CN102726217B - Container seedling raising method for camellia oleifera bud-stock grafting - Google Patents

Container seedling raising method for camellia oleifera bud-stock grafting Download PDF

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CN102726217B
CN102726217B CN201210184446.5A CN201210184446A CN102726217B CN 102726217 B CN102726217 B CN 102726217B CN 201210184446 A CN201210184446 A CN 201210184446A CN 102726217 B CN102726217 B CN 102726217B
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grafting
bud
seedling
days
container
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CN102726217A (en
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詹文勇
袁孝康
詹昌炳
詹秀芝
周玉环
方先红
柯越
汪来兵
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Anhui Dechang Seedling Co Ltd
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Anhui Dechang Seedling Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention discloses a container seedling raising method for camellia oleifera bud-stock grafting. The container seedling raising method mainly comprises the six steps of cultivating camellia oleifera bud stocks, selecting and preparing nursery soil, preparing nutritional bags, preparing cions, grafting and transplanting and managing grafted container seedlings. According to the grafting method disclosed by the invention, the stocks are not injured, when packaging is performed, grafting ports can be completely closed, the moisture retention is good, the grafting survival rate can achieve 97%, and big seedlings, sound seedlings and improved seedlings can be cultivated; and furthermore, the container seedling raising method is simple and fast to operate, the complex camellia oleifera improved bud-stock grafting becomes simple and fast, and the container seedling raising method is further easy to learn, easy to understand and easy to operate.

Description

The method of a kind of oil-tea sprout anvil grafting container nursery
Technical field
The present invention relates to the method for a kind of oil-tea sprout anvil grafting container nursery, belong to growing and cultivation field.
Background technology
At present, oil tea seedling-wood breeding kind is more, but there is the problems such as graft survival rate is not high, nursery stock is not strong, this grafting method have employed a lot of innovative approach, overcome over the shortcoming of common grafting method, reform in presprouting of seeds, matrix formulations, scion process, seedling management etc. and innovate.
Summary of the invention
In order to change the unification of oil tea breeding, the object of the present invention is to provide the method for a kind of oil-tea sprout anvil grafting container nursery, grafting method of the present invention does not hinder stock, can be completely closed by grafting mouth during parcel, moisture retention is good, make graft survival rate reach 97%, and the present invention is simple and quick, complicated oil tea breeding bud stock grafting is made to become simple and fast, easy to learn, understandable, easy to operate.
The present invention adopts following technical scheme to achieve these goals:
The method of oil-tea sprout anvil grafting container nursery, comprises the following steps:
(1), oil-tea sprout anvil is cultivated:
A, seed selecting and purchasing: select C. olelfera seed to be stock kind, general early October gathers the fruit of " seed in Cold Dew ", treats that the abundant maturation of fruit is gathered fresh fruit, shines 3-5 days in the sun, with the screening of mesh 1-1.1 cm sieve, for subsequent use; Seed for subsequent use is exposed to the sun 1-2 days, to water content at about 15-20%, moves to indoor and spreads storage;
B, germination bed are arranged: January to early Febuary starts to prepare casting bed vernalization, place width 1.7 meters of laying bricks in outdoor flatly, the husky bed of vernalization that length is not limit, stack with clean damp sand layering, 12 centimetres of river sands stacked by bottom, then seed is evenly sprinkling upon on sand, then covers 4-5 centimetre of wet sand, more evenly sow seeds, on second layer seed, lid sand 4-5 centimetre river sand, puts third layer seed again, wet husky third layer seed upper cover 5 centimetres;
C, seed disinfection: carry out layering sterilization, employing orchid is rich, generation Star tmtd, jinggangmycin mixed liquor successively spray sterilization, and sprayed once before raining every other month, pregermination procedure is about 3-4 time later;
(2), ground, garden is selected and is prepared:
A, ground, garden are selected
Selection has a good transport service, physical features is smooth, illumination and have abundant water resources, well-drained paddy field is best; To turn over plough winter last year to garden, before March next year, execute base manure, with 500 kilograms every mu, the chicken droppings excrement of fermentation, composite fertilizer every mu 100 kilograms of Russia, preparing seedbed width 1-1.2m, pavement width 40cm, gutter, Zhong Gou, furrow ditch three ditch are supporting, and doing internal water can arrange, and outside water does not flood;
(3), nutritious bag prepares:
