CN103718802A - High-yield cotton cultivation method under condition of jujube-cotton intercropping - Google Patents

High-yield cotton cultivation method under condition of jujube-cotton intercropping Download PDF

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CN103718802A
CN103718802A CN201310716588.6A CN201310716588A CN103718802A CN 103718802 A CN103718802 A CN 103718802A CN 201310716588 A CN201310716588 A CN 201310716588A CN 103718802 A CN103718802 A CN 103718802A
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cotton
time
control
water
winter
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CN103718802B (en
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徐文修
赵强
张巨松
李大平
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Xinjiang Agricultural University
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Xinjiang Agricultural University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a high-yield cotton cultivation method. The high-yield cotton cultivation method includes the steps: using a constant value mode of 1.5m X 4m and 3m X 4m as spacing in the rows and spacing between rows of fruit trees in jujube-cotton intercropping; before cotton seeding, topdressing and irrigating for the first time on the last twenty days of March, implementing autumn ploughing and winter irrigation, and completing fertilization, land preparation and weed control before autumn ploughing; selecting high-quality seeds, and starting to seed on April 1st and April 5th , wherein seeding depth is 2-3cm, seeding rate is 60-75kg/hm2, 2-3 seeds are sown in each hole, and earthing depth is 1.0-1.5cm; starting final singling when one true leaf appears, intertilling timely, using mepiquat chloride 9 to control the plant height within a range of 65-70cm, and subjecting cotton to topdressing, irrigation, topping and collection; preventing pests such as tetranychus, aphid, thrips and cotton bollworm in jujube-cotton intercropping cropland. By means of the high-yield cotton cultivation method, land utilization rate is fully increased, adverse impact of jujubes on cotton intercropped with the jujubes is lessened, yield of intercropped cotton is maintained and improved, high yield and high efficiency of the cropland can be achieved finally, and consequently income increase is facilitated for farmers.

Description

Cotton high yield growing method under the cotton Intercropping of a kind of jujube
Technical field
The invention belongs to proportion of crop planting technical field, relate in particular to a kind of cultivation method of cotton yield.
Background technology
Xinjiang has advantageous photo-thermal resource, since ancient times, all kinds of fruit in Xinjiang are just enjoyed great prestige both at home and abroad, certainly enter after 21 century, after particularly autonomous region in 2003 quickening South Sinkiang rural economic development working conference is held, party committee of autonomous region clearly proposes to adhere to the standardization of woods fruit product, production regularization, management style industrialization, " Four Modernizations " principle of producer's more educated (specialization), builds up industry of planting forest or fruit tress the pillar industry of rural economic development, and at present, Xinjiang woods fruit cultivated area, every year with 1,000,000 mu of speed increases, has formed South Sinkiang Xinjiang's Tarim Basin with red date, walnut, apricot, bergamot pear, apple is main woods fruit main producing region, tells and breathes out basin, Ili River Valley, Northern Slope of Tianshan Mountains is with grape, red date, matrimony vine, fruit in season, facility woods is really main efficient woods fruit base, full boundary has been realized the Rapid Expansion of woods fruit construction of base scale, within 2012, the Xinjiang total cultivated area of woods fruit has reached 133.3 ten thousand hectares, wherein, red date cultivated area reaches 350,000 hectares, occupy the 3rd, the whole nation, apricot area ranks first in the country, and has begun to take shape Xinjiang's Tarim Basin advantage woods fruit main producing region, South Sinkiang, tell and breathe out high-quality and efficient woods fruit base, basin, Ili River Valley and Northern Slope of Tianshan Mountains characteristic forest and fruit band, within 2011, Xinjiang fruit gross yield surpasses 6,700,000 tons, and the gross output value breaks through 24,000,000,000 yuan, along with the fast development of autonomous region's characteristic industry of planting forest or fruit tress, fruit tree-crop interplanting solid growth pattern is also arisen at the historic moment, and wherein the cotton interplanting mode of fruit has become Aksu, Keshen, with one of important cropping pattern in the area such as field.
Jujube tree is developed rapidly in the Xinjiang's Tarim Basin advantage industry of planting forest or fruit tress of South Sinkiang, 2009 Annual planting areas have reached 28.7 ten thousand hectares, under the non-planting culture condition of jujube tree, the cotton interplanting mode of jujube has become one of important model of local red date development, the first three years jujube tree tree crown of jujube tree plantation is little, exposed land area is large, and it is less that intercropping cotton is affected by sheltering from heat or light of jujube tree.
Along with the difference increase of the jujube tree age of tree, jujube tree is also increasing to the adverse effect of intercropping cotton, has affected the growth of cotton, is unfavorable for keeping and improving the output of intercropping cotton.
Summary of the invention
The object of the embodiment of the present invention is to provide a kind of cultivation method of cotton yield, and the difference that is intended to solve along with the jujube tree age of tree increases, and has affected the growth of cotton, is unfavorable for keeping and improving the problem of the output of intercropping cotton.
The embodiment of the present invention is achieved in that a kind of cultivation method of cotton yield, and the cultivation method of this cotton yield comprises the following steps:
Step 1, the fruit tree seeding row spacing of the cotton intercropping of jujube adopts the deterministic model of 1.5m * 4m, 3m * 4m;
Step 2, before sowing cotton seed, mid or late March, fruit tree is topdressed and pours water for the first time, carries out autumn ploughing winter irrigation, implements fertilising, expropriation of land, weeding before autumn ploughing;
Step 3, chooses high-quality breeding, and start broadcasting 1-April 5 April, seed level 2-3cm, the amount of broadcasting 60-75kg/hm 2, every cave 2-3 grain of sowing, earthing 1.0-1.5cm;
Step 4, starts final singling while there is a slice true leaf, intertillage is in time used mepiquat chloride 9 to control plant height at 65-70cm, and cotton is topdressed, irrigates, pinched and receives flower;
Step 5, carries out the control of damage by disease and insect to the tetranychid in the farmland of jujube tree intercropping cotton, aphid, thrips, cotton bollworm.
