CN103430804A - Reshaping and cultivating method for peach tree with single trunk and two main branches - Google Patents

Reshaping and cultivating method for peach tree with single trunk and two main branches Download PDF

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CN103430804A
CN103430804A CN2013103950567A CN201310395056A CN103430804A CN 103430804 A CN103430804 A CN 103430804A CN 2013103950567 A CN2013103950567 A CN 2013103950567A CN 201310395056 A CN201310395056 A CN 201310395056A CN 103430804 A CN103430804 A CN 103430804A
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branch
major branch
shoot
major
fruit
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CN103430804B (en
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刘照亭
毛妮妮
朱庆峰
芮东明
蒋水平
刘伟忠
刘亚柏
任俊鹏
鲁群
阎永齐
郭建
刘吉祥
王志娟
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Zhenjiang Institute of Agricultural Sciences Jiangsu Hilly Area
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Zhenjiang Wanshan Hongbian Agriculture Garden
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Abstract

The invention relates to a reshaping and cultivating method for a peach tree with a single trunk and two main branches. The reshaping and cultivating method specifically comprises the following steps: planting a plantlet at a 1.4m-1.6m position of the height of the trunk; selecting and remaining two strong branches or strong buds which are cultivated into two main branches reversely growing along the rows at a basal angle of 30 degrees; fixing the main braches on a horizontal shed frame when the main branches reach racking points, and inducing the extended branches of the main branches to an inducing rod which forms an 30-degree angle with the shed frame, wherein extended fruiting branch groups which are in parallel arranged and vertically extended into the rows are provided on the main branches; and gently and slowly pushing, binding and fixing the two main branches to the flat shed frame surface in autumn of the next year. The reshaping and cultivating method disclosed by the invention can be used for controlling the dryness advantages of the tree body, is quick in crown forming speed and capable of generally completing the crown structure cultivation 2 years after the planting to begin to enter into an initial fruiting period.

Description

A kind of single trunk two major branch peach form culture methods
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of dimension stereo agriculture planting method, be specifically related to a kind of single trunk two major branch peach form culture methods.
Background technology
Peach: be subordinate to peach and belong to, Prunoideae, Rosales, Dicotyledoneae, the Angiospermae of spermatophyta, vegetative kingdom.Originating in the NORTHWEST CHINA area, is one of the most ancient fruit tree of China.The defoliation small arbor of a kind of fruit as fruit, delicious flavour, nutritious, be one of fresh fruit of liking the most of people.Except eating raw, also can be processed into the dry and peach can of preserved peach, peach butter, peach juice, peach.The a lot of parts of peach also have medical value, and its root, leaf, flower, benevolence can be used as medicine, and have cough-relieving, invigorate blood circulation, the function such as defaecation, and peach kernel oil content 45%, can squeeze iundustrial oil, but peach-pit duricrust preparing active carbon is the multiduty raw material of industry.Main Economic cultivation area in North China, the each province, East China, add up national area under cultivation according to data in 2011 and surpass 1,069 ten thousand mu, produce 8,030,000 tons, peach, account for respectively 47%, 46% of the world, rank first in the world.Peach have result early, the high yield stability is good, soil condition is required not too strict, the characteristics such as cultivation management is easy.Compare with other deciduous fruit trees such as cultivation apple, pears, can more easily obtain sooner economic benefit, therefore be subject to especially grower's favor.Peach fruit price in the international market often exceeds 1~2 times of apple, and economic benefit is very considerable.From now on along with the development of national economy, the raising of living standards of the people, the improvement of storage and transportation equipment and technology, the price of peach fruit and economic benefit can rise year by year,
That produces at present upper peach tree-likely is generally two major branches, three major branches, naturally happy type, dredges layer shape etc.But the tree-like moulding of said method is slow, and enter fruiting period evening.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem that the present invention mainly solves is to provide a kind of single trunk two major branch peach form culture methods.
