CN102742442A - Wild pinellia ternate cultivation method - Google Patents

Wild pinellia ternate cultivation method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102742442A
CN102742442A CN201210226352XA CN201210226352A CN102742442A CN 102742442 A CN102742442 A CN 102742442A CN 201210226352X A CN201210226352X A CN 201210226352XA CN 201210226352 A CN201210226352 A CN 201210226352A CN 102742442 A CN102742442 A CN 102742442A
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tuber
pinellia
soil
wild
stem
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王志光
向去芳
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YUNNAN PURUI BIOLOGICAL PHARMACEUTICAL CO Ltd
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YUNNAN PURUI BIOLOGICAL PHARMACEUTICAL CO Ltd
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Abstract

The invention discloses a wild pinellia ternate cultivation method, and relates to steps of seed collection, planting, soil preparation, seed treatment and management. The wild pinellia ternate cultivation method is characterized by comprising the following steps of: collecting wild pinellia ternate which is high in plant growth and full in pinellia ternate seeds and is not invaded by insects in a corn land, a tobacco land and a barren mountain land as breeding seeds; planting the wild pinellia ternate by adopting a mode of interplanting corns and pinellia ternate; and cultivating the wild pinellia ternate by selecting and arranging the land, treating the seed stem, sowing, breeding, managing in a seedling stage, managing the farm land, preventing insects and harvesting. According to the wild pinellia ternate cultivation method, conditions which are suitable for growth of the wild pinellia ternate are created, so that the wild pinellia ternate can be matured and harvested as medicine resources in an artificial planting environment; compared with the wild pinellia ternate growing in the soil, the cultivated pinellia ternate has the advantages that the plant yield is increased by eight times; the pinellia ternate is large in size, clean in skin, white, hard in shell and sufficient in powder; and the acre yield of fresh pinellia ternate is 400-420 kilograms.

Description

Wild tuber of pinellia breeding method
Technical field
The present invention relates to the artificial modified planting technology of the resources of natural crude drugs, specifically is a kind of wild tuber of pinellia breeding method.
Background technology
The tuber of pinellia is a conventional Chinese medicine simply, is used as medicine with dry tuber, eliminating dampness is arranged, reduces phlegm, strengthening the spleen and stomach, antiemetic effect; Be used for phlegm cough more breathe heavily, phlegm and retained fluid is dizzyly throbbed with fear, interior phlegm is dizzy, coma due to blocking of the respiratory system headache, vomiting gastric disorder causing nausea, vexed, the globus hysteriocus disease of chest gastral cavity ruffian; Give birth to controlling the swollen productive cough of carbuncle outward; Be conventional Chinese medicine simply, be widely used in Chinese medicine preparation and preparation, kinds such as syrup, electuary, pill, tablet.Wild tuber of pinellia reproduction coefficient is low, lacks effective circulation way again, belongs to a kind of pioneering poor living species, and it is gregarious usually to be limited to limited habitat, the excavating and cropping system of transition, and the wild resource amount sharply reduces.Though man kind of wild change in 1980 succeedd, widely cultivate in a lot of places, owing to yield poorly; Large tracts of land popularizing planting technical difficulty is bigger, and the market consumption continues to increase again, and export volume increases year by year; Be the goods in short supply in market always, far can not meet the need of market, the plantation of the development tuber of pinellia; Rationally excavate resource conservation, strengthen scientific research, improve output and enlarge the inexorable trend that cultivated area is tuber of pinellia development.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of wild tuber of pinellia breeding method, realize wild tuber of pinellia artificial planting, improve output, solve the nervous problem in tuber of pinellia medicine source.
Wild tuber of pinellia breeding method relates to seed collection, plantation, whole ground, seed treatment and management link, and wherein seed collection is GatherIn maize ground, the field of planting cured tobacco and in the forest land, deserted mountain, the wild tuber of pinellia that the plant growing way is good, full, the no damage by disease and insect of tuber of pinellia kind ball is contaminated is as breeding seed; Adopt a moisture in the soil maize and a moisture in the soil tuber of pinellia interplanting mode to plant; Through putting in order ground, the processing of kind stem, sowing, breeding, seedling management, field management, the extermination of disease and insect pest, the step of gathering cultivation with selecting.
Put in order the ground step is to select moistening sandy loam fertile, that quality loose, irrigation and drainage good, pH value is neutrality to plant with selecting; In between 10-November, soil deeptillage 20cm makes its weathering slaking; In conjunction with whole ground, every mu applies barnyard manure or the compost 2000kg that ferments, and superphosphate 50kg ploughs under and makes base manure in the soil; Before sowing, plough again once, put in order soil and carefully rake, be organized into the high furrow of wide 1.3m, the furrow furrow width 40cm ground moisture in the soil plantation tuber of pinellia, good subsequent use en bloc by the maize ground moisture in the soil structure treatment alternate with tuber of pinellia ground moisture in the soil.
Planting the stem processing is:A is the wild tuber of pinellia kind stem that collects, and use concentration is 5% carbendazim solution, spraying disinfection; Then, kind of a stem is stirred in manual work gently, and thimerosal is fully contacted with the kind stem; Kind stem after the sterilization, tight with plastic film wrapped, be no less than 12 hours standing time; Move to the sufficient place of daylight again, shone 3-4 hour; B, be no less than 2 hours, dry the aqueous vapor plantation with 5% vegetation lixivium seed soaking; Or soaked kind of stem 24 hours with 2% potassium nitrate (KNO3) before planting, dry the back sowing.
