climing growth rate of melon.Impel female flower growth, improve bearing pumpkin rate.
5.7 topdress and water.
When melon enters expanding stage, after melon, spread manuer in holes fertilizer once in a joint place, the general every mu of K that topdresses 2O 5kg, N 4.6kg; If run into arid and water, gathering should stop to water in preceding 10 days, and note watering at every turn or rain after the field do not want ponding.
5.8 prevention and elimination of disease and pests.
5.8.1 diseases prevention: disease often takes place the autumn watermelon anthracnose, fusarium wilt and virus disease etc.Watermelon is taken out should be preventing and treating the emphasis of disease as field management after climing, will be with 500 times of preventions of 50% carbendazim one time every 5-7 days; Particularly after the heavy rain, more must play bactericide one time, prevent the generation of various diseases.In time pull out when finding to wither diseased plant, or water with 500 times of watermelon successive planting agents; Virus disease is mixed with a few seed manure medicines such as leaflet enemy, virus of A, ZhiBingLing(SIC) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate or is better with sterilization prestige control efficiency; Watermelon enters the growth later stage, and attention control watermelon anthrax, leaf blight are answered in day cyclostrophic cold, generally with 400 times of 70% mancozebs or 600 times of liquid controls of 75% tpn, every mu of medication 50-60kg.
5.8.2 insect protected: the primary pest of harm autumn watermelon is melon thin,tough silk snout moth's larva, diamond-back moth, aphid and liriomyza bryoniae, and is wherein the heaviest with the harm of melon thin,tough silk snout moth's larva.The autumn watermelon take out climing back on the occasion of 8, September, also be that the Sheng of melon thin,tough silk snout moth's larva is sent out the phase, generation overlap is serious, the thoroughly control of must seizing the opportunity before three ages is generally killed spirit, pyrethrin pesticide control with fast, control in per 5-7 days a time, emphasis sprays the reverse side of Lao Ye.Aphid is the virus disease communication media, also is the primary pest of harm watermelon, must thoroughly prevent and treat, generally with Imidacloprid, Avermectin, ten thousand spirits, medicament sprays control such as the four seasons are red, the aphid lice disappears.When finding Americal rice leaf miner, 2000 times of liquid of Ah Ba Ding of spray 1.8%.Noting gathers did not spray insecticide in preceding 15 days.
6, results and storage.
The watermelon fruit reaches commodity when ripe, should in time gather in the crops, and strives " midautumn " and " National Day " two big listings in red-letter days, and price height, sales volume are big at this moment.If storage can be selected medium well watermelon, gently remove and put down gently, and with 500 times of carbendazol submergences one time, airing is placed on the shady and cool ventilation place and stacks, and highly is advisable with 2-3 layers; When it cyclostrophic is cool, note insulation; Generally can store about 30 days when 5 ℃ of left and right sides, benefit is higher like this; Storage period wants running check whether mashed melon is arranged, and finds back processing in time.
The applicant began test plantation autumn watermelon from 1993, base oneself upon the local reality of producing, and is integrated at problem research experiment, technology that autumn cultivating watermelon technical difficulty is big, obtained phasic results.Through plantation for many years, formed the product that shows unique characteristics, many landrace have appearred, increased farmers' income.