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the technical scheme that the present invention adopts is:
A kind of single trunk two major branch peach form culture methods, comprise the following steps: First Year: 3~4 the full buds of selecting and remain after seedling planting are surely dry, determine top, cadre position leaf bud and sprout the dry upright growth of young sprout Culture Center, until the dry 20cm that grows in center when above, insert the bamboo pole of a vertical ground, will be fixed on bamboo pole, when shoot growth to 1.6 meter left and right, by the pinching of young sprout tip, select and remain 2 vigorous branches or strong bud, cultivate into two base angles and be the major branch that 30 degree follow back growth, major branch is fixed on horizontal rack while reaching at added, and the major branch elongated shoot is lured to cause be luring of 30 degree with frame and draw on bar, keep major branch elongated shoot absolute predominance, the side shoot sent on major branch stays one every 20cm, and by side shoot the both sides tractive to major branch, keep being arranged in parallel on major branch, the length of vertically stretching to is in the ranks put fruit bearing shoot, when the winter cuts, major branch head light pruning length is put, can not cut and cut the elongated shoot with full terminal bud,
Second Year: the elongated shoot of major branch continues elongation growth, branch on major branch utilizes its result as far as possible, the major branch back does not stay the bough group, to wipe out or even up to both sides the back branch sent on major branch and grow, press down gently bondage to this two major branch and be fixed on flat frame face autumn, and note on same face, adnation branch group and major branch are 90 °, fruit bearing shoot cutting back when the winter cuts on major branch, retain 30~40cm length after general retraction, and length on major branch is greater than to 70cm, all removes with the water sprout of sublateral shoot and the branch on the weak side, the sick branch that are less than 30cm; Major branch elongated shoot taperingness is little, and major branch head light pruning length is put, and to the elongated shoot with full terminal bud, can not cut and cut, and removes major branch elongated shoot competitive branch; Major branch elongated shoot taperingness is large is compressed to healthy and strong sublateral shoot place, and the tree-like and shaping of peach two major branch one center forms completes substantially.
Also comprise the 3rd year: in major branch, base portion cultivates medium-sized branch group, branch group interval 50~70cm; Small-sized branch group and unijunction fruit branch are cultivated in major branch top, small-sized branch group interval 20~30cm, unijunction fruit branch interval 10~15cm; The branch pinching that sprouts the major branch rear end is controlled, and makes it form interim fruit spur, and when the winter cuts, to fruit-bearing shoot cluster renewals that bounce back, medium-sized group stayed the fruit bearing shoot of 6~8 stalwartnesses of base portion, and small-sized group stayed the fruit bearing shoot of 3~5 stalwartnesses of base portion.
The structure of described frame is: frame height 1.9m, with concrete column, build, the side column horizontal spacing is 4m, longitudinal pitch is 5m, the outer squint of corner post, side column and ground angle at 45 °, the capital end is fixed with iron wire, No. 8 galvanized wires for surrounding and side column bracing wire, side column is to weaving into 4 * 5m grid with No. 10 galvanized wires between bracing wire, middle each crosspoint fore-set vertical support to bracing wire of frame, vertically three No. 12 galvanized wires are drawn in every fore-set band both sides, and spacing is 0.4m successively, and side column and corner post can be unsteady according to reality with the distance between the most contiguous fore-set.
The concrete column that described fore-set length and width high standard is 2.0m * 0.06m * 0.06m.
The concrete column that described side column length and width high standard is 2.7m * 0.1m * 0.1m.
The concrete column that described corner post length and width high standard is 3.2m * 0.14m * 0.14m.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: the present invention can control tree soma sexual clorminance, and the tree crown moulding is fast, within 2 years, can complete Crown Structure after general field planting and cultivate, and starts to enter the just fruit phase; Simultaneously, the tree crown be trimmed to is not containing secondary scaffold branch, and pruning technique is simple, is easy to grasp, and can control peach garden flower and fruit management working space, saves labor, and reduces the orchard management cost; And the ventilation and penetrating light condition is good, the fruit regularity is high, and fruit shape is large, quality better, and the high quality fruit rate is more than 90%, is a kind ofly easily to realize that the novel high-quality of standardized production, Labor-saving cultivation are tree-like.
The accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the end perspective view of one group of frame of the present invention.
In accompanying drawing, 1 is No. 8 galvanized wires; 2 is No. 10 galvanized wires; 3 is No. 12 galvanized wires; 4 is corner post; 5 is side column; 6 is fore-set.
Embodiment
Below preferred embodiment of the present invention is described in detail, thereby so that advantages and features of the invention can be easier to be it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that, protection scope of the present invention is made to more explicit defining.
The embodiment of the present invention one comprises:
The enforcement time: 2010~2013
Implement place: white rabbit town, Jurong City, Jiangsu Province Bai Zhishan Ecological Orchard
(1), implement instantiation:
Select kind: daybreak, Bai Feng;
(2) implementation method:
Comprise:
(1) field is selected: select soil layer loose deep, the soil that the content of organic matter is high.Appropriate pH value 5.5~7.5.