Select degradable nonwoven fabrics, make bottomless container, container diameter 6cm or 8cm, Nutrition Soil main formula material is: the agriculture and forestry organic waste material of the processing process of northeast peat soil 20-30%, perlite 20-30%, vermiculite 10-20% and surplus, filled up by Nutrition Soil with machinery, doubling-up becomes the semi-finished product of 40m a bundle to use;
(4), the preparation of scion:
Growth selection is healthy and strong, branch footpath 0.2-0.32cm, axillalry bud is full, without damage by disease and insect, the semi-lignified spring of giving birth to then of more than 5 leaf 3 buds is had slightly to do scion, will tie up by strain, moisturizing is packed simultaneously, and fringe bar is placed in indoor shady and cool moistening casting bed, sand heap thickness is 10cm, is soaked by fringe bar base portion in rear light insertion damp sand;
(5), grafting
General in the first tenday period of a month in May to late June, treats that seed plumule grows to 3-4cm long, start grafting when scion enters semi-lignified, gently dig out anvil seedling with have gentle hands, then it is clean the sand on anvil seedling to be rushed Shen with clear water, with tmtd, blue rich mixture or potassium permanganate sterilization; Choose the fringe bar having full axillary-bud or top-bud, cutter under the 0.5cm place, bottom of axillalry bud both sides, is whittled into 2 inclined-planes, the long 1.0-1.2cm of bevel, then cuts off at bud point branch stem 0.2cm place, top, makes the scion of l bud l leaf, and is placed in little basin by the scion of cutting; Above the cotyledon of sprout stock, 2.0-2.5cm place cuts off plumular axis, the rip cutting 1.3-1.5cm from top to bottom along plumular axis axis; It is long that radicle retains 5-6cm, excises unnecessary radicle part;
Anvil seedling otch is inserted in scion, and bevel and the stock tangent plane of scion are in the same size, and scion bottom and stock kerf bottom are close to, and scion and anvil seedling are combined closely, and then neatly stack and deposit shady and cool locating, avoid solar radiation, and cover wet towel wait and plant;
(6), grafting container seedling planting and management:
A, grafting insert container bag: first insert in the middle of container bag with reinforcing bar, after forming vesicle, the plumule anvil seedling of band seed is imbedded in container, again substrate soil is compressed, grafting mouth is exposed in matrix, the depth of planting has just been imbedded in Culture media with grafting bud seedling base portion kind shell and has been advisable, the grafting inserting container is put on the smooth seedbed of nursery lot immediately, seeding row spacing 6 × 6cm, and container bag both sides fine earth is filled;
The management of b, container seedling: 40-45 days after planting, start except the coppice shoot on sprout stock, timely removing weeds, pull out seedling, every 20 days, in conjunction with weeding except sprouting 1 time, except the work of sprouting will last till September, find that there is the swollen bud of armpit after oil tea grafting survives, should extract in time, in case it suppresses grafting leaf bud to be grown; Grafting bud seedling is planted in latter 45 days, and with film canopy cover, in canopy, relative moisture remains on more than 85%, and after grafting in 20 days, temperature of shed controls below 30 DEG C, and 20-45 ceiling case temperature 30-40 DEG C is advisable;
Take cool canopy and arch cover: cool canopy: build steelframe booth height 2m before not placing grafting, interval: 3m, Shading net covering, degree of shading controls at 70-80%; Arch cover: prop up little arch cover with bamboo plate after placing grafting on seedbed, bamboo length of bow degree is 1.95m, interval 0.5m, covers 0.25 film, is barricaded as arch cover, the tight moisturizing of surrounding soil pressure;
C, fertilising: after grafting is planted 60 days, a small amount of fertilizer can be imposed when tender shoots grows into 3-5cm, thin people's muck that fertilizer can be crossed by retting, or 0.2% chemical nitrogen fertilizer water of concentration, the middle and late growth stage executes phosphorus, potash fertilizer more, and concentration, at 0.5-1.0%, executes 1 time in 15 days, after taking off film, 0.075% potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2-3 time can be sprayed in 30 days;
D, the extermination of disease and insect pest:
Oil tea seedling disease mainly contains soft rot, southern blight, carbon jaundice disease, the bordeaux mixture with 1%, 75% thiophanate methyl, 800 times of liquid, and 5% carbendazim 500-600 times liquid sprays once every two weeks, general 2-3 time;
Insect pest mainly contains mole cricket, cutworm etc., cutworm 500-800 times of liquid acephatemet solution, between the lights 5 time about spray, control mole cricket with 396 sodium arsenite solution leaching weeds trap and kill, the extermination of disease and insect pest was carried out in 6-8 month;
E, take off film and remove shading shed: taking off film should determine according to seedling growth developmental state, film to be taken off breathe freely in good time, increase oxygen content in canopy, after grafting is planted and survives for 40-50 days, at dusk opening the ventilation of film two, seedbed, closed before morning 8 next day, overcast and rainyly film grid cover two can be opened, after spending 2-3 days, film is all removed, to the time in Cold Dew, select the cloudy day to be removed by cool canopy.