The sowing step be late March to mid-April, temperature 18-20 spends period, adopts the trench digging drilling; Press line-spacing 15-20 centimetre, open 4-8 centimetre of dark ditch, every mu with 20-30 kilograms of bulb seedlings; To plant ball and be sprinkling upon equably in the ditch, spacing in the rows 2-6 centimetre, adopt the interplanting pattern of a moisture in the soil maize one moisture in the soil tuber of pinellia; Spread farmyard manure on it, hug after back earth backing 1-2 centimetre flat.
Propagation method has:A seminal propagation, the seed of when spathe is sallow, gathering digs 2 centimetres of dark shallow ridges by 10 centimetres of line-spacings, and seed is sprinkled into, and an animal-drawn seed plough is put down and is kept moistening and can emerge; b The bulbil breeding,The ripe bulbil of gathering 5~June is pressed 10 centimetres of line-spacings, 3 centimetres of spacing in the rows, 3 centimetres of sowings of bar ditch depth, 2 centimetres of earthing on whole good furrow; c The stem tuber breeding,During results, choosing is given birth to then, and the stem tuber that diameter is 0.5~1.5 centimetre is planted, and when 10 ℃ of left and right sides of mean temperature of air in spring, sows; Open 4~5 centimetres of dark ditches by 20 centimetres of line-spacings, bottom of trench will be put down, and will plant stem intersection two capable swinging in the ditch by 3 centimetres of spacing in the rows; The bud head makes progress, and earthing is hugged flat, a little suppression; Also can combine results, autumn, plantation was generally carried out in late September to early October, and method is with sowing in spring.
The seedling management measure is: aWeeding is loosened the soil, and adopts manual work weeding at any time, forbids to use weed killer herbicide, and weeding is controlled at the degree of depth and is not more than 3 centimetres and loosens the soil simultaneously; B fertilising, seedling management stage hand are spread fertilizer over the fields fertile 2 times, and the time interval is 15 days, carry out after being selected in rain, use nitrogen: phosphorus: the composite fertilizer of potassium=15:15:15, and 20 ± 2 kilograms of every mu of consumptions, if fine fertilising, then water spray impels composite fertilizer's dissolving afterwards, avoids burning seedling; C waters: per 6 days once, keeps the skin wet for tuber of pinellia seedling with the sprinkling irrigation mode; The d extermination of disease and insect pest: the lime milk solution with 5% carries out foliage-spray, connects to spray 2-3 time, and the time interval is 5-7 days, the virus disease of control blade withered death.
The field management link has: a intertill and clean tillage: Miao Qihou, in time weed a garden, and use length and width at 20 * 5 centimetres special spud in the ranks, to do the degree of depth and can not surpass 3 centimetres shallow hoe, the weeds that occur between strain remove with hand-lifting; The b fertilising: grow mid-term, field management stage fertilising 3-4 time, the time interval is about 20 days; Before and after the Grain Full climate and other natural phenomena of a season, answer the heavy dressing bulbil fertile, as the cake fertilizer that becomes thoroughly decomposed is used for 500 kilograms every mu by 60-100 kilograms every mu, people and animals' liquid dung; Or a kind of in the ammonium sulfate, urea, topdress 1 time by preceding method before the ridging during the consumption 10-15 kilogram, the Slight Heat climate and other natural phenomena of a season; With every mu of 20 kilograms of urea, adopt foliage-spray, or the mode of executing of dashing that fertilizer dissolves in the irrigation water is applied fertilizer afterwards; C ridging: during the Grain Full climate and other natural phenomena of a season, the ridging of when the ripe browning look of bulbil, in time topdressing, every mu chases after ferment cake fertilizer 50-100 kilogram or become thoroughly decomposed 15 kilograms of people's animal manure 500-1000 kilogram and phosphoric acid diamines or potassium dihydrogen phosphates; Mix and be spread on by the pearl; Utilize the earth mulch on seed furrow both sides to live fertilizer and bulbil again, thick about 1.5-2 centimetre, also in time water with the spade compacting; After growing new bulbil autumn, topdress ridging more once by last method; The d irrigation and drainage: tuber of pinellia happiness is moistening, is afraid of arid, if weather is arid, should in time pour water, if excessive rainfall should dig trenches to drain the water away; E, pluck flower bud: except needs seminal propagation, the bud that extract out vegetative period should all be plucked.
Extermination of disease and insect pest step: a disease, the field management stage mainly contains leaf spot and virus disease, and the method for preventing and treating leaf spot is: sprays with 500 times of liquid of ferrous sulfate, every 7-10 days 1 time, 2-3 time continuously; B insect pest, the insect pest of the tuber of pinellia mainly are grub larva and hornworm, and the method for preventing and treating of grub larva is: the phoxim solution spray with 50%, every 5-7 days 1 time, 2-3 time continuously; The method of preventing and treating of hornworm is 7-8 month, and the phoxim solution with 50% carries out foliage-spray, and continuous 2 times, the time interval is 5 days, kills hornworm.
The step of gathering: late September, cauline leaf is withered to fall and to gather behind the seedling, the tuber of pinellia is dug out with spade or three tooth harrows from an end of furrow, and separately big is used as medicine by large, medium and small, and little reserves seed for planting.
Cover mode between tuber of pinellia breeding method employing of the present invention and corn; Utilize a corn bar tall and big, maize leaf forms the environment that shelters from heat or light, and the illuminance at the place of sheltering from heat or light reduces 80%~90% than the illuminance in exposed vacant lot; For tuber of pinellia growth provides suitable condition; Reduce the coerce influence of illumination, help building the tuber of pinellia and like cloudy ecotope and prolong its photosynthetic function phase, positive role is arranged postponing to fall seedling to the tuber of pinellia.So; The present invention; Catch tuber of pinellia habit of growth, adopt a moisture in the soil maize and a moisture in the soil tuber of pinellia interplanting mode to plant, put in order ground, breeding, the processing of kind stem, sowing, seedling management, field management, the extermination of disease and insect pest, each sport technique segment of gathering from choosing ground and use corresponding measure; For the wild tuber of pinellia is bred the condition of suitable its development growth of creation, and make its can be ripe in the artificial planting environment, results are herb resource.More than 400 kilogram of tuber of pinellia per mu yield.