(2) build frame: frame height 1.9m, with concrete column, build, corner post 4 length and width high standards are 3.2m * 0.14m * 0.14m, side column 5 specifications are 2.7m * 0.1m * 0.1m, fore-set 6 specifications are 2.0m * 0.06m * 0.06m, the side column horizontal spacing is that 4m, longitudinal pitch are 5m, corner post 4, side column 5 and the outer squint of ground angle at 45 °, and capital 6 ends are fixed with iron wire.Surrounding and No. 8 galvanized wires 1 for side column 5 bracing wires, weave into spacing 4 * 5m grid with No. 10 galvanized wires 2 between 5 pairs of bracing wires of side column, in the middle of frame to fore-set 6 vertical support for each crosspoint of bracing wire.Vertically three No. 12 galvanized wires 3 are drawn in every fore-set band both sides, and spacing is 0.4m successively.Distance between side column and corner post and the most contiguous fore-set can be floated according to reality.
(3) dig the field planting ditch: do the wide field planting row of 4m, the field planting ditch of excavation two stripe pitch 2m on the field planting row, field planting furrow width 60cm~80cm, dark 40cm.First insert 1500kg~2000kg straw or weeds for every mu, after inserting straw or weeds, cover the native 10cm of table left and right, more every mu is executed organic base manure 2000~2500kg, fused calcium magnesium phosphate 50~75kg, the potassium sulfate compound fertilizer 20~30kg such as chicken manure and mixes with native, the having peace of mind while filling out.Banket to overhead approximately during 5~10cm, cover subsoil and pile the field planting row higher than ridge face 10~15cm.
(4) field planting:
Mid-February is to the early March field planting, the peach seedling that on wide field planting row, field planting two stripe pitch 2m, spacing in the rows are 5m at 4m.Select daybreak, white phoenix nursery stock, require peach seedling stalwartness, branch is healthy and strong, tissue enriches, and degree of lignification is high, and trunk is clear and definite, well developed root system is and complete, and main root reaches 30cm, and more lateral root and fibrous root are arranged, root system is without splitting, have the bud of complete stalwartness, nursery stock has no mechanical damage, without damage by disease and insect, not dehydration, possess exuberant vitality.700 times of liquid disinfectants of 70% thiophanate methyl wetting powder for root system before field planting, 3 Baume degrees for stem~5 Baume degrees lime sulfur sterilizations.
Shoot root is placed on to field planting row field planting point upper, nursery stock is held up directly.Make root in order rear earthing steady and sure, earthing is to the grafting mouth usually, and trunk stays 3~4 full bud cutting backs surely dry.Water permeable after, root week covers with the unregistered land film, the water conservation moisturizing.
(5) irrigate
When water capacity, lower than 15%~20% the time, must pour water.Can adopt the methods such as pouring, the short stream of tubule, drip irrigation.Watering time is mainly when budding period, Fruit and Drought in Autumn.
(6) pruning
First Year: 3~4 the full buds of selecting and remain after seedling planting are surely dry, determine top, cadre position leaf bud and sprout the dry upright growth ,Dai dry 20cm of growing in center of young sprout Culture Center when above, and the bamboo pole of a slotting vertical ground, will be fixed on bamboo pole; When shoot growth to 1.6 meter left and right, by the pinching of young sprout tip, select and remain 2 vigorous branches or strong bud, cultivate into two base angles and be the major branch that 30 degree follow back growth, major branch is fixed on horizontal rack while reaching at added, and the major branch elongated shoot is lured to cause be luring of 30 degree with frame and draw on bar, keep major branch elongated shoot absolute predominance.The side shoot sent on major branch stays one every 20cm, and by side shoot the both sides tractive to major branch, keep having the length that is arranged in parallel, vertically stretches in the ranks to put fruit bearing shoot on major branch.When the winter cuts, major branch head light pruning length is put, to the elongated shoot with full terminal bud, can not cut and cut.
Second Year: the elongated shoot of major branch continues elongation growth, and the branch on major branch utilizes its result as far as possible.The major branch back does not stay the bough group, will wipe out or even up to both sides the back branch sent on major branch and grow.Press down gently bondage to this two major branch and be fixed on flat frame face autumn, and notice that adnation branch group and major branch are 90 ° on same face.Fruit bearing shoot cutting back when the winter cuts on major branch, retain 30~40cm length after general retraction, and length on major branch is greater than to 70cm, all removes with the water sprout of sublateral shoot and the branch on the weak side, the sick branch that are less than 30cm; Major branch elongated shoot taperingness is little, and major branch head light pruning length is put, and to the elongated shoot with full terminal bud, can not cut and cut, and removes major branch elongated shoot competitive branch; Major branch elongated shoot taperingness is large is compressed to healthy and strong sublateral shoot place.Tree-like and the shaping of peach two major branch one center forms completes substantially.