Further, in step 1, the fruit tree seeding row spacing of the cotton intercropping of jujube adopts the deterministic model of 1.5m * 4m, 3m * 4m substantially, the jujube tree row both sides low ridge of having ditched, jujube tree ditch width 80cm-100cm, the high 15cm in ridge, the distance 80-100cm of jujube tree and limit row cotton, jujube tree in the ranks cotton adopts 1.4m film, every film is planted 4 row cottons, cotton wide-and narrow-row configuration [(30+40+30)+50cm] * 12cm, and jujube tree can be laid two width films in the ranks, plant 8 row cottons, per hectare strain number is 22.2 ten thousand strains.
Further, jujube tree in the ranks cotton can also adopt the wide film of 2.3m, plants the cotton of a width film between fruit tree, and film 8 row, are configured to: [(15+45+15+50+15+45+15)+30] cm * 10cm, per hectare strain number is 30.8 strains.
Further, in step 2, Autumn deep ploughing should be greater than 20cm, winter irrigation in time after ploughing, and fruit tree must complete winter irrigation before October 20; Before starting the year's ploughing per hectare execute that 45 tons of farmyard manures are above, dregs of fat 750kg, according to fertilization compositions based on earth measurement: the 50%-60% of available nitrogenous fertilizer total amount, phosphate fertilizer and all potash fertilizer, be urea 300-450kg, phosphoric acid diamines 300-375kg, potassium sulfate 75-120kg, as base manure, plough deeply, carry out whole layer placement of fertilizer, before plough, fertilizer is evenly sprinkled in ground, machinery is ploughed deeply, or more than ploughing deeply 20cm after evenly applying with deep fertilizer spraying machine or drilling machine.
Further, in step 2,2250-2700g/hm is mended in the field of executing that is 33% with content before sowing cotton seed 2or 48% trefanocide 1200-1800g/hm 2, 50% Acetochlor 1500-1800g/hm 2, be watered 600-750kg even spraying, harrow in time a kind of farm tools and sneak into upper soll layer, to sow after during the soil 48h that processes with trefanocide, other can be sowed after spraying, and will avoid fruit tree ditch and fruit tree dry while spraying various medicament as far as possible, prevents fruit tree to produce poisoning.
Further, in step 3, select high-quality breeding, the quality requirement of seed is that purity is not less than 97%, cleanliness is not less than 99%, germination rate is not less than 85%, moisture is less than 12%, good seed rate is not less than 95% capsuled seed, choose middle cotton 49 or new land in 26; When under film, 5cm soil temperature is stablized by 12 ℃, can sow, best 5 days-April 15 April in sowing time, after rain, will break in time alkali shell helps seedling to be unearthed, after emerging when cotyledon turns green by Huang, by the timely rupture of membranes of set spacing in the rows, put seedling, cotton plant stem aperture is tight with grave, rotten kind of plot and 50cm is short of seedling, reseed in time with soaked cotton seed on disconnected ridge.
Further, in step 4, intertill seedling stage three times, for the first time at cotyledon period, shallow plowing 5-8cm; Intertill for the second time in conjunction with final singling, the degree of depth can reach 10cm; Intertill for the third time before buddingging, the degree of depth reaches 15cm;
Cotton seedling 4 leaves wholeheartedly time, are used mepiquat chloride 7.5-15g/hm 2light tune; Before water, use mepiquat chloride 15-22.5g/hm 2change control, assurance cotton plant is steadily and surely grown, and reduces and comes off and empty fruit branch; Before and after two water, use mepiquat chloride 45-75g/hm 2change control, when fruit number of units reaches 8-10 platform, manually pinch immediately, 8-10 days after pinching, uses mepiquat chloride 90-120g/hm 2change control, plant height is controlled to 65-70cm;
Topdress, late May, fruit tree, in blooming early stage, should be topdressed and pour water for the second time, in conjunction with applying fruit trees with fertilizer simultaneously, sprays foliage fertilizer 2-3 time, and mid-July is to mid-August, visual Cotton growth foliage-spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate 3-4 time, and consumption is every 3-4kg/hm at every turn 2; Topdress and can before a water, execute urea 150kg/hm for the first time in field 2, in conjunction with the deep placement of pouring water of ditching, secondary imposes visual Cotton growth to carry out in conjunction with two water or three water, executes urea 75-120kg/hm 2, the time is no more than July 15;
Irrigate, a cotton water is after mid-June, cotton two water carry out separately for 10 days after a water, the three water times of cotton can carry out in conjunction with the soil texture, weather, Cotton growth concrete condition and jujube tree simultaneously, or suitably delay separately and pour water, late August to early September increases and pours water for 1-2 time according to cotton soil moisture content, but must cut off the water by the end of September;
Topping Time is to finish before 5-July 15 July, and after pinching, to early August, artificial pruning in time, beats Lao Ye, wipes out sky fruit branch;
Receive flower and start to gather in late September or early October, the Shi Yaofen that gathers plucks, divides solarization, partite transport, minute bundle, minute storage; Take to take off film before a water, receipts are picked up clean residual film on the field after spending, and focus on, and residual film are not placed on by the lateral of field, prevent secondary pollution.