 
Embodiment
With the combination technology scheme, provide embodiments of the invention down.
Elder generation does an explanation to the requirement of form, habit and the growing environment thereof of the tuber of pinellia:
1, morphological feature
The tuber of pinellia is a herbaceos perennial, plant height 15-50cm.Underground stem tuber sphere or oblate spheroid, diameter 0.5-5.0cm, the base portion of bud and give birth to most fibrous roots, and bottom and Lower Half are faint yellow, and be smooth, partly makes big several fritter shape lateral buds of stem tuber periphery Chang Liansheng of planting year after year.Top basal leaf 1-4 piece, leaf comes from the stem tuber top, the long 5-25cm of petiole, and a white or a brown bulbil arranged at the petiole bottom, and diameter 0.3-2.5cm, accidental blade base be tool one white or brown little bulbil also, diameter 2-4mm.The seedling leaves of seedling and bulbil breeding is full edge list leaf, and the ovum shape is heart-shaped, long 2-4cm, wide 1.5-3cm; The plant leaf 3 of growing up totally cleaves, and sliver ovum shape is oval, lanceolar is to bar shaped, the long 3-15cm of middle sliver, and wide 1-4cm, the base portion wedge shape, tip is point slightly, full edge or tool is shallow wavy slightly, knuckle-tooth, the smooth nothing in two sides mao, vein is a pinniform net arteries and veins.Give birth on the spadix top, and peduncle is often long than petiole; Spathe is green, and it is purple green that the edge is more, long 7-25cm; Inside upper part often has purple spot striped, and spathe surrounds the place, and one diameter is arranged is the aperture of 1mm, and about the connection, the terminal shape of tail of inflorescence stretches out spathe, green or green purple, and the spathe lower tubular is not opened, and top parts a little open, and is upright, or be the serpentine bending.Flower unisexuality, monoecism; The rhachis bottom gives birth to female flower, and no perianth has gynoecium 20-70, and style is short, and male flower is positioned at rhachis top; White, no quilt, the intensive one-tenth cylindrical shape of stamen, with female flower interval 3-7mm, pollen grain is spherical; The atresia ditch, visible pollen grain splinter-shaped under SEM decorative pattern under the Electronic Speculum, the thorn base portion is wide, terminal sharp point.The berry oval, top point, green or green white, red when ripe, long 4-5mm, diameter 2-3mm, in 1 piece in seed is arranged.Seed is oval, the two ends point, and celadon, long 2-3mm, diameter 1.5-2mm, rough, tarnish, anatomical lens is observed down has vertical shallow ridges line.About bright thousand grain weigth 10g.The florescence 4-7 month, the fruit phase 8-9 month.
, the plantation tuber of pinellia soil, moisture, temperature and photoenvironment:The tuber of pinellia grows in fertile soil, open-textured cultivated land, barren hill, small stream limit.
The tuber of pinellia is afraid of high light, and happiness is fertile, and is cold-resistant.Require sand loam moistening, fertile, that quality loose, permeability is good, soil moisture content is at 20%-30%, and pH value is between 6-7.
1, temperature: the tuber of pinellia early spring temperature begin germinating growth more than 14 ℃; Early April emerges, and the suitable temperature of the growth after emerging is 20-30 ℃, and growth has inhibitory action (so we adopt the tuber of pinellia and corn to interplant) to the high temperature more than 30 ℃ to the tuber of pinellia; If meet arid again, just can be withered.The tolerance to cold of tuber of pinellia stem tuber is very strong, below 0 ℃, can normally survive the winter in the ground, and not influence its normal germination, the growth in the 2nd year.
2, humidity: the soil that tuber of pinellia happiness is moistening, ventilation is good.At soil moisture saturated or too arid the time can suppress growth, but plant is not dead, stem tuber is mashed, when soil moisture is suitable, can also continued growth.
3, illumination: the tuber of pinellia is anti-the moon rather than ombrophyte, and the tuber of pinellia is very sensitive to illumination.Under appropriate shading condition, can grow prolifically. still, if illumination is strong excessively, as up to 90,000 1x, the tuber of pinellia can 100% falls seedling; If illumination is below 3000 1x, the tuber of pinellia also is difficult to existence.Be advisable at half shady environment, all than facing south and covering Qu Weihao, the bulbil of half shade district formation Duos 14.37% than Xiangyang District, Duos 48.37% than covering the district for bulbil increase number and the weightening finish of mother tuber stem; The weightening finish of mother tuber stem Duos 51.89% than Xiangyang District, Duos 62.75% than covering the district.
, the tuber of pinellia the habit of growing
The annual tuber of pinellia is heart-shaped single leaf, yields positive results in second to the 3rd year, has 2 or 3 decomposite leafs to bear.The tuber of pinellia can repeatedly be emerged in 1 year, and in area, the middle and lower reach of Yangtze River, can on average emerge 3 every year.For the first time be late March to early April, the second time on June, the middle ten days, for the third time on September, the middle ten days.Seedling is arranged three corresponding every year, be respectively the first tenday period of a month in late March to June, late August, late November.Emerge to falling the fate of seedling: be 50~60 days spring, and be 50~60 days summer, and be 45~60 days autumn.Fall seedling for the tuber of pinellia, is a kind of adaptation to poor environment on the one hand, the more important thing is the quantity that has increased bulbil, and also having carried out once is the vegetative propagation of propagating materials with the strain bud.The first generation strain bud germinating initial stage, the germinating peak period was mid-April at the beginning of 4 months, and the maturing stage is the first tenday period of a month in late April to May.