The 3rd year: in major branch, base portion cultivates medium-sized branch group, branch group interval 50~70cm; Small-sized branch group and unijunction fruit branch are cultivated in major branch top, small-sized branch group interval 20~30cm, unijunction fruit branch interval 10~15cm; The branch pinching that sprout the major branch rear end is controlled, and makes it form interim fruit spur.When the winter cuts, to the fruit-bearing shoot cluster renewal that bounces back, medium-sized branch group is stayed the fruit bearing shoot of 6~8 stalwartnesses of base portion, and small-sized branch group is stayed the fruit bearing shoot of 3~5 stalwartnesses of base portion.
(7) fruit thinning
After full-bloom stage between 5~15 days, removing give birth to intensive, hypogenetic fruit.After Sheng is spent, 25~35 are preordained really, mainly remove the not good fruitlet of setting fruit position, sick fruit, wormed fruit, malformed fruit, mechanical damage fruit.General long fruit branch stays 2 of fruits; Medium fruit branch stays 1 of fruit; Fruit spur stays 1 or do not stay.
(8) bagging
Bagging has effect preferably to steady production, raising fruit marketability.After fruit thinning finishes, before bagging, with an insecticidal bactericide, in the mid or late May bagging, adopt white paper bag or with the white paper bag of printed words or decorative pattern.
(9) gather
Gather and appropriate to the occasionly gently adopt and put down gently, live fruit with hand rest and slightly reverse, take along fruit branch side top.Fruit will be gathered according to mature condition in batches.Bamboo, cane basket or plastic crate for fruit picking, basket or plastic crate are unsuitable excessive, the pad piece of sack or blank sheet of paper in basket or plastic crate.Fruit is put 1~2 layer in basket or plastic crate.
(10) extermination of disease and insect pest
The disease of harm peach mainly contains leaf-curl, bacillary shothole disease, peach brown rot, shot hole, anthracnose etc.; Major Pests has: aphid, dichocrocis punctiferalis, oriental fruit moth, scale insect, two spotted spider mite, chafer, tea wing stinkbug, pink neck longicorn etc.Adopt the method for integrated control for these sick worms, Qing Gengquan in winter garden, in season of growth garden, the sward cultivation increases natural enemy quantity.Lime sulfur with 3~5 degree before early and middle ten days rudiment in March sprays, and extraordinarily extraordinarily 2000 times of liquid mixing sprayings of 10% Imidacloprid of 70% thiophanate methyl 600 of 20% Yekuzuo 1000 for Zhan Yehou, prevent and treat leaf-curl, bacillary shothole disease and aphid.Add 4.5% 1000 times of beta-cypermethrins or 48% happy these 1000 times of liquid at the young fruit expanding stage with 10% generation high 2000 times or 6000 times of liquid of 40% lucky star and mix and use, sprayed once the sick worm harm of basic controlling every 10~15 days.
(11) soil melioration technology
In order to obtain high grade producing, need be improved soil, increase soil fertility.Ditching-fertilizing is improved soil year by year, after field planting annual in conjunction with the autumn basal dressing in field planting ditch both sides year by year rotation to extending out ditch depth, turn over, in ditch, layering mixes organic substance, fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer such as applying straw, and mu is executed straw 1500kg, fertilizer 1000~1500kg, fused calcium magnesium phosphate 50~60kg, potassium sulphate 15~20kg.Apply fertilizer by excavation, to root growth, create adapt circumstance, the shoot growth stalwartness of plant, the blade face assimilation is strengthened, and is conducive to the raising of bud formation and output.
(3) implementation result
By conventional cultivation three major branches naturally happily the peach of type (seeding row spacing is 5 * 5m) compare.Table 1 finds out, the peach of this planting type cultivation has more significant difference with the peach phenophase of conventional cultivation, and the peach phenophase summary of this cultivation method cultivation is early than routine.
Table 1: peach phenophase application form
Figure BSA0000094689410000071
Figure BSA0000094689410000081
As shown in Table 2, the peach of cultivating under this cultivation method is at single fruit weight, output and soluble solid content apparently higher than routine, and this cultivation method can fully effectively utilize luminous energy as seen, promotes plant nutrition and reproduction balanced growth.