Further, in step 5, the method for the extermination of disease and insect pest is:
Scrape bark winter, by the bark on trunk and skeleton branch, stick up skin and all wipe off, force down the insect density of surviving the winter of two spotted spider mite insect;
When the existing cotyledon of cotton launches, use immediately 1000 times of liquid per hectare 450-600kg of flolimat, spray medicine in case cotton thrips;
Cotten aphid control: the one, autumn ploughing winter irrigation; The 2nd, concentrate flowers, green house are prevented and treated on a large scale winter, the elimination aphid source of surviving the winter, reduce hibernating base, green house carries out medicament fumigating with dichlorvos preparation and aerosol, flowers buriing iron goes out gram, Furadan granular preparation, outdoor host is as pomegranate tree, Chinese pricklyash plant-spraying flolimat, the clean chemical control of aphid lice, the 3rd, early investigation, carry out center strain, centre slice control, find aphid strain, with 1:5-10 times of liquid stem brush of flolimat systemic insecticide, find that a strain has cotten aphid in time, be applied to center 1-2m 2, with discovery one strain, control a circle, find a bit to control a slice control diffusion, cotten aphid is controlled to the spot film stage;
The control of cotton tetranychid, before winter, removed weed in cotton field, turn over wholely, irrigate winter, to reduce the worm amount of surviving the winter, early spring, channel, forest belt, edge of a field rand were were early prevented and treated, practicable cotton field control point, control strain when cotton tetranychid occurs, coordinate to use cultural control, biological control and chemical control method for integrated control, cotton spider mites is eliminated before by the end of June, avoid cotton to be injured;
Cotton bollworm control, to put prevention first, integrated control prevents and treats in time, carry out autumn ploughing winter irrigation, the insect population radix of surviving the winter, except pupa, is forced down in the shovel ridge, at the capable cotton field of cotton field plantation 4-6, lure collection cotton bollworm to lay eggs on corn, and carry out in time drug treating, to reduce cotton field harm, in cotton field, settle frequency ventilating type insecticidal lamp, according to prediction, the moth appearance initial stage moth of going out of regularly turning on light, according to the cotton bollworm extent of injury, can rotation use the control of spraying of BT emulsion, match red 2000 times of liquid, chrysanthemum lipid chemical agents.
The cultivation method of cotton yield provided by the invention, adopts the deterministic model of 1.5m * 4m, 3m * 4m by the fruit tree seeding row spacing of the cotton intercropping of jujube; Before sowing cotton seed, mid or late March, fruit tree is topdressed and pours water for the first time, carries out autumn ploughing winter irrigation, implements fertilising, expropriation of land, weeding before autumn ploughing; Choose high-quality breeding, start broadcasting 1-April 5 April, seed level 2-3cm, the amount of broadcasting 60-75kg/hm 2, every cave 2-3 grain of sowing, earthing 1.0-1.5cm; While there is a slice true leaf, start final singling, intertillage in time, is used mepiquat chloride 9 to control plant height at 65-70cm, and cotton is topdressed, irrigates, pinched and receives flower; The tetranychid in the farmland of jujube tree intercropping cotton, aphid, thrips, cotton bollworm are carried out to the control of damage by disease and insect; The present invention has fully improved land utilization rate, reduce the adverse effect of jujube tree to intercropping cotton, kept and improved the output of intercropping cotton, finally obtained the high-yield and high-efficiency in farmland, promote increasing peasant income, according to achievement in research and the local reality of producing of combination in recent years.The present invention has formed the high-yield culture technique that adapts to the cotton intercropping solid growth of jujube cotton, for obtaining cotton yield under the cotton intercropping vertical cultivation of jujube condition, efficiently provides technical basis.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the flow chart of the cultivation method of the cotton yield that provides of the embodiment of the present invention.
Embodiment
In order to make object of the present invention, technical scheme and advantage clearer, below in conjunction with embodiment, the present invention is further elaborated.Should be appreciated that specific embodiment described herein, only in order to explain the present invention, is not intended to limit the present invention.
Fig. 1 shows the cultivation method flow process of cotton yield provided by the invention.For convenience of explanation, only show part related to the present invention.
The cultivation method of the cotton yield of the embodiment of the present invention, the cultivation method of this cotton yield comprises the following steps:
Step 1, the fruit tree seeding row spacing of the cotton intercropping of jujube adopts the deterministic model of 1.5m * 4m, 3m * 4m;
Step 2, before sowing cotton seed, mid or late March, fruit tree is topdressed and pours water for the first time, carries out autumn ploughing winter irrigation, implements fertilising, expropriation of land, weeding before autumn ploughing;
Step 3, chooses high-quality breeding, and start broadcasting 1-April 5 April, seed level 2-3cm, the amount of broadcasting 60-75kg/hm 2, every cave 2-3 grain of sowing, earthing 1.0-1.5cm;
Step 4, starts final singling while there is a slice true leaf, intertillage is in time used mepiquat chloride 9 to control plant height at 65-70cm, and cotton is topdressed, irrigates, pinched and receives flower;
Step 5, carries out the control of damage by disease and insect to the tetranychid in the farmland of jujube tree intercropping cotton, aphid, thrips, cotton bollworm.
A prioritization scheme as the embodiment of the present invention, in step 1, the fruit tree seeding row spacing of the cotton intercropping of jujube adopts the deterministic model of 1.5m * 4m, 3m * 4m substantially, the jujube tree row both sides low ridge of having ditched, jujube tree ditch width 80cm-100cm, the high 15cm in ridge, the distance 80-100cm of jujube tree and limit row cotton, jujube tree in the ranks cotton adopts 1.4m film, every film is planted 4 row cottons, cotton wide-and narrow-row configuration [(30+40+30)+50cm] * 12cm, and jujube tree can be laid two width films in the ranks, plant 8 row cottons, per hectare strain number is 22.2 ten thousand strains.
A prioritization scheme as the embodiment of the present invention, jujube tree in the ranks cotton can also adopt the wide film of 2.3m, plants the cotton of a width film, film 8 row between fruit tree, be configured to: [(15+45+15+50+15+45+15)+30] cm * 10cm, per hectare strain number is 30.8 strains.
As a prioritization scheme of the embodiment of the present invention, in step 2, Autumn deep ploughing should be greater than 20cm, winter irrigation in time after ploughing, and fruit tree must complete winter irrigation before October 20; Before starting the year's ploughing per hectare execute that 45 tons of farmyard manures are above, dregs of fat 750kg, according to fertilization compositions based on earth measurement: the 50%-60% of available nitrogenous fertilizer total amount, phosphate fertilizer and all potash fertilizer, be urea 300-450kg, phosphoric acid diamines 300-375kg, potassium sulfate 75-120kg, as base manure, plough deeply, carry out whole layer placement of fertilizer, before plough, fertilizer is evenly sprinkled in ground, machinery is ploughed deeply, or more than ploughing deeply 20cm after evenly applying with deep fertilizer spraying machine or drilling machine.
