CN103430804B - Reshaping and cultivating method for peach tree with single trunk and two main branches - Google Patents

Reshaping and cultivating method for peach tree with single trunk and two main branches Download PDF

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CN103430804B
CN103430804B CN201310395056.7A CN201310395056A CN103430804B CN 103430804 B CN103430804 B CN 103430804B CN 201310395056 A CN201310395056 A CN 201310395056A CN 103430804 B CN103430804 B CN 103430804B
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major branch
shoot
major
fruit
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CN103430804A (en
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刘照亭
毛妮妮
朱庆峰
芮东明
蒋水平
刘伟忠
刘亚柏
任俊鹏
鲁群
阎永齐
郭建
刘吉祥
王志娟
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Zhenjiang Institute of Agricultural Sciences Jiangsu Hilly Area
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Zhenjiang Wanshan Hongbian Agriculture Garden
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Abstract

The invention relates to a reshaping and cultivating method for a peach tree with a single trunk and two main branches. The reshaping and cultivating method specifically comprises the following steps: planting a plantlet at a 1.4m-1.6m position of the height of the trunk; selecting and remaining two strong branches or strong buds which are cultivated into two main branches reversely growing along the rows at a basal angle of 30 degrees; fixing the main braches on a horizontal shed frame when the main branches reach racking points, and inducing the extended branches of the main branches to an inducing rod which forms an 30-degree angle with the shed frame, wherein extended fruiting branch groups which are in parallel arranged and vertically extended into the rows are provided on the main branches; and gently and slowly pushing, binding and fixing the two main branches to the flat shed frame surface in autumn of the next year. The reshaping and cultivating method disclosed by the invention can be used for controlling the dryness advantages of the tree body, is quick in crown forming speed and capable of generally completing the crown structure cultivation 2 years after the planting to begin to enter into an initial fruiting period.

Description

A kind of single trunk two major branch peach form culture method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of dimension stereo agriculture planting method, be specifically related to a kind of single trunk two major branch peach form culture method.
Background technology
Peach: be subordinate to peach and belong to, Prunoideae, Rosales, Dicotyledoneae, the Angiospermae of spermatophyta, vegetative kingdom.Originating in NORTHWEST CHINA area, is one of the most ancient fruit tree of China.The defoliation small arbor of a kind of fruit as fruit, delicious flavour, nutritious, be one of fresh fruit of liking the most of people.Except eating raw, also can be processed into the dry and peach can of preserved peach, peach butter, peach juice, peach.The a lot of part of peach also has medical value, and its root, leaf, flower, benevolence can be used as medicine, and has cough-relieving, invigorates blood circulation, the function such as defaecation, and peach kernel oil content 45%, can squeeze iundustrial oil, and peach-pit duricrust can preparing active carbon, is the multiduty raw material of industry.Main Economic cultivation area in North China, East China each province, according to statistics in 2011 whole nation area under cultivation more than 1,069 ten thousand mu, produce 8,030,000 tons, peach, account for 47% of the world, 46% respectively, rank first in the world.Peach have result early, high yield stability is good, requires not too strict, the features such as cultivation management is easy to soil condition.Compare with other deciduous fruit tree such as Cultivated apple, pears, more easily can obtain economic benefit sooner, therefore be subject to the favor of grower especially.Peach fruit price in the international market often exceeds 1 ~ 2 times of apple, and economic benefit is very considerable.From now on along with the development of national economy, the raising of living standards of the people, the improvement of storage and transportation equipment and technology, the price of peach fruit and economic benefit can rise year by year,
In current production, the tree-like of peach is generally two major branches, three major branches, natural opening cardioid, thin layer shape etc.But said method is tree-like slowly shaping, and enter fruiting period evening.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem that the present invention mainly solves is to provide a kind of single trunk two major branch peach form culture method.