F, transplanting: cultivate 2 years raw strong sprouts and transplant rare cultivation, all can transplant April August to next year then, seeding row spacing 10 × 12cm, every mu of 40,000 strains, nursery under full exposure, in order to nursery stock lignification, nurturing staff.
Advantage of the present invention:
Grafting method of the present invention does not hinder stock, can be completely closed by grafting mouth during parcel, and moisture retention is good, make graft survival rate reach 97%, and the present invention is simple and quick, makes complicated oil tea breeding bud stock grafting become simple and fast, easy to learn, understandable, easy to operate.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1: the method for oil-tea sprout anvil grafting container nursery, comprises the following steps:
(1), oil-tea sprout anvil is cultivated:
A, seed selecting and purchasing: select C. olelfera seed to be stock kind, general early October gathers the fruit of " seed in Cold Dew ", treats that the abundant maturation of fruit is gathered fresh fruit, shines 3-5 days in the sun, with the screening of mesh 1-1.1 cm sieve, for subsequent use; Seed for subsequent use is exposed to the sun 1-2 days, to water content at about 15-20%, moves to indoor and spreads storage;
B, germination bed are arranged: January to early Febuary starts to prepare casting bed vernalization, place width 1.7 meters of laying bricks in outdoor flatly, the husky bed of vernalization that length is not limit, stack with clean damp sand layering, 12 centimetres of river sands stacked by bottom, then seed is evenly sprinkling upon on sand, then covers 4-5 centimetre of wet sand, more evenly sow seeds, on second layer seed, lid sand 4-5 centimetre river sand, puts third layer seed again, wet husky third layer seed upper cover 5 centimetres;
C, seed disinfection: carry out layering sterilization, employing orchid is rich, generation Star tmtd, jinggangmycin mixed liquor successively spray sterilization, and sprayed once before raining every other month, pregermination procedure is about 3-4 time later;
(2), ground, garden is selected and is prepared:
A, ground, garden are selected
Selection has a good transport service, physical features is smooth, illumination and have abundant water resources, well-drained paddy field is best; To turn over plough winter last year to garden, before March next year, execute base manure, with 500 kilograms every mu, the chicken droppings excrement of fermentation, composite fertilizer every mu 100 kilograms of Russia, preparing seedbed width 1-1.2m, pavement width 40cm, gutter, Zhong Gou, furrow ditch three ditch are supporting, and doing internal water can arrange, and outside water does not flood;
(3), nutritious bag prepares:
Select degradable nonwoven fabrics, make bottomless container, container diameter 6cm or 8cm, Nutrition Soil main formula material is: the agriculture and forestry organic waste material of the processing process of northeast peat soil 20-30%, perlite 20-30%, vermiculite 10-20% and surplus, filled up by Nutrition Soil with machinery, doubling-up becomes the semi-finished product of 40m a bundle to use;
(4), the preparation of scion:
Growth selection is healthy and strong, branch footpath 0.2-0.32cm, axillalry bud is full, without damage by disease and insect, the semi-lignified spring of giving birth to then of more than 5 leaf 3 buds is had slightly to do scion, will tie up by strain, moisturizing is packed simultaneously, and fringe bar is placed in indoor shady and cool moistening casting bed, sand heap thickness is 10cm, is soaked by fringe bar base portion in rear light insertion damp sand;
(5), grafting
General in the first tenday period of a month in May to late June, treats that seed plumule grows to 3-4cm long, start grafting when scion enters semi-lignified, gently dig out anvil seedling with have gentle hands, then it is clean the sand on anvil seedling to be rushed Shen with clear water, with tmtd, blue rich mixture or potassium permanganate sterilization; Choose the fringe bar having full axillary-bud or top-bud, cutter under the 0.5cm place, bottom of axillalry bud both sides, is whittled into 2 inclined-planes, the long 1.0-1.2cm of bevel, then cuts off at bud point branch stem 0.2cm place, top, makes the scion of l bud l leaf, and is placed in little basin by the scion of cutting; Above the cotyledon of sprout stock, 2.0-2.5cm place cuts off plumular axis, the rip cutting 1.3-1.5cm from top to bottom along plumular axis axis; It is long that radicle retains 5-6cm, excises unnecessary radicle part;