Generally in 8~10 ℃ of growths of sprouting, 15 ℃ begin to emerge tuber of pinellia stem tuber.Along with the temperature quickening of emerging that raises, and bulbil appears.The growth of 15~26 ℃ of optimums in poor growth more than 30 ℃, begins seedling to occur falling when surpassing 35 ℃ and lack of water, is lower than below 13 ℃ dead leaf to occur after autumn.
The stem tuber of winter sowing or early spring plantation, when 1~5 centimetre table soil temperature reached 10~13 ℃, leaf began growth, and this moment as face of land temperature lasting a couple of days is lower than below 2 ℃, and petiole promptly begins to grow wild in soil, grows wild one section also can grow generation bulbil.Ground temperature, temperature difference duration are long more, and petiole grows wild long more in soil, long big more of underground strain bud.When temperature rises to 10~13 ℃, leaf uprightly grows outside the soil.
The stem tuber of the tuber of pinellia, bulbil, seed all do not have the physiological dormancy characteristic, all can germinate as long as environmental condition is suitable.The seed sprouting thermophilic is 22~24 ℃, and the life-span is 1 year.To the above-mentioned physiology of the tuber of pinellia and the situation of growth conditions, the present technique scheme is to divide the requirement of the moisture in the soil spacing sleeve cropping solution tuber of pinellia to growing environment with maize, the following step of cultivating process process:
(1) puts in order ground to choosing
Should select that moistening fertile, preserve moisture and fertility power is strong, quality is loose, irrigation and drainage are good, be the sandy loam plantation of neutral reaction, also can select the mountain region, gentle slope of half cloudy half light.But continuous cropping 2-3 years.The plot hollow, saline and alkaline, that content of beary metal is high of waterloging should not be planted.After soil was chosen, also the environment around the reply was investigated, and did not have pollution source in 1000 meters, and more than 100 meters, used irrigation water should meet national field irrigation water quality standard apart from the traffic major trunk roads.In between 10-November, about soil deeptillage 20cm, remove chad and weeds, make its weathering slaking.The tuber of pinellia is short vegetative period, uses the grow important influence of base manure to the tuber of pinellia, and in conjunction with whole ground, every mu applies barnyard manure or the compost 2000kg that ferments, and superphosphate 50kg ploughs under and makes base manure in the soil.Before broadcasting, plough again once, put in order then and carefully rake, play the high furrow of wide 1.3m, furrow furrow width 40cm.
(2) planting stem handles
The tuber of pinellia must be to kind of a stem disinfection before sowing.Method is:
1, storing kind stem in the cool the previous year, use concentration is 5% carbendazim solution, carries out spraying disinfection, and then, the workman stirs kind of a stem gently, and thimerosal is fully contacted with the kind stem.Will note during sterilization: the workman must put on one's gloves, and carries out self-protection work.Kind stem after the sterilization is used Polypropylence Sheet Bao Yan, places about 12 hours, then, moves to the sufficient place of daylight, shines 3-4 hour, plants the work of treatment of stem and has just accomplished.
2, planted 2 hours with the seed soaking of 5% vegetation lixivium, dry the aqueous vapor plantation and can prevent and treat the mashed clock of the tuber of pinellia and production-increasing function is arranged.
3, also have report to plant preceding the immersion with 2%KNO3 (potassium nitrate) and planted stem 24 hours, the back sowing of drying in the air slightly also has obvious production-increasing function.
(3) Propagation methodManyly in the production breed also available seed seedling-raising or carry out asexual numerous soon with tissue culture method with stem tuber and bulbil.
1, seminal propagationThe seed of when spathe is sallow, gathering, the seed of gathering summer can be with adopting with broadcasting, autumn end the seed of gathering can sand hide and sow to March in next year.Dig 2 centimetres of dark shallow ridges by 10 centimetres of line-spacings, seed is sprinkled into, an animal-drawn seed plough is put down and is kept moistening and can emerge; First leaf is the heart-shaped single leaf of ovum shape then, general no bulbil on the petiole, 1 year 3~4 codate leaves; The accidental compound leaf of forming by 3 leaflets, and visible bulbil.It is 0.3~0.6 centimetre stem tuber that seedling can form diameter then, can be used as the kind stem in 1 year.
2, bulbil breeding The pearl of the tuber of pinelliaBud is met soil and can be rooted, and the ripe bulbil of can gathering 5~June productions in is pressed 10 centimetres of line-spacings, 3 centimetres of spacing in the rows putting in order on the furrow of getting well, 3 centimetres of sowings of bar ditch depth, and 2 centimetres of earthing can grow l~3 leaf then, and can form the stem tuber of l~2 centimetre.
3, stem tuber breedingDuring results, choosing is given birth to the stem tuber of 0.5~1.5 centimetre of diameter then and is planted, and sows during in 10 ℃ of left and right sides of mean temperature of air in spring; Open 4~5 centimetres of dark ditches by 20 centimetres of line-spacings, bottom of trench will be put down, and will plant stem intersection two capable swinging in the ditch by 3 centimetres of spacing in the rows; The bud head makes progress, and earthing is hugged flat, a little suppression; Also can combine to gather in the crops the plantation in autumn, generally carry out in late September to early October, method is with sowing in spring.Mu is with 30~50 kilograms on kind of stem.