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the technical scheme that the present invention adopts is:
A kind of single trunk two major branch peach form culture method, comprise the following steps: First Year: 3 ~ 4 full buds of selecting and remain after seedling planting are done surely, determine top, cadre position leaf bud sprouting young sprout Culture Center and do upright growth, until center is dry grow to more than 20cm time, insert the bamboo pole of a vertical ground, will be fixed on bamboo pole, when young sprout grows to about 1.6 meters, by the pinching of young sprout tip, to select and remain 2 vigorous branches or strong bud, being trained two base angles is 30 degree of major branches following back growth, major branch is fixed on horizontal rack when reaching at added, and major branch elongated shoot is lured to cause with frame be that 30 degree lure is drawn on bar, keep major branch elongated shoot absolute predominance, the side shoot that major branch sends stays one every 20cm, and by the both sides tractive of side shoot to major branch, maintenance major branch have arranged in parallel, the length of vertically stretching in the ranks puts fruit bearing shoot, put major branch head light pruning is long when winter cuts, can not cut the elongated shoot with full terminal bud and cut,
Second Year: the elongated shoot of major branch continues elongation growth, branch on major branch utilizes its result as far as possible, major branch back does not stay bough group, the back branch that major branch sends to be wiped out or be evened up and grow to both sides, pressing down bondage gently to this two major branch autumn is fixed on flat frame face, and note on same frame face, the raw branch group in side and major branch are 90 °, fruit bearing shoot cutting back when winter cuts on major branch, retain 30 ~ 40cm length after general retraction, and length on major branch is greater than 70cm, band sublateral shoot water sprout and be less than the branch on the weak side of 30cm, sick branch all removes; Major branch elongated shoot taperingness is little, puts, can not cut and cut, remove major branch elongated shoot competitive branch to the elongated shoot with full terminal bud major branch head light pruning is long; What major branch elongated shoot taperingness was large be compressed to healthy and strong sublateral shoot place, form tree-like and shaping in peach two major branch one center completes substantially.
Also comprise the 3rd year: in major branch, base portion cultivates medium-sized branch group, branch group interval 50 ~ 70cm; Small branch group and unijunction fruit branch are then cultivated in major branch top, small branch group interval 20 ~ 30cm, unijunction fruit branch interval 10 ~ 15cm; The branch pinching that major branch rear end is sprouted controls, and makes it form interim fruit spur, carries out retraction and upgrades, the fruit bearing shoot that medium-sized branch group stays base portion 6 ~ 8 healthy and strong, the fruit bearing shoot that small branch group stays base portion 3 ~ 5 healthy and strong when the winter cuts to fruit-bearing shoot cluster.
The structure of described frame is: frame height 1.9m, build with concrete column, side column horizontal spacing is 4m, longitudinal pitch is 5m, the outer squint of corner post, side column and ground angle at 45 °, capital end iron wire is fixed, surrounding and side column bracing wire No. 8 galvanized wires, side column weaves into 4 × 5m grid between bracing wire with No. 10 galvanized wires, each crosspoint fore-set vertical support to bracing wire in the middle of frame, longitudinally three No. 12 galvanized wires are drawn in every bar fore-set band both sides, and spacing is 0.4m successively, and side column and the distance between corner post and the most contiguous fore-set can be floated according to reality.
Described fore-set length, width and height specification is the concrete column of 2.0m × 0.06m × 0.06m.
Described side column length, width and height specification is the concrete column of 2.7m × 0.1m × 0.1m.
Described corner post length, width and height specification is the concrete column of 3.2m × 0.14m × 0.14m.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: the present invention can control tree soma sexual clorminance, and tree crown is soon shaping, within after general field planting 2 years, can complete Crown Structure and cultivate, and starts to enter the just fruit phase; Meanwhile, the tree crown be trimmed to is not containing secondary scaffold branch, and pruning technique is simple, is easy to grasp, can controls peach garden flower and fruit management working space, save labor, reduce orchard management cost; And ventilation and penetrating light condition is good, fruit regularity is high, and fruit shape is large, quality better, high quality fruit rate more than 90%, is that a kind of novel high-quality, Labor-saving cultivation easily realizing standardized production is tree-like.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the end perspective view of the present invention's one group of frame.
In accompanying drawing, 1 is No. 8 galvanized wires; 2 is No. 10 galvanized wires; 3 is No. 12 galvanized wires; 4 is corner post; 5 is side column; 6 is fore-set.
Embodiment
Below preferred embodiment of the present invention is described in detail, can be easier to make advantages and features of the invention be readily appreciated by one skilled in the art, thus more explicit defining is made to protection scope of the present invention.
The embodiment of the present invention one comprises:
The enforcement time: 2010 ~ 2013
Implement place: white rabbit town, Jurong City of Jiangsu Province Bai Zhishan Ecological Orchard
(1), instantiation is implemented:
Select kind: daybreak, Bai Feng;
(2) implementation method:
Comprise:
(1) field is selected: select soil layer to loosen deep, the soil that the content of organic matter is high.Optimum pH 5.5 ~ 7.5.