As a prioritization scheme of the embodiment of the present invention, in step 2,2250-2700g/hm is mended in the field of executing that is 33% with content before sowing cotton seed 2or 48% trefanocide 1200-1800g/hm 2, 50% Acetochlor 1500-1800g/hm 2, be watered 600-750kg even spraying, harrow in time a kind of farm tools and sneak into upper soll layer, to sow after during the soil 48h that processes with trefanocide, other can be sowed after spraying, and will avoid fruit tree ditch and fruit tree dry while spraying various medicament as far as possible, prevents fruit tree to produce poisoning.
A prioritization scheme as the embodiment of the present invention, in step 3, select high-quality breeding, the quality requirement of seed is that purity is not less than 97%, cleanliness is not less than 99%, germination rate is not less than 85%, moisture is less than 12%, good seed rate is not less than 95% capsuled seed, choose middle cotton 49 or new land in 26; When under film, 5cm soil temperature is stablized by 12 ℃, can sow, best 5 days-April 15 April in sowing time, after rain, will break in time alkali shell helps seedling to be unearthed, after emerging when cotyledon turns green by Huang, by the timely rupture of membranes of set spacing in the rows, put seedling, cotton plant stem aperture is tight with grave, rotten kind of plot and 50cm is short of seedling, reseed in time with soaked cotton seed on disconnected ridge.
As a prioritization scheme of the embodiment of the present invention, in step 4, intertill seedling stage three times, for the first time at cotyledon period, shallow plowing 5-8cm; Intertill for the second time in conjunction with final singling, the degree of depth can reach 10cm; Intertill for the third time before buddingging, the degree of depth reaches 15cm;
Cotton seedling 4 leaves wholeheartedly time, are used mepiquat chloride 7.5-15g/hm 2light tune; Before water, use mepiquat chloride 15-22.5g/hm 2change control, assurance cotton plant is steadily and surely grown, and reduces and comes off and empty fruit branch; Before and after two water, use mepiquat chloride 45-75g/hm 2change control, when fruit number of units reaches 8-10 platform, manually pinch immediately, 8-10 days after pinching, uses mepiquat chloride 90-120g/hm 2change control, plant height is controlled to 65-70cm;
Topdress, late May, fruit tree, in blooming early stage, should be topdressed and pour water for the second time, in conjunction with applying fruit trees with fertilizer simultaneously, sprays foliage fertilizer 2-3 time, and mid-July is to mid-August, visual Cotton growth foliage-spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate 3-4 time, and consumption is every 3-4kg/hm at every turn 2; Topdress and can before a water, execute urea 150kg/hm for the first time in field 2, in conjunction with the deep placement of pouring water of ditching, secondary imposes visual Cotton growth to carry out in conjunction with two water or three water, executes urea 75-120kg/hm 2, the time is no more than July 15;
Irrigate, a cotton water is after mid-June, cotton two water carry out separately for 10 days after a water, the three water times of cotton can carry out in conjunction with the soil texture, weather, Cotton growth concrete condition and jujube tree simultaneously, or suitably delay separately and pour water, late August to early September increases and pours water for 1-2 time according to cotton soil moisture content, but must cut off the water by the end of September;
Topping Time is to finish before 5-July 15 July, and after pinching, to early August, artificial pruning in time, beats Lao Ye, wipes out sky fruit branch;
Receive flower and start to gather in late September or early October, the Shi Yaofen that gathers plucks, divides solarization, partite transport, minute bundle, minute storage; Take to take off film before a water, receipts are picked up clean residual film on the field after spending, and focus on, and residual film are not placed on by the lateral of field, prevent secondary pollution.
As a prioritization scheme of the embodiment of the present invention, in step 5, the method for the extermination of disease and insect pest is:
Scrape bark winter, by the bark on trunk and skeleton branch, stick up skin and all wipe off, force down the insect density of surviving the winter of two spotted spider mite insect;
When the existing cotyledon of cotton launches, use immediately 1000 times of liquid per hectare 450-600kg of flolimat, spray medicine in case cotton thrips;
Cotten aphid control: the one, autumn ploughing winter irrigation; The 2nd, concentrate flowers, green house are prevented and treated on a large scale winter, the elimination aphid source of surviving the winter, reduce hibernating base, green house carries out medicament fumigating with dichlorvos preparation and aerosol, flowers buriing iron goes out gram, Furadan granular preparation, outdoor host is as pomegranate tree, Chinese pricklyash plant-spraying flolimat, the clean chemical control of aphid lice, the 3rd, early investigation, carry out center strain, centre slice control, find aphid strain, with 1:5-10 times of liquid stem brush of flolimat systemic insecticide, find that a strain has cotten aphid in time, be applied to center 1-2m 2, with discovery one strain, control a circle, find a bit to control a slice control diffusion, cotten aphid is controlled to the spot film stage;
The control of cotton tetranychid, before winter, removed weed in cotton field, turn over wholely, irrigate winter, to reduce the worm amount of surviving the winter, early spring, channel, forest belt, edge of a field rand were were early prevented and treated, practicable cotton field control point, control strain when cotton tetranychid occurs, coordinate to use cultural control, biological control and chemical control method for integrated control, cotton spider mites is eliminated before by the end of June, avoid cotton to be injured;
Cotton bollworm control, to put prevention first, integrated control prevents and treats in time, carry out autumn ploughing winter irrigation, the insect population radix of surviving the winter, except pupa, is forced down in the shovel ridge, at the capable cotton field of cotton field plantation 4-6, lure collection cotton bollworm to lay eggs on corn, and carry out in time drug treating, to reduce cotton field harm, in cotton field, settle frequency ventilating type insecticidal lamp, according to prediction, the moth appearance initial stage moth of going out of regularly turning on light, according to the cotton bollworm extent of injury, can rotation use the control of spraying of BT emulsion, match red 2000 times of liquid, chrysanthemum lipid chemical agents.