(4) sowing
The trench digging drilling is adopted in type of seeding without exception, the suitable sowing time of the tuber of pinellia be late March to mid-April, if stubble is the soil of wheat before selecting, should at the beginning of 5 months, sow at the latest.Otherwise will influence harvest.Press line-spacing 15-20 centimetre, open 4-8 centimetre of dark ditch, will plant ball and be sprinkling upon in the ditch equably; Spacing in the rows 2-6 centimetre (little is closeer, and big is rarer) every mu needs 20-30 kilograms on seedling bulb (adopting a moisture in the soil maize one moisture in the soil tuber of pinellia interplanting pattern), spreads farmyard manure on it; Hug flatly after back earth backing 1-2 centimetre, a day drought can be watered and (in time do not watered after noting planting, treat to depend on the circumstances after 3 days; Can not water as the soil is moistening; Treat to see after seedling grows that market conditions suitably water), temperature 18-20 degree, general 12-15 days continuous mutually emerging.
(5) seedling management
The seedling management of the tuber of pinellia mainly contains weeding and loosens the soil, applies fertilizer, waters and the extermination of disease and insect pest.At first having a talk about weeding loosens the soil.
1, weeding is loosened the soil: the tuber of pinellia in seedling stage will often carry out weeding, because grass can hinder the growth of tuber of pinellia seedling.This period, generally adopt artificial weeding, and do not have the restriction of regular time and number of times, see that grass is arranged in the ground, remove just passablely with hoe, because tuber of pinellia seedling at this moment is also very small and weak, forbid to use weed killer herbicide.And, in weeding, also loosen the soil.But must note the degree of depth, general pine soil depth is just passable about 3 centimetres, not so, can hurt root.Below, have a talk about the tuber of pinellia fertilizer management in seedling stage.
2, fertilising: the tuber of pinellia in seedling stage mainly use composite fertilizer (nitrogen: phosphorus: potassium 15:15:15), about 20 kilograms of every mu of consumptions.General fertilising of seedling management stage 2 times, the time interval is 15 days.Carry out after fertilising generally is selected in rain, mode is that hand spreads, and composite fertilizer is sprinkling upon Miao Dili, and composite fertilizer will dissolve voluntarily.If, must spray water after the fertilising in the fine day fertilising, impel composite fertilizer's dissolving, not so can burn seedling.
3, water: the tuber of pinellia in seedling stage, the main mode of sprinkling irrigation that adopts keeps the skin wet.Generally speaking, it is just passable to carry out primary spray in per 6 days.
4, the extermination of disease and insect pest: the insect pest in tuber of pinellia seedling stage is less, is mainly disease.Endangering the most serious is virus disease, and show as: blade is flavescence gradually, last full wafer leaf withered death.Methods of treatment is: the lime milk solution with 5% carries out foliage-spray, connects to spray 2-3 time, and the time interval is 5-7 days, can play therapeutic action.
When height of seedling reaches 10 centimetres of left and right sides, just entered into the field management stage, below, we have a talk about the field management of the tuber of pinellia.
(6) field management
White urea cyanogen MnZn), ridging, irrigation and drainage, pluck flower bud, the extermination of disease and insect pest field management of the tuber of pinellia mainly contains: intertill and clean tillage, fertilising (piece root enlarging agent:.
The tuber of pinellia had emerging and the phenomenon of falling the seedling of 2 times or 3 times in 1 year, fell also to grow new talent in a few days again behind the seedling, and this is normal reproductive patterns.Fall and pull out if any grass between seedling stage as far as possible, not with the hoe weeding, in order to avoid hinder seedling.Can in time water as if the ground drought behind the seedling, be beneficial to and emerge.Seedling just often imposes azophoska, and mu is used 20-25kg, notes not sticking on the blade face.Corn on the ridge is pressed Routine Management, and forest is also pressed Routine Management, and the tuber of pinellia can not made harm.To note draining during excessive rainfall, not want long ponding in the furrow.Can wipe out when scape is arranged, make nutrient concentrate on underground stem tuber, favourable raising the output.
1, intertill and clean tillage: after seedling all sprouts, should in time weed a garden, use the shallow hoe of special spud in the ranks, the degree of depth can not be above 3 centimetres.Grass should remove with hand-lifting between strain.
2, fertilising: except that using sufficient base manure, before and after growth mid-term, the especially Grain Full, answer the heavy dressing bulbil fertile, as the cake fertilizer that becomes thoroughly decomposed, people and animals' liquid dung etc.If base manure is not enough, impose early stage such as every mu of 10-15 kilogram of ammonium sulfate or urea etc., also can topdress 1 time before the ridging Slight Heat, and the growth later stage can not topdress.The tuber of pinellia in field management stage is generally used urea, and every mu of consumption is 20 kilograms.Fertilization mode has two kinds: spray and dash and execute.Spraying is that water and fertilizer are blended in the sprayer, is sprayed on the blade of the tuber of pinellia.Water to combine towards Shi Shiyu and carry out, the bucket that is mixed with fertilizer is placed on water channel mouth place, open the water valve of bucket below, fertilizer will flow in the tuber of pinellia ground along with current, reaches the effect that replenishes fertilizer.General field management stage fertilising 3-4 time, the time interval is about 20 days, can guarantee tuber of pinellia growth.Cake fertilizer is the seed of an oil plant remaining residue after extracting oil, and main have soya-bean cake, rapeseed cake, pockmarks cake, cotton cake, groundnut cake, seeds of a tung oil tree cake, a camellia oleosa seed cake etc., and these residues can directly be used as fertilizer; Fertility is strong; The fertilizer efficiency longer duration, pollution-free, more superior than chemical fertilizer.