(2) frame is built: frame height 1.9m, build with concrete column, corner post 4 length, width and height specification is 3.2m × 0.14m × 0.14m, side column 5 specification is 2.7m × 0.1m × 0.1m, fore-set 6 specification is 2.0m × 0.06m × 0.06m, side column horizontal spacing is 4m, longitudinal pitch is 5m, and corner post 4, side column 5 squint outer with ground angle at 45 °, capital 6 end iron wire is fixed.Surrounding and side column 5 bracing wire No. 8 galvanized wires 1, weave into spacing 4 × 5m grid with No. 10 galvanized wires 2 between side column 5 pairs of bracing wires, each crosspoint fore-set 6 vertical support to bracing wire in the middle of frame.Longitudinally three No. 12 galvanized wires 3 are drawn in every bar fore-set band both sides, and spacing is 0.4m successively.Side column and the distance between corner post and the most contiguous fore-set can be floated according to reality.
(3) dig field planting ditch: do the field planting row that 4m is wide, field planting row excavates the field planting ditch of two stripe pitch 2m, field planting furrow width 60cm ~ 80cm, dark 40cm.First insert 1500kg ~ 2000kg straw or weeds for every mu, after inserting straw or weeds, cover native about the 10cm of table, more every mu is executed organic base manure 2000 ~ 2500kg, the fused calcium magnesium phosphate 50 ~ 75kg such as chicken manure, potassium sulfate compound fertilizer 20 ~ 30kg mixes with soil, fills out while having peace of mind.When banketing to overhead about 5 ~ 10cm, cover subsoil and pile the field planting row higher than face, ridge 10 ~ 15cm.
(4) field planting:
Mid-February, on the field planting row that 4m is wide, field planting two stripe pitch 2m, spacing in the rows were the peach seedling of 5m to early March field planting.Select daybreak, white phoenix nursery stock, require that peach seedling is healthy and strong, branch is healthy and strong, tissue enriches, and degree of lignification is high, and trunk is clear and definite, well developed root system and complete, main root reaches 30cm, has more side root and fibrous root, root system is without splitting, have the bud of complete stalwartness, nursery stock has no mechanical damage, without damage by disease and insect, not dehydration, possesses exuberant vitality.Root system 70% thiophanate methyl wetting powder, 700 times of liquid disinfectants before field planting, stem 3 Baume degrees ~ 5 Baume degrees lime sulfur sterilizations.
Shoot root is placed on field planting row field planting point, nursery stock is held up directly.Root is made in order rear earthing and having peace of mind, usual earthing is under grafting mouth, and trunk stays 3 ~ 4 full bud cutting backs surely to do.Water permeable after, root week uses black plastic mulching, water conservation moisturizing.
(5) irrigate
When water capacity lower than 15% ~ 20% time, must pour water.The method such as pouring, tubule short stream, drip irrigation can be adopted.Watering time mainly the budding period, Fruit and Drought in Autumn time.
(6) pruning
First Year: 3 ~ 4 full buds of selecting and remain after seedling planting are done surely, determines top, cadre position leaf bud and sprouts young sprout Culture Center and do upright growth, until center is dry grow to more than 20cm time, insert the bamboo pole of a vertical ground, will be fixed on bamboo pole; When young sprout grows to about 1.6 meters, by the pinching of young sprout tip, to select and remain 2 vigorous branches or strong bud, being trained two base angles is 30 degree of major branches following back growth, major branch is fixed on horizontal rack when reaching at added, and major branch elongated shoot is lured to cause with frame be that 30 degree lure is drawn on bar, keep major branch elongated shoot absolute predominance.The side shoot that major branch sends stays one every 20cm, and by the both sides tractive of side shoot to major branch, keep major branch has arranged in parallel, vertically the length of stretching in the ranks put fruit bearing shoot.Put major branch head light pruning is long when winter cuts, can not cut the elongated shoot with full terminal bud and cut.