Below in conjunction with drawings and the specific embodiments, application principle of the present invention is further described.
As shown in Figure 1, the cultivation method of the cotton yield of the embodiment of the present invention comprises the following steps:
S101: the fruit tree seeding row spacing of the cotton intercropping of jujube adopts the deterministic model of 1.5m * 4m, 3m * 4m substantially;
S102: before sowing cotton seed, mid or late March, fruit tree is topdressed and pours water for the first time, carries out autumn ploughing winter irrigation, implements fertilising, expropriation of land, weeding before autumn ploughing;
S103: choose high-quality breeding, start broadcasting 1-April 5 April, seed level 2-3cm, the amount of broadcasting 60-75kg/hm 2, every cave 2-3 grain of sowing, earthing 1.0-1.5cm;
S104: start final singling while there is a slice true leaf, intertillage in time, is used mepiquat chloride 9 to control plant height at 65-70cm, and cotton is topdressed, irrigates, pinched and receives flower;
S105: the tetranychid in the farmland of jujube tree intercropping cotton, aphid, thrips, cotton bollworm are carried out to the control of damage by disease and insect.
Concrete steps of the present invention are:
The first step, the fruit tree seeding row spacing of the cotton intercropping of jujube adopts 1.5m * 4m substantially, the deterministic models such as 3m * 4m, the jujube tree row both sides low ridge of having ditched, bottom of trench keeps level, being convenient to jujube tree irrigates, the suitable width 80cm-100cm of jujube tree ditch, the high 15cm in ridge, distance (spacing) 80-100cm of jujube tree and limit row cotton, favourable mechanically actuated, do not affect the normal growth of jujube tree and cotton, reduce the competition of root system to liquid manure, jujube tree in the ranks cotton can adopt the film of different wide cuts, adopt 1.4m film, every film is planted 4 row cottons, cotton wide-and narrow-row configuration [(30+40+30)+50cm] * 12cm, jujube tree can be laid two width films in the ranks, plant 8 row cottons, the theoretical strain number of per hectare reaches 22.2 ten thousand strains, or the wide film of employing 2.3m, between fruit tree, plant the cotton of a width film, one film 8 row, be configured to: [(15+45+15+50+15+45+15)+30] cm * 10cm, the theoretical strain number of per hectare reaches 30.8 strains,
Second step, broadcasts front preparation
1, autumn ploughing winter irrigation
The orchard of intercropping cotton all needs to carry out autumn ploughing winter irrigation, more than Autumn deep ploughing should reach 20cm, and winter irrigation in time after ploughing, fruit tree must complete winter irrigation before October 20, cotton field winter irrigation can be carried out simultaneously or suitably delay according to the cotton situation of gathering, and in good time whole ground, carries out residual membrane removal work during whole ground;
2, spring, fruit tree was poured water for the first time, mid or late March, fruit tree pour water (water of sprouting) that topdresses for the first time, must trench digging, along pouring water in ditch, while pouring water, if in the ranks cotton wait to broadcast ground soil moisture content poor, can carry out spring irrigation to it, be difficult for too much, otherwise impact sowing cotton seed subsequently, fruit tree will be strictly on guard against and metal run out and flood irrigation between Irrigation Period for the first time, otherwise can have a strong impact on cotton, emerges and grows;
3, use sufficient base manure
Before starting the year's ploughing per hectare execute that 45 tons of farmyard manures are above, dregs of fat 750kg, according to fertilization compositions based on earth measurement: the 50%-60% of available nitrogenous fertilizer total amount, phosphate fertilizer and all potash fertilizer (being urea 300-450kg, phosphoric acid diamines 300-375kg, potassium sulfate 75-120kg) are ploughed deeply as base manure, carry out whole layer placement of fertilizer, before plough, fertilizer is evenly sprinkled in ground, machinery is ploughed deeply, or more than ploughing deeply 20cm after evenly applying with deep fertilizer spraying machine or drilling machine, during fertilising both otherwise injure fruit tree, making great efforts again to improve whole geological measuring, is to broadcast full stand to create conditions;
4, chemical weed control
2250-2700g/hm is mended in the field of executing that is 33% with content before sowing cotton seed 2or 48% trefanocide 1200-1800g/hm 2, 50% Acetochlor 1500-1800g/hm 2, be watered 600-750kg even spraying, harrow in time a kind of farm tools and sneak into upper soll layer, to sow after during the soil 48h that processes with trefanocide, other can be sowed after spraying, and will avoid fruit tree ditch and fruit tree dry while spraying various medicament as far as possible, prevents fruit tree to produce poisoning;
5, seedbed preparation
A kind of farm tools soil moisture conservation is harrowed on the ground of ploughing immediately, prevents Topsoil water evaporation, and seedbed preparation quality reaches " moisture in the soil, broken, clean, loose, neat, flat " standard;
The 3rd step, sowing is to the management of emerging
1, seed selection and seed treatment
Select high-quality breeding, breeding is the basis of high yield, according to field trial and production practices, can select plant type compact, precocious, disease-resistant, resistance to the moon, high yield kind, main adapted varieties has in middle cotton 49, new land 26, and the quality requirement of seed is the capsuled seed of purity >=97%, cleanliness >=99%, germination rate >=85%, moisture < 12%, good seed rate >=95%;
2, the sowing time
When under film, 5cm soil temperature is stablized by 12 ℃, can sow, start broadcasting general 1-April 5 April, best 5 days-April 15 April in sowing time, now fruit tree is in the budding period, can be according to suitably sowing in advance of meteorological condition then, in order to cotton ripen in advance, but to note preventing diastrous weather in early spring;
3, seeding quality
Seed level 2-3cm, the amount of broadcasting 60-75kg/hm 2, every cave 2-3 grain of sowing, earthing 1.0-1.5cm, keep seed level consistent, broadcast that row end is straight, line-spacing is accurate, seeding down is even, earthing is good, press mold is tight, rand not broadcast leakage of ditch, do not leak cave, strive reaching and broadcast full stand;
4, help seedling to be unearthed, put seedling and reseed
After rain, will break in time alkali shell helps seedling to be unearthed, after emerging when cotyledon turns green by Huang, by the timely rupture of membranes of set spacing in the rows, put seedling, cotton plant stem aperture is tight with grave, near if any cold current, strong wind, postpone and putting the seedling time, face before emerging and check and germinate and rotten kind of situation in time, rotten kind of plot and 50cm is short of seedling, reseed in time with soaked cotton seed on disconnected ridge, guarantees full stand;
The 4th step, field management
1, early final singling
While there is a slice true leaf, start final singling, during two true leaves, finish the seedlings of selecting and remain, strong sprout, the seedling of preventing or cure a disease, weak seedling; Train " protecting neck soil ", do not stay two strains, 21-24 ten thousand strains/hm is counted in the strain of keeping a full stand of seedings 2;
2, intertill and clean tillage