3, ridging: bulbil just can root in soil, and the ridging of in time topdressing when finding bulbil maturation browning look before and after the Grain Full (mid or late May) is the major measure of raising the output; Every mu chases after fermentation cake fertilizer 50-100 kilogram or become thoroughly decomposed 15 kilograms of people's animal manure 500-1000 kilogram and phosphoric acid diamines (potassium dihydrogen phosphate); Mix being spread on by the pearl, utilize the earth mulch on seed furrow both sides to live fertilizer and bulbil again, thick about 1.5-2 centimetre; Cover bulbil and seed, then with spade compacting slightly.Being sure not a leaf also is embedded in the soil.The ridging of topdressing is back should in time water like no rain.Grow new bulbil autumn again, topdress ridging more once by last method, in conjunction with the ridging of topdressing, water, the soil moisture conservation of often loosening the soil has grass to pull out at any time, will extract scape (spathe) as not reserving seed for planting.
4, irrigation and drainage: tuber of pinellia happiness is moistening, is afraid of arid.Fine in case of for a long time, arid should in time be poured water.If excessive rainfall should be noted digging trenches to drain the water away.
5, pluck flower bud: except needs seminal propagation, the bud that extract out vegetative period should all be plucked, and to reduce the consumption of nutrient, promotes the hypertrophy of under ground portion.
(7) extermination of disease and insect pest:
The damage by disease and insect of the control tuber of pinellia must use low-toxin farm chemicals.
(1) disease: the non-irrigated tuber of pinellia in field management stage mainly contains leaf spot and virus disease.
The leaf spot initial stage shows as the patch that brown is arranged on the blade, and patch becomes big subsequently.At last, blade withered death.The method of preventing and treating leaf spot is: spray with 500 times of liquid of ferrous sulfate, every 7-10 days 1 time, 2-3 time continuously, effect is better.
The symptom of virus disease, we introduced, and had not just spoken more here.The method of control is: spray with 5% lime milk solution, continuous 2 times, the time interval is 5 days, can treat virus disease.
(2) insect pest: the insect pest of the tuber of pinellia mainly is grub larva and hornworm.
Grub larva (larva of scarab beetle, another name carclazyte silkworm, holotrichia.Adult is commonly referred to as scarab beetle or chafer.) be a kind of serious soil insect that endangers, sting the stem tuber of the food tuber of pinellia, the method for control is: the phoxim solution spray with 50%, every 5-7 days 1 time, 2-3 time continuously.
The hornworm pilosity is born in 7-8 month, stings the blade of the food tuber of pinellia, and the phoxim solution with 50% carries out foliage-spray, and continuous 2 times, the time interval is 5 days, can kill hornworm.
(8), gather, process and preserve
Gather:In then or gathered in 1 year, generally gather behind the seedling in withered fall of summer, autumn (late September) cauline leaf.Gathering too early influences output, gathers evening excessively to be difficult to remove the peel and dries.The tuber of pinellia is dug out with spade or three tooth harrows from an end of furrow, separate by large, medium and small, big is used as medicine, the little cultivation of reserving seed for planting.Through above-mentioned planting technology; Adopt wild tuber of pinellia artificial planting technique to breed, the every strain of the tuber of pinellia of cultivating is compared with the growth wild tuber of pinellia in the ground, and the every strain of output increases to 8 times; The tuber of pinellia is big, skin is clean, white, matter is hard, powder is sufficient, and aquatic foods article per mu yield is at the 400-420 kilogram.
Processing: need the bright tuber of pinellia that processing is used as medicine in time to remove the peel after the results, stacked difficult for a long time peeling.Method is that the bright tuber of pinellia is packed in the frame or in the gunnysack, tightened pocket and be placed in the cement pit, pours into cold water; The water surface floods the half the of drug-containing bag, wears the rubber overshoes crust that tramps with one's feet, and rubs with the hands while getting wet and peels; Pour sieve then into and immerse in the water, float the peeling slag, pull the tuber of pinellia out; Be placed under the sunlight and be exposed to the sun, constantly stir and dry, can sell after drying.Also available tuber of pinellia peeling machine peeling.Clean and dry or dry, the tuber of pinellia of promptly making a living.The rate of giving money as a gift is 3:1-4:1.With individual big, skin clean, white, matter are hard, the sufficient person of powder is good.
Storage:1. do the tuber of pinellia kind stem storage of kind of usefulness: the tuber of pinellia of making kind of usefulness can adopt the seasoning of surviving the winter of husky way of hiding.Tuber of pinellia kind stem after choosing at indoor airing 2-3 days, is mixed it to do wet moderate fine sand soil subsequently, preserved, take out plantation in then in winter or spring next year in the ventilating and cooling place.In addition, on each cauline leaf of the tuber of pinellia bulbil is arranged, quantity is sufficient, and meets soil and can root, and the maturing stage also is main propagating materials early.Big bulbil just can develop into kind of stem or commodity stem tuber then.
2. the storage of the tuber of pinellia finished product after the processing: the tuber of pinellia is poisonous medicinal material, is prone to moisture absorption variable color again.The dried tuber of pinellia should have special messenger's keeping simultaneously as do not sell, then should pack the place storage that is placed on indoor seasoning at once, prevents inoperative personnel contact, and makes regular check on.

Claims (8)

1. wild tuber of pinellia breeding method relates to seed collection, plantation, whole ground, seed treatment and management link, it is characterized in that GatherIn maize ground, the field of planting cured tobacco and in the forest land, deserted mountain, the wild tuber of pinellia that the plant growing way is good, full, the no damage by disease and insect of tuber of pinellia kind ball is contaminated adopts a moisture in the soil maize and a moisture in the soil tuber of pinellia interplanting mode to plant as breeding seed; Through putting in order ground, the processing of kind stem, sowing, breeding, seedling management, field management, the extermination of disease and insect pest, the step of gathering cultivation with selecting.