Second Year: the elongated shoot of major branch continues elongation growth, and the branch on major branch utilizes its result as far as possible.Major branch back does not stay bough group, will wipe out or even up to grow to both sides the back branch that major branch sends.Autumn presses down bondage gently to this two major branch and is fixed on flat frame face, and notes on same frame face, and the raw branch group in side and major branch are 90 °.Fruit bearing shoot cutting back when winter cuts on major branch, retains 30 ~ 40cm length after general retraction, and length on major branch is greater than 70cm, band sublateral shoot water sprout and be less than the branch on the weak side of 30cm, sick branch all removes; Major branch elongated shoot taperingness is little, puts, can not cut and cut, remove major branch elongated shoot competitive branch to the elongated shoot with full terminal bud major branch head light pruning is long; What major branch elongated shoot taperingness was large is compressed to healthy and strong sublateral shoot place.Form tree-like and shaping in peach two major branch one center completes substantially.
3rd year: in major branch, base portion cultivates medium-sized branch group, branch group interval 50 ~ 70cm; Small branch group and unijunction fruit branch are then cultivated in major branch top, small branch group interval 20 ~ 30cm, unijunction fruit branch interval 10 ~ 15cm; The branch pinching that major branch rear end is sprouted controls, and makes it form interim fruit spur.Carry out retraction to fruit-bearing shoot cluster when winter cuts to upgrade, the fruit bearing shoot that medium-sized branch group stays base portion 6 ~ 8 healthy and strong, the fruit bearing shoot that small branch group stays base portion 3 ~ 5 healthy and strong.
(7) fruit thinning
After full-bloom stage between 5 ~ 15 days, remove give birth to intensive, hypogenetic fruit.After Sheng is spent, 25 ~ 35 are preordained really, mainly remove the not good fruitlet of setting fruit position, sick fruit, wormed fruit, malformed fruit, mechanical damage fruit.General long fruit branch stays fruit 2; Medium fruit branch stays fruit 1; Fruit spur stays 1 or do not stay.
(8) bagging
Bagging has good effect to steady production, raising fruit marketability.After fruit thinning terminates, before bagging, with an insecticidal bactericide, in mid or late May bagging, adopt white paper bag or the white paper bag with printed words or decorative pattern.
(9) gather
Appropriate to the occasion gently adopting of gathering is put down gently, lives fruit slightly reverse with hand rest, takes along above fruit branch side.Fruit will be gathered according to mature condition in batches.Fruit picking bamboo, cane basket or plastic crate, basket or plastic crate should not be excessive, pad the piece of sack or blank sheet of paper in basket or plastic crate.Fruit puts 1 ~ 2 layer in basket or plastic crate.
(10) extermination of disease and insect pest
The disease of harm peach mainly contains leaf-curl, Bacterial septicaemia syndrome, peach brown rot, shot hole, anthracnose etc.; Major Pests has: aphid, dichocrocis punctiferalis, oriental fruit moth, scale insect, two spotted spider mite, chafer, eating attraction, pink neck longicorn etc.These sick worms are adopted to the method for integrated control, Qing Gengquan in winter garden, in season of growth garden, Sod culture increases natural enemy quantity.Spray with the lime sulfur of 3 ~ 5 degree before early and middle ten days rudiment in March, Zhan Yehou 20% Yekuzuo 1000 extraordinarily 70% thiophanate methyl 600 extraordinarily 10% Imidacloprid, 2000 times of liquid mixing sprayings, prevent and treat leaf-curl, Bacterial septicaemia syndrome and aphid.Young fruit expanding stage with 10% generation high 2000 times or 40% lucky star, 6000 times of liquid add 4.5% beta-cypermethrin 1000 times or 48% these 1000 times of liquid happy used in combination, sprayed once every 10 ~ 15 days, the sick worm harm of basic controlling.
(11) soil amelioration techniques
In order to obtain high grade producing, need improve soil, increasing soil fertility.Ditching-fertilizing improvement soil year by year, after field planting every year in conjunction with autumn basal dressing in field planting ditch both sides year by year rotation turn over to extending out ditch depth, in ditch, layering mixing applies the organic substances such as straw, fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer, and mu executes straw 1500kg, fertilizer 1000 ~ 1500kg, fused calcium magnesium phosphate 50 ~ 60kg, potassium sulfate 15 ~ 20kg.By excavation fertilising, create adapt circumstance to root growth, the shoot growth of plant is healthy and strong, and blade face assimilation is strengthened, and is conducive to the raising of flower_bud formation and output.