Table 2: habit of growth information slip
Figure BSA0000094689410000082
The foregoing is only embodiments of the invention; not thereby limit the scope of the claims of the present invention; every equivalent structure or conversion of equivalent flow process that utilizes description of the present invention to do; or directly or indirectly be used in other relevant technical fields, all in like manner be included in scope of patent protection of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. single trunk two major branch peach form culture methods is characterized in that comprising the following steps:
First Year: 3~4 the full buds of selecting and remain after seedling planting are surely dry, determine top, cadre position leaf bud and sprout the dry upright growth ,Dai dry 20cm of growing in center of young sprout Culture Center when above, and the bamboo pole of a slotting vertical ground, will be fixed on bamboo pole, when shoot growth to 1.6 meter left and right, by the pinching of young sprout tip, select and remain 2 vigorous branches or strong bud, cultivate into two base angles and be the major branch that 30 degree follow back growth, major branch is fixed on horizontal rack while reaching at added, and the major branch elongated shoot is lured to cause be luring of 30 degree with frame and draw on bar, keep major branch elongated shoot absolute predominance, the side shoot sent on major branch stays one every 20cm, and by side shoot the both sides tractive to major branch, keep being arranged in parallel on major branch, the length of vertically stretching to is in the ranks put fruit bearing shoot, when the winter cuts, major branch head light pruning length is put, can not cut and cut the elongated shoot with full terminal bud,
Second Year: the elongated shoot of major branch continues elongation growth, branch on major branch utilizes its result as far as possible, the major branch back does not stay the bough group, to wipe out or even up to both sides the back branch sent on major branch and grow, press down gently bondage to this two major branch and be fixed on flat frame face autumn, and note on same face, adnation branch group and major branch are 90 °, fruit bearing shoot cutting back when the winter cuts on major branch, retain 30~40cm length after general retraction, and length on major branch is greater than to 70cm, all removes with the water sprout of sublateral shoot and the branch on the weak side, the sick branch that are less than 30cm; Major branch elongated shoot taperingness is little, and major branch head light pruning length is put, and to the elongated shoot with full terminal bud, can not cut and cut, and removes major branch elongated shoot competitive branch; Major branch elongated shoot taperingness is large is compressed to healthy and strong sublateral shoot place, and the tree-like and shaping of peach two major branch one center forms completes substantially.
2. single trunk two major branch peach form culture methods according to claim 1, is characterized in that, also comprises the 3rd year: in major branch, base portion cultivates medium-sized branch group, branch group interval 50~70cm; Small-sized branch group and unijunction fruit branch are cultivated in major branch top, small-sized branch group interval 20~30cm, unijunction fruit branch interval 10~15cm; The branch pinching that sprouts the major branch rear end is controlled, and makes it form interim fruit spur, and when the winter cuts, to fruit-bearing shoot cluster renewals that bounce back, medium-sized group stayed the fruit bearing shoot of 6~8 stalwartnesses of base portion, and small-sized group stayed the fruit bearing shoot of 3~5 stalwartnesses of base portion.
3. single trunk two major branch peach form culture methods according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, the structure of described frame is: frame height 1.9m, with concrete column, build, the side column horizontal spacing is 4m, longitudinal pitch is 5m, corner post, the outer squint of side column and ground angle at 45 °, the capital end is fixed with iron wire, No. 8 galvanized wires for surrounding and side column bracing wire, side column is to weaving into 4 * 5m grid with No. 10 galvanized wires between bracing wire, middle each crosspoint fore-set vertical support to bracing wire of frame, vertically three No. 12 galvanized wires are drawn in every fore-set band both sides, spacing is 0.4m successively, distance between side column and corner post and the most contiguous fore-set can be floated according to reality.
4. single trunk two major branch peach form culture methods according to claim 2, is characterized in that the concrete column that described fore-set is 2.0m * 0.06m * 0.06m.
5. according to the described single trunk two major branch peach form culture methods of claim 2 or 3, it is characterized in that the concrete column that described side column length and width high standard is 2.7m * 0.1m * 0.1m.
6. according to the described single trunk two major branch peach form culture methods of claim 2 or 3, it is characterized in that the concrete column that described corner post length and width high standard is 3.2m * 0.14m * 0.14m.
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CN105746290B (en) * 2016-04-28 2018-10-19 安徽省农业科学院园艺研究所 A kind of peach falls " a " shape cultivation technique
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CN113692873B (en) * 2021-09-21 2022-07-19 湖北七仙红园区管理服务有限公司 Peach tree shaping method in rainy area

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