Intertillage in time can preserve soil moisture in temperature raising, promotes that supporting root early goes out, and improves Resistance of Seedling, reduces damage by disease and insect and occurs, and generally intertills seedling stage more than three times, and for the first time at cotyledon period, 5-8cm ploughs shallowly; Intertill for the second time in conjunction with final singling, the degree of depth can reach 10cm; Intertill for the third time before buddingging, the degree of depth reaches 15cm, and now overground part growth is accelerated, and dark intertillage can urge to prick and control under root internode;
3, rationalize control
Under the cotton Intercropping of fruit, cotton field inner ventilation situation is poor, high humidity, and cotton excessive growth situation is comparatively general, carry out full range control, and cotton seedling 4 leaves wholeheartedly time, are used mepiquat chloride 7.5-15g/hm 2light tune; Before water, use mepiquat chloride 15-22.5g/hm 2change control, assurance cotton plant is steadily and surely grown, and reduces and comes off and empty fruit branch; Before and after two water, use mepiquat chloride 45-75g/hm 2change control, when fruit number of units reaches 8-10 platform, manually pinch immediately, 8-10 days after pinching, uses mepiquat chloride 90-120g/hm 2change control, prevent that consumption is excessive, affect top fruit branch and extend and tie bell, plant height is controlled at 65-70cm;
4, topdress
The cotton field light and temperature condition of the cotton intercropping field of jujube is poorer than nonoculture cotton field, correspondingly will strengthen rich water quality management, late May, fruit tree is in blooming early stage, should topdress for the second time and pour water (flower forcing is fertile), now cotton, can be in conjunction with applying fruit trees with fertilizer simultaneously in the first flower bud phase, spray foliage fertilizer 2-3 time, weak cotton field, can suitably increase number of times, and mid-July is to mid-August, visual Cotton growth foliage-spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate 3-4 time, each consumption is every 3-4kg/hm 2;
Topdress and can before a water, execute urea 150kg/hm for the first time in field 2, in conjunction with the deep placement of pouring water of ditching, secondary imposes visual Cotton growth to carry out in conjunction with two water or three water, executes urea 75-120kg/hm 2, the time is no more than July 15 and is advisable;
5, Rational Irrigation
Adhere to " not non-irrigatedly not filling with, on a small quantity repeatedly, keep the field moistening " principle, jujube tree and the demand of cotton to water will be taken into account in intercropping cotton field, a cotton water is generally after mid-June, jujube tree is in flowering stage, now generally poured water 2 times, thereby before a cotton water, jujube tree is poured water and should in jujube tree ditch, irrigate, forbid broad irrigation, waterproof diffuses out outside ditch, affect cotton normal growth, does not postpone a water time as far as possible in the cotton field of lack of water, cotton two water carry out separately about 10 days after a water, note preventing from metalling run out into jujube tree ditch, the three water times of cotton can be in conjunction with the soil texture, weather, Cotton growth concrete condition and jujube tree carry out simultaneously, or suitably delay separately and pour water, late August to early September increases and pours water for 1-2 time according to cotton soil moisture content, but must cut off the water by the end of September,
6, pinch
Topping Time is to finish before 5-July 15 July, accomplishes the principle in " time to not waiting branch, branch is not when waiting ", when fruit number of units reaches 8-10 platform, start immediately to pinch, with good conditionsily also can beat invalid bud, August 5, Qian Yihuawei circle beat group's point, reduce invalid bud, after pinching to early August, in time artificial pruning, beat Lao Ye, wipe out sky fruit branch, promote field ventilation and penetrating light, reduce non-available nutrient consumption, guarantee the nutritional need of middle and lower part Growth of Cotton Boll, increase bell weight, promote ripe;
7, receive flower
After cotton boll fully ftractures, receive in time flower, receiving flower is to want strict classification, in late September or early October, starts to gather, and while gathering, requires to accomplish minute to pluck, minute solarization, partite transport, minute pricks, divides and store up;
Clear residual film: take to take off film before a water, receipts are picked up clean residual film on the field after spending, and focus on, and residual film are not placed on by the lateral of field, prevent secondary pollution;
The 5th step, the extermination of disease and insect pest
In the farmland of jujube tree intercropping cotton, some common disease and pests have tetranychid, aphid, thrips, cotton bollworm etc.,
1, scrape bark winter, by the bark on trunk and skeleton branch, stick up skin and all wipe off, force down the insect density of surviving the winter of the insects such as two spotted spider mite;
2, cotton thrips control:
When the existing cotyledon of cotton launches, use immediately 1000 times of liquid per hectare 450-600kg of flolimat, spray medicine in case cotton thrips is forbidden to spray medicine after May 10 in order to avoid injury natural enemy;
3, cotten aphid control:
The one, autumn ploughing winter irrigation; The 2nd, concentrate flowers, green house are prevented and treated on a large scale winter, the elimination aphid source of surviving the winter, reduce hibernating base, green house carries out medicament fumigating with dichlorvos preparation and aerosol, flowers buriing iron goes out gram, Furadan granular preparation, the chemical control such as outdoor host is as clean in the plant-spraying flolimats such as pomegranate tree, Chinese pricklyash, aphid lice, the 3rd, early investigation, carry out center strain, centre slice control, find aphid strain, with the systemic insecticide 1:5-10 such as flolimat times liquid stem brush, find that a strain has cotten aphid in time, be applied to center 1-2m 2, the way control diffusion with " circle is controlled in discovery one strain, finds a bit to control a slice ", is controlled at the spot film stage by cotten aphid;
4, the control of cotton tetranychid (two spotted spider mite)
Before winter, removed weed in cotton field, turn over wholely, irrigate winter, to reduce the worm amount of surviving the winter, early spring, channel, forest belt, edge of a field rand were were early prevented and treated, and when cotton tetranychid occurs, practicable cotton field control point, control strain, coordinate to use the method for integrated control such as cultural control, biological control and chemical control, strive cotton spider mites to eliminate before by the end of June, avoid cotton to be injured;
5, cotton bollworm control
Put prevention first, integrated control prevents and treats in time, carry out autumn ploughing winter irrigation, the shovel ridge is except pupa, force down the insect population radix of surviving the winter, at the capable cotton field of cotton field plantation 4-6, with early-maturing variety, be advisable, lure collection cotton bollworm to lay eggs on corn, and carry out in time drug treating, to reduce cotton field harm, in cotton field, settle by a certain percentage frequency ventilating type insecticidal lamp, according to prediction, the moth appearance initial stage moth of going out of regularly turning on light, according to the cotton bollworm extent of injury, can rotation use the control of spraying of BT emulsion, match red 2000 times of liquid, chrysanthemum lipid chemical agents.