(3) implementation result
The conventional cultivation i.e. peach of three major branch natural opening cardioid (seeding row spacing is 5 × 5m) is compared.Table 1 is found out, there are more significant difference in the peach of this planting type cultivation and the peach phenophase of conventional cultivation, and the peach phenophase of this cultivation method is slightly early than routine.
Table 1: peach phenophase application form
As shown in Table 2, the peach cultivated under this cultivation method is at single fruit weight, output and soluble solid content apparently higher than routine, and this cultivation method fully effectively can utilize luminous energy as seen, promotes plant nutrition and reproduction balanced growth.
Table 2: habit of growth information slip
The foregoing is only embodiments of the invention; not thereby the scope of the claims of the present invention is limited; every utilize description of the present invention to do equivalent structure or equivalent flow process conversion; or be directly or indirectly used in other relevant technical fields, be all in like manner included in scope of patent protection of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. a single trunk two major branch peach form culture method, is characterized in that comprising the following steps:
First Year: 3 ~ 4 full buds of selecting and remain after seedling planting are done surely, is trained center does determining top, cadre position axillary bud sprouting young sprout, make center do upright growth, until center is dry grow to more than 20cm time, insert the bamboo pole of a vertical ground, be fixed on bamboo pole, when young sprout grows to about 1.6 meters, by the pinching of young sprout tip, to select and remain 2 vigorous branches or strong bud, being trained two base angles is 30 degree of major branches following back growth, major branch is fixed on horizontal rack when reaching at added, and major branch elongated shoot is lured to cause with frame be that 30 degree lure is drawn on bar, keep major branch elongated shoot absolute predominance, the side shoot that major branch sends stays one every 20cm, and by the both sides tractive of side shoot to major branch, maintenance major branch have arranged in parallel, the length of vertically stretching in the ranks puts fruit bearing shoot, put major branch head light pruning is long when winter cuts, the elongated shoot with full terminal bud is not cut and cuts,
Second Year: the elongated shoot of major branch continues elongation growth, utilize the branch result on major branch, major branch back does not stay bough group, the back branch that major branch sends to be wiped out or be evened up and grow to both sides, pressing down bondage gently to this two major branch autumn is fixed on flat frame face, and note on same frame face, the raw branch group in side and major branch are 90 °, fruit bearing shoot cutting back when winter cuts on major branch, retain 30 ~ 40cm length after retraction, and length on major branch is greater than 70cm, band sublateral shoot water sprout and be less than the branch on the weak side of 30cm, sick branch all removes; Major branch elongated shoot taperingness is little, puts, can not cut and cut, remove major branch elongated shoot competitive branch to the elongated shoot with full terminal bud major branch head light pruning is long; What major branch elongated shoot taperingness was large be compressed to healthy and strong sublateral shoot place, form tree-like and shaping in peach two major branch one center completes substantially;
3rd year: in major branch, base portion cultivates medium-sized branch group, branch group interval 50 ~ 70cm; Small branch group and unijunction fruit branch are then cultivated in major branch top, small branch group interval 20 ~ 30cm, unijunction fruit branch interval 10 ~ 15cm; The branch pinching that major branch rear end is sprouted controls, and makes it form interim fruit spur, carries out retraction and upgrades, the fruit bearing shoot that medium-sized branch group stays base portion 6 ~ 8 healthy and strong, the fruit bearing shoot that small branch group stays base portion 3 ~ 5 healthy and strong when the winter cuts to fruit-bearing shoot cluster;
The structure of described frame is: frame height 1.9m, build with concrete column, side column horizontal spacing is 4m, longitudinal pitch is 5m, the outer squint of corner post, side column and ground angle at 45 °, capital end iron wire is fixed, surrounding and side column bracing wire No. 8 galvanized wires, side column weaves into 4m × 5m grid between bracing wire with No. 10 galvanized wires, each crosspoint fore-set vertical support to bracing wire in the middle of frame, longitudinally three No. 12 galvanized wires are drawn in every bar fore-set band both sides, and spacing is 0.4m successively, and side column and the distance between corner post and the most contiguous fore-set are floated according to reality.
2. single trunk two major branch peach form culture method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described fore-set is the concrete column of 2.0m × 0.06m × 0.06m.
3. single trunk two major branch peach form culture method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described side column length, width and height specification is the concrete column of 2.7m × 0.1m × 0.1m.
4. single trunk two major branch peach form culture method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described corner post length, width and height specification is the concrete column of 3.2m × 0.14m × 0.14m.
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