2. wild tuber of pinellia breeding method according to claim 1, put in order the ground step is to select moistening sandy loam fertile, that quality loose, irrigation and drainage good, pH value is neutrality to plant with it is characterized in that selecting; In between 10-November, soil deeptillage 20cm makes its weathering slaking; In conjunction with whole ground, every mu applies barnyard manure or the compost 2000kg that ferments, and superphosphate 50kg ploughs under and makes base manure in the soil; Before sowing, plough again once, put in order soil and carefully rake, be organized into the high furrow of wide 1.3m, the furrow furrow width 40cm ground moisture in the soil plantation tuber of pinellia, good subsequent use en bloc by the maize ground moisture in the soil structure treatment alternate with tuber of pinellia ground moisture in the soil.
3. wild tuber of pinellia breeding method according to claim 1 is characterized in that Planting the stem processing is:A is the wild tuber of pinellia kind stem that collects, and use concentration is 5% carbendazim solution, spraying disinfection; Then, kind of a stem is stirred in manual work gently, and thimerosal is fully contacted with the kind stem; Kind stem after the sterilization, tight with plastic film wrapped, be no less than 12 hours standing time; Move to the sufficient place of daylight again, shone 3-4 hour; B, be no less than 2 hours, dry the aqueous vapor plantation with 5% vegetation lixivium seed soaking; Or soaked kind of stem 24 hours with 2% potassium nitrate (KNO3) before planting, dry the back sowing.
4. wild tuber of pinellia breeding method according to claim 1 is characterized in that Propagation method is:
A seminal propagation, the seed of when spathe is sallow, gathering digs 2 centimetres of dark shallow ridges by 10 centimetres of line-spacings, and seed is sprinkled into, and an animal-drawn seed plough is put down and is kept moistening and can emerge; b The bulbil breeding,The ripe bulbil of gathering 5~June is pressed 10 centimetres of line-spacings, 3 centimetres of spacing in the rows, 3 centimetres of sowings of bar ditch depth, 2 centimetres of earthing on whole good furrow; c The stem tuber breeding,During results, choosing is given birth to then, and the stem tuber that diameter is 0.5~1.5 centimetre is planted, and when 10 ℃ of left and right sides of mean temperature of air in spring, sows; Open 4~5 centimetres of dark ditches by 20 centimetres of line-spacings, bottom of trench will be put down, and will plant stem intersection two capable swinging in the ditch by 3 centimetres of spacing in the rows; The bud head makes progress, and earthing is hugged flat, a little suppression; Also can combine results, autumn, plantation was generally carried out in late September to early October, and method is with sowing in spring.
5. wild tuber of pinellia breeding method according to claim 1 is characterized in that sowing step and is late March to mid-April, and temperature 18-20 spends period; Adopt the trench digging drilling, press line-spacing 15-20 centimetre, open 4-8 centimetre of dark ditch; Every mu with 20-30 kilograms of bulb seedlings, will plant ball and be sprinkling upon in the ditch spacing in the rows 2-6 centimetre equably; Adopt the interplanting pattern of a moisture in the soil maize one moisture in the soil tuber of pinellia, spread farmyard manure on it, hug after back earth backing 1-2 centimetre flat.
6. wild tuber of pinellia breeding method according to claim 1 is characterized in that The seedling management measure is: aWeeding is loosened the soil, and adopts manual work weeding at any time, forbids to use weed killer herbicide, and weeding is controlled at the degree of depth and is not more than 3 centimetres and loosens the soil simultaneously; B fertilising, seedling management stage hand are spread fertilizer over the fields fertile 2 times, and the time interval is 15 days, carry out after being selected in rain, use nitrogen: phosphorus: the composite fertilizer of potassium=15:15:15, and 20 ± 2 kilograms of every mu of consumptions, if fine fertilising, then water spray impels composite fertilizer's dissolving afterwards, avoids burning seedling; C waters: per 6 days once, keeps the skin wet for tuber of pinellia seedling with the sprinkling irrigation mode; The d extermination of disease and insect pest: the lime milk solution with 5% carries out foliage-spray, connects to spray 2-3 time, and the time interval is 5-7 days, the virus disease of control blade withered death.
7. wild tuber of pinellia breeding method according to claim 1; It is characterized in that the field management link has: a intertill and clean tillage: Miao Qihou, in time weed a garden, use length and width at 20 * 5 centimetres special spud in the ranks; Do the degree of depth and can not surpass 3 centimetres shallow hoe, the weeds that occur between strain remove with hand-lifting; The b fertilising: grow mid-term, field management stage fertilising 3-4 time, the time interval is about 20 days; Before and after the Grain Full climate and other natural phenomena of a season, answer the heavy dressing bulbil fertile, as the cake fertilizer that becomes thoroughly decomposed is used for 500 kilograms every mu by 60-100 kilograms every mu, people and animals' liquid dung; Or a kind of in the ammonium sulfate, urea, topdress 1 time by preceding method before the ridging during the consumption 10-15 kilogram, the Slight Heat climate and other natural phenomena of a season; With every mu of 20 kilograms of urea, adopt foliage-spray, or the mode of executing of dashing that fertilizer dissolves in the irrigation water is applied fertilizer afterwards; C ridging: during the Grain Full climate and other natural phenomena of a season, the ridging of when the ripe browning look of bulbil, in time topdressing, every mu chases after ferment cake fertilizer 50-100 kilogram or become thoroughly decomposed 15 kilograms of people's animal manure 500-1000 kilogram and phosphoric acid diamines or potassium dihydrogen phosphates; Mix and be spread on by the pearl; Utilize the earth mulch on seed furrow both sides to live fertilizer and bulbil again, thick about 1.5-2 centimetre, also in time water with the spade compacting; After growing new bulbil autumn, topdress ridging more once by last method; The d irrigation and drainage: tuber of pinellia happiness is moistening, is afraid of arid, if weather is arid, should in time pour water, if excessive rainfall should dig trenches to drain the water away; E, pluck flower bud: except needs seminal propagation, the bud that extract out vegetative period should all be plucked.