Structure of output of the present invention and major traits index are as shown in the table:
Structure of output and major traits index
The present invention has fully improved land utilization rate, has reduced the adverse effect of jujube tree to intercropping cotton, keeps and improved the output of intercropping cotton,
The foregoing is only preferred embodiment of the present invention, not in order to limit the present invention, all any modifications of doing within the spirit and principles in the present invention, be equal to and replace and improvement etc., within all should being included in protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. a cultivation method for cotton yield, is characterized in that, the cultivation method of this cotton yield comprises the following steps:
Step 1, the fruit tree seeding row spacing of the cotton intercropping of jujube adopts the deterministic model of 1.5m * 4m, 3m * 4m;
Step 2, before sowing cotton seed, mid or late March, fruit tree is topdressed and pours water for the first time, carries out autumn ploughing winter irrigation, implements fertilising, expropriation of land, weeding before autumn ploughing;
Step 3, chooses high-quality breeding, and start broadcasting 1-April 5 April, seed level 2-3cm, the amount of broadcasting 60-75kg/hm 2, every cave 2-3 grain of sowing, earthing 1.0-1.5cm;
Step 4, starts final singling while there is a slice true leaf, intertillage is in time used mepiquat chloride 9 to control plant height at 65-70cm, and cotton is topdressed, irrigates, pinched and receives flower;
Step 5, carries out the control of damage by disease and insect to the tetranychid in the farmland of jujube tree intercropping cotton, aphid, thrips, cotton bollworm.
2. the cultivation method of cotton yield as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, in step 1, the fruit tree seeding row spacing of the cotton intercropping of jujube adopts the deterministic model of 1.5m * 4m, 3m * 4m, the jujube tree row both sides low ridge of having ditched, jujube tree ditch width 80cm-100cm, the high 15cm in ridge, the distance 80-100cm of jujube tree and limit row cotton, jujube tree in the ranks cotton adopts 1.4m film, and every film is planted 4 row cottons, cotton wide-and narrow-row configuration [(30+40+30)+50cm] * 12cm, jujube tree can be laid two width films in the ranks, plantation 8 row cottons, and per hectare strain number is 22.2 ten thousand strains.
3. the cultivation method of cotton yield as claimed in claim 2, it is characterized in that, jujube tree in the ranks cotton can also adopt the wide film of 2.3m, between fruit tree, plant the cotton of a width film, one film 8 row, be configured to: [(15+45+15+50+15+45+15)+30] cm * 10cm, per hectare strain number is 30.8 strains.
4. the cultivation method of cotton yield as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, in step 2, Autumn deep ploughing should be greater than 20cm, winter irrigation in time after ploughing, and fruit tree will complete winter irrigation before October 20; Before starting the year's ploughing per hectare execute that 45 tons of farmyard manures are above, dregs of fat 750kg, according to fertilization compositions based on earth measurement: the 50%-60% of available nitrogenous fertilizer total amount, phosphate fertilizer and all potash fertilizer, be urea 300-450kg, phosphoric acid diamines 300-375kg, potassium sulfate 75-120kg, as base manure, plough deeply, carry out whole layer placement of fertilizer, before plough, fertilizer is sprinkled in ground, machinery is ploughed deeply, or more than ploughing deeply 20cm after evenly applying with deep fertilizer spraying machine or drilling machine.
5. the cultivation method of cotton yield as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, in step 2,2250-2700g/hm is mended in the field of executing that is 33% with content before sowing cotton seed 2or 48% trefanocide 1200-1800g/hm 2, 50% Acetochlor 1500-1800g/hm 2, be watered 600-750kg spraying, harrow in time a kind of farm tools and sneak into upper soll layer, sow after during the soil 48h that processes with trefanocide.
6. the cultivation method of cotton yield as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, in step 3, select high-quality breeding, the quality requirement of seed is that purity is not less than 97%, cleanliness is not less than 99%, germination rate is not less than 85%, moisture is less than 12%, good seed rate is not less than 95% capsuled seed, choose middle cotton 49 or new land in 26; When under film, 5cm soil temperature is stablized by 12 ℃, can sow, best 5 days-April 15 April in sowing time, after rain, to break alkali shell and help seedling to be unearthed, after emerging when cotyledon turns green by Huang, cotton plant stem aperture is tight with grave, rotten kind of plot and 50cm is short of seedling, reseed in time with soaked cotton seed on disconnected ridge.