Anvil seedling otch is inserted in scion, and bevel and the stock tangent plane of scion are in the same size, and scion bottom and stock kerf bottom are close to, and scion and anvil seedling are combined closely, and then neatly stack and deposit shady and cool locating, avoid solar radiation, and cover wet towel wait and plant;
(6), grafting container seedling planting and management:
A, grafting insert container bag: first insert in the middle of container bag with reinforcing bar, after forming vesicle, the plumule anvil seedling of band seed is imbedded in container, again substrate soil is compressed, grafting mouth is exposed in matrix, the depth of planting has just been imbedded in Culture media with grafting bud seedling base portion kind shell and has been advisable, the grafting inserting container is put on the smooth seedbed of nursery lot immediately, seeding row spacing 6 × 6cm, and container bag both sides fine earth is filled;
The management of b, container seedling: 40-45 days after planting, start except the coppice shoot on sprout stock, timely removing weeds, pull out seedling, every 20 days, in conjunction with weeding except sprouting 1 time, except the work of sprouting will last till September, find that there is the swollen bud of armpit after oil tea grafting survives, should extract in time, in case it suppresses grafting leaf bud to be grown; Grafting bud seedling is planted in latter 45 days, and with film canopy cover, in canopy, relative moisture remains on more than 85%, and after grafting in 20 days, temperature of shed controls below 30 DEG C, and 20-45 ceiling case temperature 30-40 DEG C is advisable;
Take cool canopy and arch cover: cool canopy: build steelframe booth height 2m before not placing grafting, interval: 3m, Shading net covering, degree of shading controls at 70-80%; Arch cover: prop up little arch cover with bamboo plate after placing grafting on seedbed, bamboo length of bow degree is 1.95m, interval 0.5m, covers 0.25 film, is barricaded as arch cover, the tight moisturizing of surrounding soil pressure;
C, fertilising: after grafting is planted 60 days, a small amount of fertilizer can be imposed when tender shoots grows into 3-5cm, thin people's muck that fertilizer can be crossed by retting, or 0.2% chemical nitrogen fertilizer water of concentration, the middle and late growth stage executes phosphorus, potash fertilizer more, and concentration, at 0.5-1.0%, executes 1 time in 15 days, after taking off film, 0.075% potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2-3 time can be sprayed in 30 days;
D, the extermination of disease and insect pest:
Oil tea seedling disease mainly contains soft rot, southern blight, carbon jaundice disease, the bordeaux mixture with 1%, 75% thiophanate methyl, 800 times of liquid, and 5% carbendazim 500-600 times liquid sprays once every two weeks, general 2-3 time;
Insect pest mainly contains mole cricket, cutworm etc., cutworm 500-800 times of liquid acephatemet solution, between the lights 5 time about spray, control mole cricket with 396 sodium arsenite solution leaching weeds trap and kill, the extermination of disease and insect pest was carried out in 6-8 month;
E, take off film and remove shading shed: taking off film should determine according to seedling growth developmental state, film to be taken off breathe freely in good time, increase oxygen content in canopy, after grafting is planted and survives for 40-50 days, at dusk opening the ventilation of film two, seedbed, closed before morning 8 next day, overcast and rainyly film grid cover two can be opened, after spending 2-3 days, film is all removed, to the time in Cold Dew, select the cloudy day to be removed by cool canopy.