8. wild tuber of pinellia breeding method according to claim 1; It is characterized in that extermination of disease and insect pest step: a disease, the field management stage mainly contains leaf spot and virus disease, and the method for preventing and treating leaf spot is: spray with 500 times of liquid of ferrous sulfate; Every 7-10 days 1 time, 2-3 time continuously; B insect pest, the insect pest of the tuber of pinellia mainly are grub larva and hornworm, and the method for preventing and treating of grub larva is: the phoxim solution spray with 50%, every 5-7 days 1 time, 2-3 time continuously; The method of preventing and treating of hornworm is 7-8 month, and the phoxim solution with 50% carries out foliage-spray, and continuous 2 times, the time interval is 5 days, kills hornworm.
CN201210226352XA 2012-07-03 2012-07-03 Wild pinellia ternate cultivation method Pending CN102742442A (en)

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CN103120078A (en) * 2013-01-08 2013-05-29 潜江市半夏研究所 Storage method of pinellia ternata
CN103385092A (en) * 2013-06-28 2013-11-13 句容市茅山聚福园林有限公司 Interplanting method for North America sweetgum and pinellia tuber
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CN107455129A (en) * 2017-08-28 2017-12-12 阜南县兴农果树有限公司 A kind of implantation methods for improving burnt tuber of pinellia medicinal efficacy
CN107771630A (en) * 2017-11-23 2018-03-09 山东省农业科学院农产品研究所 A kind of tuber of pinellia ecological cultivation method
CN108934873A (en) * 2018-07-27 2018-12-07 李洪军 A kind of tuber of pinellia base of leaf of lying on one's side grows wild the implantation methods that bulbil expands
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CN111296206A (en) * 2020-03-05 2020-06-19 安徽精诚本草中药饮片有限公司 Method for rapidly propagating pinellia ternata in vitro tubers

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CN103120078A (en) * 2013-01-08 2013-05-29 潜江市半夏研究所 Storage method of pinellia ternata
CN103385092A (en) * 2013-06-28 2013-11-13 句容市茅山聚福园林有限公司 Interplanting method for North America sweetgum and pinellia tuber
CN103650855A (en) * 2013-12-04 2014-03-26 倪卫红 Artificial cultivation method of wild pinellia
CN103650855B (en) * 2013-12-04 2016-07-06 倪卫红 A kind of artificial cultivation method of Wild Rhizoma Pinelliae
CN104012213A (en) * 2014-06-20 2014-09-03 南京工业大学大丰海洋产业研究院 Treatment method of preventing soft rot disease of tuber of pinellia ternata
CN104012213B (en) * 2014-06-20 2015-11-18 南京工业大学大丰海洋产业研究院 A kind of processing method of preventing tuber of pinellia stem tuber soft rot
CN104303789A (en) * 2014-10-24 2015-01-28 陆川县大鹏现代农业发展有限公司 Method for cultivating pinellia ternata
CN105766260A (en) * 2014-12-22 2016-07-20 重庆市万盛经开区黑山镇供销合作社有限公司 High-yielding cultivation method for rhizoma pinelliae
CN104920013A (en) * 2015-05-25 2015-09-23 昭通市益雄药业有限公司 Planting method of Pinellia ternata
CN105660103A (en) * 2016-01-14 2016-06-15 西南大学 Flue-cured tobacco pinellia ternate interplanting method overcoming allelopathic autotoxicity function
CN105766320A (en) * 2016-03-22 2016-07-20 苏州田园优贡电子商务有限公司 Loquat and pinellia ternate interplanting method
CN106718608A (en) * 2017-01-22 2017-05-31 陆川誉丰家庭农场(普通合伙) A kind of implantation methods of Taiwan lemon
CN106718004A (en) * 2017-02-24 2017-05-31 天水农业学校(天水市农业科技人才培训中心) A kind of tuber of pinellia strange land detoxification breeding and growing and cultivation method
CN106900321A (en) * 2017-02-24 2017-06-30 天水农业学校(天水市农业科技人才培训中心) A kind of genuine upper Gui tuber of pinellia film-covering planting methods
CN106882994A (en) * 2017-03-17 2017-06-23 界首市伟盛家庭农场 A kind of implantation methods of the tuber of pinellia
CN107409902A (en) * 2017-06-19 2017-12-01 宁国市仙之居家庭农场 A kind of peaceful root of purple-flowered peucedanum and the mixed planting method of cypress sapling
CN107306630A (en) * 2017-06-23 2017-11-03 新苑阳光农业有限公司 The implantation methods of the tuber of pinellia
CN107347430A (en) * 2017-08-28 2017-11-17 阜南县兴农果树有限公司 A kind of burnt tuber of pinellia Cultivate administration method during summer high temperature
CN107455129A (en) * 2017-08-28 2017-12-12 阜南县兴农果树有限公司 A kind of implantation methods for improving burnt tuber of pinellia medicinal efficacy
CN107771630A (en) * 2017-11-23 2018-03-09 山东省农业科学院农产品研究所 A kind of tuber of pinellia ecological cultivation method
CN107771630B (en) * 2017-11-23 2019-07-02 山东省农业科学院农产品研究所 A kind of tuber of pinellia ecological cultivation method
CN108934873A (en) * 2018-07-27 2018-12-07 李洪军 A kind of tuber of pinellia base of leaf of lying on one's side grows wild the implantation methods that bulbil expands
CN111296206A (en) * 2020-03-05 2020-06-19 安徽精诚本草中药饮片有限公司 Method for rapidly propagating pinellia ternata in vitro tubers
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