7. the cultivation method of cotton yield as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, in step 4, intertill seedling stage three times, and for the first time at cotyledon period, shallow plowing 5-8cm; Intertill for the second time in conjunction with final singling degree of depth 10cm; Intertill for the third time before buddingging degree of depth 15cm;
Cotton seedling 4 leaves wholeheartedly time, are used mepiquat chloride 7.5-15g/hm 2light tune; Before water, use mepiquat chloride 15-22.5g/hm 2change control, assurance cotton plant is steadily and surely grown, and reduces and comes off and empty fruit branch; Before and after two water, use mepiquat chloride 45-75g/hm 2change control, when fruit number of units reaches 8-10 platform, manually pinch, 8-10 days after pinching, uses mepiquat chloride 90-120g/hm 2change control, plant height is controlled to 65-70cm;
Topdress, late May, fruit tree, in blooming early stage, should be topdressed and pour water for the second time, in conjunction with applying fruit trees with fertilizer simultaneously, sprays foliage fertilizer 2-3 time, and mid-July is to mid-August, visual Cotton growth foliage-spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate 3-4 time, and consumption is every 3-4kg/hm at every turn 2; Topdress and can before a water, execute urea 150kg/hm for the first time in field 2, in conjunction with the deep placement of pouring water of ditching, secondary imposes visual Cotton growth to carry out in conjunction with two water or three water, executes urea 75-120kg/hm 2, the time is no more than July 15;
Irrigate, a cotton water is after mid-June, cotton two water carry out separately for 10 days after a water, the three water times of cotton can carry out in conjunction with the soil texture, weather, Cotton growth concrete condition and jujube tree simultaneously, or delay separately and pour water, late August to early September increases and pours water for 1-2 time according to cotton soil moisture content, but must cut off the water by the end of September;
Topping Time is to finish before 5-July 15 July, and after pinching, to early August, artificial pruning in time, beats Lao Ye, wipes out sky fruit branch;
Receive flower and start to gather in late September or early October, the Shi Yaofen that gathers plucks, divides solarization, partite transport, minute bundle, minute storage; Take to take off film before a water, receipts are picked up clean residual film on the field after spending, and focus on, and residual film are not placed on by the lateral of field, prevent secondary pollution.
8. the cultivation method of cotton yield as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, in step 5, the method for the extermination of disease and insect pest is:
Scrape bark winter, by the bark on trunk and skeleton branch, stick up skin and all wipe off, force down the insect density of surviving the winter of two spotted spider mite insect;
When the existing cotyledon of cotton launches, use immediately 1000 times of liquid per hectare 450-600kg of flolimat, spray medicine in case cotton thrips;
Cotten aphid control: the one, autumn ploughing winter irrigation; The 2nd, concentrate flowers, green house are prevented and treated on a large scale winter, the elimination aphid source of surviving the winter, reduce hibernating base, green house carries out medicament fumigating with dichlorvos preparation and aerosol, flowers buriing iron goes out gram, Furadan granular preparation, outdoor host is as pomegranate tree, Chinese pricklyash plant-spraying flolimat, the clean chemical control of aphid lice, the 3rd, early investigation, carry out center strain, centre slice control, find aphid strain, with 1:5-10 times of liquid stem brush of flolimat systemic insecticide, find that a strain has cotten aphid in time, be applied to center 1-2m 2, with discovery one strain, control a circle, find a bit to control a slice control diffusion, cotten aphid is controlled to the spot film stage;
The control of cotton tetranychid, before winter, removed weed in cotton field, turn over wholely, irrigate winter, to reduce the worm amount of surviving the winter, early spring, channel, forest belt, edge of a field rand were were early prevented and treated, practicable cotton field control point, control strain when cotton tetranychid occurs, coordinate to use cultural control, biological control and chemical control method for integrated control, cotton spider mites is eliminated before by the end of June, avoid cotton to be injured;
Cotton bollworm control, to put prevention first, integrated control prevents and treats in time, carry out autumn ploughing winter irrigation, the insect population radix of surviving the winter, except pupa, is forced down in the shovel ridge, at the capable cotton field of cotton field plantation 4-6, lure collection cotton bollworm to lay eggs on corn, and carry out in time drug treating, to reduce cotton field harm, in cotton field, settle frequency ventilating type insecticidal lamp, according to prediction, the moth appearance initial stage moth of going out of regularly turning on light, according to the cotton bollworm extent of injury, can rotation use the control of spraying of BT emulsion, match red 2000 times of liquid, chrysanthemum lipid chemical agents.
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CN103988703A (en) * 2014-06-06 2014-08-20 新疆林科院经济林研究所 Planting and irrigating method for intercropping of red date trees and cotton
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CN104429474A (en) * 2014-11-07 2015-03-25 固镇县科茂棉花专业合作社 Efficient intercropping technology of peanuts and cotton
CN104982194A (en) * 2015-06-25 2015-10-21 新疆农业科学院经济作物研究所 Corn interplanting method after harvesting wheat among fruit forest in southern Xinjiang area
CN105248066A (en) * 2015-09-16 2016-01-20 曹生吉 Cotton thin planting dense-stem stereo planting method
CN105794454A (en) * 2016-03-11 2016-07-27 塔里木大学 Scientific cotton planting method
CN105830696A (en) * 2016-03-28 2016-08-10 江苏农林职业技术学院 Nutrition pot seedling raising method of cotton
CN107646339A (en) * 2017-10-27 2018-02-02 桂林市味美园餐饮管理有限公司 A kind of cultural method of cotton
CN109699368A (en) * 2018-10-08 2019-05-03 沧州市农林科学院 A kind of soil management method improving golden jujube quality
CN109287426A (en) * 2018-11-28 2019-02-01 塔里木大学 The jujube cotton intercropping plant method of high-yield cotton
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