F, transplanting: cultivate 2 years raw strong sprouts and transplant rare cultivation, all can transplant April August to next year then, seeding row spacing 10 × 12cm, every mu of 40,000 strains, nursery under full exposure, in order to nursery stock lignification, nurturing staff.

Claims (1)

1. a method for oil-tea sprout anvil grafting container nursery, is characterized in that comprising the following steps:
(1), oil-tea sprout anvil is cultivated:
A, seed selecting and purchasing: select C. olelfera seed to be stock kind, general early October gathers the fruit of " seed in Cold Dew ", treats that the abundant maturation of fruit is gathered fresh fruit, shines 3-5 days in the sun, with the screening of mesh 1-1.1 cm sieve, for subsequent use; Seed for subsequent use is exposed to the sun 1-2 days, to water content at about 15-20%, moves to indoor and spreads storage;
B, germination bed are arranged: January to early Febuary starts to prepare casting bed vernalization, place width 1.7 meters of laying bricks in outdoor flatly, the husky bed of vernalization that length is not limit, stack with clean damp sand layering, 12 centimetres of river sands stacked by bottom, then seed is evenly sprinkling upon on sand, then covers 4-5 centimetre of wet sand, more evenly sow seeds, on second layer seed, lid sand 4-5 centimetre river sand, puts third layer seed again, wet husky third layer seed upper cover 5 centimetres;
C, seed disinfection: carry out layering sterilization, employing orchid is rich, generation Star tmtd, jinggangmycin mixed liquor successively spray sterilization, and sprayed once before raining every other month, pregermination procedure is about 3-4 time later;
(2), ground, garden is selected and is prepared:
A, ground, garden are selected
Selection has a good transport service, physical features is smooth, illumination and have abundant water resources, well-drained paddy field is best; To turn over plough winter last year to garden, before March next year, execute base manure, with 500 kilograms every mu, the chicken droppings excrement of fermentation, composite fertilizer every mu 100 kilograms of Russia, preparing seedbed width 1-1.2m, pavement width 40cm, gutter, Zhong Gou, furrow ditch three ditch are supporting, and doing internal water can arrange, and outside water does not flood;
(3), nutritious bag prepares:
Select degradable nonwoven fabrics, make bottomless container, container diameter 6cm or 8cm, Nutrition Soil main formula material is: the agriculture and forestry organic waste material of the processing process of northeast peat soil 20-30%, perlite 20-30%, vermiculite 10-20% and surplus, filled up by Nutrition Soil with machinery, doubling-up becomes the semi-finished product of 40m a bundle to use;
(4), the preparation of scion:
Growth selection is healthy and strong, branch footpath 0.2-0.32cm, axillalry bud is full, without damage by disease and insect, the semi-lignified spring of giving birth to then of more than 5 leaf 3 buds is had slightly to do scion, will tie up by strain, moisturizing is packed simultaneously, and fringe bar is placed in indoor shady and cool moistening casting bed, sand heap thickness is 10cm, is soaked by fringe bar base portion in rear light insertion damp sand;
(5), grafting
General in the first tenday period of a month in May to late June, treat that seed plumule grows to 3-4cm long, start grafting when scion enters semi-lignified, gently dig out anvil seedling with have gentle hands, then with clear water, the sand on anvil seedling is rinsed well, with tmtd, blue rich mixture or potassium permanganate sterilization; Choose the fringe bar having full axillary-bud or top-bud, cutter under the 0.5cm place, bottom of axillalry bud both sides, is whittled into 2 inclined-planes, the long 1.0-1.2cm of bevel, then cuts off at bud point branch stem 0.2cm place, top, makes the scion of l bud l leaf, and is placed in little basin by the scion of cutting; Above the cotyledon of sprout stock, 2.0-2.5cm place cuts off plumular axis, the rip cutting 1.3-1.5cm from top to bottom along plumular axis axis; It is long that radicle retains 5-6cm, excises unnecessary radicle part;