Claims (1)

1. a nuisanceless autumn cultivating watermelon method is characterized in that, comprises the steps:
Step 1: choosing ground and site preparation and fertilization;
1) choosing ground and crops for rotation;
(1) soil: select near the water source, the plot that can irritate, can arrange is best with the plot that has certain slope, forbids to select easily waterlogging ground, chaor;
(2) crops for rotation: select preceding crop not plant wheat field or the vegetable plot of melon more than 7 years;
2) site preparation and fertilization;
In time ploughing and sun the earth which has been ploughed up in preceding crop results back, transplants that to hold up with wooden ploughs four ploughs in preceding 10 days be furrow, forms line-spacing 1.6m, height and be 15-20cm, widely be the little high furrow of 75cm, and the grade is excavated the drain ditch then again, and ridging applies fertilizer; Its method is: at first handle ground with 1000 times 70% thiophanate methyl and carry out disinfection, the farmyard manure of mu row replacement simultaneously 2000kg, N 16.9kg, P 2O 513.8kg, K 2O 12.5kg makes base manure;
Step 2: select suitable kind;
Select disease-resistant, high temperature resistant, anti-high humidity, easy seat melon and the good kind of yielding ability;
Step 3: sow, grow seedlings;
1) sowing time determines;
Be best sowing time according to pushing away before picking time about 75 days, how with sowing in-20 days on the 15th July, grow seedlings, transplant at the beginning of by the end of July-8 month;
2) grow seedlings;
(1) prepare in the seedbed: sowing selects high land to do the seedbed, every 666.7m near the melon patch the previous day 2Need the about 12m in seedbed 2Seedling nutritious soil can sieve with 6 parts fertile in land for growing field crops soil, 4 parts of mixing of barnyard manure of ripe corruption, every cubic metre of nutrition soil adds the n-p-k three elements composite fertilizer 3kg of 1.5% phoxim granule 0.5kg, 50% carbendazol wettable powder 100g, 15:15:15 again, fully mix, add water then and be modulated into pasty state, insert the seedbed, thickness is 8cm, it is square to be divided into 10 * 10cm with blade again, add a little fine sand at knife-edge part, become the nutrition clod, one in each sowing cave, nutrition clod central point, the degree of depth is 0.5cm, and is good with fortifield village around the seedbed;
(2) sowing;
1. seed treatment: before the sowing seed tanned by the sun 1 day in the sun and selected, use 55 ℃-60 ℃ hot water to scald kind then, and constantly stir, kept 10 minutes, and when treating that water temperature is down to 30 ℃, soaked seed 4-6 hours, to wash the melon kind repeatedly by rubbing with the hands during seed soaking, be attached to the mucus of the surface of the seed until flush away; Or with 10% trisodium phosphate solution seed soaking 20 minutes, soaked seed again 4-6 hours after cleaning with clear water;
2. sowing: melon kind of every sowing bunch planting, earthing 0.5-1cm is thick, spreads fertilizer over the fields the insect protected of thimet granule then around the seedbed;
3. shade and preserve moisture: after planting extract green grass or with on the straw mat tiling seedbed, when having treated that 1/3 melon kind top soil is emerged, take covering away;
4. seedbed management: a, plug in bow and cover gauze and be equipped with that film is rainproof keeps away aphid, the bed of growing seedlings is plugged in bow and is covered the above gauze of 20 orders and prevent aphid; Running into the rainy day will plug in bow overlay film scaffolding and keep off the rain, and opens behind the fine day again, and takes the anti-melon seedling of Hua Liang with sunshade net or grass and be exposed to the sun above the seedbed; B, watering are in time sprinkled water one time morning with watering can; C, insect protected diseases prevention, the one, anti-eliminate aphis, aulacophora femoralis,, aphid lice fire-fighting red with Imidacloprid, the four seasons eliminates aphis, and more wants attention control for aulacophora femoralis, the stifling or artificial trapping of general with medicament; The 2nd, prevent and treat damping off, 800 times of liquid controls of available 70% thiophanate methyl; D, grasp seedling age, when 12-15 days seedling age phases, three leaves can play transplantation of seedlings wholeheartedly the time;
Step 4: field planting and covering with plastic film;
1) field planting;
(1) flattens the furrow face: dig a cave with picking for a short time every 50-55cm after keeping off flat furrow face with rake;
(2) lifting field planting: during lifting, do not hinder root as far as possible, seedling is put down gently in planting pit, and suitably enclosed soil around;
(3) water: the back earthing leveling that bails is watered in every cave;
2) covering with plastic film;
After the autumn watermelon was transplanted, covering with plastic film was immediately accomplished to strain, is covered completely, compacting, makes the film close proximity to ground;
Step 5: field management;
1) hoes up weeds;
Want timely cultivation uproot after the autumn watermelon field planting, require dark hoe 2-3 times, accomplish melon loosing soil in the ranks, no weeds;
2) two climing or three climing trainings;