Anvil seedling otch is inserted in scion, and bevel and the stock tangent plane of scion are in the same size, and scion bottom and stock kerf bottom are close to, and scion and anvil seedling are combined closely, and then neatly stack and deposit shady and cool locating, avoid solar radiation, and cover wet towel wait and plant;
(6), grafting container seedling planting and management:
A, grafting insert container bag: first insert in the middle of container bag with reinforcing bar, after forming vesicle, the plumule anvil seedling of band seed is imbedded in container, again substrate soil is compressed, grafting mouth is exposed in matrix, the depth of planting has just been imbedded in Culture media with grafting bud seedling base portion kind shell and has been advisable, the grafting inserting container is put on the smooth seedbed of nursery lot immediately, seeding row spacing 6 × 6cm, and container bag both sides fine earth is filled;
The management of b, container seedling: 40-45 days after planting, start except the coppice shoot on sprout stock, timely removing weeds, pull out seedling, every 20 days, in conjunction with weeding except sprouting 1 time, except the work of sprouting will last till September, find that there is the swollen bud of armpit after oil tea grafting survives, should extract in time, in case it suppresses grafting leaf bud to be grown; Grafting bud seedling is planted in latter 45 days, and with film canopy cover, in canopy, relative moisture remains on more than 85%, and after grafting in 20 days, temperature of shed controls below 30 DEG C, and 20-45 ceiling case temperature 30-40 DEG C is advisable;
Take cool canopy and arch cover: cool canopy: build steelframe booth height 2m before not placing grafting, interval: 3m, Shading net covering, degree of shading controls at 70-80%; Arch cover: prop up little arch cover with bamboo plate after placing grafting on seedbed, bamboo length of bow degree is 1.95m, interval 0.5m, covers 0.25 film, is barricaded as arch cover, the tight moisturizing of surrounding soil pressure;
C, fertilising: after grafting is planted 60 days, a small amount of fertilizer can be imposed when tender shoots grows into 3-5cm, thin people's muck that fertilizer can be crossed by retting, or 0.2% chemical nitrogen fertilizer water of concentration, the middle and late growth stage executes phosphorus, potash fertilizer more, and concentration, at 0.5-1.0%, executes 1 time in 15 days, after taking off film, 0.075% potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2-3 time can be sprayed in 30 days;
D, the extermination of disease and insect pest:
Oil tea seedling disease mainly contains soft rot, southern blight, carbon jaundice disease, the bordeaux mixture with 1%, 75% thiophanate methyl, 800 times of liquid, and 5% carbendazim 500-600 times liquid sprays once every two weeks, general 2-3 time;
Insect pest mainly contains mole cricket, cutworm etc., cutworm 500-800 times of liquid acephatemet solution, between the lights 5 time about spray, control mole cricket with 396 sodium arsenite solution leaching weeds trap and kill, the extermination of disease and insect pest was carried out in 6-8 month;
E, take off film and remove shading shed: taking off film should determine according to seedling growth developmental state, film to be taken off breathe freely in good time, increase oxygen content in canopy, after grafting is planted and survives for 40-50 days, at dusk opening the ventilation of film two, seedbed, closed before morning 8 next day, overcast and rainyly film grid cover two can be opened, after spending 2-3 days, film is all removed, to the time in Cold Dew, select the cloudy day to be removed by cool canopy;
F, transplanting: cultivate 2 years raw strong sprouts and transplant rare cultivation, all can transplant April August to next year then, seeding row spacing 10 × 12cm, every mu of 40,000 strains, nursery under full exposure, in order to nursery stock lignification, nurturing staff.
CN201210184446.5A 2012-06-06 2012-06-06 Container seedling raising method for camellia oleifera bud-stock grafting Active CN102726217B (en)

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