The autumn watermelon is taken out climing back at the branches and tendrils of 2-3 stalwartnesses of melon root selection, climbs climing direction according to will the seeking unification of the climing configuration of field seedling of climing spacing 15-20cm; When melon climing length to 6-7 slice leaf, begin to keep down the vines of a creeping plant in fine afternoon, all can carry out bright pressure with clod, clod or branch card, fixing complicated and confused; Keep down the vines of a creeping plant once every 7-8 leaves later on, when keeping down the vines of a creeping plant, will all extract the climing side shoot that grows of melon and tendril, prune with the scissors that speckle with thiophanate methyl solution; Should note the position of female flower when keeping down the vines of a creeping plant, below reserving female flower, with grass the climing pad of melon be risen, keep down the vines of a creeping plant forwardly then;
3) artificial pollination;
Choose open male flower on the same day, extract petal, exposed stamen, another have gentle hands gently holds up the female flower carpopodium, with stamen friction gently on the column cap of female flower of male flower, pollen is evenly scattered on the column cap then; The pollination date stamp is carried out simultaneously in the pollination back on pollination joint position, the next afternoon checks the effect of artificial pollination, if the crooked sagging growth of female flower carpopodium, the ovary bottom begins to contact to earth, and shows to pollinate successfully; If the female flower carpopodium still makes progress or still extends straight forward, and is the performance of not awarding powder in general, note notice plate or other mark on this plant of cleaning this moment, need reselect female flower, pollinate again;
4) protection melon knob;
Win a slice castor-oil plant blade after the pollination or stick with paste a paper casing on ovary;
5) select melon and stay melon;
Long during to the egg size when the melon knob, choose the second or the 3rd melon knob and stay melon, extract the melon knob not just, grow watermelon less than normal, one in melon is stayed in every strain;
6) plant regulation and control;
When running into plant excessive growth, adopt the manual method regulation and control, namely behind main climing growing point 5-8cm place with hand squeeze hinder melon climing or the climing replication of melon around a circle, delay the climing growth rate of melon, impel female flower growth, the raising bearing pumpkin rate;
7) topdress and water;
When melon enters expanding stage, after melon, spread manuer in holes fertilizer once in a joint place, the general every mu of K that topdresses 2O 5kg, N 4.6kg; If run into arid and water, gathering should stop to water in preceding 10 days, and note watering at every turn or rain after the field do not want ponding;
8) prevention and elimination of disease and pests;
(1) diseases prevention: watermelon is taken out climing back and was prevented one time for 500 times with 50% carbendazim every 5-7 days; Particularly after the heavy rain, more must play bactericide one time, prevent the generation of various diseases; In time pull out when finding to wither diseased plant, or water with 500 times of watermelon successive planting agents; Virus disease is mixed with a few seed manure medicines such as leaflet enemy, virus of A, ZhiBingLing(SIC) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate or is prevented and treated with the sterilization prestige; Watermelon enters the growth later stage, and attention control watermelon anthrax, leaf blight are answered in day cyclostrophic cold, generally with 400 times of 70% mancozebs or 600 times of liquid controls of 75% tpn, every mu of medication 50-60kg;
(2) insect protected: the autumn watermelon take out climing back on the occasion of 8, September, also be that the Sheng of melon thin,tough silk snout moth's larva is sent out the phase, generation overlap is serious, must before three ages, seize the opportunity and thoroughly prevent and treat, general with fast spirit extremely, pyrethrin pesticide control, control in per 5-7 days a time, emphasis sprays the reverse side of Lao Ye; Aphid is the virus disease communication media, also is the primary pest of harm watermelon, must thoroughly prevent and treat, generally with Imidacloprid, Avermectin, ten thousand spirits, medicament sprays control such as the four seasons are red, the aphid lice disappears; When finding Americal rice leaf miner, 2000 times of liquid of Ah Ba Ding of spray 1.8%; Noting gathers did not spray insecticide in preceding 15 days;
Step 6: results and storage;
When the watermelon fruit reaches the commodity maturation, should in time gather in the crops; If storage can be selected medium well watermelon, gently remove and put down gently, and with 500 times of carbendazol submergences one time, airing is placed on the shady and cool ventilation place and stacks, and highly is advisable with 2-3 layers; When it cyclostrophic is cool, note insulation; Generally when 5 ℃ of left and right sides, can store about 30 days; Storage period wants running check whether mashed melon is arranged, and finds back processing in time.
CN2013102816791A 2013-07-07 2013-07-07 Pollution-free autumn watermelon culturing method Pending CN103299818A (en)

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CN103931384A (en) * 2014-04-03 2014-07-23 蒋广洁 Planting method for green-food-grade autumn watermelons
CN104303768A (en) * 2014-10-13 2015-01-28 重庆市锣楠蔬菜种植专业合作社 Pollution-free vegetable planting method
CN104396415A (en) * 2014-12-12 2015-03-11 苏州青青生态种植园 Watermelon planting and topdressing method
CN104982216A (en) * 2015-08-07 2015-10-21 蔡鹏� Method for cultivating watermelons with mulch film
CN105009903A (en) * 2015-07-28 2015-11-04 区燕丽 Pollution-free high-yield cultivation method for watermelon
CN105613024A (en) * 2016-03-11 2016-06-01 湖南省农业信息与工程研究所 Organic cultivation and rotation method for watermelons, rice and water chestnuts in spring and summer
CN105993453A (en) * 2016-05-20 2016-10-12 孙建英 Planting method for high-quality watermelon in late autumn
CN106508353A (en) * 2016-10-31 2017-03-22 蒋广洁 An organic autumn watermelon planting method
CN106688734A (en) * 2017-01-17 2017-05-24 霍山县安绿园农业发展有限公司 Disease-prevention planting method for replanted watermelons
CN107242023A (en) * 2017-08-04 2017-10-13 山西弘沃农业技术开发有限公司 A kind of implantation methods of watermelon
CN107295867A (en) * 2017-05-27 2017-10-27 蒙宗勇 A kind of implantation methods of watermelon
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CN107493892A (en) * 2017-08-31 2017-12-22 宁涛 A kind of summer and autumn cultivation method of greenhouse watermelon
CN109089777A (en) * 2018-08-02 2018-12-28 钟山县德福农产品有限公司 A kind of watermelon method for potted
CN115119694A (en) * 2022-06-29 2022-09-30 安徽省农业科学院园艺研究所 Small watermelon greenhouse cultivation method for increasing watermelon yield

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Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103931384A (en) * 2014-04-03 2014-07-23 蒋广洁 Planting method for green-food-grade autumn watermelons
CN104303768A (en) * 2014-10-13 2015-01-28 重庆市锣楠蔬菜种植专业合作社 Pollution-free vegetable planting method
CN104396415A (en) * 2014-12-12 2015-03-11 苏州青青生态种植园 Watermelon planting and topdressing method
CN105009903A (en) * 2015-07-28 2015-11-04 区燕丽 Pollution-free high-yield cultivation method for watermelon
CN104982216A (en) * 2015-08-07 2015-10-21 蔡鹏� Method for cultivating watermelons with mulch film
CN105613024A (en) * 2016-03-11 2016-06-01 湖南省农业信息与工程研究所 Organic cultivation and rotation method for watermelons, rice and water chestnuts in spring and summer
CN105993453A (en) * 2016-05-20 2016-10-12 孙建英 Planting method for high-quality watermelon in late autumn
CN106508353A (en) * 2016-10-31 2017-03-22 蒋广洁 An organic autumn watermelon planting method
CN106688734A (en) * 2017-01-17 2017-05-24 霍山县安绿园农业发展有限公司 Disease-prevention planting method for replanted watermelons
CN107295867A (en) * 2017-05-27 2017-10-27 蒙宗勇 A kind of implantation methods of watermelon
CN107295879A (en) * 2017-07-18 2017-10-27 梁纪林 A kind of implantation methods of watermelon
CN107242023A (en) * 2017-08-04 2017-10-13 山西弘沃农业技术开发有限公司 A kind of implantation methods of watermelon
CN107493892A (en) * 2017-08-31 2017-12-22 宁涛 A kind of summer and autumn cultivation method of greenhouse watermelon
CN109089777A (en) * 2018-08-02 2018-12-28 钟山县德福农产品有限公司 A kind of watermelon method for potted
CN115119694A (en) * 2022-06-29 2022-09-30 安徽省农业科学院园艺研究所 Small watermelon greenhouse cultivation method for increasing watermelon yield

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Application publication date: 20130918